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Sample records for titanate pzt piezo

  1. On the use of non-MPB lead zirconium titanate (PZT) granules for piezoelectric ceramic–polymer sensorial composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaji Karapuzha, A.; Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern flexible and sensitive sensors based on polymer–ceramic composites employ lead zirconate titanate (PZT) granulates having the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition as the piezo active ingredient, as this composition gives the best properties in fully ceramic piezoelectric sensors.

  2. On the use of non-MPB lead zirconium titanate (PZT) granules for piezoelectric ceramic–polymer sensorial composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaji Karapuzha, A.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern flexible and sensitive sensors based on polymer–ceramic composites employ lead zirconate titanate (PZT) granulates having the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition as the piezo active ingredient, as this composition gives the best properties in fully ceramic piezoelectric sensors. In

  3. Pyroelectricity versus conductivity in soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamel, T.M.; With, de G.

    2007-01-01

    The electrical behavior of modified soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics has been studied as a function of temperature at different direct current (dc) electric fields and grain sizes. As ferroelectrics, such as PZT, are highly polarizable materials, poling, depolarization, and electric

  4. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Young Hun; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-19

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind.

  5. Ionic and electronic conductivity in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Pham thi ngoc mai, P.T.N.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate impedance measurements on differently sized samples of lead–zirconate–titanate (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3, PZT) have been analyzed with a CNLS procedure, resulting in the separation of the ionic and electronic conductivities over a temperature range from f150 to 630 jC. At 603 jC the electronic

  6. Effect of MnO2, Bi2O3, and ZnO additions on the electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate piezo ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V.V.; Selikova, N.I.; Bronnikov, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of manganese dioxide additions on the electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezo ceramics has been investigated. The results demonstrate that, taken alone, manganese dioxide does not ensure the formation of hard PZT. The valence state of manganese in the piezo ceramics is shown to be 4+ if no other dopants are present and 3+ if manganese is introduced in combination with Bi and Zn. Microstructural examination indicates that the grain size of the singly doped ceramics is 5-15 μm, while that of the codoped ceramics is 1-3 μm. The polarization current curves of the piezo ceramics containing manganese, bismuth, and zinc oxides have extra maxima, which points to significant internal fields. The manganese is shown to reside at grain boundaries. The conclusion is made that it is the composition of Mn-containing intergranular phases, rather than the presence of manganese ions, that plays a key role in the formation of hard piezo ceramics [ru

  7. Structural Contribution to the Ferroelectric Fatigue in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterstein , Manuel; Rouquette , Jerome; Haines , J; Papet , Ph; Glaum , Julia; Knapp , Michael; Eckert , J; Hoffman , M

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Many ferroelectric devices are based on doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), at which the relevant material's properties approach their maximum. Based on a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of MPB PZT, bulk fatigue is unambiguously found to arise from a less effective field induced tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation, at which the degradation of the polarization flipping is detected by a less i...

  8. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)--indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Sayer, M.; Laursen, T.; Whitton, J.L.; Pascual, R.; Johnson, D.J.; Amm, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the interface between ultrathin sputtered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films and a conductive electrode (indium tin oxide-ITO) is investigated. Structural and compositional changes at the PZT-ITO interface have been examined by surface analysis and depth profiling techniques of glancing angle x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), SIMS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Studies indicate significant interdiffusion of lead into the underlying ITP layer and glass substrate with a large amount of residual stress at the interface. Influence of such compositional deviations at the interface is correlated to an observed thickness dependence in the dielectric properties of PZT films

  9. Microstructure of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng JuLin

    1989-01-01

    Transmission and high-resolution electron microscopy reveal the microtexture of lead zirconium titanate ceramics. Fine scale (≤ 500 Aangstroem) ferroelastic and ferroelectric twin domains, as well as dislocations were found in a complex texture. Correlations between stoichiometry, microstructure and piezoelectric properties are discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  10. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Christoph; Kainz, Theresa; Navickas, Edvinas; Walch, Gregor; Hutter, Herbert; Reichmann, Klaus; Fleig, Jürgen

    2016-11-22

    The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard) and donor-doped (soft) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La 3+ donor-doped, Fe 3+ acceptor-doped and La 3+ /Fe 3+ -co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  11. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard and donor-doped (soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La3+ donor-doped, Fe3+ acceptor-doped and La3+/Fe3+-co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  12. Study of pyroelectric activity of PZT/PVDF-HFP composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Malmonge

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, free-standing piezo and pyroelectric composite with 0 to 3 connectivity was made up from Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT powder and poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP copolymer. The pyroelectric and the piezoelectric longitudinal (d33 coefficients were measured. A 50/50 vol.% PZT/PVDF-HFP composite resulted in piezo and pyroelectric coefficients of d33 = 25.0 pC/N and p = 4.5 × 10-4 C/m²K at 70 °C, respectively. Analysis of the complex permittivity in a wide range of frequency was carried out indicating lower permittivity of the composite in comparison with a permittivity of the PZT ceramic. The low value of the permittivity gives a high pyroelectric figure of merit indicating that this material can be used to build a temperature sensor in spite of the lower pyroelectric coefficient compared with PZT.

  13. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

  14. A concept for the development of piezoceramic materials based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Part 2; Ein Entwicklungskonzept piezokeramischer Werkstoffe auf der Basis von Bleizirkonattitanat (PZT). Teil 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helke, G. [CeramTec AG, Lauf a.d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic ceramics based on Lead Zircontate Titanate (PZT) show - within a relatively close Zr/Ti ratio range (close to the ratio 0.5/0.5) - extreme values for remanent polarization P{sub r} and the dielectric coefficient {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup {tau}}/{epsilon}{sub 0} as well as their corresponding piezoelectric coefficients. Remanent polarization P{sub t} can be directly correlated to the structural parameter {delta} (spontaneous deformation) and the domain mobility {eta}. PZT modification results from the substitution of isovalent or heterovalent ions, thereby taking ion radii and valency at the A and B sites of the perovskite-type lattice under consideration. The substitution of specific ions is the process used to develop new piezoceramic materials which is mainly applied to determine the values of specific parameters corresponding to technical requirements. (orig.) [German] Piezoelektrische Keramiken auf der Basis von Bleizirkonattitanat (PZT) weisen in einem relativ engen Bereich des Zr/Ti-Verhaeltnisses (nahe dem Verhaeltnis 0,5/0,5). Extremwerte der remanenten Polarisation P{sub r} und der Dielektrizitaetskonstanten {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup {tau}}/{epsilon}{sub 0} sowie der von ihnen abhaengigen piezoelektrischen Kenngroessen auf. Die remanente Polarisation P{sub r} laesst sich unmittelbar dem Strukturparameter {delta} (spontane Deformation) und der Domaenenbeweglichkeit {eta} zuordnen. Die Modifikation von PZT erfolgt durch Substitution isovalenter oder heterovalenter Ionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Ionenradien und -wertigkeit auf A- und B-Plaetzen des Perowskigitters. Die Substitution bestimmter Ionen ist das Verfahren zur Schaffung neuer piezokeramischer Werkstoffe und wird insbesondere zur Einstellung der Werte einzelner Kenngroessen auf einem bestimmten Niveau entsprechend den technischen Anforderungen angewendet. (orig.)

  15. A concept for the development of piezoceramic materials based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Part 1; Ein Entwicklungskonzept piezokeramischer Werkstoffe auf der Basis von Gleizirkonattitanat (PZT). Teil 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helke, G. [CeramTec AG, Lauf a.d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic ceramics based on Lead Zircontate Titanate (PZT) show - within a relatively close Zr/Ti ratio range (close to the ratio 0.5/0.5) - extreme values for remanent polarization P{sub r} and the dielectric coefficient {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup {tau}}/{epsilon}{sub 0} as well as their corresponding piezoelectric coefficients. Remanent polarization P{sub t} can be directly correlated to the structural parameter {delta} (spontaneous deformation) and the domain mobility {eta}. PZT modification results from the substitution of isovalent or heterovalent ions, thereby taking ion radii and valency at the A and B sites of the perovskite-type lattice under consideration. The substitution of specific ions is the process used to develop new piezoceramic materials which is mainly applied to determine the values of specific parameters corresponding to technical requirements. (orig.) [German] Piezoelektrische Keramiken auf der Basis von Bleizirkonattitanat (PZT) weisen in einem relativ engen Bereich des Zr/Ti-Verhaeltnisses (nahe dem Verhaeltnis 0,5/0,5). Extremwerte der remanenten Polarisation P{sub r} und der Dielektrizitaetskonstanten {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup {tau}}/{epsilon}{sub 0} sowie der von ihnen abhaengigen piezoelektrischen Kenngroessen auf. Die remanente Polarisation P{sub r} laesst sich unmittelbar dem Strukturparameter {delta} (spontane Deformation) und der Domaenenbeweglichkeit {eta} zuordnen. Die Modifikation von PZT erfolgt durch Substitution isovalenter oder heterovalenter Ionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Ionenradien und -wertigkeit auf A- und B-Plaetzen des Perowskigitters. Die Substitution bestimmter Ionen ist das Verfahren zur Schaffung neuer piezokeramischer Werkstoffe und wird insbesondere zur Einstellung der Werte einzelner Kenngroessen auf einem bestimmten Niveau entsprechend den technischen Anforderungen angewendet. (orig.)

  16. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ring Shaped Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasambe, P. V.; Asgaonkar, V. V.; Bangera, A. D.; Lokre, A. S.; Rathod, S. S.; Bhoir, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Flexibility in setting fundamental frequency of resonator independent of its motional resistance is one of the desired criteria in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonator design. It is observed that ring-shaped piezoelectric contour-mode MEMS resonators satisfy this design criterion than in case of rectangular plate MEMS resonators. Also ring-shaped contour-mode piezoelectric MEMS resonator has an advantage that its fundamental frequency is defined by in-plane dimensions, but they show variation of fundamental frequency with different Platinum (Pt) thickness referred as change in ratio of fNEW /fO . This paper presents the effects of variation in geometrical parameters and change in piezoelectric material on the resonant frequencies of Platinum piezoelectric-Aluminium ring-shaped contour-mode MEMS resonators and its electrical parameters. The proposed structure with Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) as the piezoelectric material was observed to be a piezoelectric material with minimal change in fundamental resonant frequency due to Platinum thickness variation. This structure was also found to exhibit extremely low motional resistance of 0.03 Ω as compared to the 31-35 Ω range obtained when using AlN as the piezoelectric material. CoventorWare 10 is used for the design, simulation and corresponding analysis of resonators which is Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis and design tool for MEMS devices.

  17. Using the methods of radiospectroscopy (EPR, NMR) to study the nature of the defect structure of solid solutions based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bykov, I. P.; Zagorodniy, A.Y.; Yurchenko, L.P.; Korduban, A.M.; Nejezchleb, K.; Trachevsky, V.V.; Dimza, V.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 8 (2014), 1379-1385 ISSN 0885-3010 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ) * EPR * NMR * XPS spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2014

  18. Generation of electrical energy using lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A) piezoelectric material: Analytical, numerical and experimental verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Zubair; Ahmad, Nasir [Dept. of Mechanical, Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering, UET Lahore, Faisalabad Campus, Lahore (Pakistan); Pasha, Riffat Asim; Qayyum, Faisal; Anjum, Zeeshan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila (Pakistan); Elahi, Hassan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian (China)

    2016-08-15

    Energy harvesting is the process of attaining energy from the external sources and transforming it into usable electrical energy. An analytical model of piezoelectric energy harvester has been developed to determine the output voltage across an electrical circuit when it is forced to undergo a base excitation. This model gives an easy approach to design and investigate the behavior of piezoelectric material. Numerical simulations have been carried out to determine the effect of frequency and loading on a Lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A) piezoelectric material. It has been observed that the output voltage from the harvester increases when loading increases whereas its resonance frequency decreases. The analytical results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental and numerical simulation results.

  19. Improvement of fatigue resistance for multilayer lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramic actuators by external mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Ji, Ye; Chu, Xiangcheng; Li, Longtu

    2008-12-01

    The influence of external compressive loads, applied along a direction perpendicular to polarization, on fatigue behaviors of multilayer lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramic actuators was investigated. Under no external mechanical load, a normal fatigue behavior was observed, demonstrating that both switching polarization (Pswitching) and remnant polarization (Pr) progressively decreased with increasing switching cycles due to domain pinning by charge point defects. However, an anomalous enhancement in both switching and remnant polarizations was observed upon application of the external compressive loads. After 5×106 cycles of polarization switching, Pswitching and Pr increase by about 13% and 6% at 40 MPa, respectively, while Pswitching and Pr increase by about 11% and 21% at 60 MPa, respectively. The improvement of fatigue resistance can be attributed to non-180° domain switching and suppression of microcracking, triggered by external mechanical loads.

  20. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  1. Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Sedláček, J.; Kmetík, Viliam

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 64-75 ISSN 2079-6412 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010878 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * electroceramics * PZT * phase composition * permittivity Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6412/2/2/64

  2. Piezo-electrostrictive ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Gi; Shin, Byeong Cheol

    1991-09-01

    This book deals with principle and the case of application of piezo-electrostrictive ceramics, which includes definition of piezoelectric materials and production and development of piezoelectric materials, coexistence of Pb(zr, Ti)O 3 ceramics on cause of coexistence in MPB PZT ceramics, electrostrictive effect of oxide type perovskite, practical piezo-electrostrictive materials, and breaking strength, evaluation technique of piezoelectric characteristic, and piezoelectric accelerometer sensor like printer head, ink jet and piezoelectric relay.

  3. Using the methods of radiospectroscopy (EPR, NMR) to study the nature of the defect structure of solid solutions based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Igor; Zagorodniy, Yuriy; Yurchenko, Lesya; Korduban, Alexander; Nejezchleb, Karel; Trachevsky, Vladimir; Dimza, Vilnis; Jastrabik, Lubomir; Dejneka, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    The nature of intrinsic and impurity point defects in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics has been explored. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods, several impurity sites have been identified in the materials, including the Fe(3+)-oxygen vacancy (VO) complex and Pb ions. Both of these centers are incorporated into the PZT lattice. The Fe(3+) –VО paramagnetic complex serves as a sensitive probe of the local crystal field in the ceramic; the symmetry of this defect roughly correlates with PZT phase diagram as the composition is varied from PbTiO3 to PbZrO3. NMR spectra (207)Pb in PbTiO3, PbZrO3, and PZT with iron content from 0 to 0.4 wt% showed that increasing the iron concentration leads to a distortion of the crystal structure and to improvement of the electrophysical parameters of the piezoceramics. This is due to the formation of a phase which has a higher symmetry, but at high concentrations of iron (>0.4 wt%), it leads to sharp degradation of electrophysical parameters.

  4. Sound velocity variation as function of polarization state in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essolaani, W; Farhat, N

    2012-01-01

    There are several ultrasonic techniques to measure the sound velocity, for example, the pulse-echo method. In such method, the size of transducer used to measure the sound velocity must be in the same order of the sample size. If not, the incompatibility of sizes becomes an error source of the sound velocity measurement. In this work, the Laser Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) method is used as ultrasonic method. This method has been very useful for studying the spatial distribution of charges and polarization in dielectrics. We take advantage of the fact that the method allows the sound velocity measurement, to study its variation as function of polarization state in (PZT) ceramics. In a sample with a known thickness e, the sound velocity ν is deduced from the measurement of the transit time T. The sound velocity depends on the elastic constants which in turn they depend on poling conditions. Thus, the variation of the sound velocity is related to the direction and the amplitude of the polarization.

  5. Experimental Determination of Effect of Variable Resistance on Lead ZirconateTitanate (PZT-5A4Eunder various Thermal and Frequency Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed apparatus and circuit working on the principle of inverse piezoelectricity due to the effect of polarization was used to find the relationship between resistance and peak to peak voltage of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5A4E by shocking it at variable frequencies and at variable resistances under various thermal conditions within Curie temperature limit using equivalent circuit method. It was found that by increasing temperature, peak to peak voltage increases and similarly by increasing frequency, peak to peak voltage decreases and with the increase in resistance peak to peak voltage decreases.

  6. PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites with improved piezoelectric voltage coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, K.; Bavbande, D. V.; Mohan, Dhirendra; Manoharan, B.; Prasad, M. R. S.; Kalyanakrishnan, G.

    2018-02-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Lanthanum-modified Lead Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) ceramic sensor materials are widely used because of their excellent piezoelectric coefficients. These materials are brittle, high density and have low achievable piezoelectric voltage coefficients. The density of the sintered ceramics shall be reduced by burnable polymeric sponge method. The achievable porosity level in this case is nearly 60 - 90%. However, the porous ceramic structure with 3-3 connectivity produced by this method is very fragile in nature. The strength of the porous structure is improved with Sylgard®-184 (silicone elastomer) by vacuum impregnation method maintaining the dynamic vacuum level in the range of -650 mm Hg. The elastomer Sylgard®-184 is having low density, low dielectric constant and high compliance (as a resultant stiffness of the composites is increased). To obtain a net dipole moment, the impregnated ceramic composites were subjected to poling treatment with varying conditions of D.C. field and temperature. The properties of the poled PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites were characterized with LCR meter for measuring the dielectric constant values (k), d33 meter used for measuring piezo-electric charge coefficient values (d33) and piezo-electric voltage coefficient (g33) values which were derived from d33 values. The voltage coefficient (g33) values of these composites are increased by 10 fold as compared to the conventional solid ceramics demonstrates that it is possible to fabricate a conformable detector.

  7. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  8. Biotemplated Synthesis of PZT Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    electromechanical coupling coefficient , Y is the Young’s modulus, and Ri is intrinsic resistance. The PZT nanowire- based film is taken to have negligible...robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior...electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with reproducible and well-controlled properties remains a

  9. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method. PMID:29466310

  10. An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-21

    This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method.

  11. Structural identification and damage diagnosis using self-sensing piezo-impedance transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Bhalla, Suresh; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2006-08-01

    The use of smart materials, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), has accelerated developments in the fields of structural identification and automated structural health monitoring (SHM). One such technique that has made much progress is the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique, which employs self-sensing piezo-impedance transducers. In this technique, a PZT patch is surface bonded to the structure to be monitored and its corresponding electro-mechanical admittance signature is used for damage detection. This paper introduces a new method for identifying structures from the measured admittance signatures in terms of equivalent structural parameters, whereby the identified parameters are used for damage characterization. The new method has been applied to a truss, a beam and a concrete cube, and found to be able to successfully perform structural identification and damage diagnosis. In addition, several advantages have been ascertained in comparison with the conventional, non-parametric statistical methods.

  12. Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Cravens, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg, C. A. Griffith, E. Lellouch and T. E. Cravens; Prologue 1: the genesis of Cassini-Huygens W.-H. Ip, T. Owen and D. Gautier; Prologue 2: building a space flight instrument: a P.I.'s perspective M. Tomasko; 1. The origin and evolution of Titan G. Tobie, J. I. Lunine, J. Monteux, O. Mousis and F. Nimmo; 2. Titan's surface geology O. Aharonson, A. G. Hayes, P. O. Hayne, R. M. Lopes, A. Lucas and J. T. Perron; 3. Thermal structure of Titan's troposphere and middle atmosphere F. M. Flasar, R. K. Achterberg and P. J. Schinder; 4. The general circulation of Titan's lower and middle atmosphere S. Lebonnois, F. M. Flasar, T. Tokano and C. E. Newman; 5. The composition of Titan's atmosphere B. Bézard, R. V. Yelle and C. A. Nixon; 6. Storms, clouds, and weather C. A. Griffith, S. Rafkin, P. Rannou and C. P. McKay; 7. Chemistry of Titan's atmosphere V. Vuitton, O. Dutuit, M. A. Smith and N. Balucani; 8. Titan's haze R. West, P. Lavvas, C. Anderson and H. Imanaka; 9. Titan's upper atmosphere: thermal structure, dynamics, and energetics R. V. Yelle and I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg; 10. Titan's upper atmosphere/exosphere, escape processes, and rates D. F. Strobel and J. Cui; 11. Titan's ionosphere M. Galand, A. J. Coates, T. E. Cravens and J.-E. Wahlund; 12. Titan's magnetospheric and plasma environment J.-E. Wahlund, R. Modolo, C. Bertucci and A. J. Coates.

  13. Titan!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.

    2010-05-01

    Cassini-Huygens achieved Saturnian orbit on July 1, 2004. The first order of business was the safe delivery of the Huygens atmospheric probe to Titan that took place on January 14, 2005. Huygens descended under parachute obtaining observations all the way down to a safe landing. It revealed Titan for the first time. Stunning are the similarities between Titan and the Earth. Viewing the lakes and seas, the fluvial terrain, the sand dunes and other features through the hazy, nitrogen atmosphere, brings to mind the geological processes that created analogous features on the Earth. On Titan frozen water plays the geological role of rock; liquid methane takes the role of terrestrial water. The atmospheres of both Earth and Titan are predominately nitrogen gas. Titan's atmosphere contains 1.5% methane and no oxygen. The surface pressure on Titan is 1.5 times the Earth's. There are aerosol layers and clouds that come and go. Now, as Saturn proceeds along its solar orbit, the seasons are changing. The effects upon the transport of methane are starting to be seen. A large lake in the South Polar Region seems to be filling more as winter onsets. Will the size and number of the lakes in the South grow during winter? Will the northern lakes and seas diminish or dry up as northern summer progresses? How will the atmospheric circulation change? Much work remains not only for Cassini but also for future missions. Titan has many different environments to explore. These require more capable instruments and in situ probes. This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Comparison of Piezo-material based Energy Transduction Systems for Artificial Nanoswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, S.; Rathore, J. S.; Sharma, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The energy harnessing is a process of obtaining energy from the surrounding environment and converting into electrical energy. In the last two decades, there has been a plenteous study in energy harnessing. Now a day, energy harnessing using piezoelectric materials has drawn attention of researchers due to low cost, flexibility and light weight. The benefits of piezoelectric material can be utilized by designing a self-powered device for artificial nanoswimmer. Some of the ceramics which displays the piezoelectric effect are lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT), lead-titanate (PbTiO2), lead-zirconate (PbZrO3) and Barium Titanate (BaTiO3). PZT is most extensively used piezoelectric material in the field of energy harnessing but it is brittle in nature. Lead based piezoelectric materials are toxic in nature and may not suitable for in-vivo biomedical applications. To eradicate this problem, researchers are interested in synthesizing lead free piezoelectric material such as Aluminium Nitride (AIN), Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) and Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF). The biocompatibility of PVDF makes it appropriate to be used for energy harnessing in human body for applications like on board powering of nanoswimmer for various disease detection and drug delivery. In this paper, a cantilever beam is being simulated in COMSOL to study electric potential generated on the surface of beam made of different piezoelectric materials such as AIN, PVDF and PZT due to fluidic pressure, which will be utilized as energy for actuation of artificial nanoswimmer. Piezo-based cantilever beams have been compared and maximum electric potential is being observed in PVDF based beam. PVDF seems most promising piezoelectric material for in-vivo biomedical application and it is readily available.

  15. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  16. Piezo1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Philip A.; Sachs, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Piezo ion channels have been found to be essential for mechanical responses in cells. These channels were first shown to exist in Neuro2A cells, and the gene was identified by siRNAs that diminished the mechanical response. Piezo channels are approximately 2500 amino acids long, have between 24–32 transmembrane regions, and appear to assemble into tetramers and require no other proteins for activity. They have a reversal potential around 0 mV and show voltage dependent inactivation. The channel is constitutively active in liposomes, indicating that no cytoskeletal elements are required. Heterologous expression of the Piezo protein can create mechanical sensitivity in otherwise insensitive cells. Piezo1 currents in outside-out patches were blocked by the extracellular MSC inhibitor peptide GsMTx4. Both enantiomeric forms of GsMTx4 inhibited channel activity in a manner similar to endogenous mechanical channels. Piezo1 can adopt a tonic (non-inactivating) form with repeated stimulation. The transition to the non-inactivating form generally occurs in large groups of channels, indicating that the channels exist in domains, and once the domain is compromised, the members simultaneously adopt new properties. Piezo proteins are associated with physiological responses in cells, such as the reaction to noxious stimulus of Drosophila larvae. Recent work measuring cell crowding, shows that Piezo1 is essential for the removal of extra cells without apoptosis. Piezo1 mutations have also been linked to the pathological response of red blood cells in a genetic disease called Xerocytosis. These finding suggest that Piezo1 is a key player in cells’ responses to mechanical stimuli. PMID:22790400

  17. Characterization of PZT thin films on metal substrates; Charakterisierung von PZT-Duennschichten auf Metallsubstraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutschke, A.

    2008-02-02

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3},PZT) is one of the most applied ceramic materials because of its distinctive piezo- and ferroelectric properties. Prepared as thin films on flexible, metallic substrates it can be used for various applications as strain gauges, key switches, vibration dampers, microactuators and ultrasonic transducers. The aim of this work is to analyze the microstructure and the phase-content of PZT-thin films deposited on temperature- und acid-resistant hastelloy-sheets, to correlate the results with the ferroelectric and dielectric properties. It is demonstrated, that the specific variation of the microstructure can be achieved by different thermal treatments and the selective addition of Neodymium as dopant. Nd-doping leads to a shift of the maximum nucleation rate towards reduced temperatures and a decrease in the rate of growth compared to undoped films. The PZT-films are prepared by a sol-gel-process in fourfold multilayers with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, where the tetragonal und rhombohedral perovskite-phases coexist. The crystallisation in Nd-doped and undoped films takes place heterogeneously, preferentially at the interfaces and on the surface of the multilayered films as well as on the inner surface of pores within the films. For the first time, the Zr:Ti fluctuation phenomena emerging in sol-gel derived PZT films is related to the microstructure and the local phase content on a nanometer scale. In this connection it is proved, that long-distance Zr:Ti gradients arise preferentially before and during the crystallisation of the pyrochlore phase. During the following crystallisation of the perovskite phase, the crystallites grow across these gradients without modifying them. It is pointed out that the fluctuation in the Zr:Ti ratio has only minor influence on the amount of the tetragonal or rhombohedral distortion of the crystallites after the transition from the para- to the ferroelectric

  18. Biotemplated synthesis of PZT nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cung, Kellye; Han, Booyeon J; Nguyen, Thanh D; Mao, Sheng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Naik, Rajesh R; Poirier, Gerald; Yao, Nan; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires are an important class of smart materials for next-generation applications including energy harvesting, robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with well-controlled properties remains a challenge. Applications of common nanosynthesis methods to PZT are hampered by issues such as slow kinetics, lack of suitable catalysts, and harsh reaction conditions. Here we report a versatile biomimetic method, in which biotemplates are used to define PZT nanostructures, allowing for rational control over composition and crystallinity. Specifically, stoichiometric PZT nanowires were synthesized using both polysaccharide (alginate) and bacteriophage templates. The wires possessed measured piezoelectric constants of up to 132 pm/V after poling, among the highest reported for PZT nanomaterials. Further, integrated devices can generate up to 0.820 μW/cm(2) of power. These results suggest that biotemplated piezoelectric nanowires are attractive candidates for stimuli-responsive nanosensors, adaptive nanoactuators, and nanoscale energy harvesters.

  19. Design and fabrication of aspherical bimorph PZT optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, T C; Yeh, Z C; Perng, S Y; Wang, D J; Kuan, C K; Chen, J R; Chen, C T

    2001-01-01

    Bimorph piezoelectric optics with a third-order-polynomial surface is designed and a prototype is fabricated as active optics. Two pairs of silicon (Si) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic are bonded as Si-PZT-PZT-Si together with a multi-electrode or thin film resistor coating used as the control electrode between Si and PZT and metallic films as grounding between the interface of PZT ceramics. A linear voltage is applied to the bimorph PZT optics by probing the control electrodes from a two-channel controllable power supplier. In doing so, the optics surface can achieve a desired third-order-polynomial surface. Reducing hysteresis and creep in bimorph PZT X-ray optics is the only feasible way by inserting an appropriate capacitor in series with bimorph PZT optics to significantly reduce both effects.

  20. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Ende, D.A. van den; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  1. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt

  2. Characterization of PZT thin films on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutschke, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr x Ti 1-x O 3 ,PZT) is one of the most applied ceramic materials because of its distinctive piezo- and ferroelectric properties. Prepared as thin films on flexible, metallic substrates it can be used for various applications as strain gauges, key switches, vibration dampers, microactuators and ultrasonic transducers. The aim of this work is to analyze the microstructure and the phase-content of PZT-thin films deposited on temperature- und acid-resistant hastelloy-sheets, to correlate the results with the ferroelectric and dielectric properties. It is demonstrated, that the specific variation of the microstructure can be achieved by different thermal treatments and the selective addition of Neodymium as dopant. Nd-doping leads to a shift of the maximum nucleation rate towards reduced temperatures and a decrease in the rate of growth compared to undoped films. The PZT-films are prepared by a sol-gel-process in fourfold multilayers with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, where the tetragonal und rhombohedral perovskite-phases coexist. The crystallisation in Nd-doped and undoped films takes place heterogeneously, preferentially at the interfaces and on the surface of the multilayered films as well as on the inner surface of pores within the films. For the first time, the Zr:Ti fluctuation phenomena emerging in sol-gel derived PZT films is related to the microstructure and the local phase content on a nanometer scale. In this connection it is proved, that long-distance Zr:Ti gradients arise preferentially before and during the crystallisation of the pyrochlore phase. During the following crystallisation of the perovskite phase, the crystallites grow across these gradients without modifying them. It is pointed out that the fluctuation in the Zr:Ti ratio has only minor influence on the amount of the tetragonal or rhombohedral distortion of the crystallites after the transition from the para- to the ferroelectric state due to

  3. Piezo-Stellantrieb

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlkopp, K.

    1992-01-01

    Piezo actuators are used for example in so-called fast tool servo systems with which tools can be fed at high frequency. The disadvantage here is the heat loss occurring in the piezo element increasing with rising frequency. Thus, the maximum feed frequency of such piezo actuators is limited. In order to permit high feed frequencies with the piezo actuator, the temperature of the piezo element is adapted to the ambient temperature of the piezo element. As a result of this thermal stabilizatio...

  4. Hyperfine interaction measurements on ceramics: PZT revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarany, Cristiano A.; Araujo, Eudes B.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovitch, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    The solid solution of PbZr 1- x Ti x O 3 , known as lead-zirconate titanate (PZT), was probably one of the most studied ferroelectric materials, especially due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The highest piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are found near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) (0.46≤x≤0.49), between the tetragonal and rhombohedral regions of the composition-temperature phase diagram. Recently, a new monoclinic phase near the MPB was observed, which can be considered as a 'bridge' between PZT's tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. This work is concerned with the study of the structural properties of the ferroelectric PZT (Zr/Ti=52/48, 53/47) by hyperfine interaction (HI) measurements obtained from experiments performed by using the nuclear spectroscopy time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) in a wide temperature range

  5. Fatigue-free PZT-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H J; Sando, M [Nat. Ind. Res. Inst., Nagoya (Japan); Tajima, K [Synergy Ceramics Lab., Fine Ceramics Research Association, Nagoya (Japan); Niihara, K [ISIR, Osaka Univ., Mihogaoka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study is to fabricate fatigue-free piezoelectrics-based nanocomposites. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and metallic platinum (Pt) were selected as a matrix and secondary phase dispersoid. Fine Pt particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PZT matrix. Fatigue properties of the unpoled PZT-based nanocomposite under electrical cyclic loading were investigated. The electrical-field-induced crack growth was monitored by an optical microscope, and it depended on the number of cycles the sample was subjected to. Resistance to fatigue was significantly enhanced in the nanocomposite. The excellent fatigue behavior of the PZT/Pt nanocomposites may result from the grain boundary strenghtening due to the interaction between the matrix and Pt particles. (orig.) 8 refs.

  6. Hyperfine interaction measurements on ceramics: PZT revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarany, Cristiano A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Departmento de Fisica Quimica, Caixa Postal 31, 15.385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Araujo, Eudes B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Departmento de Fisica Quimica, Caixa Postal 31, 15.385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Silva, Paulo R.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saitovitch, Henrique [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: henrique@cbpf.br

    2007-02-01

    The solid solution of PbZr{sub 1-} {sub x} Ti {sub x} O{sub 3}, known as lead-zirconate titanate (PZT), was probably one of the most studied ferroelectric materials, especially due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The highest piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are found near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) (0.46{<=}x{<=}0.49), between the tetragonal and rhombohedral regions of the composition-temperature phase diagram. Recently, a new monoclinic phase near the MPB was observed, which can be considered as a 'bridge' between PZT's tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. This work is concerned with the study of the structural properties of the ferroelectric PZT (Zr/Ti=52/48, 53/47) by hyperfine interaction (HI) measurements obtained from experiments performed by using the nuclear spectroscopy time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) in a wide temperature range.

  7. Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S.J.; Seraji, S.; Forbess, M.J.; Wu Yun; Chou, T.P.; Nguyen, C.; Cao Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2001-08-16

    Nanorods of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-a ferro- and piezoelectric material-up to 10 {mu}m in length and 70 to 150 nm in diameter are produced by sol-gel electrophoresis of PZT in a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, which is used as a template. (orig.)

  8. A Study on Detection of Elastic Wave Using Patch Type Piezo-Polymer Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kueon, Jae Hwa; Lee, Young Seop

    2004-01-01

    Patch type piezo-polymer sensors for smart structures were experimented to detect elastic wave. The pencil lead braking test was performed to analyze the characteristics of patch-type piezo-polymer sensors such as polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride trifluorethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) for several test specimens with various elastic wave velocities and acoustical impedances. The characteristics of the patch-type piezo-polymer sensor were compared with the commercial PZT acoustic emission (AE) sensor. The vacuum grease and epoxy resin were used as a couplant for the acoustic impedance matching between the sensor and specimen. The peak amplitude of elastic wave increased as the diameter of piezo-film and acoustical impedance of the specimen increased. The frequency detection range of the piezo-film sensors decreased with increasing diameter of the piezo-film sensor. The P(VDF-TrFE) sensor was more sensitive than the PVDF sensor

  9. Influence of processing parameters on PZT thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Oliver; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2005-01-01

    We have studied influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thick films in the range of 5-25 μm. PZT and 2% La-doped PZT thick films were processed using a modified sol-gel process. In this process, PZT- and La-doped PZT powders were first prepared via sol-gel. These powders were calcined and then used with respective sols to form a slurry. Slurry composition was optimized to spin-coat thick films on platinized Si substrate (Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt). Spinning rate, acceleration and slurry deposition techniques were optimized to form thick films with uniform thickness and without any cracking. Increasing solids loading was found to enhance the surface smoothness of the film and decrease porosity. Films were tested for their electrical properties and ferroelectric fatigue response. The maximum polarization obtained was 40 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm for PZT thick film and 30 μC/cm 2 at 450 kV/cm for La-doped PZT thick film. After 10 9 cycles of fatiguing at 35 kHz, La-doped PZT showed better resistance for ferroelectric fatigue compared with un-doped PZT films

  10. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Hanna, Amir; Kosel, Jü rgen; Salama, Khaled N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational

  11. Analytical design model for a piezo-composite unimorph actuator and its verification using lightweight piezo-composite curved actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K. J.; Park, K. H.; Lee, S. K.; Goo, N. S.; Park, H. C.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes an analytical design model for a layered piezo-composite unimorph actuator and its numerical and experimental verification using a LIPCA (lightweight piezo-composite curved actuator) that is lighter than other conventional piezo-composite type actuators. The LIPCA is composed of top fiber composite layers with high modulus and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion), a middle PZT ceramic wafer, and base layers with low modulus and high CTE. The advantages of the LIPCA design are to replace the heavy metal layer of THUNDER by lightweight fiber-reinforced plastic layers without compromising the generation of high force and large displacement and to have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the number of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use a resin prepreg system. A piezo-actuation model for a laminate with piezo-electric material layers and fiber composite layers is proposed to predict the curvature and residual stress of the LIPCA. To predict the actuation displacement of the LIPCA with curvature, a finite element analysis method using the proposed piezo-actuation model is introduced. The predicted deformations are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  12. PZ, PT and PZT formation from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.M.R.; Zaghette, M.A.; Jafelicci Junior, M.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lead zirconate, lead titanate and lead titanate-zirconate were obtained by mechanical mixing of lead, titanium and zirconium citrates in ether and by calcination. The process was analyzed by DTA, TGA, IR, pore size distribution and surface area measurements. The results indicate that the decomposition reaction and formation of PZ, PT occur simultaneaously without formation of intermediate compounds. PZT was formed from 500 0 C. (author) [pt

  13. Interfacial morphology and domain configurations in 0-3 PZT-Portland cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaitanong, N.; Zeng, H.R.; Li, G.R.; Yin, Q.R.; Vittayakorn, W.C.; Yimnirun, R.; Chaipanich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites have attracted great attention recently due to their promising applications as sensors in smart structures. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Portland cement (PC) composite were fabricated using 60% of PZT by volume. Scanning Electron Microscope and piezoresponse force microscope were used to investigate the morphology and domain configurations at the interfacial zone of PZT-Portland cement composites. Angular PZT ceramic grains were found to bind well with the cement matrix. The submicro-scale domains were clearly observed by piezoresponse force microscope at the interfacial regions between the piezoelectric PZT phase and Portland cement phase, and are clearer than the images obtained for pure PZT. This is thought to be due to the applied internal stress of cement to the PZT ceramic particle which resulted to clearer images.

  14. Preparation and properties of porous PMN-PZT ceramics doped with strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Tao; Dong Xianlin; Mao Chaoliang; Chen Shutao; Chen Heng

    2006-01-01

    The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) ceramics were investigated as a function of density for transducer applications. A decrease in density increased elastic compliance and improved acoustic impedance matching between PMN-PZT ceramics and ambient media. The reduced dielectric constant (ε 33 ) and enhanced hydrostatic figure of merit (d h g h ) of PMN-PZT were observed with decreased density. The results showed the d h g h of PMN-PZT ceramic with density of about 5.4 g/cm 3 reached 4000 x 10 -15 m 2 /N, and the ε 33 was very close to 2000, which demonstrates that porous PMN-PZT ceramic is a promising material for transducer applications. Moreover, the low density PMN-PZT ceramics exhibited lower dielectric loss than high density PMN-PZT ceramics during the temperature from 250 deg. C to 500 deg. C

  15. Lattice strain induced multiferroicity in PZT-CFO particulate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Lagen Kumar; Pandey, Rabichandra; Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan

    2018-02-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/PZT] and Cobalt Ferrite [CoFe2O4/CFO] based multiferroic composites [(1-x)PZT-(x)CFO] with (x = 0.10-0.40) have been prepared to study its magnetoelectric (ME) and multiferroic properties. X-ray diffraction method along with the Rietveld refinement technique reveals that the crystal symmetries corresponding to PZT and CFO exist independently in the composites. The effect of interfacial strain on lattice distortion in PZT has been observed. It is well correlated with the magnetoelectric coupling of the composites. Dispersion behavior of dielectric constant with frequency can be explained by the modified Debye model. Different relaxation phenomena have been observed in PZT-CFO particulate composites. The ferroelectric properties of composites decrease with the increase in percentage of CFO in the composite. Both saturation (Ms) and remanent (Mr) magnetization increase with the increase in CFO content in the composite. The maximum ME coupling was found to be 1.339 pC/cm2 Oe for the composition (0.80) PZT-(0.20) CFO at the application of maximum magnetic field of 50 Oe. The multiferroic properties in CFO-PZT can be explained by the lattice strain at the CFO-PZT interfaces.

  16. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  17. Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...... for thick film PZT sintered at 850degC. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt is patterned on PZT with a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mum. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong influence on the conductance of the top electrode....

  18. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...... with a line width down to 3 μ m. A 700 nm thick ZrO2 layer as insolating diffusion barrier layer is found to be insufficient as barrier layer for PZT on a silicon substrate sintered at 850°C. EDX shows diffusion of Si into the PZT layer....

  19. Power harvesting using PZT ceramics embedded in orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Ming; Jia, Chen; Wang, Zihua

    2009-09-01

    Battery lifetime has been the stumbling block for many power-critical or maintenance-free real-time embedded applications, such as wireless sensors and orthopedic implants. Thus a piezoelectric material that could convert human motion into electrical energy provides a very attractive solution for clinical implants. In this work, we analyze the power generation characteristics of stiff lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and the equivalent circuit through extensive experiments. Our experimental framework allows us to explore many important design considerations of such a PZT-based power generator. Overall we can achieve a PZT element volume of 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.8 cm, which is considerably smaller than the results reported so far. Finally, we outline the application of our PZT elements in a total knee replacement (TKR) implant.

  20. Electric and ferroelectric properties of PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.; Hwang, Yun Taek

    2009-01-01

    The electric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) multilayer films prepared using photosensitive precursors were characterized. The electric and ferroelectric properties were investigated by studying the effect of the stacking order of four ferroelectric layers of PZT or BLT in 4-PZT, PZT/2-BLT/PZT, BLT/2-PZT/BLT, and 4-BLT multilayer films. The remnant polarization values of the 4-BLT and BLT/2-PZT/BLT multilayer films were 12 and 17 μC/cm 2, respectively. Improved ferroelectric properties of the PZT/BLT multilayer films were obtained by using a PZT intermediate layer. The films which contained a BLT layer on the Pt substrate had improved leakage currents of approximately two orders of magnitude and enhanced fatigue resistances compared to the films with a PZT layer on the Pt substrate. These improvements are due to the reduced number of defects and space charges near the Pt electrodes. The PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) possessed enhanced electric and ferroelectric properties, and allow direct patterning to fabricate micro-patterned systems without dry etching.

  1. Electric and ferroelectric properties of PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.; Hwang, Yun Taek

    2009-01-01

    The electric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) multilayer films prepared using photosensitive precursors were characterized. The electric and ferroelectric properties were investigated by studying the effect of the stacking order of four ferroelectric layers of PZT or BLT in 4-PZT, PZT/2-BLT/PZT, BLT/2-PZT/BLT, and 4-BLT multilayer films. The remnant polarization values of the 4-BLT and BLT/2-PZT/BLT multilayer films were 12 and 17 μC/cm 2 , respectively. Improved ferroelectric properties of the PZT/BLT multilayer films were obtained by using a PZT intermediate layer. The films which contained a BLT layer on the Pt substrate had improved leakage currents of approximately two orders of magnitude and enhanced fatigue resistances compared to the films with a PZT layer on the Pt substrate. These improvements are due to the reduced number of defects and space charges near the Pt electrodes. The PZT/BLT multilayer films prepared by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) possessed enhanced electric and ferroelectric properties, and allow direct patterning to fabricate micro-patterned systems without dry etching.

  2. Experimental characterization of PZT fibers using IDE electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Nicholas; Ben Atitallah, Hassene; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers are mainly used in active fiber composites (AFC) where they are embedded in a polymer matrix. Interdigitated electrodes (IDE) along the direction of the fibers are used to achieve planar actuation, hereby exploiting the d33 coefficient of PZT. When embedded in the AFC, the PZT fibers are subjected to mechanical loading as well as non-uniform electric field as a result of the IDEs. Therefore, it is important to characterize the electrical and electromechanical behavior of these fibers ex-situ using the IDE electrodes to assess the impact of nonuniform electric field on the properties of the fibers. For that reason, this work aims at quantifying the impact of IDE electrodes on the electrical and electromechanical behavior of PZT fibers, which is necessary for their successful implementation in devices like AFC. The tested fibers were purchased from Advanced Cerametrics and they have an average diameter of 250 micrometers. The IDE electrodes were screen printed on an acrylic substrate. The PZT fibers were subjected to frequency sweeps at low voltages to determine permittivity for parallel and interdigitated electrodes. The piezoelectric e33 constant is determined from electromechanical testing of PZT fibers in parallel electrodes to compare the electromechanical behavior for PZT in bulk and fiber form. The dielectric constant and e33 were found to be lower for the IDE and parallel electrodes compared to bulk but comparable to results published in literature.

  3. Performance of magnetoelectric PZT/Ni multiferroic system for energy harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films has been probed for possible energy harvesting applications. Single phase PZT thin films have been deposited on nickel substrate (PZT/Ni) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of PLD process parameters on the ME coupling coefficient in the prepared systems has been investigated. The as grown PZT films on Ni substrate were found to be polycrystalline with improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. The electrical switching behavior of the PZT thin films were verified using capacitance voltage measurements, where well defined butterfly loops were obtained. The ME coupling coefficient was estimated to be in the range of 94.5 V cm-1 Oe-1-130.5 V cm-1 Oe-1 for PZT/Ni system, which is large enough for harnessing electromagnetic energy for subsequent applications.

  4. Piezotronics and piezo-phototronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics, and shows how the functionality of piezotroics and piezo-phototronics are complementary to CMOS technology. Describes applications in sensing, nanorobotics and many other areas.

  5. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  6. The nature of the photoluminescence in amorphized PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.; Cilense, M.; Orhan, E.; Goes, M.S.; Machado, M.A.C.; Santos, L.P.S.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Zaghete, M.A.; Pizani, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    The polymeric precursor method was used to synthesize lead zirconate titanate powder (PZT). The crystalline powder was then amorphized by a high-energy ball milling process during 120 h. A strong photoluminescence emission was observed at room temperature for the amorphized PZT powder. The powders were characterized by XRD and the percentage of amorphous phase was calculated through Rietveld refinement. The microstructure for both phases was investigated by TEM. The optical gap was calculated through the Wood and Tauc method using the UV-Vis. data. Quantum mechanical calculations were carried out to give an interpretation of the photoluminescence in terms of electronic structure

  7. Piezo films with adjustable anisotropic strain for bending actuators with tunable bending profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapler, Matthias C; Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to produce in-plane polarized piezo films with a freely adjustable ratio of the strains in orthogonal in-plane directions. They can be used in piezo bending actuators with a tunable curvature profile. The strains are obtained as mean strains from a periodic polarization pattern produced by a suitable doubly interdigitated electrode structure. This mechanism is demonstrated for several examples using PZT sheets. We further discuss how this tuning and the parameters of the electrode layout affect the overall magnitude of the displacement. (paper)

  8. Optimum Operating Conditions for PZT Actuators for Vibrotactile Wearables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, Irini; Matsouka, Dimitra; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Vossou, Clio; Siores, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, vibrotactile wearables have received much attention in fields such as medicine, psychology, athletics and video gaming. The electrical components presently used to generate vibration are rigid; hence, the design and creation of ergonomical wearables are limited. Significant advances in piezoelectric components have led to the production of flexible actuators such as piezoceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. To verify the functionality of PZT actuators for use in vibrotactile wearables, the factors influencing the electromechanical conversion were analysed and tested. This was achieved through theoretical and experimental analyses of a monomorph clamped-free structure for the PZT actuator. The research performed for this article is a three-step process. First, a theoretical analysis presents the equations governing the actuator. In addition, the eigenfrequency of the film was analysed preceding the experimental section. For this stage, by applying an electric voltage and varying the stimulating electrical characteristics (i.e., voltage, electrical waveform and frequency), the optimum operating conditions for a PZT film were determined. The tip displacement was measured referring to the mechanical energy converted from electrical energy. From the results obtained, an equation for the mechanical behaviour of PZT films as actuators was deduced. It was observed that the square waveform generated larger tip displacements. In conjunction with large voltage inputs at the predetermined eigenfrequency, the optimum operating conditions for the actuator were achieved. To conclude, PZT films can be adapted to assist designers in creating comfortable vibrotactile wearables.

  9. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  10. The effects of sintering behavior on piezoelectric properties of porous PZT ceramics for hydrophone application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Tao; Dong Xianlin; Chen Heng; Wang Yonglin

    2006-01-01

    Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were fabricated by adding polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the effects of sintering behavior on their microstructure and piezoelectric properties were investigated. The porosity of PZT ceramics decreased with an increase in the sintering temperature at a fixed PMMA addition. The dielectric constant (ε), longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) and hydrostatic figures of merit (d h g h ) of 34% porous PZT ceramics increased with an increase in sintering temperature from 1050 to 1300 deg. C. When sintered at 1300 deg. C, longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of 34% porous PZT ceramic was very close to that of 95% dense PZT ceramics, while the hydrostatic figures of merit of 34% porous PZT ceramics is about fifteen times more than that of 95% dense PZT ceramics. Compared with PZT-polymer composites, the dielectric constant of 34% porous PZT sintered at 1300 deg. C is much higher, which can be more efficient to resist the interference in receiving sensitivities caused by loading effect of the cable

  11. Local Fatigue Evaluation in PZT Thin Films with Nanoparticles by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Li

    2012-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with the morphotropic phase boundary composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) have been prepared using a modified diol-based sol-gel route by introducing 1–5 mol% barium titanate (BT) nanoseeds into the precursor solution on platinized silicon substrates (Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si). Macroscopic electric properties of PZT film with nanoparticle showed a significant improvement of ferroelectric properties. This work aims at the systematic study of the local switching polarizatio...

  12. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-14

    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is ∼0.010 μA h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (∼0.004 μA h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  13. Real-Time Salmonella Detection Using Lead Zirconate Titanate-Titanium Microcantilevers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGovern, John-Paul; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng; Sergi, Mauro; Chaiken, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed and investigated the use of a lead zirconate titanate - titanium (PZT-Ti) microcantilever for in situ detection of the common food- and water-born pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium...

  14. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the piezoelectric response of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydok, A., E-mail: davydok@mpie.de [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Department Structure and Nano-/Micromechanics of Materials, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Cornelius, T.W. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Mocuta, C. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, DiffAbs beamline, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lima, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77500-000 Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56 Centro, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Thomas, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2016-03-31

    Piezoelectric properties of randomly oriented self-polarized PbZr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.50}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Possibilities for investigating the piezoelectric effect using micro-sized hard X-ray beams are demonstrated and perspectives for future dynamical measurements on PZT samples with variety of compositions and thicknesses are given. Studies performed on the crystalline [100, 110] directions evidenced piezoelectric anisotropy. The piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was calculated in terms of the lab reference frame (d{sub perp}) and found to be two times larger along the [100] direction than along the [110] direction. The absolute values for the d{sub perp} amount to 120 and 230 pm/V being in good agreement with experimental and theoretical values found in literature for bulk PZT ceramics. - Highlights: • We performed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on (PZT) thin films. • We discuss anisotropy of piezo effect in different crystallographic directions. • Perpendicular component Piezo coefficient of thin PZT layer is defined.

  15. A novel method for the fabrication of freestanding PZT features on substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost G.; van Bennekom, J.G.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Nijdam, W.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and cheap micromoulding fabrication route was developed to prepare freestanding piezo active features. Dimensions as small as 200 μm by 200 μm and 40 μm high were successfully fabricated via a replication technique. The lead zirconate titanate features were thoroughly characterized using

  16. Ring-dot-shaped multilayer piezoelectric step-down transformers using PZT-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Insung; Joo, Hyeonkyu; Song, Jaesung; Jeong, Soonjong; Kim, Minsoo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, multilayer piezo stack transformers for switching mode power supply (SMPS) application were manufactured using 0.01Pb(Ni{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} - 0.08Pb(Mn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} - 0.91Pb(Zr{sub 0.505}Ti{sub 0.495})O{sub 3} (PNN-PMN-PZT) ceramics. The voltage ratio of a multilayer piezo stack transformer showed a maximum at the resonance frequency of the input and then increased with increasing load resistance. The efficiency of the multilayer piezo stack transformer showed its highest value at around the matching load. The output power increased with increasing input voltage. The temperature of the multilayer piezo stack transformer increased with increasing output power and load resistance. The manufactured multilayer piezo stack transformer could be used up to 5 W at a resonance frequency of 70.25 kHz for SMPS application because the temperature rise from room temperature is believed to about 20 .deg. C and because the transformer is electrically stable. The newly-developed ring-dot-type step-down multilayer piezo stack transformer shows possible applications as SMPS for electronic power sources with excellent input-to-output properties.

  17. Ring-dot-shaped multilayer piezoelectric step-down transformers using PZT-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Insung; Joo, Hyeonkyu; Song, Jaesung; Jeong, Soonjong; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multilayer piezo stack transformers for switching mode power supply (SMPS) application were manufactured using 0.01Pb(Ni 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.08Pb(Mn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.91Pb(Zr 0.505 Ti 0.495 )O 3 (PNN-PMN-PZT) ceramics. The voltage ratio of a multilayer piezo stack transformer showed a maximum at the resonance frequency of the input and then increased with increasing load resistance. The efficiency of the multilayer piezo stack transformer showed its highest value at around the matching load. The output power increased with increasing input voltage. The temperature of the multilayer piezo stack transformer increased with increasing output power and load resistance. The manufactured multilayer piezo stack transformer could be used up to 5 W at a resonance frequency of 70.25 kHz for SMPS application because the temperature rise from room temperature is believed to about 20 .deg. C and because the transformer is electrically stable. The newly-developed ring-dot-type step-down multilayer piezo stack transformer shows possible applications as SMPS for electronic power sources with excellent input-to-output properties.

  18. Sensitivity of PZT Impedance Sensors for Damage Detection of Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Hu, Yuhang; Lu, Yong

    2008-01-21

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based electro-mechanicalimpedance (EMI) technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) has been successfullyapplied to various engineering systems. However, fundamental research work on thesensitivity of the PZT impedance sensors for damage detection is still in need. In thetraditional EMI method, the PZT electro-mechanical (EM) admittance (inverse of theimpedance) is used as damage indicator, which is difficult to specify the effect of damage onstructural properties. This paper uses the structural mechanical impedance (SMI) extractedfrom the PZT EM admittance signature as the damage indicator. A comparison study on thesensitivity of the EM admittance and the structural mechanical impedance to the damages ina concrete structure is conducted. Results show that the SMI is more sensitive to the damagethan the EM admittance thus a better indicator for damage detection. Furthermore, this paperproposes a dynamic system consisting of a number of single-degree-of-freedom elementswith mass, spring and damper components to model the SMI. A genetic algorithm isemployed to search for the optimal value of the unknown parameters in the dynamic system.An experiment is carried out on a two-storey concrete frame subjected to base vibrations thatsimulate earthquake. A number of PZT sensors are regularly arrayed and bonded to the framestructure to acquire PZT EM admittance signatures. The relationship between the damageindex and the distance of the PZT sensor from the damage is studied. Consequently, thesensitivity of the PZT sensors is discussed and their sensing region in concrete is derived.

  19. Elution of lead from lead zirconate titanate ceramics to acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Takezawa, Shuhei; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    The amount of lead that eluted from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics to artificial acid rain was evaluated. Four kinds of PZT ceramics, namely, pure PZT at MPB composition, CuO-added PZT, PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, and CuO-added PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, were used as samples of the elution test. These PZT ceramics of 8 mm2 and 1.1-1.2 mm thickness were suspended in 300 ml of H2SO4 solution of pH 4.0. The concentration of lead eluted from PZT was in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 ppm. It was found that both liquid phase formation by the addition of CuO and the substitution of Ba for Pb were effective to reduce the amount of lead that eluted. By fitting the leaching out curve with a classical equation, a master curve assuming no sampling effect was obtained. The lead concentration evaluated from the amount of lead that eluted from a commercial PZT plate to H2SO4 solution of pH 5.3 was almost the same as the limit in city water. It is concluded that PZT is not harmful to health and the environment and the amount of lead that eluted from PZT can be controlled by modifying PZT composition.

  20. Towards a digital sound reconstruction MEMS device: Characterization of a single PZT based piezoelectric actuator

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    of acoustic actuators. These actuators consist of a flexible membrane fabricated using polyimide, which is actuated using a Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layer working in the d31 actuation mode. The dimensions of the membrane are of 1mm

  1. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the integration of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films into piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on silicon is studied. In these structures, all epitaxial oxide layers (thin film/electrode/buffer-layer(s)) were deposited by pulsed laser

  2. Microstructure of pulsed-laser deposited PZT on polished and annealed MGO substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.L.; Coccia, L.G.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Boyd, I.W.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) have been grown by pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) onto polished MgO substrates both with and without pre-annealing. The surface morphology of polished MgO substrates, which are widely used for deposition, is examined by AFM. Commercially available,

  3. Reconstruction of the domain orientation distribution function of polycrystalline PZT ceramics using vector piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Markus; Lasnik, Michael; Röhrig, Sören; Teichert, Christian; Deluca, Marco

    2018-01-11

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the prominent materials used in polycrystalline piezoelectric devices. Since the ferroelectric domain orientation is the most important parameter affecting the electromechanical performance, analyzing the domain orientation distribution is of great importance for the development and understanding of improved piezoceramic devices. Here, vector piezoresponse force microscopy (vector-PFM) has been applied in order to reconstruct the ferroelectric domain orientation distribution function of polished sections of device-ready polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material. A measurement procedure and a computer program based on the software Mathematica have been developed to automatically evaluate the vector-PFM data for reconstructing the domain orientation function. The method is tested on differently in-plane and out-of-plane poled PZT samples, and the results reveal the expected domain patterns and allow determination of the polarization orientation distribution function at high accuracy.

  4. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  5. Niobium effect on the Pzt ceramic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenes, R.; Zaguete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Cilense, M.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Las, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate, PZT, was prepared with Zr/Ti ratio of 50/50. The powder was prepared by the Pechini method with addition of 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mol % of Nb +5 ions. The precursors obtained were calcined at 700 deg C for 3 hs and milled with zirconia balls in a medium of isopropilic alcohol for 6 hs. The powders were characterized by XRD. For the sintering studies powders were isostatically pressed (230 MPa) into pellets and which were put inside a box furnace at 1200 deg C for 2 hs and 1100 deg C for 4 hs in a closed system containing 5 % of atmospheric powder (Pb Zr O 3 + 5% Pb O) relative to all pellets'mass. It was verified that the best densification rate was obtained for PZT with addition of 0,5 mol % of Nb +5 ions and sintered at 1100 deg C for 4 hs. Sintered samples at 1100 deg C for 4 hs were characterized as to dielectric (k, P r and E c ) and piezoelectric properties. (author)

  6. Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Yang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI, are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure and subjected to actuation so as to interrogate the structure at the desired frequency range. The interrogation results in the electromechanical admittance (inverse of EMI signatures which can be used to estimate the structural health or integrity according to the changes of the signatures. In the existing EMI method, the monitored structure is only excited by the PZT transducers for the interrogating of EMI signature, while the vibration of the structure caused by the external excitations other than the PZT actuation is not considered. However, many structures work under vibrations in practice. To monitor such structures, issues related to the effects of vibration on the EMI signature need to be addressed because these effects may lead to misinterpretation of the structural health. This paper develops an EMI model for beam structures, which takes into account the effect of beam vibration caused by the external excitations. An experimental study is carried out to verify the theoretical model. A lab size specimen with different external excitations is tested and the effect of vibration on EMI signature is discussed.

  7. Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Miao, Aiwei

    2008-11-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI), are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM) in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure and subjected to actuation so as to interrogate the structure at the desired frequency range. The interrogation results in the electromechanical admittance (inverse of EMI) signatures which can be used to estimate the structural health or integrity according to the changes of the signatures. In the existing EMI method, the monitored structure is only excited by the PZT transducers for the interrogating of EMI signature, while the vibration of the structure caused by the external excitations other than the PZT actuation is not considered. However, many structures work under vibrations in practice. To monitor such structures, issues related to the effects of vibration on the EMI signature need to be addressed because these effects may lead to misinterpretation of the structural health. This paper develops an EMI model for beam structures, which takes into account the effect of beam vibration caused by the external excitations. An experimental study is carried out to verify the theoretical model. A lab size specimen with different external excitations is tested and the effect of vibration on EMI signature is discussed.

  8. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  9. Elasticity Imaging of Ferroelectric Domain Structure in PZT by Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, T.; Ogiso, H.; Fukuda, K.; Yamanaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    UAFM was applied to the observation of the domain structure in lead zirconate titanate (PZT). It imaged the change of elasticity due to grain and domain boundary (DB). For the quantitative evaluation of the contact stiffness, the lateral contact stiffness was taken into account. The stiffness of DB was 10% lower than that within the domain and the width of the DB was about 30 nm. The implication of this work is the understanding of the fatigue mechanism in a PZT memory and the high resolution imaging for a high-density memory

  10. Interaction between depolarization effects, interface layer, and fatigue behavior in PZT thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Waser, R.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of non-ferroelectric regions in ferroelectric thin films evokes depolarization effects leading to a tilt of the P(E) hysteresis loop. The analysis of measured hysteresis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is used to determine a depolarization factor which contains quantitative information about interfacial layers as well as ferroelectrically passive zones in the bulk. The derived interfacial capacitance is smaller than that estimated from conventional extrapolation techniques. In addition, the concept of depolarization is used for the investigation of fatigue behavior of PZT thin films indicating that the mechanism of seed inhibition, which is responsible for the effect, occurs in the entire film.

  11. New fabrication of high-frequency (100-MHz) ultrasound PZT film kerfless linear array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Chan, Ngai Yui; Dai, Jiyan; Shung, K Kirk; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes the design, fabrication, and measurements of a high-frequency ultrasound kerfless linear array prepared from hydrothermal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film. The 15-μm hydrothermal PZT thick film with an area of 1 × 1 cm, obtained through a self-separation process from Ti substrate, was used to fabricate a 32-element 100-MHz kerfless linear array with photolithography. The bandwidth at -6 dB without matching layer, insertion loss around center frequency, and crosstalk between adjacent elements were measured to be 39%, -30 dB, and -15 dB, respectively.

  12. Effect of porosity on dielectric properties and microstructure of porous PZT ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B. Praveen [PZT Centre, Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, H.H. [PZT Centre, Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pune 411021 (India); Kharat, D.K. [PZT Centre, Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail: dkkharat@rediffmail.com

    2006-02-25

    Porous piezoelectric materials are of great interest because of their high hydrostatic figure of merit and low sound velocity, which results in to low acoustic impedance and efficient coupling with medium. Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with varying porosity was developed using polymethyl methacrylate by burnable plastic spheres (BURPS) process. The porous PZT ceramics were characterized for dielectric constant ({epsilon}), dielectric loss factor (tan {delta}), hydrostatic charge (d {sub h}) and voltage (g {sub h}) coefficients and microstructure. The effect of the porous microstructure on the dielectric constant and loss factor at frequencies of 10-10{sup 5} Hz are discussed in this paper.

  13. MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    MEMS energy- harvesting device. Although PZT is used more prevalently due to its higher piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant, AlN has...7 1. Lead Zirconium Titanate ( PZT ) .........................................................7 2. Aluminum...Laboratory PiezoMUMPS Piezoelectric Multi-User MEMS Processes PZT Lead Zirconate Titanate SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SiO2 Silicon

  14. Niobium effect on the Pzt ceramic properties; Efeito do niobio sobre as propriedades da ceramica PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenes, R.; Zaguete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Cilense, M.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Las, W.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1996-12-31

    Lead zirconate titanate, PZT, was prepared with Zr/Ti ratio of 50/50. The powder was prepared by the Pechini method with addition of 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mol % of Nb{sup +5} ions. The precursors obtained were calcined at 700 deg C for 3 hs and milled with zirconia balls in a medium of isopropilic alcohol for 6 hs. The powders were characterized by XRD. For the sintering studies powders were isostatically pressed (230 MPa) into pellets and which were put inside a box furnace at 1200 deg C for 2 hs and 1100 deg C for 4 hs in a closed system containing 5 % of atmospheric powder (Pb Zr O{sub 3} + 5% Pb O) relative to all pellets`mass. It was verified that the best densification rate was obtained for PZT with addition of 0,5 mol % of Nb{sup +5} ions and sintered at 1100 deg C for 4 hs. Sintered samples at 1100 deg C for 4 hs were characterized as to dielectric (k, P{sub r} and E{sub c}) and piezoelectric properties. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Stacking effect on the ferroelectric properties of PZT/PLZT multilayer thin films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.

    2004-01-01

    The ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) multilayer films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) using photosensitive precursors have been characterized. The substitution of La for Pb was reported to induce improved ferroelectric properties, especially fatigue resistance, through the reduction of oxygen vacancies. The relation between La-substitution and the ferroelectric properties was investigated by characterization of the effect of the order of stacking four ferroelectric layers of PZT or PLZT in the multilayer films 4-PZT, PZT/2-PLZT/PZT, PLZT/2-PZT/PLZT, and 4-PLZT. The films with the PLZT layer at the top and bottom showed an improvement in the fatigue resistance. It was revealed that defect dipole such as O vacancy was reduced at the ferroelectric/Pt interface by doping with La. Also, the bottom layer, just on Pt substrate had a significant influence on the surface microstructure and growth orientation of ferroelectric film

  16. Optimizing Pt/TiO2 templates for textured PZT growth and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrepka, Daniel; Fox, Glenn; Sanchez, Luz; Polcawich, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    Crystallographic texture of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films strongly influences piezoelectric properties used in MEMS applications. Textured growth can be achieved by relying on crystal growth habit and can also be initiated by the use of a seed-layer heteroepitaxial template. Template choice and the process used to form it determine structural quality, ultimately influencing performance and reliability of MEMS PZT devices such as switches, filters, and actuators. This study focuses on how 111-textured PZT is generated by a combination of crystal habit and templating mechanisms that occur in the PZT/bottom-electrode stack. The sequence begins with 0001-textured Ti deposited on thermally grown SiO2 on a Si wafer. The Ti is converted to 100-textured TiO2 (rutile) through thermal oxidation. Then 111-textured Pt can be grown to act as a template for 111-textured PZT. Ti and Pt are deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. TiO2 and Pt film textures and structure were optimized by variation of sputtering deposition times, temperatures and power levels, and post-deposition anneal conditions. The relationship between Ti, TiO2, and Pt texture and their impact on PZT growth will be presented. Also affiliated with U.S. Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA

  17. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  18. Experimental research on dynamic mechanical properties of PZT ceramic under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Liu, K.X.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We developed an experimental device to examine dynamic mechanical properties of PZT. → Ductile behavior of PZT was seen when hydrostatic pressure was involved. → Compressive strength was shown sensitive to hydrostatic pressure and strain-rate. → A failure criterion was suggested to explain the failure behavior of PZT. - Abstract: An experimental technique for initially applied hydrostatic pressure in specimens subjected to axial impact has been developed to study the dynamic mechanical properties of materials. The technique was employed for the purpose of examining the dynamic mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at zero to 15 MPa hydrostatic pressures. Experimental results unambiguously exhibit the ductile behavior of PZT when hydrostatic pressure is involved. The compressive strength is demonstrated sensitive to the initial hydrostatic pressure and the strain-rate. The fracture modes are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a failure criterion based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory is suggested to explain the brittle and ductile failure of PZT.

  19. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  20. Effect of Nb doping on sintering and dielectric properties of PZT ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of piezoelectric ceramics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT in different applications became possible with the development of donor or acceptor dopants. Therefore, studies on the effect of dopants on the properties of PZT ceramics are highly demanded. In this study undoped and 2.4 mol% Nb-doped PZT (PZTN powders were successfully obtained by a solid-state reaction and calcination at 850 °C for 2 h. Crystallinity and phase formation of the prepared powders were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD. In order to study morphology of powders, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was performed. The crystalline PZT and Nb-doped PZT powders were pelleted into discs and sintered at 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and holding time of 1–6 h to find the optimum combination of temperature and time to produce high density ceramics. Microstructural characterization was conducted on the fractured ceramic surfaces using SEM. Density measurements showed that maximal density of 95% of the theoretical density was achieved after sintering of PZT and PZTN ceramics at 1200 °C for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. However, the results of dielectric measurements showed that PZTN ceramics have higher relative permittivity (εr ∼17960 with lower Curie temperature (∼358 °C relative to PZT (εr = 16000 at ∼363 °C as a result of fine PZTN structure as well as presence of vacancies. In addition, dielectric loss (at 1 kHz of PZT and PZTN ceramics with 95% theoretical density was 0.0087 and 0.02, respectively. The higher dielectric loss in PZTN was due to easier domain wall motions in PZTN ceramics.

  1. Nanocomposites with increased energy density through high aspect ratio PZT nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haixiong; Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A

    2011-01-07

    High energy storage plays an important role in the modern electric industry. Herein, we investigated the role of filler aspect ratio in nanocomposites for energy storage. Nanocomposites were synthesized using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with two different aspect ratio (nanowires, nanorods) fillers at various volume fractions dispersed in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The permittivity constants of composites containing nanowires (NWs) were higher than those with nanorods (NRs) at the same inclusion volume fraction. It was also indicated that the high frequency loss tangent of samples with PZT nanowires was smaller than for those with nanorods, demonstrating the high electrical energy storage efficiency of the PZT NW nanocomposite. The high aspect ratio PZT NWs showed a 77.8% increase in energy density over the lower aspect ratio PZT NRs, under an electric field of 15 kV mm(-1) and 50% volume fraction. The breakdown strength was found to decrease with the increasing volume fraction of PZT NWs, but to only change slightly from a volume fraction of around 20%-50%. The maximum calculated energy density of nanocomposites is as high as 1.158 J cm(-3) at 50% PZT NWs in PVDF. Since the breakdown strength is lower compared to a PVDF copolymer such as poly(vinylidene fluoride-tertrifluoroethylene-terchlorotrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TreEE-CTFE) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP), the energy density of the nanocomposite could be significantly increased through the use of PZT NWs and a polymer with greater breakdown strength. These results indicate that higher aspect ratio fillers show promising potential to improve the energy density of nanocomposites, leading to the development of advanced capacitors with high energy density.

  2. Broadband Electromagnetic Emission from PZT Ferroelectric Ceramics after Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiodoras ANISIMOVAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally registered pulsed electromagnetic (EM radiation in frequency range higher than television one using wideband horns with coaxial and waveguide outputs. The EM radiation was received during shock loading of lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics cylinders in conventional piezoelectric ignition mechanisms. Digital oscilloscope allows registering whole series of EM pulses and each pulse from the series transmitted from horn antenna of (1 – 18 GHz operating band frequencies. There is (1 – 4 ms delay between the shock and the first pulse of the series. Duration of the series is about (3 – 4 ms. The PZT cylinders were cleaved along their axes and the surfaces formed in the process were investigated by scanning electron microscope. It was concluded that from electrical point of view PZT ceramics contain interacting subsystems. It was found that EM radiation spectrum of pulse detected by waveguide detector heads has harmonics reaching 80 GHz. Presence of harmonics higher than 20 GHz indicates on radiation due to deceleration of electrons emitted during the switching. The EM pulses in the series appear randomly and have different amplitudes which partly confirmed thesis on independent switching dynamics of small volumes governed by a local electric field.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3137

  3. Structural and electrical characterization of PZT on gold for micromachined piezoelectric membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.C.; Morris, D.J.; Hayenga, P.D.; Cho, J.H.; Richards, C.D.; Richards, R.F.; Bahr, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric membranes have been fabricated that incorporate a gold bottom electrode with an adhesion layer of titanium-tungsten (10:90 wt. %). For solution-deposited acetic acid based lead zirconate titanate (HoAc-PZT) with a Zr:Ti ratio of 40:60, the film's average piezoelectric coefficient, e 31 , is -5.31 C/m 2 , with a dielectric constant of 814 at 200 Hz, which is similar to values for platinum bottom electrodes. The PZT structure remains columnar on both types of bottom electrodes. Initial fabrication attempts resulted in cracking that initiated in the PZT layer of the structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to establish how processing affects diffusion throughout the composite membrane structure. Crack-free membranes were fabricated and tested. This paper discusses the performance properties and piezoelectric fatigue results for these membranes. (orig.)

  4. 1.6 V nanogenerator for mechanical energy harvesting using PZT nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan; Shi, Yong

    2010-06-09

    Energy harvesting technologies that are engineered to miniature sizes, while still increasing the power delivered to wireless electronics, (1, 2) portable devices, stretchable electronics, (3) and implantable biosensors, (4, 5) are strongly desired. Piezoelectric nanowire- and nanofiber-based generators have potential uses for powering such devices through a conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. (6) However, the piezoelectric voltage constant of the semiconductor piezoelectric nanowires in the recently reported piezoelectric nanogenerators (7-12) is lower than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanomaterials. Here we report a piezoelectric nanogenerator based on PZT nanofibers. The PZT nanofibers, with a diameter and length of approximately 60 nm and 500 microm, were aligned on interdigitated electrodes of platinum fine wires and packaged using a soft polymer on a silicon substrate. The measured output voltage and power under periodic stress application to the soft polymer was 1.63 V and 0.03 microW, respectively.

  5. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  6. Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in La-modified PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, P.; Pradhan, S. K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sinha, S. K.; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of lanthanum (La) doping on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sample has been investigated. Pb1- x La x Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ceramics with x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10 were prepared by the sol-gel technique. Raman and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy have been employed to understand the structural modification due to ionic size mismatch. Raman spectra show the existence of both rhombohedral and tetragonal crystal symmetries. It also shows the dielectric relaxation with increase in La concentration in the sample. The increase in lattice strain due to La doping increases the remnant polarization and coercive field. The linear piezoelectric coefficient increases with the increase in La concentration. It reveals that La-substituted PZT is a better candidate for piezoelectric sensor applications as compared to that of PZT.

  7. Wafer scale lead zirconate titanate film preparation by sol-gel method using stress balance layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yi Zhang; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, platinum/titanium (Pt/Ti) film was introduced as a residual stress balance layer into wafer scale thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film fabrication by sol-gel method. The stress developing in PZT film's bottom electrode as well as in PZT film itself during deposition were analyzed; the wafer curvatures, PZT crystallizations and PZT electric properties before and after using Pt/Ti stress balance layer were studied and compared. It was found that this layer is effective to balance the residual stress in PZT film's bottom electrode induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and Ti diffusion, thus can notably reduce the curvature of 4-in. wafer from - 40.5 μm to - 12.9 μm after PZT film deposition. This stress balance layer was also found effective to avoid the PZT film cracking even when annealed by rapid thermal annealing with heating-rate up to 10.5 deg. C/s. According to X-ray diffraction analysis and electric properties characterization, crack-free uniform 1-μm-thick PZT film with preferred pervoskite (001) orientation, excellent dielectric constant, as high as 1310, and excellent remanent polarization, as high as 39.8 μC/cm 2 , can be obtained on 4-in. wafer

  8. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  9. Dielectric behaviors of lead zirconate titanate ceramics with coplanar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Cheng, Y.L.; Zhang, Y.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the dielectric behaviors of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitors with coplanar electrodes. Usually a ferroelectric device has a metal-ferroelectric-metal configuration (parallel plate capacitor); when both the electrodes are on one side of a ceramic to form a coplanar capacitor, different dielectric behaviors will be anticipated because of the change in the distribution of the test field inside the dielectrics. This paper describes how the capacitance and dielectric loss of PZT-based coplanar capacitors change with electrode distance, area and test frequency

  10. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500 0 C, 450 0 C and 250 0 C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450 0 C and 500 0 C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800 0 C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500 0 C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600 0 C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400 0 C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400 0 C-800 0 C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100 0 C and 1200 0 C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm -3 at 1200 0 C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs

  11. Ceramics like PZT-PMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droescher, R.E.; Sousa, V.C.; Bergman, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to achieve piezoelectric ceramics referring to the system PZT-PMN Pb(Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 Zr 0 , 52 Ti 0 , 48 )O 3 . Have been analysed ceramics like 0,65PZT-0,35PMN ((Pb(Mg 0 , 1167 Nb 0 , 2300 Zr 0 , 3380 Ti 0 , 3120 )O 3 ), 0,75PZT-0,25PMN ((Pb(Mg 0 , 083 Nb 0 . 1675 Zr 0 , 3900 Ti 0 , 3600 )O3) and the 0,85PZT-0,15PMN ((Pb(Mg 0,0500 Nb 0 , 1000 Zr 0 , 4420 Ti 0 , 4080 )O 3 ). The influence of the calcination and concentration of PZT on the lattice phases, microstructure and density was evaluated. Then, the method used was the mixed-oxide method, the samples were taken under different temperatures of calcination before the final sinterizing. The DRX and SEM techniques were used to identify the phases formed and analyse the microstructure, respectively. The main result revealed that, the better way is to realize three burns before the final sinterizing at 1200 o C/4 h . Like that, on obtain for sure the average lattice phases, like: perovskite, pyrochlore and PbO and also tend to densify the samples. (author)

  12. A Reusable PZT Transducer for Monitoring Initial Hydration and Structural Health of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Divsholi, Bahador Sabet; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2010-01-01

    During the construction of a concrete structure, strength monitoring is important to ensure the safety of both personnel and the structure. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency of in situ casting or precast of concrete, determining the optimal time of demolding is important for concrete suppliers. Surface bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been used for damage detection and parameter identification for various engineering structures over the last two decades. In this work, a reusable PZT transducer setup for monitoring initial hydration of concrete and structural health is developed, where a piece of PZT is bonded to an enclosure with two bolts tightened inside the holes drilled in the enclosure. An impedance analyzer is used to acquire the admittance signatures of the PZT. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to associate the change in concrete strength with changes in the PZT admittance signatures. The results show that the reusable setup is able to effectively monitor the initial hydration of concrete and the structural health. It can also be detached from the concrete for future re-use. PMID:22399929

  13. A Reusable PZT Transducer for Monitoring Initial Hydration and Structural Health of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of a concrete structure, strength monitoring is important to ensure the safety of both personnel and the structure. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency of in situ casting or precast of concrete, determining the optimal time of demolding is important for concrete suppliers. Surface bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT transducers have been used for damage detection and parameter identification for various engineering structures over the last two decades. In this work, a reusable PZT transducer setup for monitoring initial hydration of concrete and structural health is developed, where a piece of PZT is bonded to an enclosure with two bolts tightened inside the holes drilled in the enclosure. An impedance analyzer is used to acquire the admittance signatures of the PZT. Root mean square deviation (RMSD is employed to associate the change in concrete strength with changes in the PZT admittance signatures. The results show that the reusable setup is able to effectively monitor the initial hydration of concrete and the structural health. It can also be detached from the concrete for future re-use.

  14. A reusable PZT transducer for monitoring initial hydration and structural health of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Divsholi, Bahador Sabet; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2010-01-01

    During the construction of a concrete structure, strength monitoring is important to ensure the safety of both personnel and the structure. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency of in situ casting or precast of concrete, determining the optimal time of demolding is important for concrete suppliers. Surface bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been used for damage detection and parameter identification for various engineering structures over the last two decades. In this work, a reusable PZT transducer setup for monitoring initial hydration of concrete and structural health is developed, where a piece of PZT is bonded to an enclosure with two bolts tightened inside the holes drilled in the enclosure. An impedance analyzer is used to acquire the admittance signatures of the PZT. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to associate the change in concrete strength with changes in the PZT admittance signatures. The results show that the reusable setup is able to effectively monitor the initial hydration of concrete and the structural health. It can also be detached from the concrete for future re-use.

  15. Photoluminescence properties of PZT 52/48 synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method using PVA with template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.F., E-mail: guilmina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gasparotto, G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Paris, E.C. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Embrapa Instrumentacao, Rua XV de novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.569-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaghete, M.A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, Quitandinha, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Lead Titanate Zirconate (PZT) perovskite powders were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method (M-H) at 180 {sup o}C for different time periods (2, 4, 8 and 12 h) with the presence of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution 0.36 g L{sup -1}. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD), SE-FEG as well as the measurements of photoluminescence (PL) emission were used for monitoring the formation of a perovskite phase with random polycrystalline distortion in the structure. Emission spectra with fixed excitation wavelength of 350 nm showed higher value for the powder obtained after undergoing 8 h of treatment. A theoretical model derived from previous calculations allows us to discuss the origin of photoluminescence emission in the powders, which can be further related to the local disorder in the network of both ZrO{sub 6} and TiO{sub 6} octahedral, and dodecahedral PbO{sub 12}. The new morphology initially observed from the PZT perovskite crystal growth bearing the shape of fine plates is found to be directly related to photoluminescence emission with energy lower than that present in the PZT with cube-like morphology that emits in 560 nm. - Highlights: > This work details the efficiency of microwave hydrothermal synthesis in obtaining PZT powders. > PVA is used as a crystallization agent of PZT particles. > PZT particles presented photoluminescent (PL) behavior. > There aren't previous reports of photoluminescent PZT obtained by microwave hydrothermal synthesis. > Photoluminescence is one more interesting property for technological applications this material.

  16. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  17. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  18. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels.

  19. Piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulates axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons via RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianqiang; Liu, Meili

    2014-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is critical for axonal connection, which can stimulate axonal migration and deformation to promote axonal growth in the nervous system. Netrin-1, an axonal guidance cue, can also promote axonal guidance growth, but the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under indirect electric stimulation is still unknown. We investigated the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stimulation in the primary cultured cortical neurons. PZT induced marked axonal elongation. Moreover, PZT activated the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by increasing the frequency and amplitude of EPSCs of the cortical neurons in patch clamp assay. PZT downregulated the expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). Rho GTPase signaling is involved in interactions of Netrin-1 and DCC. PZT activated RhoA. Dramatic decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 was also observed after PZT treatment. RhoA inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3-Exo) prevented the PZT-induced downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC. We suggest that PZT can promote axonal guidance growth by downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC to mediate axonal repulsive responses via the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Obviously, piezoelectric materials may provide a new approach for axonal recovery and be beneficial for clinical therapy in the future.

  20. The effect of calcining temperature on the properties of 0-3 piezoelectric composites of PZT and a liquid crystalline thermosetting polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2011-01-01

    We report on the optimisation of a recently developed high performance 0-3 piezoelectric composite comprising of the piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) powder and a liquid crystalline thermosetting matrix polymer (LCT). The matrix polymer is a liquid crystalline polymer comprising of an

  1. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. Most piezoelectric energy harvesting devices use a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric...... elements. We show experimental results from two types PZT/PZT harvesting devices, one where the Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PZT) thick films are high pressure treated during the fabrication and the other where the treatment is omitted. We find that with the high pressure treatment prior to PZT sintering, the films...

  2. Study of the microstructure and the hardness of PZT piezoelectric ceramics types I and III used in electro acoustic transducers; Estudo da microestrutura e da microdureza das ceramicas piezoeletricas tipos PZT I e III utilizadas em transdutores eletroacusticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Ricardo de Freitas; Itaboray, Lucas Mendes; Santos, Anna Paula de Oliveira [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    The field of electronic processing of the ceramic piezoelectric type imported powdered led to the production of ceramics with 97% of theoretical density, homogeneous microstructure with great potential for applications in piezoelectric devices such as electro acoustic transducers. However, the production of electronic ceramics National piezoelectric type is not yet able to have as raw material zirconate titanate Lead (PZT) 100% made in Brazil. Thus, this is used for supply of domestic production, the zirconium oxide. In this work, both post PZT types I and III, imported, were uniaxially pressed at 70 MPa and sintered at 1200 and 1250 deg C for 3 hours. Hardness measurements were performed by micro indentation, X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The hardness of PZT I was 393 HV. (author)

  3. Determination of the piezoelectric properties of fine scale PZT fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.J.; Bowen, C.R. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science

    2002-07-01

    Finite element (FE) modelling is used to determine the effect of fibre volume fraction, aspect ratio and polymer matrix stiffness on the d{sub 33} coefficients of 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric fibre composites. The aim is to use these observations as a means of determining the d{sub 33} of fine scale lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibres. Results from a 1-D analytical model fit well with FE predictions for low aspect ratios. Two commercially available PZT-5A fibres, produced via the viscous suspension spinning process (VSSP) and an extrusion process, were fabricated into 1-3 composites with varying fibre volume fractions. The composite d{sub 33} measurements are compared to the model predictions and used to determine the d{sub 33} coefficients of the fibers. The d{sub 33} of the VSSP fibres and extruded fibres is measured as 365 pCN{sup -1} and 235 pCN{sup -1} respectively using this method. The large difference in the piezoelectric coefficients is possibly linked to the grain size and porosity, which is examined using scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  4. Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and in biomembranes...Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes Report Title The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and...producing PZT nanoribbons for energy harvesters. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or

  5. Fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate-based capacitors for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannigrahi, S. R.; Jang, Hyun M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based capacitors has been a long time goal of ferroelectric random access memories (FRAM). However, PZT-based perovskites with common platinum (Pt) electrodes have suffered from a significant reduction of the remanent polarization (P r ) after a certain number of read/write cycles (electrical fatigue). We now report the development of fatigue-free lanthanum-modified PZT capacitors using common Pt electrodes. The capacitors fabricated at 580 o C by applying a PZT seed layer exhibited fatigue-free behavior up to 6.5 x 10 10 switching cycles, a quite stable charge retention profile with time, and comparatively high P r values, all of which assure their suitability for practical FRAM applications. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  6. Output characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using high-energy heavy-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Hattori, Maki; Okudaira, Osamu; Shibata, Hiromi; Fujii, Masayuki; Okada, Nagaya; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    A radiation detector fabricated using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. It was found that the magnitude of the output observed from the PZT detector may be related to the number of Xe ions per unit area per unit time within the limits of the experimental conditions. -- Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. • By the control, the number of Xe ions per one pulse was changed from ∼500 to ∼1500. • The output of the PZT detector was not always larger with more intense beam. • The energy of Xe ions per unit area per unit time may determine the output

  7. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of Single Cell Stiffness Measurements Using PZT-Integrated Buckling Nanoneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Maryam Alsadat; Tijjani, Auwal Shehu; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan; Auwal, Shehu Muhammad

    2016-12-23

    This paper proposes a new technique for real-time single cell stiffness measurement using lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-integrated buckling nanoneedles. The PZT and the buckling part of the nanoneedle have been modelled and validated using the ABAQUS software. The two parts are integrated together to function as a single unit. After calibration, the stiffness, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and sensitivity of the PZT-integrated buckling nanoneedle have been determined to be 0.7100 N·m -1 , 123.4700 GPa, 0.3000 and 0.0693 V·m·N -1 , respectively. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells have been modelled and validated based on compression tests. The average global stiffness and Young's modulus of the cells are determined to be 10.8867 ± 0.0094 N·m -1 and 110.7033 ± 0.0081 MPa, respectively. The nanoneedle and the cell have been assembled to measure the local stiffness of the single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells The local stiffness, Young's modulus and PZT output voltage of the three different size Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined at different environmental conditions. We investigated that, at low temperature the stiffness value is low to adapt to the change in the environmental condition. As a result, Saccharomyces cerevisiae becomes vulnerable to viral and bacterial attacks. Therefore, the proposed technique will serve as a quick and accurate process to diagnose diseases at early stage in a cell for effective treatment.

  9. Y3Fe5O12/Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT particulate magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.; Agamirzoeva, M. R.; Myagkaya, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites of Na, Bi, Sr substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet having representative formula (100-x) wt% Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT (PZTNB-1)+x wt% Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) with x=10-90 were manufactured using powdered components obtained through sol-gel processes. It is shown that the decrease in sintering temperature provided by the use of finely dispersed PZTNB-1 and YIG powders allows to significantly reduce content of fluorite-like foreign phase based on zirconium oxide, which forms due to the interfacial interaction during heat treatment and becomes stabilized by yttrium oxide. Connectivity has considerable effect on the value of ME coefficient of composite ceramics. With the same x value, ΔE/ΔH characteristic decreases when changing from 0-3-type structured composites (PZT grains embedded in ferrite matrix) to 3-3-(interpenetrating network of two phases) and especially 3-0-type samples (YIG grains embedded in PZT matrix); in the last case this can be attributed to the substrate clamping effect when ferrite grains are clamped with piezoelectric matrix. ΔE/ΔH value of 0-3 composites with x=40-60 wt% was found to be ∼1.6 mV/(cm Oe).

  10. Modified lead titanate thin films for pyroelectric infrared detectors on gold electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Moinuddin; Butler, Donald P.

    2015-07-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors provide the advantage of both a wide spectral response and dynamic range, which also has enabled systems to be developed with reduced size, weight and power consumption. This paper demonstrates the deposition of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and lead calcium titanate (PCT) thin films for uncooled pyroelectric detectors with the utilization of gold electrodes. The modified lead titanate thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on gold electrodes. The PZT and PCT thins films deposited and annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and 550 °C respectively demonstrated the best pyroelectric performance in this work. The thin films displayed a pyroelectric effect that increased with temperature. Poling of the thin films was carried out for a fixed time periods and fixed dc bias voltages at elevated temperature in order to increase the pyroelectric coefficient by establishing a spontaneous polarization of the thin films. Poling caused the pyroelectric current to increase one order of magnitude.

  11. Synergy between Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels confers high-strain mechanosensitivity to articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whasil; Leddy, Holly A.; Chen, Yong; Lee, Suk Hee; Zelenski, Nicole A.; McNulty, Amy L.; Wu, Jason; Beicker, Kellie N.; Coles, Jeffrey; Zauscher, Stefan; Grandl, Jörg; Sachs, Frederick; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2014-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress can lead to maladaptive cellular responses and subsequent cartilage degeneration. We sought to deconstruct chondrocyte mechanotransduction by identifying mechanosensitive ion channels functioning at injurious levels of strain. We detected robust expression of the recently identified mechanosensitive channels, PIEZO1 and PIEZO2. Combined directed expression of Piezo1 and -2 sustained potentiated mechanically induced Ca2+ signals and electrical currents compared with single-Piezo expression. In primary articular chondrocytes, mechanically evoked Ca2+ transients produced by atomic force microscopy were inhibited by GsMTx4, a PIEZO-blocking peptide, and by Piezo1- or Piezo2-specific siRNA. We complemented the cellular approach with an explant-cartilage injury model. GsMTx4 reduced chondrocyte death after mechanical injury, suggesting a possible therapy for reducing cartilage injury and posttraumatic osteoarthritis by attenuating Piezo-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction of injurious strains. PMID:25385580

  12. Template-based electrophoretic deposition of perovskite PZT nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourmohammadi, A. [Solid Surfaces Analysis and Electron Microscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Semiconductors Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), 31779-83634 Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrevar, M.A. [Semiconductors Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), 31779-83634 Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ma.bahrevar@yahoo.com; Hietschold, M. [Solid Surfaces Analysis and Electron Microscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-04-03

    Template-based electrophoretic deposition of perovskite lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanotubes was achieved using anodic alumina (AA) membranes and sols, containing lead, zirconium and titanium precursors. The effect of various anodizing voltages on the size of the channels in the anodic alumina template was investigated. The prepared sol was driven into the channels under the influence of various electric fields and subsequently sintered at about 700 deg. C. The effects of the initial heating rates and the burn-out temperature on the phase evolution of the samples were studied and a modified firing process was employed. The effects of the electrophoretic voltage and the deposition time on the average wall thickness of the tubes were investigated. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) revealed the efficiency of electrophoresis in the growth of lead zirconate titanate nanotubes in a close-packed array. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the presence of perovskite as the principal phase after a modified firing schedule.

  13. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of PZT 52/48 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.F.; Gasparotto, G.; Santos, N.A.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) is a ceramic witch has great interest because of their ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and other electrical properties. In this work Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 powders were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal synthesis (M-H) at 180°C without excess lead content. This method allows obtaining particles whit nanometer size, good stoichiometric controls, high purity and crystalline degree at low temperatures and short times of synthesis. Powders were synthesized with molar concentration of 0.15 mol.L -1 during different times: 30 min, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. After that the powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Gun (FEG) and photoluminescence (PL). Through analysis it is observed that the crystalline phase of PZT is obtained from 2 hours of synthesis and this same time also presents more intense PL emission. (author)

  14. Ga+ implantation in a PZT film during focused ion beam micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollschlaeger, Nicole; Oesterle, Werner; Haeusler, Ines; Stewart, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining parameters on the thickness of the damaged layer within a thin film PZT. Therefore, different Ga + - ion doses and ion energies were applied to a standard PZT film (80/20 lead zirconium titanate) under two beam incidence angles (90 and 1 ). The thicknesses of the corresponding Ga + -implanted layers were then determined by cross-sectional TEM in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) line-scans and correlated with polarisation hysteresis loops. The results show a decrease of Ga + -implanted layer thickness with decreasing inclination angle, whereas ion energy and ion dose could be correlated with gallium concentration in the implanted layers. Under the most unfavorable conditions the depth of the affected zone was 26 nm, it was only 2 nm for the most favorable conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Analysis of signals propagating in a phononic crystal PZT layer deposited on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Vasseur, Jérôme; Dubus, Bertrand; Morvan, Bruno; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc

    2013-12-01

    The design of a stop-band filter constituted by a periodically patterned lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer, polarized along its thickness, deposited on a silicon substrate and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes for emission/reception of guided elastic waves, is investigated. The filter characteristics are theoretically evaluated by using finite element simulations: dispersion curves of a patterned PZT layer with a specific pattern geometry deposited on a silicon substrate present an absolute stop band. The whole structure is modeled with realistic conditions, including appropriate interdigitated electrodes to propagate a guided mode in the piezoelectric layer. A robust method for signal analysis based on the Gabor transform is applied to treat transmitted signals; extract attenuation, group delays, and wave number variations versus frequency; and identify stop-band filter characteristics.

  16. Single ZnO nanowire-PZT optothermal field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Lu, Meng-Lin; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yung-Ting; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-09-07

    A new type of pyroelectric field effect transistor based on a composite consisting of single zinc oxide nanowire and lead zirconate titanate (ZnO NW-PZT) has been developed. Under infrared (IR) laser illumination, the transconductance of the ZnO NW can be modulated by optothermal gating. The drain current can be increased or decreased by IR illumination depending on the polarization orientation of the Pb(Zr(0.3)Ti(0.7))O(3) (PZT) substrate. Furthermore, by combining the photocurrent behavior in the UV range and the optothermal gating effect in the IR range, the wide spectrum of response of current by light offers a variety of opportunities for nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  17. Dielectric characteristics of PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The room temperature dielectric properties of a ferroelectric ceramic having a nominal composition of 95 atomic percent lead zirconate and 5 atomic percent lead titanate (designated as PZT 95/5) with a niobium dopant were examined at high hydrostatic pressures using a tetrahedral anvil apparatus. This ceramic has practical applications as a power source in which large quantities of charge are released by dynamic (shock wave) depolarization. Numerous mathematical models of this process have been proposed; however, the use of models has been limited because of the lack of high pressure electrical properties. This study attempted to provide these data on PZT 95/5 by determining the small signal and high electric field dielectric properties at pressures over 4 GPa

  18. Monitoring early hydration of reinforced concrete structures using structural parameters identified by piezo sensors via electromechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakokula, Visalakshi; Bhalla, Suresh; Gupta, Ashok

    2018-01-01

    Concrete is the most widely used material in civil engineering construction. Its life begins when the hydration process is activated after mixing the cement granulates with water. In this paper, a non-dimensional hydration parameter, obtained from piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patches bonded to rebars embedded inside concrete, is employed to monitor the early age hydration of concrete. The non-dimensional hydration parameter is derived from the equivalent stiffness determined from the piezo-impedance transducers using the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique. The focus of the study is to monitor the hydration process of cementitious materials commencing from the early hours and continue till 28 days using single non-dimensional parameter. The experimental results show that the proposed piezo-based non-dimensional hydration parameter is very effective in monitoring the early age hydration, as it has been derived from the refined structural impedance parameters, obtained by eliminating the PZT contribution, and using both the real and imaginary components of the admittance signature.

  19. Hydrothermally synthesized PZT film grown in highly concentrated KOH solution with large electromechanical coupling coefficient for resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Lee, Kuan-Yi

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a study of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films hydrothermally grown on a dome-shaped titanium diaphragm. Few articles in the literature address the implementation of hydrothermal PZT films on curved-diaphragm substrates for resonators. In this study, a 50-μm-thick titanium sheet is embossed using balls of designed dimensions to shape a dome-shaped cavity array. Through single-process hydrothermal synthesis, PZT films are grown on both sides of the processed titanium diaphragm with good adhesion and uniformity. The hydrothermal synthesis process involves a high concentration of potassium hydroxide solution and excess amounts of lead acetate and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate. Varied deposition times and temperatures of PZT films are investigated. The grown films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The 10-μm-thick PZT dome-shaped resonators with 60- and 20-μm-thick supporting layers are implemented and further tested. Results for both resonators indicate that large electromechanical coupling coefficients and a series resonance of 95 MHz from 14 MHz can be attained. The device is connected to a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for analysis of oscillator applications. The oscillator reaches a Q value of 6300 in air. The resonator exhibits a better sensing stability when loaded with water when compared with air.

  20. Mechanism of piezo - and pyroelectricity of poly (vinylidene fluoride) electret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Basic concepts of the piezo - and pyroelectricity theory of polymer electrets are given. The origins of these effects are presented. The piezo - and pyroelectric constants are numerically obtained. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  2. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterning lead zirconate titanate nanostructures at sub-200-nm resolution by soft confocal imprint lithography and nanotransfer molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2009-01-01

    Patterned sol-gel-derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with lateral resolutions down to 100 nm on silicon are reported. Both an imprint and a transfer-molding method were employed. The formed patterns after annealing were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force

  4. Design issues of the piezo motor for the spacecraft reflector control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of large-size reflectors for spacecrafts is a topical issue for the space industry. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form and the structure weight are the main criteria for the reflector design. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form during a long-term operation is provided by adjustment when using piezoelectric motors in the reflector design. These motors have small weight-size parameters and can reach great torque values. The piezo motor is a distributed mechanical-acoustic oscillation system. Mechanical-acoustic oscillations are generated in the piezo motor by a PZT-stack and transmitted to an oscillator element, and then from the oscillator element to a load action element. At high frequencies, when dimensions of the oscillator are proportionate to the wavelength, the energy is transmitted by means of acoustic waves. In this case, mechanical waves practically are not involved in the energy transmission process. This thesis shows a method for selecting the material of a mechanical-acoustic oscillation system according to the efficiency of the acoustic energy transmission via a piezoelectric layered structure.

  5. Quantitative analysis method for niobium in lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideo; Hashimoto, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a strong dielectric ceramic having piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, and is used most as a piezoelectric material. Also it is a main component of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT), which is a typical electrical-optical conversion element. Since these have been developed, the various electronic parts utilizing the piezoelectric characteristics have been put in practical use. The characteristics can be set up by changing the composition of PZT and the kinds and amount of additives. Among the additives, niobium has the action to make metallic ion vacancy in crystals, and by the formation of this vacancy, to ease the movement of domain walls in crystal grains, and to increase resistivity. Accordingly, it is necessary to accurately determine the niobium content for the research and development, quality control and process control. The quantitative analysis methods for niobium used so far have respective demerits, therefore, the authors examined the quantitative analysis of niobium in PZT by using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectro-analysis apparatus which has remarkably developed recently. As the result, the method of dissolving a specimen with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and masking unstable lead with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid 2 sodium and fluoride ions with boric acid was established. The apparatus, reagents, the experiment and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. A Microfluidic Approach for Studying Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneshi, M M; Gottlieb, P A; Hua, S Z

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development. This channel is ideal for studying fluid shear stress applied to cells using microfluidic devices. We have developed an approach that allows us to analyze the role of Piezo channels on any given cell and serves as a high-throughput screen for drug discovery. We show that this approach can provide detailed information about the inhibitors of Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anisotropy of domain switching in prepoled lead titanate zirconate ceramics under multiaxial electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Ming; Li, Fa-Xin; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2007-01-01

    The authors report an observation of anisotropic domain switching process in prepoled lead titanate zirconate (PZT) ceramics under multiaxial electrical loading. Prepoled PZT blocks were obliquely cut to apply an electric field at discrete angles θ (0°-180°) to the initial poling direction. Both the coercive field and switchable polarization are found to decrease significantly when sinθ increases from zero to unity. The measured strain curves show that most domains that accomplished 180° domain switching actually experienced two successive 90° switching. The oriented domain texture after poling plus the induced nonuniform stress are used to explain the observed domain switching anisotropy.

  8. Structural contribution to the ferroelectric fatigue in lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterstein, M.; Rouquette, J.; Haines, J.; Papet, Ph.; Glaum, J.; Knapp, M.; Eckert, J.; Hoffman, M.

    2014-09-01

    Many ferroelectric devices are based on doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), at which the relevant material's properties approach their maximum. Based on a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of MPB PZT, bulk fatigue is unambiguously found to arise from a less effective field induced tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation, at which the degradation of the polarization flipping is detected by a less intense and more diffuse anomaly in the atomic displacement parameter of lead. The time dependence of the ferroelectric response on a structural level down to 250 μs confirms this interpretation in the time scale of the piezolectric strain response.

  9. Investigation of the effect of temperature on aging behavior of Fe-doped lead zirconate titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promsawat, Napatporn; Promsawat, Methee; Janphuang, Pattanaphong; Marungsri, Boonruang; Luo, Zhenhua; Pojprapai, Soodkhet

    The aging degradation behavior of Fe-doped Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) subjected to different heat-treated temperatures was investigated over 1000h. The aging degradation in the piezoelectric properties of PZT was indicated by the decrease in piezoelectric charge coefficient, electric field-induced strain and remanent polarization. It was found that the aging degradation became more pronounced at temperature above 50% of the PZT’s Curie temperature. A mathematical model based on the linear logarithmic stretched exponential function was applied to explain the aging behavior. A qualitative aging model based on polar macrodomain switchability was proposed.

  10. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  11. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saturn's giant moon Titan has become one of the most fascinating bodies in the Solar System. Titan is the richest laboratory in the solar system for studying...

  12. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  13. Mechanical study of the Saclay piezo tuner PTS (piezo tuning system) Care-SRF-WP8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, P.; Wu, B.

    2005-03-01

    The present tuner is working inside Tesla test facility's cryo-modules without any piezo actuator. Thus the Lorentz force detuning in the pulsed mode of the accelerator is limiting the maximum accelerating field of cavity at about 25 MV/m. Previous studies and tests have demonstrated that the integration of piezo actuators in the tuner can lead to the compensation of the Lorentz force detuning at field higher than 35 MV/m. Our goal is now to develop and optimize a new tuner integrating piezo actuators. The mechanical studies are now finished and fabrication is in progress. This report presents the principle of this new system, its design and reviews the cavity frequency shifts during preparation process and assesses the forces applied by the cavity on the piezo actuators. (A.C.)

  14. Transduction of Repetitive Mechanical Stimuli by Piezo1 and Piezo2 Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H. Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations. We find that both channels function as pronounced frequency filters whose transduction efficiencies vary with stimulus frequency, waveform, and duration. We then use numerical simulations and human disease-related point mutations to demonstrate that channel inactivation is the molecular mechanism underlying frequency filtering and further show that frequency filtering is conserved in rapidly adapting mouse DRG neurons. Our results give insight into the potential contributions of Piezos in transducing repetitive mechanical stimuli.

  15. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  16. Bubbles in piezo-acoustic inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, D.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; de Jong, J.; Versluis, M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.; van den Berg, M.; Reinten, H.

    2008-01-01

    Ink-jet printing is considered as the hitherto most successful application of microfluidics. A notorious problem in piezo-acoustic ink-jet systems is the formation of air bubbles during operation. They seriously disturb the acoustics and can cause the droplet formation to stop. We could show by a

  17. Improving the accuracy of walking piezo motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, M; Fokkema, V; Saedi, A; Schakel, P; Rost, M J

    2014-05-01

    Many application areas require ultraprecise, stiff, and compact actuator systems with a high positioning resolution in combination with a large range as well as a high holding and pushing force. One promising solution to meet these conflicting requirements is a walking piezo motor that works with two pairs of piezo elements such that the movement is taken over by one pair, once the other pair reaches its maximum travel distance. A resolution in the pm-range can be achieved, if operating the motor within the travel range of one piezo pair. However, applying the typical walking drive signals, we measure jumps in the displacement up to 2.4 μm, when the movement is given over from one piezo pair to the other. We analyze the reason for these large jumps and propose improved drive signals. The implementation of our new drive signals reduces the jumps to less than 42 nm and makes the motor ideally suitable to operate as a coarse approach motor in an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. The rigidity of the motor is reflected in its high pushing force of 6.4 N.

  18. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  19. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  20. PZT piezoelectric films on glass for Gen-X imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The proposed adaptive optics system for the Gen-X telescope uses piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. The low softening transition of the glass substrates imposes several processing challenges that require the development of new approaches to deposit high quality PZT thin films. Synthesis and optimization of chemical solution deposited 1 μm thick films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 on small area (1 in2) and large area (16 in2) Pt/Ti/glass substrates has been performed. In order to avoid warping of the glass at temperatures typically used to crystallize PZT films ({700°C), a lower temperature, two-step crystallization process was employed. An {80 nm thick seed layer of PbZr0.30Ti0.70O3 was deposited to promote the growth of the perovskite phase. After the deposition of the seed layer, the films were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) furnace at 550°C for 3 minutes to nucleate the perovskite phase. This was followed by isothermal annealing at 550°C for 1 hour to complete crystallization. For the subsequent PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layers, the same RTA protocol was performed, with the isothermal crystallization implemented following the deposition of three PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 spin-coated layers. Over the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz, films exhibit relative permittivity values near 800 with loss tangents below 0.07. Hysteresis loops show low levels of imprint with coercive fields of 40-50 kV/cm in the forward direction and 50-70 kV/cm in the reverse direction. The remanent polarization varied from 25-35 μC/cm2 and e31,f values were approximately -5.0 C/m2. In scaling up the growth procedure to large area films, where warping becomes more pronounced due to the increased size of the substrate, the pyrolysis and crystallization conditions were performed in a box furnace to improve the temperature uniformity. By depositing films on both sides of the glass substrate, the tensile stresses are balanced, providing a

  1. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  2. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    Full Text Available Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  3. Study on optimizing ultrasonic irradiation period for thick polycrystalline PZT film by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kanako; Isobe, Gaku; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    The hydrothermal method utilizes a solution-based chemical reaction to synthesize piezoelectric thin films and powders. This method has a number of advantages, such as low-temperature synthesis, and high purity and high quality of the product. In order to promote hydrothermal reactions, we developed an ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and confirmed that it produces dense and thick lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. In the hydrothermal method, a crystal growth process follows the nucleation process. In this study, we verified that ultrasonic irradiation is effective for the nucleation process, and there is an optimum irradiation period to obtain thicker PZT films. With this optimization, a 9.2-μm-thick PZT polycrystalline film was obtained in a single deposition process. For this film, ultrasonic irradiation was carried out from the beginning of the reaction for 18 h, followed by a 6 h deposition without ultrasonic irradiation. These results indicate that the ultrasonic irradiation mainly promotes the nucleation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of PZT Coating Thickness and Electrical Pole Alignment on Microresonator Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2016-11-10

    With increasing technical requirements in the design of microresonators, the development of new techniques for lightweight, simple, and inexpensive components becomes relevant. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a powerful tool in the formation of these components, allowing a self-actuation or self-sensing capability. Different fabrication methods lead to the variation of the properties of the device itself. This research paper covers the fabrication of a novel PZT film and the investigations of its chemical, surface, and dynamic properties when film thickness is varied. A screen-printing technique was used for the formation of smooth films of 60 µm, 68 µm, and 25 µm thickness. A custom-made poling technique was applied to enhance the piezoelectric properties of the designed films. However, poling did not change any compositional or surface characteristics of the films; changes were only seen in the electrical ones. The results showed that a thinner poled PZT film having a chemical composition with the highest amount of copper and zirconium led to better electrical characteristics (generated voltage of 3.5 mV).

  5. Piezoelectric and dielectric characterization of corona and contact poled PZT-epoxy-MWCNT bulk composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Cook-Chennault, K. A.; Du, W.; Sundar, U.; Halim, H.; Tang, A.

    2016-11-01

    Three-phase lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3)-epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bulk composites were prepared, where the volume fraction of PZT was held constant at 30%, while the volume fraction of the MWCNTs was varied from 1.0%-10%. The samples were poled using either a parallel plate contact or contactless (corona) poling technique. The piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33), dielectric constant (ɛ), and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of the samples were measured at 110 Hz, and compared as a function of poling technique and volume fraction of MWCNTs. The highest values for dielectric constant and piezoelectric strain coefficients were 465.82 and 18.87 pC/N for MWCNT volume fractions of 10% and 6%, respectively. These values were obtained for samples that were poled using the corona contactless method. The impedance and dielectric spectra of the composites were recorded over a frequency range of 100 Hz-20 MHz. The impedance values observed for parallel-plate contact poled samples are higher than that of corona poled composites. The fractured surface morphology and distribution of the PZT particles and MWCNTs were observed with the aid of electron dispersion spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology of the MWCNTs was observed with the aid of a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  6. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-04-24

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  7. Lanthanide-Assisted Deposition of Strongly Electro-optic PZT Thin Films on Silicon: Toward Integrated Active Nanophotonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J P; Smet, P F; Botterman, J; Bliznuk, V; Woestenborghs, W; Van Thourhout, D; Neyts, K; Beeckman, J

    2015-06-24

    The electro-optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films depend strongly on the quality and crystallographic orientation of the thin films. We demonstrate a novel method to grow highly textured PZT thin films on silicon using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. We report the use of ultrathin (5-15 nm) lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sm) based intermediate layers for obtaining preferentially (100) oriented PZT thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate preferentially oriented intermediate Ln2O2CO3 layers providing an excellent lattice match with the PZT thin films grown on top. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the annealed layers are dense, uniform, crack-free and highly oriented (>99.8%) without apparent defects or secondary phases. The EDX and HRTEM characterization confirm that the template layers act as an efficient diffusion barrier and form a sharp interface between the substrate and the PZT. The electrical measurements indicate a dielectric constant of ∼650, low dielectric loss of ∼0.02, coercive field of 70 kV/cm, remnant polarization of 25 μC/cm(2), and large breakdown electric field of 1000 kV/cm. Finally, the effective electro-optic coefficients of the films are estimated with a spectroscopic ellipsometer measurement, considering the electric field induced variations in the phase reflectance ratio. The electro-optic measurements reveal excellent linear effective pockels coefficients of 110 to 240 pm/V, which makes the CSD deposited PZT thin film an ideal candidate for Si-based active integrated nanophotonic devices.

  8. Magnetoelectric coupling in layered LSMO/PZT nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leufke, Philipp M.

    2014-01-01

    grown on SrTiO 3 (STO) substrates, the x = 13 %-doped LSMO thin films were found to be stabilized in a metallic low-temperature phase, exhibiting an elevated Curie temperature (T C ), as compared to their bulk counterparts. Regarding the PZT deposition, the LDMS technique naturally compensated for high volatility of the PbO vapor yielding a stoichiometric and phase pure film. Thus, with an optimal choice of deposition conditions, LSMO/PZT/Au thin film capacitors with excellent FE properties, i.e., high polarizability and long retention time, were obtained. The high yield of 75 % of 1 mm 2 large capacitor structures was an excellent starting point for the ME tuning studies which were then carried out in a SQUID magnetometer in order to enable a quantitative analysis of the ME coupling. For this purpose, the measurement device needed to be modified, to allow for in situ application of electric fields. Furthermore, a SQUID measurement cell was designed to be used at low-temperatures and to keep the spurious magnetic signals as low as possible. All key in situ measurements were performed in FE remanence mode in order to avoid artifacts of leakage current and to protect the samples from Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB). The ME tuning measurements revealed a direct correlation of the FE remanent hysteresis and the magnetic response of the LSMO layer, evidencing a purely field-effect driven coupling and a virtual absence of any magnetostrictive coupling to possible piezo-strain of the PZT layer. In temperature-dependent measurements, a reversal of the sign of the ME effect was observed, with a positive extremum for the electron hole (h + ) accumulation mode around the Curie temperature of the magnetic transition. The effect gradually decreased with the lowered temperature to become negative eventually. On the basis of the phase diagram and the dependence of the Mn magnetic moment on the Sr doping level, the shape of the curve was phenomenologically modeled by a

  9. Magnetoelectric coupling in layered LSMO/PZT nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leufke, Philipp M.

    2014-01-29

    ) sputtering. Commensurately grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates, the x = 13 %-doped LSMO thin films were found to be stabilized in a metallic low-temperature phase, exhibiting an elevated Curie temperature (T{sub C}), as compared to their bulk counterparts. Regarding the PZT deposition, the LDMS technique naturally compensated for high volatility of the PbO vapor yielding a stoichiometric and phase pure film. Thus, with an optimal choice of deposition conditions, LSMO/PZT/Au thin film capacitors with excellent FE properties, i.e., high polarizability and long retention time, were obtained. The high yield of 75 % of 1 mm{sup 2} large capacitor structures was an excellent starting point for the ME tuning studies which were then carried out in a SQUID magnetometer in order to enable a quantitative analysis of the ME coupling. For this purpose, the measurement device needed to be modified, to allow for in situ application of electric fields. Furthermore, a SQUID measurement cell was designed to be used at low-temperatures and to keep the spurious magnetic signals as low as possible. All key in situ measurements were performed in FE remanence mode in order to avoid artifacts of leakage current and to protect the samples from Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB). The ME tuning measurements revealed a direct correlation of the FE remanent hysteresis and the magnetic response of the LSMO layer, evidencing a purely field-effect driven coupling and a virtual absence of any magnetostrictive coupling to possible piezo-strain of the PZT layer. In temperature-dependent measurements, a reversal of the sign of the ME effect was observed, with a positive extremum for the electron hole (h{sup +}) accumulation mode around the Curie temperature of the magnetic transition. The effect gradually decreased with the lowered temperature to become negative eventually. On the basis of the phase diagram and the dependence of the Mn magnetic moment on the Sr doping level, the shape of the curve

  10. Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Eyup; Zhou, Sitong; DeCourcey, James; Wang, Yixuan; Waugh, Richard E; Wan, Jiandi

    2015-09-22

    Piezo proteins (Piezo1 and Piezo2) are recently identified mechanically activated cation channels in eukaryotic cells and associated with physiological responses to touch, pressure, and stretch. In particular, human RBCs express Piezo1 on their membranes, and mutations of Piezo1 have been linked to hereditary xerocytosis. To date, however, physiological functions of Piezo1 on normal RBCs remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs by controlling the shear-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx. We find that, in human RBCs treated with Piezo1 inhibitors or having mutant Piezo1 channels, the amounts of shear-induced ATP release and Ca(2+) influx decrease significantly. Remarkably, a critical extracellular Ca(2+) concentration is required to trigger significant ATP release, but membrane-associated ATP pools in RBCs also contribute to the release of ATP. Our results show how Piezo1 channels are likely to function in normal RBCs and suggest a previously unidentified mechanotransductive pathway in ATP release. Thus, we anticipate that the study will impact broadly on the research of red cells, cellular mechanosensing, and clinical studies related to red cell disorders and vascular disease.

  11. Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

    2012-04-01

    The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide

  12. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babu, I.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; With, de G.

    2014-01-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an

  13. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Lei, A.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The most common piezoelectric energy harvesting devices utilize a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric material...

  14. Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...... support materials since only PZT is strained, and thus it has a potential for significantly higher output power. An improved process scheme for the energy harvester resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication yield of 98.6%. Moreover, the robust fabrication process allowed...... a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering, improving the PZT thick film performance and harvester power output reaches 37.1 μW at 1 g....

  15. Fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based PZT/PZT bimorph thick film vibration energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a microelectromechanical system-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass; the harvester is fabricated in a fully monolithic process. The main advantage...... yield of 98%. The robust fabrication process allowed a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering. The high pressure treatment improved the PZT thick film performance and increased the harvester power output to 37.1 μW at 1 g root mean square acceleration. We also...... characterize the harvester performance when only one of the PZT layers is used while the other is left open or short circuit....

  16. Fracture mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiman, S.W.; Chuck, L.; Mecholsky, J.J.; Shelleman, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics can be formed over a wide range of PbTiO 3 /PbZrO 3 ratios and exist in a number of crystal structures. This study involved the use of various fracture mechanics techniques to determine critical fracture toughness, K /SUB IC/ , as a function of composition, microstructure, temperature, and electrical and thermal history. The results of these experiments indicate that variations in K /SUB IC/ are related to phase transformations in the material as well as to other toughening mechanisms such as twinning and microcracking. In addition, the strength and fracture toughness of selected PZT ceramics were determined using specimens in which a crack was introduced by a Vicker's hardness indentor. The variation of K /SUB IC/ with composition and microstructure was related to the extent of twin-crack interaction. Comparison of the plot of strength as a function of indentation load with that predicted from indentation fracture models indicates the presence of internal stresses which contribute to failure. The magnitude of these internal stresses has been correlated with electrical properties of the ceramic. Fractographic analysis was used to determine the magnitude of internal stresses in specimens failing from ''natural flaws.''

  17. Study of mechanical-magnetic and electromagnetic properties of PZT/Ni film systems by a novel bulge technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.; Zhou, W.; Ding, J.; Xiao, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Film Materials and Devices of Science and Technology Department of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Yu, Z.J.; Xu, H. [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mao, W.G., E-mail: ssamao@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Film Materials and Devices of Science and Technology Department of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Pei, Y.M.; Li, F.X. [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Feng, X. [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, D.N., E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Lab for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A novel multiple functional bulge apparatus was designed to study the mechanical-electronic-magnetic characteristics of electromagnetic materials. The elastic modulus difference effect of Ni thin film was observed and it was about 22.16% in the demagnetized and magnetization saturated states. The mechanical-magnetic behaviors of Ni and lead-titanate zirconate (PZT)/Ni films were in-situ measured by using the new bulge systems, respectively. The evolutions of three key material properties in hysteresis loop including saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field were discussed in detail, respectively. The mechanisms of mechanical-magnetic coupled behaviors of Ni and PZT/Ni films were analyzed with the aid of the competitive relationship of stress and magnetization. Similarly, the electronic-magnetic characteristics of PZT/Ni films were in-situ measured by using this experimental system. The evolution of saturated magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field Kerr signals were discussed with the magneto-elastic anisotropy energy point. In this paper, a suitable mechanical-electronic-magnetic bulge measurement system was established, which would provide a good choice for further understanding the multi field coupling characteristics of electromagnetic film materials. - Highlights: • A novel bulge apparatus was designed to study electromagnetic materials. • The mechanical-magnetic features of Ni film were studied by this new apparatus. • The ΔE effect of Ni film was observed and analyzed. • The mechanical electronic-magnetic characteristics of PZT/Ni film were discussed.

  18. A modified barbell-shaped PNN-PZT-PIN piezoelectric ceramic energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyu; Wu, Jingen; Yu, Yang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2017-11-01

    The quaternary system of relaxor-ferroelectric based Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3-Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PNN-PZT-PIN) piezoelectric ceramic at the morphotropic phase boundary was investigated via the solid reaction method. The optimized ceramic with excellent electric properties of ɛr = 8084, d33 = 977 pC/N, kp = 0.61, and Ec = 3.0 kV/cm was fabricated into d33-mode discs with separated surface electrodes, which were arranged in a series connection and, then as a piezo-stack, assembled into a barbell-shaped energy harvester that could bear a strong mechanical vibration. It is found that under a vibration mass-induced bending moment, the energy harvester produces an open circuit voltage of 26.4 Vp-p at the acceleration of 2.5 g at a load of 1.56 MΩ, which is two times higher in comparison to one without surface electrode separation. Its power output is 30 μW at the acceleration of 1 g and 104 μW at 2.5 g, which are even six times higher than that of a previously reported barbell-shaped energy harvester at room-temperature with the same acceleration. The enhanced power output can be attributed to (i) the excellent piezoelectric response of PNN-PZT-PIN ceramic and (ii) harvesting positive and negative charges from the separated surface electrodes other than a full surface electrode on piezoelectric discs under bending moment. Furthermore, the practical test was performed within a car engine, which shows that the PNN-PZT-PIN piezoelectric ceramic is a promising candidate for vibration energy harvesting.

  19. Fractal cluster modeling of the fatigue behavior of lead zirconate titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, Shashank; Kim, Hyeoung Woo; Ryu, Jungho; Uchino, Kenji; Viehland, Dwight D.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT) has been studied under electrical and mechanical drives. Piezoelectric fatigue was studied using a mechanical method. Under ac mechanical drive, hard and soft PZTs showed an increase in the longitudinal piezoelectric constant at short times, reaching a maximum at intermediate times. Systematic investigations were performed to characterize the electrical fatigue behavior. A decrease in the magnitude of the remanent polarization was...

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Single Cell Stiffness Measurements Using PZT-Integrated Buckling Nanoneedles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alsadat Rad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for real-time single cell stiffness measurement using lead zirconate titanate (PZT-integrated buckling nanoneedles. The PZT and the buckling part of the nanoneedle have been modelled and validated using the ABAQUS software. The two parts are integrated together to function as a single unit. After calibration, the stiffness, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and sensitivity of the PZT-integrated buckling nanoneedle have been determined to be 0.7100 N·m−1, 123.4700 GPa, 0.3000 and 0.0693 V·m·N−1, respectively. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells have been modelled and validated based on compression tests. The average global stiffness and Young’s modulus of the cells are determined to be 10.8867 ± 0.0094 N·m−1 and 110.7033 ± 0.0081 MPa, respectively. The nanoneedle and the cell have been assembled to measure the local stiffness of the single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells The local stiffness, Young’s modulus and PZT output voltage of the three different size Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined at different environmental conditions. We investigated that, at low temperature the stiffness value is low to adapt to the change in the environmental condition. As a result, Saccharomyces cerevisiae becomes vulnerable to viral and bacterial attacks. Therefore, the proposed technique will serve as a quick and accurate process to diagnose diseases at early stage in a cell for effective treatment.

  1. Development of dual PZT transducers for reference-free crack detection in thin plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon; Kim, Seuno Bum

    2010-01-01

    A new Lamb-wave-based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique, which does not rely on previously stored baseline data, is developed for crack monitoring in plate structures. Commonly, the presence of damage is identified by comparing "current data" measured from a potentially damaged stage of a structure with "baseline data" previously obtained at the intact condition of the structure. In practice, structural defects typically take place long after collection of the baseline data, and the baseline data can be also affected by external loading, temperature variations, and changing boundary conditions. To eliminate the dependence on the baseline data comparison, the authors previously developed a reference-free NDT technique using 2 pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers placed on both sides of a plate. This reference-free technique is further advanced in the present study by the necessity of attaching transducers only on a single surface of a structure for certain applications such as aircraft. To achieve this goal, a new design of PZT transducers called dual PZT transducers is proposed. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden thickness change of the structure. This crack appearance is instantly detected from the measured Lamb wave signals using the dual PZT transducers. This study also suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the currently measured data set. Numerical simulations and experiments were conducted using an aluminum plate with uniform thickness and fundamental Lamb waves modes to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to reference-free crack detection.

  2. Improvement of the fatigue and the ferroelectric properties of PZT films through a LSCO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sofia A.S., E-mail: sofiarodrigues@fisica.uminho.pt; Silva, José P.B.; Khodorov, Anatoli; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M.J.M.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films. • Seed layer effect on the structural and ferroelectric properties of the PZT films. • The stability of P{sub r} was improved with the introduction of the LSCO layer. -- Abstract: The ability to optimizate the preparation of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) films on platinized Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition was demonstrated. The effect of the modification of the interface film/electrode through the use of a (La,Sr)CoO{sub 3} (LSCO) seed layer on the remnant polarization, fatigue endurance and stress in PZT films was studied. An improvement on the ferroelectric properties was found with the using of the LSCO layer. A remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of 19.8 μC/cm{sup 2} and 4.4 μC/cm{sup 2} for films with and without the LSCO layer were found. In the same way the polarization fatigue decreases significantly after deposition of the LSCO layer between the film and substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed a different growth process in the films. Current–voltage (I–V) measurements showed that the use of LSCO seed layer improves the leakage current and, on the other hand the conduction mechanisms in the film without LSCO, after the fatigue test, was found to be changed from Schottky to Poole–Frenkel. The trap activation energy (about 0.14 eV) determined from Poole–Frenkel mode agrees well with the energy level of oxygen vacancies. The films stresses were estimated by XRD in order to explain the improvement on the structure and consequentially ferroelectric properties of the films. The model proposed by Dawber and Scott was found to be in agreement with our experimental data, which seems to predict that the oxygen vacancies play an important role on fatigue.

  3. Voltage gating of mechanosensitive PIEZO channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Mirko; Servin-Vences, M Rocio; Fleischer, Raluca; Sánchez-Carranza, Oscar; Lewin, Gary R

    2018-03-15

    Mechanosensitive PIEZO ion channels are evolutionarily conserved proteins whose presence is critical for normal physiology in multicellular organisms. Here we show that, in addition to mechanical stimuli, PIEZO channels are also powerfully modulated by voltage and can even switch to a purely voltage-gated mode. Mutations that cause human diseases, such as xerocytosis, profoundly shift voltage sensitivity of PIEZO1 channels toward the resting membrane potential and strongly promote voltage gating. Voltage modulation may be explained by the presence of an inactivation gate in the pore, the opening of which is promoted by outward permeation. Older invertebrate (fly) and vertebrate (fish) PIEZO proteins are also voltage sensitive, but voltage gating is a much more prominent feature of these older channels. We propose that the voltage sensitivity of PIEZO channels is a deep property co-opted to add a regulatory mechanism for PIEZO activation in widely different cellular contexts.

  4. Photoluminescence of sol–gel synthesized PZT powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Aranda, M.C. [Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología-Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Sierra Leona No.550,Col. Lomas 2a. sección, C.P. 78210 San Luis Potosí, SLP, México (Mexico); Calderón-Piñar, F. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 7623 Querétaro, Qro, México (Mexico); Facultad de Física/IMRE, San Lázaro y L, Universidad de la Habana, C.P. 10400 Habana (Cuba); Hernández-Landaverde, M.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 7623 Querétaro, Qro, México (Mexico); and others

    2016-11-15

    A wide band of photoluminescence (PL) emission in structurally disordered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders, prepared by sol–gel route, was observed at room temperature excited with a laser line (488 nm). Powders with PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} nominal composition annealed at different temperatures were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Luminescence, Diffuse Reflectance and Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR). Our results indicate that the PL response can be associated to order–disorder degree in the perovskite structure, with the exception of samples annealed at low temperature, where a mixture of oxides precursorsГ—Ві phases was observed. Furthermore, in quasi-crystalline ordered samples (95% of crystallinity) a small generation of PL remains. In these experiments, the band gap increases with the formation of crystalline structure. EPR experiments were conducted in order to follow the evolution of paramagnetic species with thermal treatment from the mixture of oxides precursors to the perovskite phase and paramagnetic point defects were identified (Pb{sup +3} and Ti{sup +3}). EPR data suggest the presence of order–disorder within the lattice network. Paramagnetic species are similar in samples treated at 700 and 800 °C, nevertheless the emission intensity decreases by a factor of 6, indicating that the defects associated with PL are not paramagnetic at both temperatures.

  5. A protein interaction mechanism for suppressing the mechanosensitive Piezo channels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tingxin; Chi, Shaopeng; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Qiancheng; Xiao, Bailong

    2017-01-01

    Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expres...

  6. A protein interaction mechanism for suppressing the mechanosensitive Piezo channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingxin; Chi, Shaopeng; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Qiancheng; Xiao, Bailong

    2017-11-27

    Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expressed SERCA2, as Piezo interacting proteins. SERCA2 strategically suppresses Piezo1 via acting on a 14-residue-constituted intracellular linker connecting the pore-module and mechanotransduction-module. Mutating the linker impairs mechanogating and SERCA2-mediated modulation of Piezo1. Furthermore, the synthetic linker-peptide disrupts the modulatory effects of SERCA2, demonstrating the key role of the linker in mechanogating and regulation. Importantly, the SERCA2-mediated regulation affects Piezo1-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Collectively, we identify SERCA-mediated regulation of Piezos and the functional significance of the linker, providing important insights into the mechanogating and regulation mechanisms of Piezo channels.

  7. Determination of temperature dependence of piezoelectric coefficients matrix of lead zirconate titanate ceramics by quasi-static and resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Yao Xi

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 , -d 31 , d 15 , g 33 , -g 31 , g 15 ) of soft and hard lead zirconate titanate ceramics were measured by the quasi-static and resonance methods, at temperatures from 20 to 300 0 C. The results showed that the piezoelectric coefficients d 33 , -d 31 and d 15 obtained by these two methods increased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics, while the piezoelectric coefficients g 33 , -g 31 and g 15 decreased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics. In this paper, the observed results were also discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric response.

  8. Effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films: Experimental evidence and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X. J.; Zhang, H. J.; Luo, Z. D.; Zhang, F. P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Q. D.; Fang, A. P.; Dkhil, B.; Zhang, M.; Ren, X. B.; He, H. L.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film was systematically investigated. It was found that electrical fatigue strongly affects the Rayleigh behaviour of the PZT film. Both the reversible and irreversible Rayleigh coefficients decrease with increasing the number of switching cycles. This phenomenon is attributed to the growth of an interfacial degraded layer between the electrode and the film during electrical cycling. The methodology used in this work could serve as an alternative way for evaluating the fatigue endurance and degradation in dielectric properties of ferroelectric thin-film devices during applications.

  9. Acoustic response of piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate to a 400MeV/n xenon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Miyachi, T; Ito, H

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) elements were studied by directly irradiating them with a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. The elements were sensitive to 10 sup 4 Xe ions and their output amplitudes were proportional to the beam intensity. An ensemble of those output amplitudes displayed a Bragg-curve-like response towards the range of 400 MeV/n Xe ion. We discuss the potential of PZT elements as a radiation detector and their application to high-intensity and high-energy detectors. (author)

  10. Performance of PZT stacks under high-field electric cycling at various temperatures in heavy-duty diesel engine fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung-Min; Lin, Hua-Tay; Stafford, Randy

    2016-04-01

    Testing and characterization of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks present substantial technical challenges to electronic systems. The work in this study shows that an alternative approach can be pursued by using subunits extracted from prototype stacks. Piezoelectric and dielectric integrity was maintained even though the PZT plate specimens experienced an additional loading process involved with the extraction after factory poling. Extracted 10-layer plate specimens were studied by an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 108 cycles, both at room temperature (22°C) and at 50°C. The elevated temperature had a defined impact on the fatigue of PZT stacks. About 48 and 28% reductions were observed in the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients, respectively, after 108 cycles at 50°C, compared with reductions of 25 and 15% in the respective coefficients at 22°C. At the same time, the loss tangent varied to a limited extent. The evolution of PZT-electrode interfacial layers or nearby dielectric layers should account for the difference in the fatigue rates of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients. But the basic contribution to observed fatigue may result from the buildup of a bias field that finally suppressed the motion of the domain walls. Finally, monitoring of dielectric coefficients can be an effective tool for on-line lifetime prediction of PZT stacks in service if a failure criterion is defined properly.

  11. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  12. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates; Preparacao do titanato zirconato de chumbo a partir dos citratos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500{sup 0} C, 450{sup 0} C and 250{sup 0} C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450{sup 0} C and 500{sup 0} C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800{sup 0} C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500{sup 0} C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600{sup 0} C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400{sup 0} C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400{sup 0} C-800{sup 0} C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100{sup 0} C and 1200{sup 0} C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm{sup -3} at 1200{sup 0} C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs.

  13. Uncertainty quantification for PZT bimorph actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Nikolas; Smith, Ralph C.; Crews, John

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of a high fidelity model for a PZT bimorph actuator used for micro-air vehicles, which includes the Robobee. We developed a high-fidelity model for the actuator using the homogenized energy model (HEM) framework, which quantifies the nonlinear, hysteretic, and rate-dependent behavior inherent to PZT in dynamic operating regimes. We then discussed an inverse problem on the model. We included local and global sensitivity analysis of the parameters in the high-fidelity model. Finally, we will discuss the results of Bayesian inference and uncertainty quantification on the HEM.

  14. Analyzing the defect structure of CuO-doped PZT and KNN piezoelectrics from electron paramagnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Peter; Kungl, Hans; Schierholz, Roland; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2014-09-01

    The defect structure for copper-doped sodium potassium niobate (KNN) ferroelectrics has been analyzed with respect to its defect structure. In particular, the interplay between the mutually compensating dimeric (Cu(Nb)'''-V(O)··) and trimeric (V(O)··-Cu(Nb)'''-V(O)··)· defect complexes with 180° and non-180° domain walls has been analyzed and compared to the effects from (Cu'' - V(O)··)(x)× dipoles in CuO-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Attempts are made to relate the rearrangement of defect complexes to macroscopic electromechanical properties.

  15. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung-Min; Wang, James L.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-01-01

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10 8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines

  16. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung-Min; Wang, James L.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-12-01

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 108 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  17. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong, E-mail: wangh@ornl.gov; Lee, Sung-Min; Wang, James L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lin, Hua-Tay [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

    2014-12-21

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10{sup 8} cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  18. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z 0.5 -T 0.5 )) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  19. Piezo-generated charge mapping revealed through direct piezoelectric force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Gich, M; Carretero-Genevrier, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X

    2017-10-24

    While piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials play a key role in many everyday applications, there are still a number of open questions related to their physics. To enhance our understanding of piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics, nanoscale characterization is essential. Here, we develop an atomic force microscopy based mode that obtains a direct quantitative analysis of the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 . We report nanoscale images of piezogenerated charge in a thick single crystal of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), a bismuth ferrite (BiFO 3 ) thin film, and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) by applying a force and recording the current produced by these materials. The quantification of d 33 coefficients for PPLN (14 ± 3 pC per N) and BFO (43 ± 6 pC per N) is in agreement with the values reported in the literature. Even stronger evidence of the reliability of the method is provided by an equally accurate measurement of the significantly larger d 33 of PZT.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, A.; Pantel, D.; Hanemann, T.

    2017-09-01

    Integration of lead zirconate titanate (Pb[Zrx,Ti1-x]O3 - PZT) thin films on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor substrates (CMOS) is difficult due to the usually high crystallization temperature of the piezoelectric perovskite PZT phase, which harms the CMOS circuits. In this work, a wafer-scale pulsed laser deposition tool was used to grow 1 μm thick PZT thin films on 150 mm diameter silicon wafers. Three different routes towards a post-CMOS compatible deposition process were investigated, maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget limit of 445 °C for 1 h (or 420 °C for 6 h). By crystallizing the perovskite LaNiO3 seed layer at 445 °C, the PZT deposition temperature can be lowered to below 400 °C, yielding a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f of -9.3 C/m2. With the same procedure, applying a slightly higher PZT deposition temperature of 420 °C, an e31,f of -10.3 C/m2 can be reached. The low leakage current density of below 3 × 10-6 A/cm2 at 200 kV/cm allows for application of the post-CMOS compatible PZT thin films in low power micro-electro-mechanical-systems actuators.

  1. Cell-Type-Specific Splicing of Piezo2 Regulates Mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szczot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Piezo2 is a mechanically activated ion channel required for touch discrimination, vibration detection, and proprioception. Here, we discovered that Piezo2 is extensively spliced, producing different Piezo2 isoforms with distinct properties. Sensory neurons from both mice and humans express a large repertoire of Piezo2 variants, whereas non-neuronal tissues express predominantly a single isoform. Notably, even within sensory ganglia, we demonstrate the splicing of Piezo2 to be cell type specific. Biophysical characterization revealed substantial differences in ion permeability, sensitivity to calcium modulation, and inactivation kinetics among Piezo2 splice variants. Together, our results describe, at the molecular level, a potential mechanism by which transduction is tuned, permitting the detection of a variety of mechanosensory stimuli. : Szczot et al. find that the mechanoreceptor Piezo2 is extensively alternatively spliced, generating multiple distinct isoforms. Their findings indicate that these splice products have specific tissue and cell type expression patterns and exhibit differences in receptor properties. Keywords: Piezo, touch, sensation, ion-channel, splicing

  2. Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor driven by external piezo ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Yaxiang; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    We have realized a micro Coriolis mass flow meter driven with an external piezo ceramic. The piezoelec tric ceramic is glued on top of sensor chip with a inertial weight on top of the piezo ceramic. Its ability to measure mass flow is characterized by a laser Doppler vibrometer. Our measurement with

  3. Very high frequency (beyond 100 MHz) PZT kerfless linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-microm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-microm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss).

  4. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  5. Flexible graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr 0.35 ,Ti 0.65 )O 3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (P r ) of 30 μC cm −2 and a coercive voltage (V c ) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits. (paper)

  6. Pyroelectric Charge Release in Rhombohedral PZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noheda, Beatriz; Duan, Ning; Cereceda, Noé; Gonzalo, Julio A.

    1998-01-01

    A new experimental set-up controlled by computer has been made to measure the pyroelectric charge of ferroelectric materials with a relatively high conductivity at slow rates of temperature variation. It allowed us to obtain the polarisation vs. temperature behaviour of PZT with various compositions

  7. Flexible graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr0.35,Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (Pr) of 30 μC cm−2 and a coercive voltage (Vc) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits.

  8. Temperature dependence of PZT film optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    11-12, - (2001), s. 352-354 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1425; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : refractive index profile * PZT film * temperature dependence of optical properties Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  9. Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric composites (PZT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassora, L.A.; Eiras, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric transducers, with 1-3 of connectivity were prepared with different concentration of ceramic material. Piezoelectric composites, with equal electromechanical coupling factor and acoustic impedance of one third from that ceramic transducer, were obtained when the fractionary volume of PZT reach 30%. (C.G.C.)

  10. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  11. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  12. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  13. Progress in piezotronics and piezo-phototronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-09-04

    The fundamental principle of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics were introduced by Wang in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry in materials such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport at the interface/junction. Piezotronics is about the devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a ''gate'' voltage to tune/control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect is to use the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detector, solar cell and LED. This manuscript reviews the updated progress in the two new fields. A perspective is given about their potential applications in sensors, human-silicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics and energy sciences. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  15. Towards a digital sound reconstruction MEMS device: Characterization of a single PZT based piezoelectric actuator

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication and characterization of a single piezoelectric actuator for digital sound reconstruction. This work is the first step towards the implementation of a true digital micro-loudspeaker by means of an array of acoustic actuators. These actuators consist of a flexible membrane fabricated using polyimide, which is actuated using a Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layer working in the d31 actuation mode. The dimensions of the membrane are of 1mm diameter and 4μm in thickness, which is capable of being symmetrically actuated in both upward and downward directions, due to the back etch step releasing the membrane. Our electrical characterization shows an improvement in the polarization of the piezoelectric material after its final etch patterning step, and our mechanical characterization shows the natural modes of resonance of the stacked membrane. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Effect of the Crystal Structure on the Electrical Properties of Thin-Film PZT Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimova, L. A.; Gushchina, E. V.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    A new method of two-stage crystallization of lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films using a seed sublayer with a low excess lead content has been proposed and realized. A seed layer with a strong texture of perovskite Pe(111) grains is formed from a solution with a lead excess of 0-5 wt %; the fast growth of the grains is provided by the deposition of the main film from a solution with high lead content. As a result, a strong Pe(111) texture with complete suppression of the Pe(100) orientation forms. An analysis of current-voltage dependences of the transient currents and the distributions of the local conductivity measured by the contact AFM method reveals two various mechanisms of current percolation that are determined by traps in the bulk and at the perovskite grain interfaces.

  17. Structural and electrical properties of Sm{sup 3+} substituted PZT ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India)], E-mail: 628@ssplnet.org; Thakur, O.P.; Bhattacharya, D.K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India); Prakash, Chandra [DRDO Bhawan, DHQ, New Delhi 110 011 (India); Chatterjee, Ratnamala [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-01-22

    Samarium modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT: Pb{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35})O{sub 3}: x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) ceramics were synthesized by solid state ceramic route. XRD shows single-phase formation with rhombohedral structure up to x = 0.04. With Sm-substitution, the grain size first increases up to x = 0.02 and then decreases. A metal/ferroelectric/metal (MFM) structure was made by depositing gold electrode on the flat surfaces for electrical measurements. All samples show normal ferroelectric behaviour, however, a squareness of P-E loop (polarization vs. electric field) was observed to increase with Sm content. Higher electromechanical coupling coefficients (K{sub p} and K{sub t}) have been achieved for the PZT with 6 mol% Sm substitution and having fine grain size.

  18. Characterization And Operation Of PZT Ceramic Filters On Gamma-Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzy, Y.H.A.; Soliman, F.A.S.; Swidan, A.; Abdelmagid, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper deals with the gamma-ray effects on the electrical characteristics of ferroelectric materials used as an electronic frequency filters. After the recall of main observations, mechanisms are analyzed and proposed to take into account the effects in Lead- Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) based materials. In this concern, a wide frequency range samples, extends from 400 k Hz up to 6.5 MHz, were chosen for studying their frequency response and related terminologies, dynamic characteristics, and equivalent circuits. In general, for all samples, a shift on the frequency values was recorded, where the values of the center frequency, resonance frequency and anti-resonance frequency were shown to be shifted. The observed shift is mainly due to the noticed changes on the equivalent circuit elements of the devices, where a pronounced shift on the values of L,,,CP and R,, were recorded

  19. Shear piezoelectric coefficients of PZT, LiNbO3 and PMN-PT at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, Syed; Islam, Md; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are used to detect stress and to generate nanometer scale displacements but their piezoelectric coefficients decrease with temperature, limiting their performance in cryogenic applications. We have developed a capacitive technique and directly measured the temperature dependence of the shear coefficient d 15 for ceramic lead zirconium titanate (PZT), 41° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and single crystal lead magnesium niobium-lead titanate (PMN-PT). In PZT, d 15 decreases nearly linearly with temperature, dropping by factor of about 4 by 1.3 K. LiNbO3 has the smallest room temperature d15, but its value decreased by only 6% at the lowest temperatures. PMN-PT had the largest value of d15 at room temperature (2.9 × 10 −9 m/V, about 45 times larger than for LiNbO 3 ) but it decreased rapidly below 75 K; at 1.3 K, d 15 was only about 8% of its room temperature value

  20. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  1. Ga{sup +} implantation in a PZT film during focused ion beam micro-machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, Nicole; Oesterle, Werner; Haeusler, Ines [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Stewart, Mark [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington Middlesex TW 11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining parameters on the thickness of the damaged layer within a thin film PZT. Therefore, different Ga{sup +}- ion doses and ion energies were applied to a standard PZT film (80/20 lead zirconium titanate) under two beam incidence angles (90 and 1 ). The thicknesses of the corresponding Ga{sup +}-implanted layers were then determined by cross-sectional TEM in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) line-scans and correlated with polarisation hysteresis loops. The results show a decrease of Ga{sup +}-implanted layer thickness with decreasing inclination angle, whereas ion energy and ion dose could be correlated with gallium concentration in the implanted layers. Under the most unfavorable conditions the depth of the affected zone was 26 nm, it was only 2 nm for the most favorable conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Microestructura y propiedades de materiales cerámicos PZT con control de crecimiento de grano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi, L. A.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate ceramic powders have been surface modified by using phosphor esther 0.3% in volume. The phosphorous modification gave higher densities at lower temperatures associated with a reduction of the weight losses during the densification process. From the relationships between ceramic processing and microstructure, it was established that the phosphorous surface modification allows the effective grain growth control as well a higher homogeneity in the grain size distribution.

    Se ha realizado un proceso de modificación superficial con ester fosfato al 0.3% en volumen, sobre polvo cerámico de titanato circonato de plomo, PZT. Se observa que el material modificado con fósforo presenta una mayor densificación aparente a una temperatura menor unida a una reducción de las pérdidas de peso durante el proceso de densificación. Se han establecido las relaciones entre el procesamiento y las microestructuras del material PZT sin modificar y el modificado. Se evidencia un control del crecimiento de grano y una mayor homogeneidad en la distribución de tamaños de grano en el material modificado.

  3. Fatigue response of a PZT multilayer actuator under high-field electric cycling with mechanical preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2009-01-01

    An electric fatigue test system was developed for evaluating the reliability of piezoelectric actuators with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator with a platethrough electrode configuration were studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of the coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 109 cycles was carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under the high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized using fast Fourier transformation. Both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients exhibited a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86×108 cycles under certain preloading conditions, and then fluctuated. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also fluctuated after a decrease. The results are interpreted and discussed with respect to domain wall activities, microdefects, and other anomalies.

  4. Impedance spectroscopy of PZT ceramics--measuring diffusion coefficients, mixed conduction, and Pb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Niall J; Randall, Clive A

    2012-09-01

    Sintering of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at high temperatures results in loss of Pb unless an ambient Pb activity is maintained. The tell-tale sign of Pb loss is an increased conductivity, usually manifested in unacceptably high values of tanδ. The conductivity is caused by oxygen vacancies and/or electron holes which are a byproduct of Pb evaporation. In the first part of this paper, it is shown how impedance spectroscopy can be used to separate ionic and electronic conductivity in a properly designed sample by selection of appropriate boundary conditions. Subsequently, impedance is used to probe defect concentrations in PZT during prolonged annealing at 700°C. It is found that oxygen vacancies are generated during annealing in air but the rate of generation actually decreases upon lowering the ambient pO(2). These results are explained by a model of Pb evaporation which, in this case, leads predominantly to oxygen vacancy generation. In principle, this effect could be used to generate a specific vacancy concentration in similar Pb-based oxides.

  5. Concrete Infill Monitoring in Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Using a PZT-Based Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Hei, Chuang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-07

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes (CFFTs) have attracted interest for their structural applications in corrosive environments. However, a weak interfacial strength between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete infill may develop due to concrete shrinkage and inadequate concrete compaction during concrete casting, which will destroy the confinement effect and thereby reduce the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. In this paper, the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) method was adopted to assess the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. The basic idea of this method is that the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the FRP material is about half of that in concrete material. Any voids or debonding created along the interface between the FRP tube and the concrete will delay the arrival time between the pairs of PZT transducers. A comparison of the arrival times of the PZT pairs between the intact and the defected CFFT was made to assess the severity of the voids or the debonding. The feasibility of the methodology was analyzed using a finite-difference time-domain-based numerical simulation. Experiments were setup to validate the numerical results, which showed good agreement with the numerical findings. The results showed that the ultrasonic time-of-flight method is able to detect the concrete infill condition of CFFTs.

  6. Concrete Infill Monitoring in Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Using a PZT-Based Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Hei, Chuang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes (CFFTs) have attracted interest for their structural applications in corrosive environments. However, a weak interfacial strength between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete infill may develop due to concrete shrinkage and inadequate concrete compaction during concrete casting, which will destroy the confinement effect and thereby reduce the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. In this paper, the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) method was adopted to assess the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. The basic idea of this method is that the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the FRP material is about half of that in concrete material. Any voids or debonding created along the interface between the FRP tube and the concrete will delay the arrival time between the pairs of PZT transducers. A comparison of the arrival times of the PZT pairs between the intact and the defected CFFT was made to assess the severity of the voids or the debonding. The feasibility of the methodology was analyzed using a finite-difference time-domain-based numerical simulation. Experiments were setup to validate the numerical results, which showed good agreement with the numerical findings. The results showed that the ultrasonic time-of-flight method is able to detect the concrete infill condition of CFFTs. PMID:27941617

  7. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  8. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  9. Spray-controlled combustionprocess with piezo injection; Strahlgefuehrtes Brennverfahren mit Piezo-Benzineinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaupp, U.; Altenschmidt, F.; Bertsch, D.; Laudenbach, N. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The novel 2nd generation injection system of Mercedes-Benz have resulted in reduced fuel consumption and lower emissions while improving the engine performance. The piezo technology is a great technical advance. The characteristic field range in which stratified charge operation is possible has been extended since the first generation of injection systems. Lower fuel consumption is achieved not only in normal traffic but also when cruising on motorways at constant speed. The advantages are noticeable not only in the test cycle but also in real operation. The piezo injection valve was not available on the market and had to be constructed, including the 200 bar high-pressure fuel injection system. The stability of the injection system and the good mixing characteristics resulted in an optimally combustible mixture at the spark plug. Apart from stability in stratified charge operation, the possibility of multiple injection also has further advantages and potentials in terms of consumption and emissions. (orig.)

  10. Piezo-optic surfaces of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mytsyk, B. G.; Dem'yanyshyn, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    A method of construction of the spatial distribution of the piezo-optic effect in crystals is proposed. A particular case of this method is the known technique of construction of indicator surfaces of the piezo-optic effect. The essence of the proposed method consists in determining the difference in the radius vectors of the optical indicatrix perturbed by stress and the free optical indicatrix. It is shown that this difference in the radius vectors is mathematically identical to the law of transformation of the piezo-optic tensor during the rotation of the coordinate system

  11. Piezo proteins: regulators of mechanosensation and other cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2014-11-14

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. PMID:25305018

  13. Clash of the Titans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  14. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  15. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures

  16. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  17. Development of PZT Actuated Valveless Micropump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathima Rehana Munas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A piezoelectrically actuated valveless micropump has been designed and developed. The principle components of this system are piezoelectrically actuated (PZT metal diaphragms and a complete fluid flow system. The design of this pump mainly focuses on a cross junction, which is generated by a nozzle jet attached to a pump chamber and the intersection of two inlet channels and an outlet channel respectively. During each PZT diaphragm vibration cycle, the junction connecting the inlet and outlet channels with the nozzle jet permits consistencies in fluidic momentum and resistances in order to facilitate complete fluidic path throughout the system, in the absence of any physical valves. The entire micropump structure is fabricated as a plate-by-plate element of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA sheets and sandwiched to get required fluidic network as well as the overall device. In order to identify the flow characteristics, and to validate the test results with numerical simulation data, FEM analysis using ANSYS was carried out and an eigenfrequency analysis was performed to the PZT diaphragm using COMSOL Multiphysics. In addition, the control system of the pump was designed and developed to change the applied frequency to the piezoelectric diaphragms. The experimental data revealed that the maximum flow rate is 31.15 mL/min at a frequency of 100 Hz. Our proposed design is not only for a specific application but also useful in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  18. Development of PZT Actuated Valveless Micropump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munas, Fathima Rehana; Melroy, Gehan; Abeynayake, Chamitha Bhagya; Chathuranga, Hiniduma Liyanage; Amarasinghe, Ranjith; Kumarage, Pubudu; Dau, Van Thanh; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2018-04-24

    A piezoelectrically actuated valveless micropump has been designed and developed. The principle components of this system are piezoelectrically actuated (PZT) metal diaphragms and a complete fluid flow system. The design of this pump mainly focuses on a cross junction, which is generated by a nozzle jet attached to a pump chamber and the intersection of two inlet channels and an outlet channel respectively. During each PZT diaphragm vibration cycle, the junction connecting the inlet and outlet channels with the nozzle jet permits consistencies in fluidic momentum and resistances in order to facilitate complete fluidic path throughout the system, in the absence of any physical valves. The entire micropump structure is fabricated as a plate-by-plate element of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets and sandwiched to get required fluidic network as well as the overall device. In order to identify the flow characteristics, and to validate the test results with numerical simulation data, FEM analysis using ANSYS was carried out and an eigenfrequency analysis was performed to the PZT diaphragm using COMSOL Multiphysics. In addition, the control system of the pump was designed and developed to change the applied frequency to the piezoelectric diaphragms. The experimental data revealed that the maximum flow rate is 31.15 mL/min at a frequency of 100 Hz. Our proposed design is not only for a specific application but also useful in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  19. Reduction of etching damage in lead-zirconate-titanate thin films with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we etched lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films with various additive gases (O 2 and Ar) in Cl 2 /CF 4 plasmas, while mixing ratio was fixed at 8/2. After the etching, the plasma induced damages are characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, retention properties, and switching polarization. When the electrical properties of PZT etched in O 2 or Ar added to Cl 2 /CF 4 were compared, the value of remanent polarization in O 2 added to Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar added plasma. The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 145 nm/min for 30% Ar added Cl 2 /CF 4 gas having mixing ratio of 8/2 and 110 nm/min for 10% O 2 added to that same gas mixture. In order to recover the ferroelectric properties of the PZT thin films after etching, we annealed the etched PZT thin films at 550 deg. C in an O 2 atmosphere for 10 min. From the hysteresis curves, leakage current, retention property, and switching polarization, the reduction of the etching damage and the recovery via the annealing turned out to be more effective when O 2 was added to Cl 2 /CF 4 than Ar. X-ray diffraction showed that the structural damage was lower when O 2 was added to Cl 2 /CF 4 and the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of the annealed samples was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and the (200) PZT peaks

  20. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IETR (Institut d' Électronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes), UMR CNRS 6164, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Thomas, J.-C. [LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes-École Centrale Nantes, GeM (Institut de Recherche en Génie Civil et Ingénierie Mécanique), UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  1. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping [Hubei University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro and Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices. (orig.)

  2. The Development of Piezo-Driven Tools for Cellular Piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Ru

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in the mouse is conducted with piezo-drills that use a droplet of mercury for damping. The use of mercury causes concerns of toxicity and contamination. Although Fluorinert can be used as a substitute for mercury to reduce piezo-drill’s lateral vibration, the damping effect is not as satisfactory as mercury. In this work, a modified piezo-drill without using mercury was developed for the cellular piercing of mouse oocytes. Experimentally, appropriate parameters of driving voltage and frequency were obtained for the penetration of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes. Furthermore, the lateral vibration of the injection pipette is lower than 1 μm in deionized water, which is not observable at 400 magnificence. With the piezo-drill without using mercury, the system performs the cellular piercing of mouse oocytes with a maximum cleavage rate of 94.7% (n = 117.

  3. Role of Piezo Channels in Joint Health and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Guilak, F; Liedtke, W

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage is an intrinsically mechanically sensitive tissue composed of chondrocytes as the only cell type. Chondrocyte mechanotransduction is not well understood, but recently we identified critical components of the mechanotransduction machinery demonstrating how mechanical stimulation of these cells can be converted into cellular calcium signals. Physiologic mechanical cues induce anabolic responses of (post-mitotic) chondrocytes via transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 ion channels, whereas injurious mechanical stress is transduced by Piezo1 jointly with Piezo2 ion channels. This chapter sheds light on the latter discovery and provides a rationale for follow-up questions, such as the nature of interaction between Piezo1 and Piezo2, and their tethering to the cytoskeleton. These recent insights can be leveraged toward translational medical progress to benefit diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis, representing a large and growing unmet medical need in the United States and large parts of the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    OpenAIRE

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular deve...

  5. Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia; Siewert, Frank; Signorato, Riccardo; Yang, Fan; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale piezo bendable mirror built as a prototype for an offset mirror at the European XFEL is characterized. The piezo ceramic elements are glued onto the mirror substrate, side-face on with respect to the reflecting surface. Using a nanometre optical component measuring machine and a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer, the mirror profile and influence functions were characterized, and further analysis was made to investigate the junction effect, hysteresis, twisting and reproducibility.

  6. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  7. Adhesion strength of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berfield, Thomas A., E-mail: tom.berfield@louisville.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Kitey, Rajesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Kandula, Soma S. [Intel Corporation, Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion strength between a thin film and substrate is often the critical parameter that controls the initiation as well as the mode of film failure. In this work, a laser-based spallation method is used to determine the adhesion strength of “as deposited” lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel thin films on the two functionally different substrates. For the first case, PZT sol-gel film is deposited onto bare Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates via spin casting. The extremely high adhesion strength between the film and the substrate necessitated an additional platinum mass superlayer to be deposited on top of the PZT film in order to induce interfacial failure. For the superlayer film system, a hybrid experimental/numerical method is employed for determining the substrate/film interfacial strength, quantified to be in the range of 460–480 MPa. A second substrate variation with lower adhesion strength is also prepared by applying a self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) monolayer to the Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate prior to the film deposition. For the monolayer-coated substrate case, the adhesion strength is observed to be significantly lower (54.7 MPa) when compared to the earlier case. - Highlights: • A non-contact laser spallation method is used to determine PZT film adhesion. • A mediated self-assembled monolayer is shown to greatly reduce interface strength. • Adhesion strength for even well-bonded thin films was found using a superlayer.

  8. Fatigue and failure responses of lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuator under unipolar high-field electric cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan Wen; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-07-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode design were studied under high electric fields (3 and 6 kV/mm) in a unipolar cycling mode. A 100 Hz sine wave was used in cycling. Five specimens tested under 6 kV/mm failed from 3.8 × 105 to 7 × 105 cycles, whereas three other specimens tested under 3 kV/mm were found to be still functional after 108 cycles. Variations in piezoelectric and dielectric responses of the tested specimens were observed during the fatigue test, depending on the measuring and cycling conditions. Selected fatigued and damaged actuators were characterized using an impedance analyzer or small signal measurement. Furthermore, involved fatigue and failure mechanisms were investigated using scanning acoustic microscope and scanning electron microscope. The extensive cracks and porous regions were revealed across the PZT layers on the cross sections of a failed actuator. The results from this study have demonstrated that the high-field cycling can accelerate the fatigue of PZT stacks as long as the partial discharge is controlled. The small signal measurement can also be integrated into the large signal measurement to characterize the fatigue response of PZT stacks in a more comprehensive basis. The former can further serve as an experimental method to test and monitor the behavior of PZT stacks.

  9. Structural and electrical properties of Nd ion modified lead zirconate titanate nanopowders and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Wei, Wang; De-Qing, Zhang; Quan-Liang, Zhao; Hong-Mei, Liu; Zhi-Ying, Wang; Mao-Sheng, Cao; Jie, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A modified sol-gel method is used for synthesizing Nd ion doped lead zirconate titanate nanopowders Pb 1–3x/2 Nd x Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 O 3 (PNZT) in an ethylene glycol system with zirconium nitrate as zirconium source. The results show that it is critical to add lead acetate after the reaction of zirconium nitrate with tetrabutyl titanate in the ethylene glycol system for preparing PNZT with an exact fraction of titanium content. It has been observed that the dopant of excess Nd ions can effectively improve the sintered densification and activity of the PNZT ceramics. Piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the PNZT ceramics are remarkably enhanced as compared with those of monolithic lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Especially, the supreme values of piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) and dielectric constant ( element of ) for the PNZT are both about two times that of the monolithic PZT and moreover, the remnant polarization (P r ) also increases by 30%. According to the analysis of the structures and properties, we attribute the improvement in electrical properties to the lead vacancies caused by the doping of Nd ions

  10. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  11. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Real-Time Performance of Mechatronic PZT Module Using Active Vibration Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggogeri, Francesco; Borboni, Alberto; Merlo, Angelo; Pellegrini, Nicola; Ricatto, Raffaele

    2016-09-25

    This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that seriously compromise the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed of a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator; it is able to make a self-assessment and adjust to alterations in the environment. In particular, an innovative smart actuator has been designed and developed to satisfy machining requirements during active vibration control. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving a machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware in the Loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.

  13. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, I; Hendrix, M M R M; De With, G

    2014-01-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an applied force of 150 N is 18150 pC (PZT/PA) and 2310 pC (PZT/PDMS), respectively. Electric force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the structural characterization and piezoelectric properties of the materials realized. A clear inverse piezoelectric effect was observed when the bimorphs were subjected to an electric field stepped up through 2, 6 and 10 V, indicating the net polarization direction of the different ferroelectric domains. The as-developed bimorphs have the basic structure of a sensor and actuator, and, since they do not use any bonding agent for bonding, they can provide a valuable alternative to the present bimorphs where bonding processes are required for their realization that can limit their application at high temperature. (paper)

  14. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  15. Fatigue responses of lead zirconate titanate stacks under semibipolar electric cycling with mechanical preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Cooper, Thomas A.; Lin, Hua-Tay; Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2010-10-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks that had an interdigital internal electrode configuration were tested to more than 108 cycles. A 100 Hz semibipolar sine wave with a field range of +4.5/-0.9 kV/mm was used in cycling with a concurrently-applied 20 MPa preload. Significant reductions in piezoelectric and dielectric responses were observed during the cycling depending on the measuring condition. Extensive partial discharges were also observed. These surface events resulted in the erosion of external electrode and the exposure of internal electrodes. Sections prepared by sequential polishing technique revealed a variety of damage mechanisms including delaminations, pores, and etch grooves. The scale of damage was correlated with the degree of fatigue-induced reduction in piezoelectric and dielectric responses. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of using a semibipolar mode to drive a PZT stack under a mechanical preload and illustrate the potential fatigue and damages of the stack in service.

  16. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: takechi@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-21

    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  17. Surface bond contraction and its effect on the nanometric sized lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haitao Huang; Sun, Chang Q.; Hing, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The grain size effect of lead zirconate titanate PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT, x≥0.6) caused by surface bond contraction has been investigated by using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire (LGD) phenomenological theory. It has been shown that, due to the surface bond contraction, both the Curie temperature and the spontaneous polarization of tetragonal PZT decrease with decreasing grain size. These effects become more significant when the grain size is in the nanometre range. A dielectric anomaly appears with decreasing grain size, which corresponds to a size dependent phase transformation. The ferroelectric critical size below which a loss of ferroelectricity will happen is estimated from the results obtained. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  18. The tides of Titan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  19. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  20. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair comp....... Improved figure of merit is reached in the piezoelectric PZT thick film, TF2100CIP, by using cold isostatic pressure in the PZT preparation process. The porosity of TF2100 is decreased 38%, hence, allowing an increase of charge sensitivity for MEMS sensors of 59%....... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  1. Electrical Impedance Measurements of PZT Nanofiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Galos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance measurements of PZT nanofiber sensors were performed using a variety of methods over a frequency spectrum ranging from DC to 1.8 GHz. The nanofibers formed by electrospinning with diameters ranging from 10 to 150 nm were collected and integrated into sensors using microfabrication techniques. Special matching circuits with ultrahigh input impedance were fabricated to produce low noise, measurable sensor outputs. Material properties including resistivity and dielectric constant are derived from the impedance measurements. The resulting material properties are also compared with those of individual nanofibers being tested using conductive AFM and Scanning Conductive Microscopy.

  2. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  3. Ferroelastic domain switching fatigue in lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojprapai, Soodkhet; Jones, Jacob L.; Studer, Andrew J.; Russell, Jennifer; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the frequency and amplitude of cyclic mechanical loading on soft, tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics was investigated via neutron diffraction. Intensity change in the {2 0 0} reflections provided quantitative measurements of domain switching behavior, domain texture and the strain resulting from domain switching. The results are explained using a viscoelasticity model. It was found that the magnitude of applied stress affects the level of strain accumulated, while its frequency affects the time taken for the strain to reach saturation. Furthermore, markedly different behaviors are exhibited by poled and unpoled samples. For samples loaded under identical conditions, the frequency effect is more pronounced in unpoled samples and the accumulated ferroelastic strain is greater in poled samples

  4. Process induced poling and plasma induced damage of thin films PZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Salm, Cora; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Vergeer, Kurt; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats processing sequence induced changes on PZT. Two kinds of metal-PZT-metal capacitors are compared. The top surface and sidewall of PZT in one kind of capacitor is directly bombarded by energetic particles during ion milling process, whereas PZT in the other kind of capacitor is not.

  5. Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT particulate magnetoelectric composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisnevskaya, I.V., E-mail: liv@sfedu.ru; Bobrova, I.A.; Lupeiko, T.G.; Agamirzoeva, M.R.; Myagkaya, K.V.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites of Na, Bi, Sr substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet having representative formula (100−x) wt% Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT (PZTNB-1)+x wt% Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) with x=10–90 were manufactured using powdered components obtained through sol–gel processes. It is shown that the decrease in sintering temperature provided by the use of finely dispersed PZTNB-1 and YIG powders allows to significantly reduce content of fluorite-like foreign phase based on zirconium oxide, which forms due to the interfacial interaction during heat treatment and becomes stabilized by yttrium oxide. Connectivity has considerable effect on the value of ME coefficient of composite ceramics. With the same x value, ΔE/ΔH characteristic decreases when changing from 0–3-type structured composites (PZT grains embedded in ferrite matrix) to 3-3-(interpenetrating network of two phases) and especially 3-0-type samples (YIG grains embedded in PZT matrix); in the last case this can be attributed to the substrate clamping effect when ferrite grains are clamped with piezoelectric matrix. ΔE/ΔH value of 0–3 composites with x=40–60 wt% was found to be ∼1.6 mV/(cm Oe). - Highlights: • Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT particulate magnetoelectric composites were prepared. • The decrease in sintering temperature reduces the content of foreign phase of ZrO{sub 2}. • Connectivity pattern is important factor for magnetoelectric response. • The value of ME coefficient reaches ~1,6 mV/(cm Oe) in 0–3 composites.

  6. Impact of process parameters on the structural and electrical properties of metal/PZT/Al2O3/silicon gate stack for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the structural and electrical properties of the Al2O3 buffer layer on non-volatile memory behavior using Metal/PZT/Al2O3/Silicon structures. Metal/PZT/Silicon and Metal/Al2O3/Silicon structures were also fabricated and characterized to obtain capacitance and leakage current parameters. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT::35:65) and Al2O3 films were deposited by sputtering on the silicon substrate. Memory window, PUND, endurance, breakdown voltage, effective charges, flat-band voltage and leakage current density parameters were measured and the effects of process parameters on the structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. X-ray data show dominant (110) tetragonal phase of the PZT film, which crystallizes at 500 °C. The sputtered Al2O3 film annealed at different temperatures show dominant (312) orientation and amorphous nature at 425 °C. Multiple angle laser ellipsometric analysis reveals the temperature dependence of PZT film refractive index and extinction coefficient. Electrical characterization shows the maximum memory window of 3.9 V and breakdown voltage of 25 V for the Metal/Ferroelectric/Silicon (MFeS) structures annealed at 500 °C. With 10 nm Al2O3 layer in the Metal/Ferroelectric/Insulator/Silicon (MFeIS) structure, the memory window and breakdown voltage was improved to 7.21 and 35 V, respectively. Such structures show high endurance with no significant reduction polarization charge for upto 2.2 × 109 iteration cycles.

  7. Titan's icy scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P. F.; Turner, J. D.; Neish, C. D.; Mitri, G.; Montiel, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Cassini/VIMS [1] infrared spectral windows to identify and quantify weak surface features, with no assumptions on the haze and surface characteris- tics. This study maps the organic sediments, supplied by past atmospheres, as well as ice-rich regions that constitute Titan's bedrock.

  8. Evolution of transverse piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Gao Junjie; Zhang, Chonghui; Yao Xi; Jin Li

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric properties of 31-mode resonators of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 325 MPa were evaluated by a fitting method, in which mechanical loss was taken into account. Our results based on the fitting method showed a hydrostatic pressure independent tendency of the piezoelectric coefficient and the electromechanical coupling factor because the adopted PZT ceramic can be considered as a linear system in our experiment, while two misleading tendencies of piezoelectric coefficient were obtained based on the resonance method when ignoring the contribution of the mechanical loss. (fast track communication)

  9. Ion Permeation and Mechanotransduction Mechanisms of Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Wu, Kun; Geng, Jie; Chi, Shaopeng; Wang, Yanfeng; Zhi, Peng; Zhang, Mingmin; Xiao, Bailong

    2016-03-16

    Piezo proteins have been proposed as the long-sought-after mechanosensitive cation channels in mammals that play critical roles in various mechanotransduction processes. However, the molecular bases that underlie their ion permeation and mechanotransduction have remained functionally undefined. Here we report our finding of the miniature pore-forming module of Piezo1 that resembles the pore architecture of other trimeric channels and encodes the essential pore properties. We further identified specific residues within the pore module that determine unitary conductance, pore blockage and ion selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations and anions. The non-pore-containing region of Piezo1 confers mechanosensitivity to mechano-insensitive trimeric acid-sensing ion channels, demonstrating that Piezo1 channels possess intrinsic mechanotransduction modules separate from their pore modules. In conclusion, this is the first report on the bona fide pore module and mechanotransduction components of Piezo channels, which define their ion-conducting properties and gating by mechanical stimuli, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Progress in piezo-phototronic effect modulated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Miaoling; Zhou, Ranran; Wang, Xiandi; Yuan, Zuqing; Hu, Guofeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-11-02

    Wurtzite structured materials, like ZnO, GaN, CdS, and InN, simultaneously possess semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. The inner-crystal piezopotential induced by external strain can effectively tune/control the carrier generation, transport and separation/combination processes at the metal-semiconductor contact or p-n junction, which is called the piezo-phototronic effect. This effect can efficiently enhance the performance of photovoltaic devices based on piezoelectric semiconductor materials by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges at the junction induced by straining, which can modulate the energy band of the piezoelectric material and then accelerate or prevent the separation process of the photon-generated electrons and vacancies. This paper introduces the fundamental physics principles of the piezo-phototronic effect, and reviews recent progress in piezo-phototronic effect enhanced solar cells, including solar cells based on semiconductor nanowire, organic/inorganic materials, quantum dots, and perovskite. The piezo-phototronic effect is suggested as a suitable basis for the development of an innovative method to enhance the performance of solar cells based on piezoelectric semiconductors by applied extrinsic strains, which might be appropriate for fundamental research and potential applications in various areas of optoelectronics.

  11. Piezo2: A Candidate Biomarker for Visceral Hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Tao; Li, Ying; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Yudong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Huan; Qian, Wei; Song, Jun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Currently, there exists no biomarker for visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Piezo proteins have been proven to play an important role in the mechanical stimulation to induce visceral pain in other tissues and may also be a biomarker candidate. The aim of this study was to test the expressions of Piezo1 and Piezo2 proteins in the intestinal epithelial cells from different intestinal segments and to explore the correlation between Piezo proteins express...

  12. Metalorganic solution deposition of lead zirconate titanate films onto an additively manufactured Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, T.; Khassaf, H.; Vijayan, S.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S.P.; Hebert, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in additive manufacturing of high-temperature alloys for structural aerospace applications has led to interest in integrating additional functionality into such parts. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a prototypical ferroelectric ceramic used as the electro-active material in many piezoelectric sensors and actuators. In this study, 300 nm thick PbZr_0_._2Ti_0_._8O_3 (PZT 20/80) films were grown using metalorganic solution deposition onto additively manufactured substrates of Inconel 718. The microstructures of the films and the nature of the film/substrate interfaces were characterized using a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. Electrical measurements were performed to determine the ferroelectric, dielectric, and conductive responses of the PZT films. Our findings show that the PZT films exhibit robust ferroelectricity characterized by well-defined polarization-applied electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops. The samples display internal bias of up to ∼40 kV/cm. The room temperature remnant polarization and the small signal dielectric permittivity are ∼70 μC/cm"2 and 205, respectively. The dielectric loss (tan δ) and the leakage current at 1 kHz are 9% and 1 nA at 1 V, respectively. We attribute the internal bias observed in the hysteresis loops and the overall large dielectric losses to the presence of an intermediate oxide layer at the PZT/Inconel interface, which forms during the high temperature crystallization of the ferroelectric film. These results show that it is possible to grow functional oxides with promising electrical properties onto additively manufactured metallic substrates.

  13. Piezo-Phototronic Effect in a Quantum Well Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Du, Chunhua; Zhou, Yongli; Jiang, Chunyan; Pu, Xiong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Weiguo; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-24

    With enhancements in the performance of optoelectronic devices, the field of piezo-phototronics has attracted much attention, and several theoretical works have been reported based on semiclassical models. At present, the feature size of optoelectronic devices are rapidly shrinking toward several tens of nanometers, which results in the quantum confinement effect. Starting from the basic piezoelectricity equation, Schrödinger equation, Poisson equation, and Fermi's golden rule, a self-consistent theoretical model is proposed to study the piezo-phototronic effect in the framework of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics. The validity and universality of this model are well-proven with photoluminescence measurements in a single GaN/InGaN quantum well and multiple GaN/InGaN quantum wells. This study provides important insight into the working principle of nanoscale piezo-phototronic devices as well as guidance for the future device design.

  14. A universal piezo-driven ultrasonic cell microinjection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Mills, James K; Lu, Cong; Sun, Dong

    2011-08-01

    Over the past decade, the rapid development of biotechnologies such as gene injection, in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and drug development have led to great demand for highly automated, high precision equipment for microinjection. Recently a new cell injection technology using piezo-driven pipettes with a very small mercury column was proposed and successfully applied in ICSI to a variety of mammal species. Although this technique significantly improves the survival rates of the ICSI process, shortcomings due to the toxicity of mercury and damage to the cell membrane due to large lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette may limit its application. In this paper, a new cell injection system for automatic batch injection of suspended cells is developed. A new design of the piezo-driven cell injector is proposed for automated suspended cell injection. This new piezo-driven cell injector design relocates the piezo oscillation actuator to the injector pipette which eliminates the vibration effect on other parts of the micromanipulator. A small piezo stack is sufficient to perform the cell injection process. Harmful lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette are reduced substantially without the use of a mercury column. Furthermore, ultrasonic vibration micro-dissection (UVM) theory is utilized to analyze the piezo-driven cell injection process, and the source of the lateral oscillations of the injector pipette is investigated. From preliminary experiments of cell injection of a large number of zebrafish embryos (n = 200), the injector pipette can easily pierce through the cell membrane at a low injection speed and almost no deformation of the cell wall, and with a high success rate(96%) and survival rate(80.7%) This new injection approach shows good potential for precision injection with less damage to the injected cells.

  15. Design and manufacture of a lightweight piezo-composite curved actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K. Joon; Shin, Seokjun; Park, Hoon C.; Goo, Nam Seo

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the design, manufacture and performance test of a lightweight piezo-composite curved actuator (called LIPCA) using a top carbon fiber composite layer with near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), a middle PZT ceramic wafer, and a bottom glass/epoxy layer with a high CTE. The main point of the design for LIPCA is to replace the heavy metal layers of THUNDERTM by lightweight fiber reinforced plastic layers without losing the capabilities for generating high force and large displacement. It is possible to save up to about 40% of the weight if we replace the metallic backing material by the light fiber composite layer. We can also have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the size of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use an epoxy resin prepreg system. Glass/epoxy prepregs, a ceramic wafer with electrode surfaces, and a carbon prepreg were simply stacked and cured at an elevated temperature (177 °C) after following an autoclave bagging process. We found that the manufactured composite laminate device had a sufficient curvature after being detached from a flat mould. An analysis method using the classical lamination theory is presented to predict the curvature of LIPCA after curing at an elevated temperature. The predicted curvatures are in quite good agreement with the experimental values. In order to investigate the merits of LIPCA, performance tests of both LIPCA and THUNDERTM have been conducted under the same boundary conditions. From the experimental actuation tests, it was observed that the developed actuator could generate larger actuation displacement than THUNDERTM.

  16. Theoretical study of piezo-phototronic nano-LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Yang, Qing; Klein, Benjamin D B; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-11-12

    Two-dimensional finite-element simulation of the piezo-phototronic effect in p-n-junction-based devices is carried out for the first time. A charge channel can be induced at the p-n junction interface when strain is applied, given the n-side is a piezoelectric semiconductor and the p-type side is non-piezoelectric semiconductor. This provides the first simulated evidence supporting the previously suggested mechanism responsible for the experimentally observed gigantic change of light-emission efficiency in piezo-phototronic light-emitting devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Characterization of PZT Capacitor Structures with Various Electrode Materials Processed In-Situ Using AN Automated, Rotating Elemental Target, Ion Beam Deposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kenneth Douglas

    Ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures containing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as the dielectric, with the chemical formula Pb(rm Zr_{x }Ti_{1-x})O_3, were synthesized in-situ with an automated ion beam sputter deposition system. Platinum (Pt), conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO_2), and two types of Pt-RuO_2 hybrid electrodes were used as the electrode materials. The capacitor structures are characterized in terms of microstructure and electrical characteristics. Reduction or elimination of non-ferroelectric phases, that nucleate during PZT processing on Pt/TiO _2/MgO and RuO_2/MgO substrates, is achieved by reducing the thickness of the individually deposited layers and by interposing a buffer layer (~100-200A) of PbTiO _3 (PT) between the bottom electrode and the PZT film. Capacitor structures containing a Pt electrode exhibit poor fatigue resistance, irregardless of the PZT microstructure or the use of a PT buffer layer. From these results, and results from similar capacitors synthesized with sol-gel and laser ablation, PZT-based capacitor structures containing Pt electrodes are considered to be unsuitable for use in memory devices. Using a PT buffer layer, in capacitor structures containing RuO_2 top and bottom electrodes and polycrystalline, highly (101) oriented PZT, reduces or eliminates the nucleation of zirconium-titanium oxide, non-ferroelectric species at the bottom electrode interface during processing. This results in good fatigue resistance up to ~2times10^ {10} switching cycles. DC leakage current density vs. time measurements follow the Curie-von Schweidler law, J(t) ~ t^ {rm -n}. Identification of the high electric field current conduction mechanism is inconclusive. The good fatigue resistance, low dc leakage current, and excellent retention, qualifies the use of these capacitor structures in non-volatile random access (NVRAM) and dynamic random access (DRAM) memory devices. Excellent fatigue resistance (10% loss in remanent polarization up to

  18. Effects of atmosphere in sintering pure or doped PZT with barium and strontium ions; Efeito da atmosfera na sinterizacao do PZT puro ou dopado com ions bario e estroncio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.Z.; D`Alkimin, R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Perazolli, L.; Varela, J.A.; Gimenes, E.R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1996-05-01

    Lead zirconate titanate powder with Zr/Ti ratio of 50/50 was prepared by Pechini method and doped with 1,0; 3,0 and 5,0 mol% of Ba or Sr ions. The powder was calcined at 700 deg C by 3 hours and milled by 6 hours in isopropyl alcohol. Surface area was measured by BET method and the purity of the powder characterized by IV. DRX was used to characterize the crystal structure. The powder was isostatically pressed at 230 MPa and sintered in a dilatometer furnace with constant heating rate of 10 deg C/min up to 1100 deg C. Argon, synthetic air oxygen and oxygen with water vapor were used at atmosphere. The presence of Ba or Sr ions reduce the temperature of maximum sintering rate for all considered atmospheres. The effects of each sintering atmosphere of doped PZT is discussed. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of electric field on the fracture toughness (KIc) of ceramic PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goljahi, Sam; Lynch, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    This work was motivated by the observation that a small percentage of the ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) parts in a device application, one that requires an electrode pattern on the PZT surface, developed fatigue cracks at the edges of the electrodes; yet all of the parts were subjected to similar loading. To obtain additional information on the fracture behavior of this material, similar specimens were run at higher voltage in the laboratory under a microscope to observe the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. A sequence of experiments was next performed to determine whether there were fracture toughness variations that depended on material processing. Plates were cut from a single bar in different locations and the Vickers indentation technique was used to measure the relative fracture toughness as a function of position along the bar. Small variations in toughness were found, that may account for some of the devices developing fatigue cracks and not others. Fracture toughness was measured next as a function of electric field. The surface crack in flexure technique was modified to apply an electric field perpendicular to a crack. The results indicate that the fracture toughness drops under a positive electric field and increases under a negative electric field that is less than the coercive field, but as the negative coercive field is approached the fracture toughness drops. Examination of the fracture surfaces using an optical microscope and a surface profilometer reveal the initial indentation crack shape and (although less accurately) the crack shape and size at the transition from stable to unstable growth. These results are discussed in terms of a ferroelastic toughening mechanism that is dependent on electric field. (paper)

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 μmwere developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than1 μm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation whichreveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and thereforerestricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursorconcentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfullyfabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer wasabout 0.6 μm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties werecharacterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomicforce microscopy (AFM and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresisloops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation andsensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. Theactuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm x 4 mm x 6.5 μm PZT film drove a 40 mm x 7 mmx 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The frequencies of the first twomodes of the beam were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Euler-Bernoullibeam theory. The linearity of the actuation and sensing tests were also examined.

  1. Effects of electric field on the fracture toughness (KIc) of ceramic PZT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljahi, Sam; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    This work was motivated by the observation that a small percentage of the ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) parts in a device application, one that requires an electrode pattern on the PZT surface, developed fatigue cracks at the edges of the electrodes; yet all of the parts were subjected to similar loading. To obtain additional information on the fracture behavior of this material, similar specimens were run at higher voltage in the laboratory under a microscope to observe the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. A sequence of experiments was next performed to determine whether there were fracture toughness variations that depended on material processing. Plates were cut from a single bar in different locations and the Vickers indentation technique was used to measure the relative fracture toughness as a function of position along the bar. Small variations in toughness were found, that may account for some of the devices developing fatigue cracks and not others. Fracture toughness was measured next as a function of electric field. The surface crack in flexure technique was modified to apply an electric field perpendicular to a crack. The results indicate that the fracture toughness drops under a positive electric field and increases under a negative electric field that is less than the coercive field, but as the negative coercive field is approached the fracture toughness drops. Examination of the fracture surfaces using an optical microscope and a surface profilometer reveal the initial indentation crack shape and (although less accurately) the crack shape and size at the transition from stable to unstable growth. These results are discussed in terms of a ferroelastic toughening mechanism that is dependent on electric field.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramic resonators by tape-casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Sun, Yingying; Wang, Qing-Ming; Zhong, Youliang; Ou, Ming; Jiang, Zhishui; Tian, Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic resonators with thicknesses down to tens of micrometers have been fabricated by tape-casting processing. PZT ceramic resonators with composition near the morphotropic phase boundary and with different dopants added were prepared for piezoelectric transducer applications. Material property characterization for these thick-film PZT resonators is essential for device design and applications. For the property characterization, a recently developed normalized electrical impedance spectrum method was used to determine the electromechanical coefficient and the complex piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric coefficients from the electrical measurement of resonators using thick films. In this work, nine PZT thick-film resonators have been fabricated and characterized, and two different types of resonators, namely thickness longitudinal and transverse modes, were used for material property characterization. The results were compared with those determined by the IEEE standard method, and they agreed well. It was found that depending on the PZT formulation and dopants, the relative permittivities ε(T)(33)/ε(0) measured at 2 kHz for these thick-films are in the range of 1527 to 4829, piezoelectric stress constants (e(33) in the range of 15 to 26 C/m(2), piezoelectric strain constants (d(31)) in the range of -169 × 10(-12) C/N to -314 × 10(-12) C/N, electromechanical coupling coefficients (k(t)) in the range of 0.48 to 0.53, and k(31) in the range of 0.35 to 0.38. The characterization results shows tape-casting processing can be used to fabricate high-quality PZT thick-film resonators, and the extracted material constants can be used to for device design and application.

  5. Titanic exploration with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  6. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  7. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  8. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180 0 domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180 0 and non-180 0 domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180 0 domains.

  9. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L.

    2011-02-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180° domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180° and non-180° domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180° domains.

  10. Investigation of the performances of PZT vs rare earth (BaLaTiO3) vibration based energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Nehemiah; Aris, Hasnizah; Nadia Taib, Bibi

    2017-11-01

    This study proposes the investigation of two piezoelectric material namely PZT and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate (BaLaTiO3) performance as a vibration based energy harvester. The piezoelectric material when applied mechanical stress or strain produces electricity through the piezoelectric effect. The vibration energy would exude mechanical energy and thus apply mechanical force on the energy harvester. The energy harvester would be designed and simulated using the piezoelectric material individually. The studied outputs are divided to frequency response, the load dependence, and the acceleration dependence whereby measurement are observed and taken at maximum power output. The simulation is done using the cantilevers design which employs d31 type of constants. Three different simulations to study the dependence of output power on the resonant frequency response, load and acceleration have found that material that exhibit highest power generation was the BaLaTiO3.

  11. Investigation of the performances of PZT vs rare earth (BaLaTiO3 vibration based energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Nehemiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the investigation of two piezoelectric material namely PZT and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate (BaLaTiO3 performance as a vibration based energy harvester. The piezoelectric material when applied mechanical stress or strain produces electricity through the piezoelectric effect. The vibration energy would exude mechanical energy and thus apply mechanical force on the energy harvester. The energy harvester would be designed and simulated using the piezoelectric material individually. The studied outputs are divided to frequency response, the load dependence, and the acceleration dependence whereby measurement are observed and taken at maximum power output. The simulation is done using the cantilevers design which employs d31 type of constants. Three different simulations to study the dependence of output power on the resonant frequency response, load and acceleration have found that material that exhibit highest power generation was the BaLaTiO3.

  12. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  13. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  14. Fabrication of flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C.

  15. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  16. A Piezoelectric MEMS Microphone Based on Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Thim Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polcawich, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    .... A piezoelectric-based microphone can provide a solution to these requirements, since it offers the ability to passively sense without the power requirements of condenser or piezoresistive microphone counterparts...

  17. A Tour de Force: The Discovery, Properties, and Function of Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, P A

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical transducers appear throughout cell biology and are used to convert mechanical stress into chemical or electrical signals that allow the cell to respond to environmental changes. In the past six years, a eukaryotic mechanical channel family with two members, Piezo1 and Piezo2, has been identified. Piezo1 was shown to be a cation-selective channel that does not require ancillary proteins for activity. Mouse Piezo1 is large, with over 2500 amino acids, and is not homologous to other ion channels. Both piezo channels have rapid voltage-dependent inactivation with a reversal potential near 0mV. The CryoEm structure of Piezo1 at 4.8Å shows trimer stoichiometry. Since the discovery of the piezo channels, their roles in the physiological response of cells have started to emerge. Significant progress has been made in understanding the intrinsic properties of the channels and how these properties are modulated by cytoskeletal elements. Specific diseases, such as hereditary xerocytosis affecting red blood cells, have mutations in Piezo1 that alter the cell's response to force, typically slowing inactivation and introducing a latency for activation. A number of physiological functions for piezo channels have been identified. These range from sensing the stiffness of surrounding substrate, to the response to light touch, to serotonin release from the gut. This review provides a general overview of the properties and roles of Piezo1 and Piezo2 in eukaryotic mechanotransduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  19. Touch, Tension, and Transduction - The Function and Regulation of Piezo Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason; Lewis, Amanda H; Grandl, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, two proteins, Piezo1 and Piezo2, were identified as the long-sought molecular carriers of an excitatory mechanically activated current found in many cells. This discovery has opened the floodgates for studying a vast number of mechanotransduction processes. Over the past 6 years, groundbreaking research has identified Piezos as ion channels that sense light touch, proprioception, and vascular blood flow, ruled out roles for Piezos in several other mechanotransduction processes, and revealed the basic structural and functional properties of the channel. Here, we review these findings and discuss the many aspects of Piezo function that remain mysterious, including how Piezos convert a variety of mechanical stimuli into channel activation and subsequent inactivation, and what molecules and mechanisms modulate Piezo function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Touch, Tension, and Transduction – the Function and Regulation of Piezo Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason; Lewis, Amanda; Grandl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, two proteins, Piezo1 and Piezo2, were identified as the long-sought molecular carriers of an excitatory mechanically activated current found in many cells. This discovery has opened the floodgates for studying a vast number of mechanotransduction processes. Over the past six years, groundbreaking research has identified Piezos as ion channels that sense light touch, proprioception, and vascular blood flow, ruled out roles for Piezos in several other mechanotransduction processes, and revealed the basic structural and functional properties of the channel. Here, we review these findings and discuss the many aspects of Piezo function that remain mysterious, including how Piezos convert a variety of mechanical stimuli into channel activation and subsequent inactivation, and what molecules and mechanisms modulate Piezo function. PMID:27743844

  1. Effect of Pb content and solution concentration of Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} seed layer on (100)-texture and ferroelectric/dielectric behavior of PZT (52/48) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Jian; Batra, Vaishali; Han, Hui; Kotru, Sushma, E-mail: skotru@eng.ua.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Pandey, Raghvendar K. [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of Pb content and solution concentration of lead titanate (Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) seed layer on the texture and electric properties of Pb{sub 1.1}(Zr{sub 0.52},Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated. A variety of seed layers (y Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) with varying solution concentration (y = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and Pb content (x = 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2) was deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical-solution deposition method. PZT films were then deposited on these seed layers using the same process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the seed layers confirm change in crystal structure with variation in the solution properties. XRD studies of PZT films deposited on seed layers demonstrate that the seed layer helps in enhancing (100)-texture and suppressing (111)-texture. It was observed that PZT films prepared on seed layers with lower solution concentrations results in highly (100)-textured films, which further helps to improve the electric properties. The polarization and dielectric constant of the PZT films were seen to increase while the coercive field decreased with increase in (100)-texture. Irrespective of the seed layer solution concentration, higher Pb content in the seed layer deteriorates the PZT film properties. Ninety-five percent to ninety-six percent (100)-texture was obtained from thin PZT films deposited on seed layers of 0.02 M solution concentration with 1.05 and 1.10 Pb contents, which is higher than the values reported for thick PZT films. Optimization of both Pb content and solution concentration of the seed layer is a promising route to achieve highly (100)-textured PZT films with improved electric properties.

  2. Enhanced tunability of magneto-impedance and magneto-capacitance in annealed Metglas/PZT magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Zhuang, Xin; Xu, Junran; Li, Jiefang; Zhang, Jitao; Srinivasan, G.; Viehland, D.

    2018-05-01

    This report is on a new class of magnetostatically tunable magneto-impedance and magneto-capacitance devices based on a composite of ferromagnetic Metglas and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Layered magneto-electric (ME) composites with annealed Metglas and PZT were studied in a longitudinal in-plane magnetic field-transverse electric field (L-T) mode. It was found that the degree of tunability was dependent on the annealing temperature of Metglas. An impedance tunability (ΔZ/Z0) of ≥400% was obtained at the electromechanical resonance (EMR) frequency (fr) for a sample with Metglas layers annealed at Ta = 500oC. This tunability is a factor of two higher than for composites with Metglas annealed at 350oC. The tunability of the capacitance, (ΔC/C0), was found to be 290% and -135k% at resonance and antiresonance, respectively, for Ta = 500oC. These results provide clear evidence for improvement in static magnetic field tunability of impedance and capacitance of ME composites with the use of annealed Metglas and are of importance for their potential use in tunable electronic applications.

  3. Experimental investigation into the effect of substrate clamping on the piezoelectric behaviour of thick-film PZT elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torah, R N; Beeby, S P; White, N M [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    This paper details an experimental investigation of the clamping effect associated with thick-film piezoelectric elements printed on a substrate. The clamping effect reduces the measured piezoelectric coefficient, d{sub 33}, of the film. This reduction is due to the influence of the d{sub 31} component in the film when a deformation of the structure occurs, by either the direct or indirect piezoelectric effect. Theoretical analysis shows a reduction in the measured d{sub 33} of 62%, i.e. a standard bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5H sample with a manufacturer specified d{sub 33} of 593pC/N would fall to 227.8pC/N. To confirm this effect, the d{sub 33} coefficients of five thin bulk PZT-5H samples of 220 {mu}m thickness were measured before and after their attachment to a metallized 96% alumina substrate. The experimental results show a reduction in d{sub 33} of 74% from 529pC/N to 139pC/N. The theoretical analysis was then applied to existing University of Southampton thick-film devices. It is estimated that the measured d{sub 33} value of 131pC/N of the thick-film devices is the equivalent of an unconstrained d{sub 33} of 345pC/N.

  4. Standing wave brass-PZT square tubular ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonho; He, Siyuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a standing wave brass-PZT tubular ultrasonic motor. The motor is composed of a brass square tube with two teeth on each tube end. Four PZT plates are attached to the outside walls of the brass tube. The motor requires only one driving signal to excite vibration in a single bending mode to generate reciprocating diagonal trajectories of teeth on the brass tube ends, which drive the motor to rotate. Bi-directional rotation is achieved by exciting different pairs of PZT plates to switch the bending vibration direction. Through using the brass-PZT tube structure, the motor can take high magnitude vibration to achieve a high output power in comparison to PZT tube based ultrasonic motors. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The dimension of the brass-PZT tube is 3.975mm×3.975mm×16mm. Measured performance is a no-load speed of >1000RPM, a stall torque of 370μNm and a maximum output power of 16 mW when a sinusoidal driving voltage of 50V is applied. The working frequencies of the motor are 46,050Hz (clockwise) and 46,200Hz (counter-clockwise). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Titan's methane clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of the 12C/13C and D/H isotopic ratios in Titan's methane show intriguing differences from the values recorded in the giant planets. This implies that either (1) the atmosphere was differently endowed with material at the time of formation, or (2) evolutionary processes are at work in the moon's atmosphere - or some combination of the two. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Instrument (GCMS) found 12CH4/13CH4 = 82 +/- 1 (Niemann et al. 2005), some 7% lower than the giant planets' value of 88 +/- 7 (Sada et al. 1996), which closely matches the terrestrial inorganic standard of 89. The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has previously reported 12CH4/13CH4 of 77 +/-3 based on nadir sounding, which we now revise upwards to 80 +/- 4 based on more accurate limb sounding. The CIRS and GCMS results are therefore in agreement about an overall enrichment in 13CH4 of ~10%. The value of D/H in Titan's CH4 has long been controversial: historical measurements have ranged from about 8-15 x 10-5 (e.g. Coustenis et al. 1989, Coustenis et al. 2003). A recent measurement based on CIRS limb data by Bezard et al. (2007) puts the D/H in CH4 at (13 +/- 1) x 10-5, very much greater than in Jupiter and Saturn, ~2 x 10-5 (Mahaffy et al. 1998, Fletcher et al. 2009). To add complexity, the 12C/13C and D/H vary among molecules in Titan atmosphere, typically showing enhancement in D but depletion in 13C in the daughter species (H2, C2H2, C2H6), relative to the photochemical progenitor, methane. Jennings et al. (2009) have sought to interpret the variance in carbon isotopes as a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE), whilst an explanation for the D/H in all molecules remains elusive (Cordier et al. 2008). In this presentation we argue that evolution of isotopic ratios in Titan's methane over time forms a ticking 'clock', somewhat analogous to isotopic ratios in geochronology. Under plausible assumptions about the initial values and subsequent replenishment, various

  6. Characterization of domain reorientation in Pzt ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lente, Manuel Henrique; Povoa, Jose Marques; Eiras, Jose Antonio

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic of domains in ferroelectric materials has been intensively studied due to its importance in applications like non volatile memories. Domain reorientation was characterized in lead zirconate titanate samples, pure and doped, through measurements of the transient current, after reversal a electric field. The reorientation behavior of the domains showed to be influenced by type of impurity (Nb or Fe) and by the electrical field intensity. Analysis of the experimental results reveals mainly the existence of two contributions: a dependent (t 0.1 s) of the field intensity. (author)

  7. Effects of Thickness, Pulse Duration, and Size of Strip Electrode on Ferroelectric Electron Emission of Lead Zirconate Titanate Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Ren, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Feng, Yujun; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    Sol-gel-derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film emitters with thickness up to 9.8 μm have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si wafer via chemical solution deposition with/without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) modification, and the relationship between the film thickness and electron emission investigated. Notable electron emission was observed on application of a trigger voltage of 120 V for PZT film with thickness of 1.1 μm. Increasing the film thickness decreased the threshold field to initiate electron emission for non-PVP-modified films. In contrast, the electron emission behavior of PVP-modified films did not show significant dependence on film thickness, probably due to their porous structure. The emission current increased with decreasing strip width and space between strips. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing the duration of the applied pulse increased the magnitude of the emission current. The stray field on the PZT film thickness was also calculated and found to increase with increasing ferroelectric sample thickness. The PZT emitters were found to be fatigue free up to 105 emission cycles. Saturated emission current of around 25 mA to 30 mA was achieved for the electrode pattern used in this work.

  8. Fabrication and energy harvesting characteristics of unimorph piezoelectric cantilever generators with interdigitated electrode lead zirconate titanate laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-seon; Yun, Ji-sun; Park, Woon-ik; Hong, Youn-woo; Cho, Jeong-ho; Paik, Jong-hoo; Park, Yong Ho; Son, Chun-myung; Jeong, Young Hun

    2017-12-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) unimorph piezoelectric cantilever generators (UPCGs) were fabricated and their energy harvesting characteristics were investigated. A hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material with a high mechanical quality factor (Q m) of 1280 was used for the active piezoelectric film of the IDE UPCGs. Two different laminated IDE UPCGs were prepared; one has Ag/Pd interdigitated electrode (IDE) formed only on the top and bottom PZT sheets (D-IDE), while the other has Ag/Pd IDE on all of the PZT sheets (M-IDE). Cofiring was conducted at 1050 °C for 2 h for PZT laminates with IDEs. The fabricated IDE UPCGs exhibited power densities of 50.4 µW/cm3 for the D-IDE and 820 µW/cm3 for the M-IDE. The UPCG with the M-IDE exhibited a higher performance than that with the D-IDE. Specifically, a significantly enhanced normalized power factor of 670 µW/(g2·cm3) was found at 118 Hz across 100 kΩ.

  9. Electric field tuning of magnetism in heterostructure of yttrium iron garnet film/lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianyun; Ponchel, Freddy; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ying; Rémiens, Denis; Lasri, Tuami; Wang, Genshui; Pernod, Philippe; Zhang, Wenbin; Dong, Xianlin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect by electric field tuning of magnetization in an original heterostructure composed of a polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film and a lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) ceramic is presented. The magnetic performances of the YIG films with different thicknesses under a DC electric field applied to the PMN-PZT ceramics and a bias magnetic field are investigated. All the magnetization-electric field curves are found to be in good agreement with the butterfly like strain curve of the PMN-PZT ceramic. Both the sharp deformation of about 2.5‰ of PMN-PZT and the easy magnetization switching of YIG are proposed to be the reasons for the strongest CME interaction in the composite at the small electric coercive field of PMN-PZT (4.1 kV/cm) and the small magnetic coercive field of YIG (20 Oe) where the magnetic susceptibility reaches its maximum value. A remarkable CME coefficient of 3.1 × 10-7 s/m is obtained in the system with a 600 nm-thick YIG film. This heterostructure combining multiferroics and partially magnetized ferrite concepts is able to operate under a small or even in the absence of an external bias magnetic field and is more compact and power efficient than the traditional magnetoelectric devices.

  10. The dynamics of the piezo inkjet printhead operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshoff, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of a piezo inkjet printhead involves a chain of processes in many physical domains at different length scales. The final goal is the formation of droplets of all kinds of fluids with any desired volume, velocity, and a reliability as high as possible. The physics behind the chain of

  11. Air Entrapment and Drop Formation in Piezo Inkjet Printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Piezo drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printers are used in an increasing number of applications for their reliable deposition of droplets onto a substrate. Droplets of a few picoliters are ejected from an ink jet nozzle at a frequency of up to 50 kHz. However, entrapment of an air microbubble into the

  12. Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The stability of inkjet printers is a major requirement for high-quality-printing. However, in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, air entrapment can lead to malfunctioning of the jet formation. The piezoactuator is employed to actively monitor the channel acoustics and to identify distortions at an

  13. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using a Piezo-Electric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebayar, Urtnasan; Park, Jong Uk; Jeong, Pilsoo; Lee, Kyoung Joung

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using a piezo-electric sensor. OSA is a relatively common sleep disorder. However, more than 80% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed. We investigated the feasibility of OSA assessment using a single-channel physiological signal to simplify the OSA screening. We detected both snoring and heartbeat information by using a piezo-electric sensor, and snoring index (SI) and features based on pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis were extracted from the filtered piezo-electric sensor signal. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to detect OSA events. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 45 patients from mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. The method achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 72.5%, 74.2%, and 71.5%; 85.8%, 80.5%, and 80.0%; and 70.3%, 77.1%, and 71.9% for the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. Finally, these results not only show the feasibility of OSA detection using a piezo-electric sensor, but also illustrate its usefulness for monitoring sleep and diagnosing OSA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Piezo-Phototronic Matrix via a Nanowire Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, demonstrate multiproperty coupling effects toward various aspects of mechanical, electrical, and optical excitation. In particular, the three-way coupling among semiconducting, photoexcitation, and piezoelectric characteristics in wurtzite-structured semiconductors is established as a new field, which was first coined as piezo-phototronics by Wang in 2010. The piezo-phototronic effect can controllably modulate the charge-carrier generation, separation, transport, and/or recombination in optical-electronic processes by modifying the band structure at the metal-semiconductor or semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction/interface. Here, the progress made in using the piezo-phototronic effect for enhancing photodetectors, pressure sensors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells is reviewed. In comparison with previous works on a single piezoelectric semiconducting nanowire, piezo-phototronic nanodevices built using nanowire arrays provide a promising platform for fabricating integrated optoelectronics with the realization of high-spatial-resolution imaging and fast responsivity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Extremely stable piezo mechanisms for the New Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Rijnveld, N.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Detection and observation of gravitational waves requires extreme stability in the frequency range 3e-5 Hz to 1 Hz. NGO/LISA will attain this by creating a giant interferometer in space, based on free floating proof masses in three spacecrafts. To operate NGO/LISA, the following piezo mechanisms are

  17. H∞ control of piezo actuated tilting mirror mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, J.

    2015-01-01

    In here the high bandwidth (2000 Hz.) feedback control of a precision mechanisms driven by a piezo actuator demanding a high absolute accuracy is discussed. The mechanism considered is rotating a mirror for laser bundle manipulation. It will be shown that a loopshaping controller design using the

  18. Titan after Cassini Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Erd, C.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, the Huygens Probe gave us a snapshot of a world tantalizingly like our own, yet frozen in its evolution on the threshold of life. The descent under parachute, like that of Huygens in 2005, is happening again, but this time in the Saturn-cast twilight of winter in Titan's northern reaches. With a pop, the parachute is released, and then a muffled splash signals the beginning of the first floating exploration of an extraterrestrial sea-this one not of water but of liquid hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, thousands of miles away, a hot air balloon, a "montgolfiere," cruises 6 miles above sunnier terrain, imaging vistas of dunes, river channels, mountains and valleys carved in water ice, and probing the subsurface for vast quantities of "missing" methane and ethane that might be hidden within a porous icy crust. Balloon and floater return their data to a Titan Orbiter equipped to strip away Titan's mysteries with imaging, radar profiling, and atmospheric sampling, much more powerful and more complete than Cassini was capable of. This spacecraft, preparing to enter a circular orbit around Saturn's cloud-shrouded giant moon, has just completed a series of flybys of Enceladus, a tiny but active world with plumes that blow water and organics from the interior into space. Specialized instruments on the orbiter were able to analyze these plumes directly during the flybys. Titan and Enceladus could hardly seem more different, and yet they are linked by their origin in the Saturn system, by a magnetosphere that sweeps up mass and delivers energy, and by the possibility that one or both worlds harbor life. It is the goal of the NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) to explore and investigate these exotic and inviting worlds, to understand their natures and assess the possibilities of habitability in this system so distant from our home world. Orbiting, landing, and ballooning at Titan represent a new and exciting approach to planetary exploration. The TSSM mission

  19. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  20. The Kinetics and the Permeation Properties of Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasambandam, R; Gottlieb, P A; Sachs, F

    2017-01-01

    Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation. Repeated stimulation can cause domain fracture and diffusion of these channels leading to synchronous loss of inactivation. The reconstituted channels spontaneously open only in asymmetric bilayers but lack inactivation. Mutations that cause hereditary xerocytosis alter PIEZO1 kinetics. The kinetics of the wild-type PIEZO1 and alterations thereof in mutants (M2225R, R2456K, and DhPIEZO1) are summarized in the form of a quantitative model and hosted online. The pore is permeable to alkali ions although Li + permeates poorly. Divalent cations, notably Ca 2+ , traverse the channel and inhibit the flux of monovalents. The large monovalent organic cations such as tetramethyl ammonium and tetraethyl ammonium can traverse the channel, but slowly, suggesting a pore diameter of ∼8Å, and the estimated in-plane area change upon opening is around 6-20nm 2 . Ruthenium red can enter the channel only from the extracellular side and seems to bind in a pocket close to residue 2496. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ionic Selectivity and Permeation Properties of Human PIEZO1 Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam

    Full Text Available Members of the eukaryotic PIEZO family (the human orthologs are noted hPIEZO1 and hPIEZO2 form cation-selective mechanically-gated channels. We characterized the selectivity of human PIEZO1 (hPIEZO1 for alkali ions: K+, Na+, Cs+ and Li+; organic cations: TMA and TEA, and divalents: Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. All monovalent ions permeated the channel. At a membrane potential of -100 mV, Cs+, Na+ and K+ had chord conductances in the range of 35-55 pS with the exception of Li+, which had a significantly lower conductance of ~ 23 pS. The divalents decreased the single-channel permeability of K+, presumably because the divalents permeated slowly and occupied the open channel for a significant fraction of the time. In cell-attached mode, 90 mM extracellular divalents had a conductance for inward currents carried by the divalents of: 25 pS for Ba2+ and 15 pS for Ca2+ at -80 mV and 10 pS for Mg2+ at -50 mV. The organic cations, TMA and TEA, permeated slowly and attenuated K+ currents much like the divalents. As expected, the channel K+ conductance increased with K+ concentration saturating at ~ 45 pS and the KD of K+ for the channel was 32 mM. Pure divalent ion currents were of lower amplitude than those with alkali ions and the channel opening rate was lower in the presence of divalents than in the presence of monovalents. Exposing cells to the actin disrupting reagent cytochalasin D increased the frequency of openings in cell-attached patches probably by reducing mechanoprotection.

  2. Non-aqueous electrochemical deposition of lead zirconate titanate films for flexible sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sherin; Kumar, A. V. Ramesh; John, Reji

    2017-11-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the most important piezoelectric materials widely used for underwater sensors. However, PZTs are hard and non-compliant and hence there is an overwhelming attention devoted toward making it flexible by preparing films on flexible substrates by different routes. In this work, the electrochemical deposition of composition controlled PZT films over flexible stainless steel (SS) foil substrates using non-aqueous electrolyte dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was carried out. Effects of various key parameters involved in electrochemical deposition process such as current density and time of deposition were studied. It was found that a current density of 25 mA/cm2 for 5 min gave a good film. The morphology and topography evaluation of the films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, which showed a uniform morphology with a surface roughness of 2 nm. The PZT phase formation was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corroborated with Raman spectroscopic studies. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, hysteresis and I-V characteristics of the film was evaluated.

  3. Performance and Mechanism of Piezo-Catalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol: Finding of Effective Piezo-Dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shenyu; Feng, Jinxi; Xiong, Ya; Tian, Shuanghong; Liu, Shengwei; Kong, Lingjun

    2017-06-06

    Piezo-catalysis was first used to degrade a nondye pollutant, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). In this process, hydrothermally synthesized tetragonal BaTiO 3 nano/micrometer-sized particles were used as the piezo-catalyst, and the ultrasonic irradiation with low frequency was selected as the vibration energy to cause the deformation of tetragonal BaTiO 3 . It was found that the piezoelectric potential from the deformation could not only successfully degrade 4-chlorophenol but also effectively dechlorinate it at the same time, and five kinds of dechlorinated intermediates, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, phenol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol, were determined. This is the first sample of piezo-dechlorination. Although various active species, including h + , e - , •H, •OH, •O 2 - , 1 O 2 , and H 2 O 2 , were generated in the piezoelectric process, it was confirmed by ESR, scavenger studies, and LC-MS that the degradation and dechlorination were mainly attributed to •OH radicals. These •OH radicals were chiefly derived from the electron reduction of O 2 , partly from the hole oxidation of H 2 O. These results indicated that the piezo-catalysis was an emerging and effective advanced oxidation technology for degradation and dechlorination of organic pollutants.

  4. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on texture development in lead zirconate titanate thin films processed from metalorganic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Jarrod L.; Liedl, Gerald L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.

    1999-01-01

    Metalorganic liquid precursors were used to examine the effects of processing atmosphere on texture development in oriented Pb(Zr 0.60 Ti 0.40 )O 3 thin films. After removal of organic ligands via pyrolysis, the films were heated at 25 degree sign C/min in a 5% H 2 /Ar atmosphere until a switching temperature, after which the atmosphere was switched to pure oxygen. The films were heated to a maximum temperature of 650 degree sign C with switching temperatures ranging from 450 to 600 degree sign C. The degree of (111) orientation in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films increased with increasing switching temperature, resulting in highly textured (111) PZT films. These results suggest that atmosphere control plays a significant role in texture development during rapid thermal processing. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  5. Fracture mechanisms in ferroelectric-ferroelastic lead zirconate titanate (Zr:Ti = 0.54:0.46) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Virkar, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Fracture toughness, K IC , of a single-phase commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic of tetragonal structure was measured using the single edge notched beam method above and below the Curie temperature. Domain switching (poling) under electrical and mechanical loading was examined using x-ray diffraction. Surface grinding, electrical poling, and mechanical poling caused crystallographic texture. Similar texture, indicative of domain switching, was also observed on fracture surfaces of some samples fractured at room temperature. At room temperature, the highest K IC measured was 1.85 MPa · m 1/2 , while above the Curie temperature it was about 1.0 MPa · m 1/2 . Cracks emanating from Vickers indents in poled samples were different in the poling and the transverse directions. The difference in crack sizes is explained on the basis of domain switching during crack growth. These results indicate that ferroelastic domain switching (twinning) is a viable toughening mechanism in the PZT materials tested

  6. Determination of temperature dependence of piezoelectric coefficients matrix of lead zirconate titanate ceramics by quasi-static and resonance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Yao Xi, E-mail: lifei1216@gmail.co [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-05-07

    The piezoelectric coefficients (d{sub 33}, -d{sub 31}, d{sub 15}, g{sub 33}, -g{sub 31}, g{sub 15}) of soft and hard lead zirconate titanate ceramics were measured by the quasi-static and resonance methods, at temperatures from 20 to 300 {sup 0}C. The results showed that the piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33}, -d{sub 31} and d{sub 15} obtained by these two methods increased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics, while the piezoelectric coefficients g{sub 33}, -g{sub 31} and g{sub 15} decreased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics. In this paper, the observed results were also discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric response.

  7. Cryovolcanism on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, G.; Showman, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Lopes, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing observations yield evidence for cryovolcanism on Titan, and evolutionary models support (but do not require) the presence of an ammonia-water subsurface ocean. The impetus for invoking ammonia as a constituent in an internal ocean and cryovolcanic magma comes from two factors. First, ammonia-water liquid has a lower freezing temperature than pure liquid water, enabling cryovolcanism under the low- temperature conditions prevalent in the outer Solar System. Second, pure water is negatively buoyant with respect to pure water ice, which discourages eruption from the subsurface ocean to the surface. In contrast, the addition of ammonia to the water decreases its density, hence lessening this problem of negative buoyancy. A marginally positive buoyant ammonia-water mixture might allow effusive eruptions from a subsurface ocean. If the subsurface ocean were positively buoyant, all the ammonia would have been erupted very early in Titan's history. Contrary to this scenario, Cassini-Huygens has so far observed neither a global abundance nor a complete dearth of cryovolcanic features. Further, an ancient cryovolcanic epoch cannot explain the relative youth of Titan's surface. Crucial to invoking ammonia-water resurfacing as the source of the apparently recent geological activity is not how to make ammonia-water volcanism work (because the near neutral buoyancy of the ammonia-water mixture encourages an explanation), but rather how to prevent eruption from occurring so easily that cryovolcanic activity is over early on. Although cryovolcanism by ammonia-water has been proposed as a resurfacing process on Titan, few models have specifically dealt with the problem of how to transport ammonia-water liquid onto the surface. We proposed a model of cryovolcanism that involve cracking at the base of the ice shell and formation of ammonia-water pockets in the ice. While the ammonia-water pockets cannot easily become neutral buoyant and promote effusive eruptions

  8. Acetylene on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Cornet, Thomas; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Clark, Roger Nelson; Maltagliati, Luca; Chevrier, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Titan possesses a thick atmosphere that is mainly composed of N2 (98%), CH4 (2 % overall, but 4.9% close to the surface) and less than 1% of minor species, mostly hydrocarbons [1]. A dissociation of N2 and CH4 forms complex hydrocarbons in the atmsophere and acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are produced most abundently. Since years, C2H2 has been speculated to exist on the surface of Titan based on its high production rate in the stratosphere predicted by photochemical models [2,3] and from its detection as trace gas sublimated/evaporated from the surface after the landing of the Huygens probe by the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) [1]. Here we show evidence of acetylene (C2H2) on the surface of Titan by detecting absorption bands at 1.55 µm and 4.93 µm using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) [4] at equatorial areas of eastern Shangri-La, and Fensal-Aztlan/Quivira.An anti-correlation of absorption band strength with albedo indicates greater concentrations of C2H2 in the dark terrains, such as sand dunes and near the Huygens landing site. The specific location of the C2H2 detections suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering by liquids through dissolution/evaporation processes.References:[1]Niemann et al., Nature 438, 779-784 (2005).[2]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 67 - 99 (2008).[3]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 27 - 66 (2008).[4] Brown et al., The Cassini-Huygens Mission 111-168 (Springer, 2004).

  9. Titan's Radioactive Haze : Production and Fate of Radiocarbon On Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Jull, A. J. T.; Swindle, T. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    Just as cosmic rays interact with nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere of Earth to gener- ate radiocarbon (14C), the same process should occur in Titan`s nitrogen-rich atmo- sphere. Titan`s atmosphere is thick enough that cosmic ray flux, rather than nitrogen column depth, limits the production of 14 C. Absence of a strong magnetic field and the increased distance from the sun suggest production rates of 9 atom/cm2/s, approx- imately 4 times higher than Earth. On Earth the carbon is rapidly oxidised into CO2. The fate and detectability of 14C on Titan depends on the chemical species into which it is incorporated in Titan's reducing atmosphere : as methane it would be hopelessly diluted even in only the atmosphere (ignoring the other, much more massive carbon reservoirs likely to be present on Titan, like hydrocarbon lakes.) However, in the more likely case that the 14C attaches to the haze that rains out onto the surface (as tholin, HCN or acetylene and their polymers - a much smaller carbon reservoir) , haze in the atmosphere or recently deposited on the surface would therefore be quite intrinsically radioactive. Such activity may modify the haze electrical charging and hence its coag- ulation. Measurements with compact instrumentation on future in-situ missions could place useful constraints on the mass deposition rates of photochemical material on the surface and identify locations where surface deposits of such material are `freshest`.

  10. Stress- and temperature-dependent scaling behavior of dynamic hysteresis in soft PZT bulk ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yimnirun, R; Wongsaenmai, S; Wongmaneerung, R; Wongdamnern, N; Ngamjarurojana, A; Ananta, S; Laosiritaworn, Y

    2007-01-01

    Effects of electric field-frequency, electric field-amplitude, mechanical stress, and temperature on the hysteresis area, especially the scaling form, were investigated in soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) bulk ceramics. The hysteresis area was found to depend on the frequency and field-amplitude with the same set of exponents as the power-law scaling for both with and without stresses. The inclusion of stresses into the power-law was obtained in the form of σ=0 > ∝ f -0.25 E 0 σ 0.45 which indicates the difference in energy dissipation between the under-stress and stress-free conditions. The power-law temperature scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (A) and remanent polarization P r , while the coercivity E C was found to scale linearly with temperature T. The three temperature scaling relations were also field-dependent. At fixed field amplitude E 0 , the scaling relations take the forms of ∝ T -1.1024 , P r ∼T -1.2322 and (E C0 - E C ) ∼T

  11. Compensator design for hysteresis of a stacked PZT actuator using a congruency-based hysteresis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a rate-independent hysteresis compensator for a stacked PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuator. From a congruency-based hysteresis (CBH) model which is derived from the inherent properties of this actuator, especially the congruency, a feedforward compensator associated with it is developed. The formulation of the proposed compensator is based on an assumption that the inverse operator also possesses the same properties as the CBH model does. This implies that the compensator also possesses properties such as the wiped-out loop closing between the consecutive control points and congruency. Consequently, the expressions for the compensator can be conducted by exploiting the equations for the CBH model in two cases of monotonic increase and monotonic decrease of input excitation. In order to assess the performance of the compensator, several experiments in both open-loop and closed-loop controls are undertaken. In the open-loop control experiment, the performance of the feedforward compensator using the CBH model is compared with the classical Preisach model-based one in three cases of reference waveforms. In the closed-loop control experiment, the proposed compensator is incorporated into a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control system and the performance of this integrated system is then evaluated and compared to that of the PID with and without compensator. (paper)

  12. The role of Drosophila Piezo in mechanical nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Coste, Bertrand; Chadha, Abhishek; Cook, Boaz; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-02-19

    Transduction of mechanical stimuli by receptor cells is essential for senses such as hearing, touch and pain. Ion channels have a role in neuronal mechanotransduction in invertebrates; however, functional conservation of these ion channels in mammalian mechanotransduction is not observed. For example, no mechanoreceptor potential C (NOMPC), a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family, acts as a mechanotransducer in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans; however, it has no orthologues in mammals. Degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family members are mechanotransducers in C. elegans and potentially in D. melanogaster; however, a direct role of its mammalian homologues in sensing mechanical force has not been shown. Recently, Piezo1 (also known as Fam38a) and Piezo2 (also known as Fam38b) were identified as components of mechanically activated channels in mammals. The Piezo family are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins. It is unknown whether they function in mechanical sensing in vivo and, if they do, which mechanosensory modalities they mediate. Here we study the physiological role of the single Piezo member in D. melanogaster (Dmpiezo; also known as CG8486). Dmpiezo expression in human cells induces mechanically activated currents, similar to its mammalian counterparts. Behavioural responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were severely reduced in Dmpiezo knockout larvae, whereas responses to another noxious stimulus or touch were not affected. Knocking down Dmpiezo in sensory neurons that mediate nociception and express the DEG/ENaC ion channel pickpocket (ppk) was sufficient to impair responses to noxious mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, expression of Dmpiezo in these same neurons rescued the phenotype of the constitutive Dmpiezo knockout larvae. Accordingly, electrophysiological recordings from ppk-positive neurons revealed a Dmpiezo-dependent, mechanically activated current. Finally, we found that Dmpiezo

  13. Titan's Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  14. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  15. Combined application of FBG and PZT sensors for plantar pressure monitoring at low and high speed walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R; Bhalla, S; Singh, C; Kaur, N; Hao, J; Anand, S

    2015-01-01

    Clinical monitoring of planar pressure is vital in several pathological conditions, such as diabetes, where excess pressure might have serious repercussions on health of the patient, even to the extent of amputation. The main objective of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the combined application of the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) and the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic sensors for plantar pressure monitoring during walk at low and high speeds. For fabrication of the pressure sensors, the FBGs are embedded within layers of carbon composite material and stacked in an arc shape. From this embedding technique, average pressure sensitivity of 1.3 pm/kPa and resolution of nearly 0.8 kPa is obtained. These sensors are found to be suitable for measuring the static and the low-speed walk generated foot pressure. Simultaneously, PZT patches of size 10 × 10 × 0.3 mm were used as sensors, utilizing the d_{33} (thickness) coupling mode. A sensitivity of 7.06 mV/kPa and a pressure resolution of 0.14 kPa is obtained from these sensors, which are found to be suitable for foot pressure measurement during high speed walking and running. Both types of sensors are attached to the underside of the sole of commercially available shoes. In the experiments, a healthy male subject walks/runs over the treadmill wearing the fabricated shoes at various speeds and the peak pressure is measured using both the sensors. Commercially available low-cost hardware is used for interrogation of the two sensor types. The test results clearly show the feasibility of the FBG and the PZT sensors for measurement of plantar pressure. The PZT sensors are more accurate for measurement of pressure during walking at high speeds. The FBG sensors, on the other hand, are found to be suitable for static and quasi-dynamic (slow walking) conditions. Typically, the measured pressure varied from 400 to 600 kPa below the forefoot and 100 to 1000 kPa below the heel as the walking speed varied from 1

  16. Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jong Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  17. Flexible PZT thin film tactile sensor for biomedical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-04-25

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  18. PZT crack detection in suspension-based dual stage actuator [for HDDs

    CERN Document Server

    Yung Ping Yeh; Ku, C

    2000-01-01

    An impedance method is proposed to detect cracks of PZT bars in suspension based dual stage-actuators. The frequency response amplitude of impedance at the resonance of 1.95 MHz, the PZT bar width extension mode, was very sensitive to the cracks in PZT material. As cracks in the PZT bars propagated from invisible micro cracks to visible macro cracks, the impedance gain at 1.95 MHz dropped suddenly. (3 refs).

  19. All-thin-film PZT/FeGa Multiferroic Cantilevers and Their Applications in Switching Devices and Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Onuta, Tiberiu-Dan; Long, Chris; Lofland, Samuel; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    We are investigating the characteristics of microfabricated PZT/FeGa multiferroic cantilevers. The cantilevers can be driven by AC or DC magnetic and electric field, and the device response can be read off as a piezo-induced voltage. We can use the multiple input parameters to operate the devices in a variety of manners for different applications. They include electromagnetic energy harvesting, pulse triggered nonlinear memory devices, and parametrically amplified ME sensors. Due to the competition of anisotropy and Zeeman energies, the mechanical resonant frequency of the cantilevers was found to follow a hysteresis behavior with DC bias magnetic field applied in the cantilever easy axis. We can also control and tune the occurrence of nonlinear bifurcation in the frequency spectrum. The resulting hysteresis in the frequency spectrum can be used to make switching devices, where the input can be DC electric and magnetic fields, as well as pulses of AC fields. We have also demonstrated parametric pumping of the response from an AC magnetic field using frequency-doubled AC electric field. The enhanced equivalent ME coefficient is as high as 10 million V/(cm*Oe), when the pumping voltage is very close to a threshold voltage. The quality factor also increases from 2000 to 80000 with pumping.

  20. A Comparison of Electrolytic Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Comparison of Electrolytic Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting by Matthew H. Ervin, Carlos M. Pereira, John R...Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting Matthew H. Ervin Sensors and Electronic Devices Directorate, ARL Carlos M. Pereira... Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew H

  1. The Function of the Novel Mechanical Activated Ion Channel Piezo1 in the Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Long; Zhao, Yi-ding; Chen, Wei-xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background The Piezo1 protein ion channel is a novel mechanical activated ion channel which is related to mechanical signal transduction. However, the function of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1 had not been explored. In this study, we explored the function of the Piezo1 ion channel in human osteosarcoma (OS) cells related to apoptosis, invasion, and the cell proliferation. Material/Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western-blotting were used t...

  2. Humidity and polarity influence on MIM PZT capacitor degradation and breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiahui; Salm, Cora; Houwman, Evert; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Nguyen, Minh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability study on unpackaged metal-PZT-metal capacitors. Both ramped voltage stress (RVS) and time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) measurements show that environmental humidity dramatically worsens the PZT reliability. Visible breakdown spots on the surface of PZT

  3. Using piezo-electric material to simulate a vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Richard A.; Davie, Neil T.; Vangoethem, Douglas J.; Romero, Edward F.

    2010-12-14

    A target object can be vibrated using actuation that exploits the piezo-electric ("PE") property. Under combined conditions of vibration and centrifugal acceleration, a centrifugal load of the target object on PE vibration actuators can be reduced by using a counterweight that offsets the centrifugal loading. Target objects are also subjected to combinations of: spin, vibration, and acceleration; spin and vibration; and spin and acceleration.

  4. Nonlinear wave beams in a piezo semiconducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdoev, A.G.; Shekoyan, A.V.; Danoyan, Z.N.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of quasi-monochromatic nonlinear wave in a piezo semiconducting layer taking into account electron-concentration nonlinearity is considered. For such medium the evolution equations for incoming and reflected waves are derived. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations and solutions for narrow beams are obtained. It is shown that symmetry of incoming and reflected waves does not take place. The focusing of beams is investigated.18 refs

  5. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  6. X-ray and neutron scattering on disordered nanosize clusters: a case study of lead-zirconate-titanate solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Yukari [Finnish Research and Engineering, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-04-01

    Defects and frequently used defect models of solids are reviewed. Signatures for identifying the disorder from x-ray and neutron scattering data are given. To give illustrative examples how technologically important defects contribute to x-ray and neutron scattering numerical method able to treat non-periodical solids possessing several simultaneous defect types is given for simulating scattering in nanosize disordered clusters. The approach takes particle size, shape, and defects into account and isolates element specific signals. As a case study a statistical approximation model for lead-zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3}, PZT] is introduced. PZT is a material possessing several defect types, including substitutional, displacement and surface defects. Spatial composition variation is taken into account by introducing a model in which the edge lengths of each cell depend on the distribution of Zr and Ti ions in the cluster. Spatially varying edge lengths and angles is referred to as microstrain. The model is applied to compute the scattering from ellipsoid shaped PZT clusters and to simulate the structural changes as a function of average composition. Two-phase co-existence range, the so called morphotropic phase boundary composition is given correctly. The composition at which the rhombohedral and tetragonal cells are equally abundant was x ∼ 0.51. Selected x-ray and neutron Bragg reflection intensities and line shapes were simulated. Examples of the effect of size and shape of the scattering clusters on diffraction patterns are given and the particle dimensions, computed through Scherrer equation, are compared with the exact cluster dimensions. Scattering from two types of 180 domains in spherical particles, one type assigned to Ti-rich PZT and the second to the MPB and Zr-rich PZT, is computed. We show how the method can be used for modelling polarization reversal. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  8. Mechanical regulation of stem-cell differentiation by the stretch-activated Piezo channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Si, Guangwei; Huang, Jiuhong; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Perrimon, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells. Loss of Piezo activity reduces the generation of enteroendocrine cells in the adult midgut. In addition, ectopic expression of Piezo in all stem cells triggers both cell proliferation and enteroendocrine cell differentiation. Both the Piezo mutant and overexpression phenotypes can be rescued by manipulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, and increases in cytosolic Ca 2+ resemble the Piezo overexpression phenotype, suggesting that Piezo functions through Ca 2+ signalling. Further studies suggest that Ca 2+ signalling promotes stem-cell proliferation and differentiation through separate pathways. Finally, Piezo is required for both mechanical activation of stem cells in a gut expansion assay and the increase of cytosolic Ca 2+ in response to direct mechanical stimulus in a gut compression assay. Thus, our study demonstrates the existence of a specific group of stem cells in the fly midgut that can directly sense mechanical signals through Piezo.

  9. Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-02-19

    Mechanotransduction has an important role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require as-yet-unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse Piezo1 (MmPiezo1) and MmPiezo2 (also called Fam38a and Fam38b, respectively) induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown whether Piezo proteins are pore-forming ion channels or modulate ion channels. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Piezo (DmPiezo, also called CG8486) also induces mechanically activated currents in cells, but through channels with remarkably distinct pore properties including sensitivity to the pore blocker ruthenium red and single channel conductances. MmPiezo1 assembles as a ∼1.2-million-dalton homo-oligomer, with no evidence of other proteins in this complex. Purified MmPiezo1 reconstituted into asymmetric lipid bilayers and liposomes forms ruthenium-red-sensitive ion channels. These data demonstrate that Piezo proteins are an evolutionarily conserved ion channel family involved in mechanotransduction.

  10. Features of the piezo-phototronic effect on optoelectronic devices based on wurtzite semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wu, Yuanpeng; Liu, Ying; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-02-21

    The piezo-phototronic effect, a three way coupling effect of piezoelectric, semiconductor and photonic properties in non-central symmetric semiconductor materials, utilizing the piezo-potential as a "gate" voltage to tune the charge transport/generation/recombination and modulate the performance of optoelectronic devices, has formed a new field and attracted lots of interest recently. The mechanism was verified in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells etc. The fast development and dramatic increasing interest in the piezo-phototronic field not only demonstrate the way the piezo-phototronic effects work, but also indicate the strong need for further research in the physical mechanism and potential applications. Furthermore, it is important to distinguish the contribution of the piezo-phototronic effect from other factors induced by external strain such as piezoresistance, band shifting or contact area change, which also affect the carrier behaviour and device performance. In this perspective, we review our recent progress on piezo-phototronics and especially focus on pointing out the features of piezo-phototronic effect in four aspects: I-V characteristics; c-axis orientation; influence of illumination; and modulation of carrier behaviour. Finally we proposed several criteria for describing the contribution made by the piezo-phototronic effect to the performance of optoelectronic devices. This systematic analysis and comparison will not only help give an in-depth understanding of the piezo-phototronic effect, but also work as guide for the design of devices in related areas.

  11. Effects of impurities on PZT ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y J; Kim, H N

    1982-01-01

    The grain growth, dielectric constants, piezoelectric properties, and resistivity of Pb(Zr/sub 0.52/ Ti/sub 0.48/)+0.008La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (or Nb/sub 2/.O/sub 5/)+xFe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ceramics have been investigated as a function of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content. The grain size decreases up to 0.05 (or 0.1) mole % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, but increases in the further region. This can be interpreted as such that the grain growth is not retarded by those impurities when the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content approaches the La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (or Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/) content because of the formation of La/sup 3 +/ (or Nb/sup 5 +/)-Fe/sup 3 +/ ion pairs. The dielectric constant has a maximum at 0.2 mole % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and decreases as the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content increases from that composition. The grain size effect is dominant in the variation of dielectric constant up 0.2 mole % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The resistivity of the ceramics of which the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content is 0.8 mole % shows the same tendency as that of the pure PZT ceramics, and it can be concluded that complete compensation of the donor and the acceptor has occurred.

  12. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  14. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos; Paiva-Santos, C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  15. Antiferrodistortive phase transitions and ground state of PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Dhananjai

    2013-01-01

    The ground state of the technologically important Pb(Zr x Ti (1-x) )O 3 , commonly known as PZT, ceramics is currently under intense debate. The phase diagram of this material shows a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) for x∼0.52 at 300K, across which a composition induced structural phase transition occurs leading to maximization of the piezoelectric properties. In search for the true ground state of the PZT in the MPB region, Beatrix Noheda and coworkers first discovered a phase transition from tetragonal (space group P4mm) to an M A type monoclinic phase (space group Cm) at low temperatures for x=0.52. Soon afterwards, we discovered yet another low temperature phase transition for the same composition in which the M A type (Cm) monoclinic phase transforms to another monoclinic phase with Cc space group. We have shown that the Cm to Cc phase transition is an antiferrodistortive (AFD) transition involving tilting of oxygen octahedra leading to unit cell doubling and causing appearance of superlattice reflections which are observable in the electron and neutron diffraction patterns only and not in the XRD patterns, as a result of which Noheda and coworkers missed the Cc phase in their synchrotron XRD studies at low temperatures. Our findings were confirmed by leading groups using neutron, TEM, Raman and high pressure diffraction studies. The first principles calculations also confirmed that the true ground state of PZT in the MPB region has Cc space group. However, in the last couple of years, the Cc space group of the ground state has become controversial with an alternative proposal of R3c as the space group of the ground state phase which is proposed to coexist with the metastable Cm phase. In order to resolve this controversy, we recently revisited the issue using pure PZT and 6% Sr 2+ substituted PZT, the latter samples show larger tilt angle on account of the reduction in the average cationic radius at the Pb 2+ site. Using high wavelength neutrons and high

  16. The age of Titan's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2010-04-01

    High-resolution images of the surface of Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft reveal a world with an extreme paucity of impact craters. Planetary surfaces are commonly dated by dividing the number of impact craters by the estimated impactor flux, but this approach has been confounded at Titan by several difficulties. First, high-resolution imaging of the surface of Titan is far from complete (in the near-infrared as well as radar). As of December 2007, Cassini RADAR images covered only 22% of its surface. However, we can use Monte-Carlo models to explore how many craters of a given size (with large or very large craters being of particular interest) may be present in the unobserved areas. Second, literature descriptions of the crater formation rate (e.g. Korycansky and Zahnle 2005 and Artemieva and Lunine 2005) are apparently not in agreement. We discuss possible resolutions. Third, since surface modification processes are ongoing, the actual number of craters on Titan's surface remains uncertain, as craters may be eroded beyond recognition, or obscured by lakes or sand seas. In this connection, we use the Earth as an analogue. The Earth is in many ways the most "Titan-like" world in the solar system, with extensive modification by erosion, burial, tectonism, and volcanism. We compare the observed number of terrestrial craters to the expected terrestrial impactor flux to determine the crater reduction factor for a world similar to Titan. From this information, we can back out the actual number of craters on Titan's surface and estimate its crater retention age. An accurate age estimate will be critical for constraining models of Titan's formation and evolution.

  17. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  18. Chemistry in Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessis, S.; Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the chemical composition of Titan's ionosphere is a very challenging issue. Latest works perform either inversion of CASSINI's INMS mass spectra (neutral[1] or ion[2]), or design coupled ion-neutral chemistry models[3]. Coupling ionic and neutral chemistry has been reported to be an essential feature of accurate modelling[3]. Electron Dissociative Recombination (EDR), where free electrons recombine with positive ions to produce neutral species, is a key component of ion-neutral coupling. There is a major difficulty in EDR modelling: for heavy ions, the distribution of neutral products is incompletely characterized by experiments. For instance, for some hydrocarbon ions only the carbon repartition is measured, leaving the hydrogen repartition and thus the exact neutral species identity unknown[4]. This precludes reliable deterministic modelling of this process and of ion-neutral coupling. We propose a novel stochastic description of the EDR chemical reactions which enables efficient representation and simulation of the partial experimental knowledge. The description of products distribution in multi-pathways reactions is based on branching ratios, which should sum to unity. The keystone of our approach is the design of a probability density function accounting for all available informations and physical constrains. This is done by Dirichlet modelling which enables one to sample random variables whose sum is constant[5]. The specifics of EDR partial uncertainty call for a hierarchiral Dirichlet representation, which generalizes our previous work[5]. We present results on the importance of ion-neutral coupling based on our stochastic model. C repartition H repartition (measured) (unknown ) → C4H2 + 3H2 + H .. -→ C4 . → C4H2 + 7H → C3H8. + CH C4H+9 + e- -→ C3 + C .. → C3H3 + CH2 + 2H2 → C2H6 + C2H2 + H .. -→ C2 + C2 . → 2C2H2 + 2H2 + H (1) References [1] J. Cui, R.V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J.H. Waite Jr., W.T. Kasprzak

  19. Methane rain on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Courtin, Regis; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is characterized by means of model computations based on Voyager IRIS IR spectra and published data from laboratory determinations of absorption coefficients and cloud refractive indices. The results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is pointed out that the presence of Ar is not required in the model. Particular attention is given to the role of CH4, which is found to form patchy clouds (with particle radii of 50 microns or greater and visible/IR optical depths of 2-5) at altitudes up to about 30 km. The mechanisms by which such rain-sized particles could form are discussed, and it is suggested that the observed 500-600/cm spectrum is affected much less by the CH4 clouds than by H2 or variations in the temperature of the high-altitude haze.

  20. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.

  1. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures

  2. A new dimension for piezo actuators: free-form out-of-plane displacement of single piezo layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapler, Matthias C; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We present a controlled mode of ‘topological’ displacement of homogeneous piezo films that arises solely from an inhomogeneous in-plane strain due to an inhomogeneous polarization. For the rotationally symmetric case, we develop a theoretical model that analytically relates the shape of the displacement to the polarization for the cases of in-plane and out-of-plane polarization. This is verified experimentally for several examples, and we further demonstrate controlled asymmetric deformations. (fast track communication)

  3. Using microwave for processing nanostructured PZT ceramics; Utilizacao de microondas no processamento de ceramicas nanoestruturadas de PZT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, A.C.; Berti, T.G.; Thomazini, D.; Gelfuso, M.V., E-mail: lanza.work@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica; Eiras, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    The PZT ceramics have dielectric and piezoelectric properties of technological interest. The method of microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis becomes interesting since it occurs in a closed environment, the low temperature and time, compared to conventional methods. In this work, PZT powders were dissolved in acid medium, and by adjusting the pH of the solutions obtained were precipitated, subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 120 °C for intervals of 15, 30 and 60 min. The powders were characterized by differential thermal and gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results confirm the formation of PZT phase in one hour with particle size around 55 nm, showing the feasibility of the proposed method. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics; Sintese e caracterizacao do PZT dopado com W ou Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho e Tecnologia. Curso de Desenho Industrial; Paiva-Santos, C.O., E-mail: denilson@ufma.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  5. Piezo-sensor self-diagnostics using electrical impedance measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Rutherford, A. C. (Amanda C.); Robertson, A. N. (Amy N.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper present the piezoelectric sensor self-diagnostic procedure that performs in-situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric materials (PZT) used for sensors and actuators in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The use of active-sensing piezoelectric materials has received considerable attention in the SHM community. A critical aspect of the piezoelectric active-sensing technologies is that usually large numbers of distributed sensors and actuators are needed to perform the required monitoring process. The sensor/actuator self-diagnostic procedure, where the sensors/actuators are confirmed to be functioning properly during operation, is therefore a critical component to successfully complete the SHM process and to minimize the false indication regarding the structural health. The basis of this procedure is to track the changes in the capacitive value of piezoelectric materials resulting from the sensor failure, which is manifested in the imaginary part of the measured electrical admittances. Furthermore, through the analytical and experimental investigation, it is confirmed that the bonding layer between the PZT and a host structure significantly contributes to the measured capacitive values. Therefore, by monitoring the imaginary part of the admittances, one can quantitatively assess the degradation of the mechanical/electrical properties of the PZT and its attachment to a host structure. This paper concludes with an experimental example to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sensor-diagnostic procedure.

  6. Nonlinear current-voltage behavior in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Li, Shida; Zhang, Ping; Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were prepared by sol-gel synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage measurements. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the outstanding ferroelectric and dielectric properties, the PZT films also have remarkably nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Considering the contact of semi-conductive grains in the PZT films, a double Schottky barrier (DSB) model may be responsible for such phenomena. The test results show that with the decrease of annealing temperature and the increase of the film thickness, the threshold voltages (V{sub th}) increase obviously. The maximum V{sub th} value of 60.95 V and the minimum value of 6.9 V in our experiments were obtained from the five-layered samples annealed at 600 C and the two-layered samples annealed at 700 C, respectively. As a result, PZT thin film may lead to efficient switching and sensing devices. (orig.)

  7. Mechanically activated synthesis of PZT and its electromechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Riman, R. E.

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical activation was successfully used to synthesize nanostructured phase-pure Pb(Zr0.7Ti0.3)O3 (PZT) powders. Lead zirconium titanium (PbZrTi) hydrous oxide precursor, synthesized from chemical co-precipitation, was mechanically activated in a NaCl matrix. The synthesized PZT particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser-light diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to monitor dehydration and phase transformation of PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor during mechanical activation. The best mechanical activation conditions corresponded to mechanically activating PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor in a NaCl matrix with a NaCl/precursor weight ratio of 4:1 for 8 h. These conditions resulted in a dispersible phase-pure PZT powder with a median secondary-particle size of ˜110 nm. The properties of PZT 70/30 from mechanically activated powder, as measured on discs sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h, were found to be in close conformity to those obtained by a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction route.

  8. Triaxial MEMS accelerometer with screen printed PZT thick film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, Simon Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    . In this work integration of a screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick film with silicon MEMS technology is shown. A high bandwidth triaxial accelerometer has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The voltage sensitivity is 0.31 mV/g in the vertical direction, 0.062 mV/g in the horizontal direction...

  9. Mechanically activated synthesis of PZT and its electromechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Akdogan, E.K.; Safari, A.; Riman, R.E. [Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Department of Ceramic and Materials Engineering, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical activation was successfully used to synthesize nanostructured phase-pure Pb(Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3})O{sub 3} (PZT) powders. Lead-zirconium-titanium (PbZrTi) hydrous oxide precursor, synthesized from chemical co-precipitation, was mechanically activated in a NaCl matrix. The synthesized PZT particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser-light diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to monitor dehydration and phase transformation of PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor during mechanical activation. The best mechanical activation conditions corresponded to mechanically activating PbZrTi hydrous oxide precursor in a NaCl matrix with a NaCl/precursor weight ratio of 4:1 for 8 h. These conditions resulted in a dispersible phase-pure PZT powder with a median secondary-particle size of {proportional_to}110 nm. The properties of PZT 70/30 from mechanically activated powder, as measured on discs sintered at 1150 C for 2 h, were found to be in close conformity to those obtained by a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction route. (orig.)

  10. Conventional and two step sintering of PZT-PCN ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mostafa; Rahmani, Hooman; Nemati, Ali; Hashemi, Mahdieh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, PZT-PCN ceramic was made via sol-gel seeding method and effects of conventional sintering (CS) as well as two-step sintering (TSS) were investigated on microstructure, phase formation, density, dielectric and piezoelectric properties. First, high quality powder was achieved by seeding method in which the mixture of Co3O4 and Nb2O5 powder was added to the prepared PZT sol to form PZT-PCN gel. After drying and calcination, pyrochlore free PZT-PCN powder was synthesized. Second, CS and TSS were applied to achieve dense ceramic. The optimum temperature used for 2 h of conventional sintering was obtained at 1150 °C; finally, undesired ZrO2 phase formed in CS procedure was removed successfully with TSS procedure and dielectric and piezoelectric properties were improved compared to the CS procedure. The best electrical properties obtained for the sample sintered by TSS in the initial temperature of T 1 = 1200 °C and secondary temperature of T 2 = 1000 °C for 12 h.

  11. Far infrared and Raman response in tetragonal PZT ceramic films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Vaněk, Přemysl; Drnovšek, S.; Uršič, H.; Malič, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2015), s. 219-224 ISSN 0366-3175 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dielectric response * phonons * FIR spectroscopy * time-domain THz spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * effective medium * PZT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2015

  12. Phase transitions in PZT ceramics prepared by different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, 11B (2002), s. 6966-6968 ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT * phase transitions * band gap * ferroelectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2002

  13. Presentation and characterization of novel thick-film PZT microactuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvet, Vincent; Habineza, Didace, E-mail: didace.habineza@femto-st.fr; Rakotondrabe, Micky; Clévy, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    We propose in this paper the characterization of a new generation of piezoelectric cantilevers called thick-films piezoelectric actuators. Based on the bonding and thinning process of a bulk PZT layer onto a silicon layer, these cantilevers can provide better static and dynamic performances compared to traditional piezocantilevers, additionally to the small dimensions.

  14. Ellipsometry non-destructive technique for PZT thin films investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Soukup, Ladislav

    11-12, - (2000), s. 329-331 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT * J.A. Wollam spectral ellipsometer * refractive index depth profiels Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul, E-mail: janine.conde@epfl.ch [Department of Materials Science, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {l_brace}100{r_brace} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  16. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. To better plan this mission and create a...

  17. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. In order to better plan this mission and...

  18. The amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrarov, S.M.; Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors. The modulator based on laser diode and the emission amplitude modulation of which is performed by electric field impact on antireflection piezo films applied on mirrors was studied.

  19. The atmospheric temperature structure of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, J. B.; Courtin, Regis; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of various factors to the thermal structure of Titan's past and present atmosphere are discussed. A one dimensional model of Titan's thermal structure is summarized. The greenhouse effect of Titan's atmosphere, caused primarily by pressure induced opacity of N2, CH4, and H2, is discussed together with the antigreenhouse effect dominated by the haze which absorbs incident sunlight. The implications for the atmosphere of the presence of an ocean on Titan are also discussed.

  20. Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvais Valiyaneerilakkal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles (particle size <100nm on the ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE copolymer has been studied. Different concentrations of nanoparticles were added to P(VDF-TrFE using probe sonication, and uniform thin films were made. Polarisation - Electric field (P-E hysteresis analysis shows an increase in remnant polarization (Pr and decrease in coercive voltage (Vc. Piezo-response force microscopy analysis shows the switching capability of the polymer composite. The topography and surface roughness was studied using atomic force microscopy. It has been observed that this nanocomposite can be used for the fabrication of non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices.

  1. Integration of piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanoweb based pressure sensors for imaging of static and dynamic pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y J; Oh, T I; Woo, E J; Kim, K J

    2017-07-01

    Recently, highly flexible and soft pressure distribution imaging sensor is in great demand for tactile sensing, gait analysis, ubiquitous life-care based on activity recognition, and therapeutics. In this study, we integrate the piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanowebs with the conductive fabric sheets for detecting static and dynamic pressure distributions on a large sensing area. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and electric source imaging are applied for reconstructing pressure distribution images from measured current-voltage data on the boundary of the hybrid fabric sensor. We evaluated the piezo-capacitive nanoweb sensor, piezo-electric nanoweb sensor, and hybrid fabric sensor. The results show the feasibility of static and dynamic pressure distribution imaging from the boundary measurements of the fabric sensors.

  2. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  3. Fabrication Effects on Polysilicon-based Micro cantilever Piezo resistivity for Biological Sensing Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nina Korlina Madzhi; Balkish Natra; Mastura Sidek; Khuan, L.Y.; Anuar Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In principle, adsorption of biological molecules on a functionalized surface of a micro fabricated cantilever will cause a surface stress and consequently the cantilever bending. In this work, four different type of polysilicon-based piezo resistive micro cantilever sensors were designed to increase the sensitivity of the micro cantilevers sensor because the forces involved is very small. The design and optimization was performed by using finite element analysis to maximize the relative resistance changes of the piezo resistors as a function of the cantilever vertical displacements. The resistivity of the piezo resistivity micro cantilevers was analyzed before and after dicing process. The maximum resistance changes were systematically investigated by varying the piezo resistor length. The results show that although the thickness of piezo resistor was the same at 0.5 μm the resistance value was varied. (author)

  4. Koncepce tlačítkového piezo-generátoru

    OpenAIRE

    Kučera, David

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá koncepcí tlačítkového piezo-generátoru. V práci jsou popsány typy piezo-generátorů, vysvětlen piezoelektrický jev, typy piezoelektrických materiálů se zaměřením na piezokeramiku. Dále jsou popsány materiálové vlastnosti piezoelektrických keramik. Na konci práce je popsán návrh samotného tlačítkového piezo-generátoru. This bachelor’s thesis deals with proposal of piezo-generator inside button. There are described types of piezo-generators, explained piezoelec...

  5. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  6. A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-07-01

    A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, θ x , θ y ) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 μ m of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 μ m of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 μ m, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 μ m, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system.

  7. Síntese e caracterização da cerâmica PZT dopada com íons bário Synthesis and characterization of barium-doped PZT ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gasparotto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pós de titanato zirconato de chumbo (PZT puros e dopados com bário foram obtidos pelo método de precursores poliméricos, conformados uniaxialmente, na forma de cilindros, utilizando 15 MPa, e prensados isostaticamente à 210MPa. Com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de sinterização os compactos foram divididos em dois lotes. Sendo um sinterizado em um forno acoplado a um dilatômetro até a temperatura de 1300 °C e o outro sinterizado em forno tipo mufla, em sistema fechado, na temperatura de 1100 °C por 4 horas. Verificou-se que a adição do íon bário influencia na cinética de sinterização, na densificação final, na microestrutura e nas propriedades elétricas da cerâmica. A adição de bário aumenta a concentração da fase tetragonal no PZT, em função da substituição do chumbo por bário na rede perovskita. As amostras dopadas com concentrações maiores que 5,0 mol % em bário apresentaram segregação de PbO no contorno de grão, inibindo seu crescimento.Pure and barium doped lead zirconate titanate powders were obtained by the polymeric precursor method, uniaxially conformed in cylinders form using 15 MPa and pressing isostatically at 210 MPa. In order to study the sintering behaviour, the compacts were divided in two parts. One part was sintered in a dilatometer furnace till 1300 °C and the other one sintered in muffle furnace in the temperature of 1100 °C for 4 hours. It was verified that the addition of barium influences on the sintering kinetics, on the final density, microstructure and electric properties of the ceramics. The addition of barium increases the concentration of the tetragonal phase of PZT due to the substitution of lead by barium in the perovskite lattice. The samples doped with barium concentrations higher than 5.0 mol % leads to the segregation of PbO in the grain boundary, inhibiting grain growth.

  8. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping. (orig.)

  9. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping.

  10. Damage Detection Based on Power Dissipation Measured with PZT Sensors through the Combination of Electro-Mechanical Impedances and Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Enrique; Sun, Rui; Perera, Ricardo

    2016-05-05

    The use of piezoelectric ceramic transducers (such as Lead-Zirconate-Titanate-PZT) has become more and more widespread for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Among all the techniques that are based on this smart sensing solution, guided waves and electro-mechanical impedance techniques have found wider acceptance, and so more studies and experimental works can be found containing these applications. However, even though these two techniques can be considered as complementary to each other, little work can be found focused on the combination of them in order to define a new and integrated damage detection procedure. In this work, this combination of techniques has been studied by proposing a new integrated damage indicator based on Electro-Mechanical Power Dissipation (EMPD). The applicability of this proposed technique has been tested through different experimental tests, with both lab-scale and real-scale structures.

  11. Parametric and Wavelet Analyses of Acoustic Emission Signals for the Identification of Failure Modes in CFRP Composites Using PZT and PVDF Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasopchaichana, Kritsada; Kwon, Oh Yang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Combination of the parametric and the wavelet analyses of acoustic emission (AE) signals was applied to identify the failure modes in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates during tensile testing. AE signals detected by surface mounted lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors were analyzed by parametric analysis based on the time of occurrence which classifies AE signals corresponding to failure modes. The frequency band level-energy analysis can distinguish the dominant frequency band for each failure mode. It was observed that the same type of failure mechanism produced signals with different characteristics depending on the stacking sequences and the type of sensors. This indicates that the proposed method can identify the failure modes of the signals if the stacking sequences and the sensors used are known

  12. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth alkaline titanate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.mx [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Hernandez-Perez, M.A. [ESIQIE, Metalurgia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F (Mexico); Garcia-Zaleta, D.S. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Brachetti-Sibaja, S.B. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo esq. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n Col. Los Mangos C.P.89440 Cd. Madero Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    In this work, samples of bismuth alkaline titanate, (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub (2-x/2)}Bi{sub (x/6)}TiO{sub 3}, (x = 0.05-0.75) have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique and molten salts. Metal oxides or carbonates powders were used as starting raw materials. The crystalline phase of the synthesized powders was identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid state reaction method was unsuccessful to obtain pellets. From XRD results, a rhombohedral structure was detected and the parameter lattice were estimated to be a = 5.5478 A and {alpha} = 59.48{sup o}. These parameters were used to refine the structure by Rietveld analysis. SEM results showed several morphologies. Apparently, bismuth is promoting the grain growth whose sizes vary from 30 nm to 180 nm It is expected that these materials can be utilized in practical applications as substitutes for lead zirconatetitanate (PZT)-based ceramics.

  14. Calorimetric measurements on hafnium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandan, R.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Panneerselvam, G.; Nagarajan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its desirable nuclear and mechanical properties such as good absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons (105 barns), hafnium titanate (HfTiO 4 ) finds application as control rods for nuclear reactors. An accurate knowledge of the thermo physical properties of this material is necessary for design of control rod and for modeling its performance. Heat capacity is an important thermodynamic property that determines the temperature dependent variation of all other thermodynamic properties. Hence enthalpy increments of hafnium titanate (HfTiO 4 ) were measured in the temperature range 803-1663 K by employing the method of inverse drop calorimetry using high temperature differential calorimeter

  15. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  16. Interaction of Titan's atmosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 measurements made during the Titan flyby reveal that Saturn's rotating magnetospheric plasma interacts directly with Titan's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This results from the lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Titan. The interaction induces a magnetosphere which deflects the flowing plasma around Titan and forms a plasma wake downstream. Within the tail of the induced magnetosphere, ions of ionospheric origin flow away from Titan. Just outside Titan's magnetosphere, a substantial ion-exosphere forms from an extensive hydrogen-nitrogen exosphere. The exospheric ions are picked up and carried downstream into the wake by the plasma flowing around Titan. Mass loading produced by the addition of exospheric ions slows the wake plasma down considerably in the vicinity of the magnetopause. 36 references

  17. Piezopotential gated nanowire devices: Piezotronics and piezo-phototronics

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-12-01

    Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. For materials such as ZnO, GaN, and InN in the wurtzite structure family, the effect of piezopotential on the transport behavior of charge carriers is significant due to their multiple functionalities of piezoelectricity, semiconductor and photon excitation. By utilizing the advantages offered by these properties, a few new fields have been created. Electronics fabricated by using inner-crystal piezopotential as a "gate" voltage to tune/control the charge transport behavior is named piezotronics, with applications in strain/force/pressure triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors and logic units. Piezo-phototronic effect is a result of three-way coupling among piezoelectricity, photonic excitation and semiconductor transport, which allows tuning and controlling of electro-optical processes by strain induced piezopotential. The objective of this review article is to introduce the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics and to give an updated progress about their applications in energy science and sensors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  18. Structure-based membrane dome mechanism for Piezo mechanosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yusong R; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-12-12

    Mechanosensitive ion channels convert external mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals for critical processes including touch sensation, balance, and cardiovascular regulation. The best understood mechanosensitive channel, MscL, opens a wide pore, which accounts for mechanosensitive gating due to in-plane area expansion. Eukaryotic Piezo channels have a narrow pore and therefore must capture mechanical forces to control gating in another way. We present a cryo-EM structure of mouse Piezo1 in a closed conformation at 3.7Å-resolution. The channel is a triskelion with arms consisting of repeated arrays of 4-TM structural units surrounding a pore. Its shape deforms the membrane locally into a dome. We present a hypothesis in which the membrane deformation changes upon channel opening. Quantitatively, membrane tension will alter gating energetics in proportion to the change in projected area under the dome. This mechanism can account for highly sensitive mechanical gating in the setting of a narrow, cation-selective pore. © 2017, Guo et al.

  19. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangchen; Zhang, Gaofei; You, Zheng

    2017-03-05

    The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System) scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  20. Practical ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature applications using bismuth titanate and Ceramabind 830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Janet L.; Batista, Caio F. G.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring of large valve bodies in high-temperature environments such as power plants faces several limitations: commercial transducers are not rated for such high temperatures, gel couplants will evaporate, and measurements cannot be made in-situ. To solve this, we have furthered the work of Ledford in applying a practical transducer in liquid form which hardens and air dries directly onto the substrate. The transducer material is a piezoceramic film composed of bismuth titanate and a high-temperature binding agent, Ceramabind 830. The effects of several fabrication conditions were studied to optimize transducer performance and ensure repeatability. These fabrication conditions include humidity, binder ratio, water ratio, substrate roughness, and film thickness. The final product is stable for both reactive and non-reactive substrates, has a quick fabrication time, and has an operating temperature up to the Curie temperature of BIT, 650°C, well beyond the safe operating temperature of PZT (150°C).

  1. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M.

    2012-02-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 108 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed.

  2. Electrical fatigue behaviour in lead zirconate titanate: an experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Mainak; Arockiarajan, A

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation on electrical fatigue in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is carried out for different loading frequencies. Experiments are conducted up to 10 6 cycles to measure the electrical displacement and longitudinal strain on bulk ceramics in the bipolar mode with large electrical loading conditions. A simplified macroscopic model based on physical mechanisms of domain switching is developed to predict the non-linear behaviour. In this model, the volume fraction of a domain is used as the internal variable by considering the mechanisms of domain nucleation and propagation (domain wall movement). The measured material properties at different fatigue cycles are incorporated into the switching model as damage parameters and the classical strain versus electric field and electric displacement versus electric field curves are simulated. Comparison between the experiments and simulations shows that the proposed model can reproduce the characteristics of non-linear as well as fatigue responses. (paper)

  3. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 10 8 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed. (paper)

  4. Electrical fatigue behaviour in lead zirconate titanate: an experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mainak; Arockiarajan, A.

    2013-08-01

    A systematic investigation on electrical fatigue in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is carried out for different loading frequencies. Experiments are conducted up to 106 cycles to measure the electrical displacement and longitudinal strain on bulk ceramics in the bipolar mode with large electrical loading conditions. A simplified macroscopic model based on physical mechanisms of domain switching is developed to predict the non-linear behaviour. In this model, the volume fraction of a domain is used as the internal variable by considering the mechanisms of domain nucleation and propagation (domain wall movement). The measured material properties at different fatigue cycles are incorporated into the switching model as damage parameters and the classical strain versus electric field and electric displacement versus electric field curves are simulated. Comparison between the experiments and simulations shows that the proposed model can reproduce the characteristics of non-linear as well as fatigue responses.

  5. Substrate clamping effects on irreversible domain wall dynamics in lead zirconate titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggio, F; Jesse, S; Kumar, A; Ovchinnikov, O; Kim, H; Jackson, T N; Damjanovic, D; Kalinin, S V; Trolier-McKinstry, S

    2012-04-13

    The role of long-range strain interactions on domain wall dynamics is explored through macroscopic and local measurements of nonlinear behavior in mechanically clamped and released polycrystalline lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. Released films show a dramatic change in the global dielectric nonlinearity and its frequency dependence as a function of mechanical clamping. Furthermore, we observe a transition from strong clustering of the nonlinear response for the clamped case to almost uniform nonlinearity for the released film. This behavior is ascribed to increased mobility of domain walls. These results suggest the dominant role of collective strain interactions mediated by the local and global mechanical boundary conditions on the domain wall dynamics. The work presented in this Letter demonstrates that measurements on clamped films may considerably underestimate the piezoelectric coefficients and coupling constants of released structures used in microelectromechanical systems, energy harvesting systems, and microrobots.

  6. Effect of mechanical milling on barium titanate (BaTiO3) perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajan Kumar; Sanodia, Sagar; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ranveer

    2018-05-01

    Commercial Barium Titanate BaTiO3 (BT) is milled by planetary ball mill in acetone medium using stainless steel bowl & ball for different hours. BT is an important perovskite oxide with structure ABO3. BT has applications in electro-optic devices, energy storing devices such as photovoltaic cells, thermistors, multiceramic capacitors & DRAMs etc. BT is non-toxic & environment friendly ceramic with high dielectric and piezoelectric property so it can be used as the substitute of PZT & PbTiO3. Here, we have investigated the effect of milling time and temperature on particle size and phase transition of BT powder. We used use Raman spectroscopy for studying the spectra of BT; XRD is used for structural study. Intensity (height) of Raman spectra and XRD spectra continuously decrease with increasing the milling hours and width if these spectra increases which indicates, decrease in BT size.

  7. Mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 ion channels can be tuned by cellular membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda H; Grandl, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Piezo1 ion channels mediate the conversion of mechanical forces into electrical signals and are critical for responsiveness to touch in metazoans. The apparent mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 varies substantially across cellular environments, stimulating methods and protocols, raising the fundamental questions of what precise physical stimulus activates the channel and how its stimulus sensitivity is regulated. Here, we measured Piezo1 currents evoked by membrane stretch in three patch configurations, while simultaneously visualizing and measuring membrane geometry. Building on this approach, we developed protocols to minimize resting membrane curvature and tension prior to probing Piezo1 activity. We find that Piezo1 responds to lateral membrane tension with exquisite sensitivity as compared to other mechanically activated channels and that resting tension can drive channel inactivation, thereby tuning overall mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1. Our results explain how Piezo1 can function efficiently and with adaptable sensitivity as a sensor of mechanical stimulation in diverse cellular contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12088.001 PMID:26646186

  8. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  9. Modeling and Positioning of a PZT Precision Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.

  10. Far infrared and Raman response in tetragonal PZT ceramic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buixaderas, E.; Kadlec, C.; Vanek, P.; Drnovsek, S.; Ursic, H.; Malic, B.

    2015-07-01

    PbZr{sub 0}.38Ti{sub 0}.62O{sub 3} and PbZr{sub 0}.36Ti{sub 0}.64{sub O}3 thick films deposited by screen printing on (0 0 0 1) single crystal sapphire substrates and prepared at two different sintering temperatures, were studied by Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity, time-domain TH{sub z} transmission spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric response is discussed using the Lichtenecker model to account for the porosity of the films and to obtain the dense bulk dielectric functions. Results are compared with bulk tetragonal PZT 42/58 ceramics. The dynamic response in the films is dominated by an overdamped lead-based vibration in the TH{sub z} range, as known in PZT, but its evaluated dielectric contribution is affected by the porosity and roughness of the surface. (Author)

  11. Modeling and Positioning of a PZT Precision Drive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Guo, Yanling

    2017-11-08

    The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models. An XL-80 laser interferometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK) was used to measure the performance of the precision drive system, showing that system modeling and control algorithms were correct, with the requirements for precision positioning of the drive system satisfied.

  12. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker

  13. Microwave emission from lead zirconate titanate induced by impulsive mechanical load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, A., E-mail: alexander.aman@ovgu.de [Department of Engineering, Brandenburg University of Applied Science, 14470 Brandenburg an derHavel (Germany); Packaging Group, Institute of Micro- and Sensorsytems, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Majcherek, S. [Packaging Group, Institute of Micro- and Sensorsytems, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Hirsch, S. [Department of Engineering, Brandenburg University of Applied Science, 14470 Brandenburg an derHavel (Germany); Schmidt, B. [Chair of Micorsystem Technology, Institute of Micro- and Sensorsytems, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    This paper focuses on microwave emission from Lead zirconate titanate Pb [Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x}] O{sub 3} (PZT) induced by mechanical stressing. The mechanical stress was initiated by impact of a sharp tungsten indenter on the upper surface of PZT ceramic. The sequences of microwave and current impulses, which flew from indenter to electric ground, were detected simultaneously. The voltage between the upper and lower surface of ceramic was measured to obtain the behavior of mechanical force acting on ceramic during the impact. It was found that the amplitude, form, and frequency of measured microwave impulses were different by compression and restitution phase of impact. Two different mechanisms of electron emission, responsible for microwave impulse generation, were proposed based on the dissimilar impulse behavior. The field emission from tungsten indenter is dominant during compression, whereas ferroemission dominates during restitution phase. Indeed, it was observed that the direction of the current flow, i.e., sign of current impulses is changed by transitions from compression to restitution phase of impact. The observed dissimilar behavior of microwave impulses, caused by increasing and decreasing applied force, can be used to calculate the contact time and behavior of mechanical force during mechanical impact on ceramic surface. It is shown that the generation of microwave impulses exhibits high reproducibility, impulse intensity, a low damping factor, and high mechanical failure resistance. Based on these microwave emission properties of PZT, the development of new type of stress sensor with spatial resolution of few microns becomes possible.

  14. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  15. Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    function of heating rate. The FWHM of the Ill PZT texture components is sim 2978 Journal of the American Ceramic Society Mhin et al. Vol. 97, No. 9...Z39.18 ABSTRACT Phase and Texture Evolution in Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates Report Title The crystallization of lead zirconate...phase influencing texture evolution. The results suggest that PZT nucleates directly on Pt, which explains the observation of a more highly oriented

  16. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Son, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jungho; Koo, Min; Choi, Insung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-04-23

    A highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator is demonstrated using a laser lift-off (LLO) process. The PZT thin film nanogenerator harvests the highest output performance of ∼200 V and ∼150 μA·cm(-2) from regular bending motions. Furthermore, power sources generated from a PZT thin film nanogenerator, driven by slight human finger bending motions, successfully operate over 100 LEDs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparative face-shear piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongchen; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hairong; Li, Faxin

    2015-12-01

    The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode may be the most practical shear mode in piezoelectrics, while theoretically this mode cannot appear in piezoelectric ceramics because of its transversally isotropic symmetry. Recently, we realized piezoelectric coefficient d 36 up to 206pC/N in soft PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering [H. C. Miao and F. X. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 122902 (2015)]. In this work, we further realized the face-shear mode in both hard and soft PZT ceramics including PZT-4 (hard), PZT-51(soft), and PZT-5H (soft) and investigated the electric properties systematically. The resonance methods are derived to measure the d 36 coefficients using both square patches and narrow bar samples, and the obtained values are consistent with that measured by a modified d 33 meter previously. For all samples, the pure d 36 mode can only appear near the resonance frequency, and the coupled d 36 - d 31 mode dominates off resonance. It is found that both the piezoelectric coefficient d 36 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 36 of soft PZT ceramics (PZT-5H and PZT-51) are considerably larger than those of the hard PZT ceramics (PZT-4). The obtained d 36 of 160-275pC/N, k 36 ˜ 0.24, and the mechanical quality factor Q 36 of 60-90 in soft PZT ceramics are comparable with the corresponding properties of the d 31 mode sample. Therefore, the d 36 mode in modified soft PZT ceramics is more promising for industrial applications such as face-shear resonators and shear horizontal wave generators.

  18. Modification of surface texture by grinding and polishing lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Lloyd, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that grinding and polishing affected the orientation of 90 degrees domains at the surface of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. This was quantified by using changes in the intensity ratio of the (002) and (200) X-ray reflections. Grinding unpoled PZT with 600-grit SiC paper gave X-ray intensity ratios similar to those of poled material. This implies that 90 degrees domain realignments had occurred in the near surface region probed by the X-rays. Grinding poled samples with 600-grit SiC further increased the X-ray intensity ratio beyond that caused by poling, indicating that additional surface reorientation of 90 degrees domains had occurred. The effects of diamond polishing depended on the size of the diamond particles. The use of 6-μm diamond had no effect on the (002)/(200) intensity ratio of either poled or unpoled samples, while polishing with 15- or 45-μm diamond significantly enhanced the 90 degrees domain rotation. In unpoled samples, the increase in the X-ray intensity ratio then approached that induced by poling or grinding with 600-grit SiC paper. While the observed increase in X-ray intensity ratio upon grinding is attributed to the rotation of 90 degrees domains, the simultaneous formation of 180 degrees domains appears to minimize or reduce the increase in electrical polarization

  19. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6 , rather than pyrochlore-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6+x , where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  20. Effect of bipolar electric fatigue on polarization switching in lead-zirconate-titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Fedosov, Sergey; Glaum, Julia; Granzow, Torsten; Genenko, Yuri A.; von Seggern, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    From comparison of experimental results on polarization switching in fresh and electrically fatigued lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) over a wide range of applied fields and switching times it is concluded that fatigue alters the local field distribution inside the sample due to the generation of discrete defects, such as voids and cracks. Such defects have a strong influence on the overall electric field distribution by their shape and dielectric permittivity. On this hypothesis, a new phenomenological model of polarization switching in fatigued PZT is proposed. The model assumes that the fatigued sample can be composed of different local regions which exhibit different field strengths but otherwise can be considered as unfatigued. Consequently the temporal response of a fatigued sample is assumed to be the superposition of the field-dependent temporal responses of unfatigued samples weighted by their respective volume fraction. A certain part of the volume is excluded from the overall switching process due to the domain pinning even at earlier stages of fatigue, which can be recovered by annealing. Suitability of the proposed model is demonstrated by a good correlation between experimental and calculated data for differently fatigued samples. Plausible cause of the formation of such regions is the generation of defects such as microcracks and the change in electrical properties at imperfections such as pores or voids.

  1. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Brooks, K G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6}, rather than pyrochlore-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6+x}, where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. Unexpectedly high piezoelectricity of Sm-doped lead zirconate titanate in the Curie point region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Shruti B; Nolan, Michelle M; Tutuncu, Goknur; Forrester, Jennifer S; Sapper, Eva; Esteves, Giovanni; Granzow, Torsten; Thomas, Pam A; Nino, Juan C; Rojac, Tadej; Jones, Jacob L

    2018-03-07

    Large piezoelectric coefficients in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are traditionally achieved through compositional design using a combination of chemical substitution with a donor dopant and adjustment of the zirconium to titanium compositional ratio to meet the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this work, a different route to large piezoelectricity is demonstrated. Results reveal unexpectedly high piezoelectric coefficients at elevated temperatures and compositions far from the MPB. At temperatures near the Curie point, doping with 2 at% Sm results in exceptionally large piezoelectric coefficients of up to 915 pm/V. This value is approximately twice those of other donor dopants (e.g., 477 pm/V for Nb and 435 pm/V for La). Structural changes during the phase transitions of Sm-doped PZT show a pseudo-cubic phase forming ≈50 °C below the Curie temperature. Possible origins of these effects are discussed and the high piezoelectricity is posited to be due to extrinsic effects. The enhancement of the mechanism at elevated temperatures is attributed to the coexistence of tetragonal and pseudo-cubic phases, which enables strain accommodation during electromechanical deformation and interphase boundary motion. This work provides insight into possible routes for designing high performance piezoelectrics which are alternatives to traditional methods relying on MPB compositions.

  3. Investigation of the additive induced doping effects in gelcast soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dong; Cai Kai; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2009-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of the electrical properties of electronic ceramics to various factors, knowledge about the possible influence of the processing procedure on their electrical performance is critical for applying a new technique to the fabrication of the materials. In this study, various electrical parameters, complex impedance spectra, ferroelectric hysteresis loops, and microstructures of soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics formed by the gelcasting technique from suspensions with various dispersants were investigated in comparison with those of the conventional dry pressed ones. We found that the sodium ion, which is the main cation in many commercial surfactants, exhibited obvious hard doping effects; thus causing deteriorated performance of the gelcast PZT ceramics. While a certain impurity ion introduced by a dispersant was also found to induce soft doping characteristics and improve the electrical performance of the materials. The results suggest that the doping effects of the metal ions or impurities introduced by the dispersants, or other additives, should be generally considered for applying a wet processing technique to forming multicomponent electronic ceramics.

  4. TEMPLATE-ASSISTED FABRICATION AND DIELECTROPHORETIC MANIPULATION OF PZT MICROTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR KOVAĽ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic high aspect ratio ferroelectric tube structures of a diverse range of compositions with tailored physical properties can be used as key components in miniaturized flexible electronics, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems, nonvolatile FeRAM memories, and tunable photonic applications. They are usually produced through advanced “bottom-up” or “topdown” fabrication techniques. In this study, a template wetting approach is employed for fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. Prior to crystallization at 750°C, free-standing tubes of a 2-μm outer diameter, extending to over 30 μm in length were released from the Si template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching. To facilitate rapid electrical characterization and enable future integration process, directed positioning and aligning of the PZT tubes was performed by dielectrophoresis. The electric field-assisted technique involves an alternating electric voltage that is applied through pre-patterned microelectrodes to a colloidal suspension of PZT tubes dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. The most efficient biasing for the assembly of tubes across the electrode gap of 12 μm was a square wave signal of 5 Vrms and 10 Hz. By varying the applied frequency in between 1 and 10 Hz, an enhancement in tube alignment was obtained.

  5. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  6. Sputtered highly oriented PZT thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpat, Sriram S.

    Recently there has been an explosion of interest in the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS device technology has become critical in the growth of various fields like medical, automotive, chemical, and space technology. Among the many applications of ferroelectric thin films in MEMS devices, microfluidics is a field that has drawn considerable amount of research from bio-technology industries as well as chemical and semiconductor manufacturing industries. PZT thin films have been identified as best suited materials for micro-actuators and micro-sensors used in MEMS devices. A promising application for piezoelectric thin film based MEMS devices is disposable drug delivery systems that are capable of sensing biological parameters, mixing and delivering minute and precise amounts of drugs using micro-pumps or micro mixers. These devices call for low driving voltages, so that they can be battery operated. Improving the performance of the actuator material is critical in achieving battery operated disposal drug delivery systems. The device geometry and power consumption in MEMS devices largely depends upon the piezoelectric constant of the films, since they are most commonly used to convert electrical energy into a mechanical response of a membrane or cantilever and vice versa. Phenomenological calculation on the crystal orientation dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for PZT single crystal have reported a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric d33 constant by more than 3 times along [001] in the rhombohedral phase as compared to the conventionally used orientation PZT(111) since [111] is the along the spontaneous polarization direction. This could mean considerable improvement in the MEMS device performance and help drive the operating voltages lower. The motivation of this study is to investigate the crystal orientation dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films in order to select the appropriate

  7. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  8. New piezo driven gas inlet valve for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usselmann, E.; Hemmerich, J.L.; How, J.; Holland, D.; Orchard, J.; Winkel, T.; Schargitz, U.; Pocheim, N.

    1989-01-01

    The gas inlet valves used at the JET experiment are described and their performances are discussed. A new gas-valve development suitable to replace the existing valves at JET and for future use in large fusion experiments is presented. The new valve is equipped with a piezo-electric translator and has a dosing range of 0-800 mbarls -1 for D 2 . The operating mode of the valve is fail-safe closed with a leak-rate of ≤ 10 -9 mbarls -1 . The design, the test results and throughput values in dependence of filling pressure and control voltage are presented and experiences with the prototype valve as a new gas inlet valve for the JET operation are described

  9. Study of a Piezo-Thermo-Elastic Materials Console

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamza madjid berrabah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, analytical expressions were determined for the stresses through the thickness of a composite beam submitted to electrical excitation. In the second part of this study we are interested in the theory of elasticity, which is used to obtain exact solutions of piezo-thermo-elastic consoles gradually coupled evaluated under different loads. These solutions are used to identify the piezoelectric parameter and thermal coefficients of the materials. In addition, numerical results are obtained for the analysis of the loaded console by two different types of loading. In this study we show also that changing the linear thermal parameters of the material does not affect the distribution of the stress and the induction of the beam. However it affetcs the components of the deformation, electric field, the displacement and the electric potential of the console.

  10. Use of Savitzky–Golay Filter for Performances Improvement of SHM Systems Based on Neural Networks and Distributed PZT Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research has focused on monitoring structural damage using Structural Health Monitoring (SHM technologies, which has had recent advances. However, it is important to note the challenges and unresolved problems that disqualify currently developed monitoring systems. One of the frontline SHM technologies, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI technique, has shown its potential to overcome remaining problems and challenges. Unfortunately, the recently developed neural network algorithms have not shown significant improvements in the accuracy of rate and the required processing time. In order to fill this gap in advanced neural networks used with EMI techniques, this paper proposes an enhanced and reliable strategy for improving the structural damage detection via: (1 Savitzky–Golay (SG filter, using both first and second derivatives; (2 Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN; and, (3 Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP Network (SFAN. Those three methods were employed to analyze the EMI data experimentally obtained from an aluminum plate containing three attached PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate patches. In this present study, the damage scenarios were simulated by attaching a small metallic nut at three different positions in the aluminum plate. We found that the proposed method achieves a hit rate of more than 83%, which is significantly higher than current state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, this approach results in an improvement of 93% when considering the best case scenario.

  11. Use of Savitzky-Golay Filter for Performances Improvement of SHM Systems Based on Neural Networks and Distributed PZT Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mario A; Araujo, Nelcileno V S; da Silva, Rodolfo N; da Silva, Tony I; Epaarachchi, Jayantha

    2018-01-08

    A considerable amount of research has focused on monitoring structural damage using Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies, which has had recent advances. However, it is important to note the challenges and unresolved problems that disqualify currently developed monitoring systems. One of the frontline SHM technologies, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique, has shown its potential to overcome remaining problems and challenges. Unfortunately, the recently developed neural network algorithms have not shown significant improvements in the accuracy of rate and the required processing time. In order to fill this gap in advanced neural networks used with EMI techniques, this paper proposes an enhanced and reliable strategy for improving the structural damage detection via: (1) Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter, using both first and second derivatives; (2) Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN); and, (3) Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP Network (SFAN). Those three methods were employed to analyze the EMI data experimentally obtained from an aluminum plate containing three attached PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) patches. In this present study, the damage scenarios were simulated by attaching a small metallic nut at three different positions in the aluminum plate. We found that the proposed method achieves a hit rate of more than 83%, which is significantly higher than current state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, this approach results in an improvement of 93% when considering the best case scenario.

  12. Use of Savitzky–Golay Filter for Performances Improvement of SHM Systems Based on Neural Networks and Distributed PZT Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Nelcileno V. S.; da Silva, Rodolfo N.; da Silva, Tony I.; Epaarachchi, Jayantha

    2018-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has focused on monitoring structural damage using Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies, which has had recent advances. However, it is important to note the challenges and unresolved problems that disqualify currently developed monitoring systems. One of the frontline SHM technologies, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique, has shown its potential to overcome remaining problems and challenges. Unfortunately, the recently developed neural network algorithms have not shown significant improvements in the accuracy of rate and the required processing time. In order to fill this gap in advanced neural networks used with EMI techniques, this paper proposes an enhanced and reliable strategy for improving the structural damage detection via: (1) Savitzky–Golay (SG) filter, using both first and second derivatives; (2) Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN); and, (3) Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP Network (SFAN). Those three methods were employed to analyze the EMI data experimentally obtained from an aluminum plate containing three attached PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) patches. In this present study, the damage scenarios were simulated by attaching a small metallic nut at three different positions in the aluminum plate. We found that the proposed method achieves a hit rate of more than 83%, which is significantly higher than current state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, this approach results in an improvement of 93% when considering the best case scenario. PMID:29316693

  13. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  14. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process.

  15. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : final report, June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  16. Installation and evaluation of weigh-in-motion utilizing quartz-piezo sensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    The objective of the research study was: to install a quartz-piezo based WIM system, and to : determine sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability under actual traffic conditions in : Connecticuts environment. If the systems prove dependable a...

  17. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  18. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process

  19. The structure of a conserved Piezo channel domain reveals a novel beta sandwich fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a novel beta sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis (DHS) patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels. PMID:25242456

  20. FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation: comparative experiment with a conventional piezo hydrophone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruijn, D. de

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a TPD FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation. In particularly a comparison with a conventional piezo hydrophone system is discussed. ©2003 Copyright SPIE

  1. Synthesis, Structural, Optical and Dielectric Properties of Nanostructured 0-3 PZT/PVDF Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, S; Kennedy, L John; Basha, S K Khadheer; Padmanabhan, R

    2018-07-01

    Nanostructured PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) powder was synthesized at 500 °C-800 °C using sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of perovskite structure. The sample heat treated at 800 °C alone showed the formation of morphotropic phase boundary with coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phase. The PZT powder and PVDF were used in 0-3 connectivity to form the PZT/PVDF composite film using solvent casting method. The composite films containing 10%, 50%, 70% and 80% volume fraction of PZT in PVDF were fabricated. The XRD spectra validated that the PZT structure remains unaltered in the composites and was not affected by the presence of PVDF. The scanning electron microscopy images show good degree of dispersion of PZT in PVDF matrix and the formation of pores at higher PZT loading. The quantitative analysis of elements and their composition were confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical band gap of the PVDF film is 3.3 eV and the band gap decreased with increase in volume fraction of PZT fillers. The FTIR spectra showed the bands corresponding to different phases of PVDF (α, β, γ) and perovskite phase of PZT. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that PZT/PVDF composite films showed better thermal stability than the pure PVDF film and hydrophobicity. The dielectric constant was measured at frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 6 MHz and for temperature ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. The composite with 50% PZT filler loading shows the maximum dielectric constant at the studied frequency and temperature range with flexibility.

  2. Role of Piezo Channels in Ultrasound-stimulated Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianhua; Cooper, Paul R; Walmsley, A Damien; Scheven, Ben A

    2017-07-01

    Piezo1 and Piezo2 are mechanosensitive membrane ion channels. We hypothesized that Piezo proteins may play a role in transducing ultrasound-associated mechanical signals and activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling processes in dental cells. In this study, the expression and role of Piezo channels were investigated in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) after treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Western blots were used to analyze the proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as the transcription factors c-fos and c-jun. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting were used to determine the activation of MAPK after LIPUS treatment. Ruthenium red (RR), a Piezo ion channel blocker, was applied to determine the functional role of Piezo proteins in LIPUS-stimulated cell proliferation and MAPK signaling. Western blotting showed the presence of Piezo1 and Piezo2 in both dental cell types. LIPUS treatment significantly increased the level of the Piezo proteins in DPSCs after 24 hours; however, no significant effects were observed in PDLSCs. Treatment with RR significantly inhibited LIPUS-stimulated DPSC proliferation but not PDLSC proliferation. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 MAPK was consistently activated in DPSCs over a 24-hour time period after LIPUS exposure, whereas phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK were mainly increased in PDLSCs. RR affected MAPK signaling in both dental cell types with its most prominent effects on ERK1/2/MAPK phosphorylation levels; the significant inhibition of LIPUS-induced stimulation of ERK1/2 activation in DPSCs by RR suggests that stimulation of DPSC proliferation by LIPUS involves Piezo-mediated regulation of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling. This study for the first time supports the role of Piezo ion channels in

  3. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  4. Merkel cells and Meissner's corpuscles in human digital skin display Piezo2 immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mesa, Y; García-Piqueras, J; García, B; Feito, J; Cabo, R; Cobo, J; Vega, J A; García-Suárez, O

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of Piezo2 in human cutaneous mechanoreceptors has never been investigated. Here, we used simple and double immunohistochemistry to investigate the occurrence of Piezo2 in human digital glabrous skin. Piezo2 immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 80% of morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized (cytokeratin 20 + , chromogranin A + and synaptophisin + ) Merkel cells. Most of them were in close contact with Piezo2 - nerve fibre profiles. Moreover, the axon, but not the lamellar cells, of Meissner's corpuscles was also Piezo2 + , but other mechanoreceptors, i.e. Pacinian or Ruffini's corpuscles, were devoid of immunoreactivity. Piezo2 was also observed in non-nervous tissue, especially the basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells and sweat glands. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of Piezo2 in cutaneous sensory nerve formations that functionally work as slowly adapting (Merkel cells) and rapidly adapting (Meissner's corpuscles) low-threshold mechanoreceptors and are related to fine and discriminative touch but not to vibration or hard touch. These data offer additional insight into the molecular basis of mechanosensing in humans. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. Titan Montgolfiere Buoyancy Modulation System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Titan is ideally suited for balloon exploration due to its low gravity and dense atmosphere. Current NASA mission architectures baseline Montgolfiere balloon...

  6. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  7. Titan's geoid and hydrology: implications for Titan's geological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Seignovert, Benoit; Lawrence, Kenneth; MacKenzie, Shannon; Barnes, Jason; Brown, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A 1x1 degree altitude map of Titan is constructed from the degree 4 gravity potential [1] and Titan's shape [2] determined by the Radio Science measurements and RADAR observations of the Cassini mission. The amplitude of the latitudinal altitude variations is equal to 300 m compared to 600 m for the amplitude of the latitudinal shape variations. The two polar caps form marked depressions with an abrupt change in topography at exactly 60 degrees at both caps. Three models are envisaged to explain the low altitude of the polar caps: (i) thinner ice crust due to higher heat flux at the poles, (ii) fossil shape acquired if Titan had higher spin rate in the past, and (iii) subsidence of the crust following the formation of a denser layer of clathrates as ethane rain reacts with the H2O ice crust [3]. The later model is favored because of the strong correlation between the location of the cloud system during the winter season and the latitude of the abrupt change in altitude. Low altitude polar caps would be the place where liquids would run to and eventually form large seas. Indeed, the large seas of Titan are found at the deepest locations at the North Pole. However, the lakes and terrains considered to be evaporite candidates due to their spectral characteristics in the infrared [4,5] seem to be perched. Lakes may have been filled during Titan's winter and then slowly evaporated leaving material on the surface. Interestingly, the largest evaporite deposits are located at the equator in a deep depression 150 m below the altitude of the northern seas. This observation seems to rule out the presence of a global subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir unless the evaporation rate at the equator is faster than the transport of fluids from the North Pole to the equator. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science, doi 10.1126/science.1219631. [2] Lorenz R.D. (2013

  8. Titan from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert H; Waite, J. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn's largest moon Titan featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses Titan’s origin and evolution, internal structure, surface geology, the atmosphere and ionosphere as well as magnetospheric interactions. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  9. Thermal stability of titanate nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Daniela; Kužel, R.; Kovářová, Jana; Dybal, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 2a (2009), s. 41-43 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura - Colloquium of Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association. Hluboká nad Vltavou, 22.06.2009-25.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0717; GA AV ČR KAN200520704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : titanate nanotubes * thermal stability Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Texturing of sodium bismuth titanate-barium titanate ceramics by templated grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Huseyin

    2002-01-01

    Sodium bismuth titanate modified with barium titanate, (Na1/2Bi 1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 (NBT-BT), is a candidate lead-free piezoelectric material which has been shown to have comparatively high piezoelectric response. In this work, textured (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO 3-BaTiO3 (5.5mol% BaTiO3) ceramics with pc (where pc denotes the pseudocubic perovskite cell) orientation were fabricated by Templated Grain Growth (TGG) or Reactive Templated Grain Growth (RTGG) using anisotropically shaped template particles. In the case of TGG, molten salt synthesized SrTiO3 platelets were tape cast with a (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-5.5mol%BaTiO3 powder and sintered at 1200°C for up to 12 hours. For the RTGG approach, Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT) platelets were tape cast with a Na2CO3, Bi2O3, TiO 2, and BaCO3 powder mixture and reactively sintered. The TGG approach using SrTiO3 templates gave stronger texture along [001] compared to the RTGG approach using BiT templates. The textured ceramics were characterized by X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction for the quality of texture. The texture function was quantified by the Lotgering factor, rocking curve, pole figures, inverse pole figures, and orientation imaging microscopy. Electrical and electromechanical property characterization of randomly oriented and pc textured (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO 3-5.5 mol% BaTiO3 rhombohedral ceramics showed 0.26% strain at 70 kV/cm, d33 coefficients over 500 pC/N have been obtained for highly textured samples (f ˜ 90%). The piezoelectric coefficient from Berlincourt was d33 ˜ 200 pC/N. The materials show considerable hysteresis. The presence of hysteresis in the unipolar-electric field curve is probably linked to the ferroelastic phase transition seen in the (Na 1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 system on cooling from high temperature at ˜520°C. The macroscopic physical properties (remanent polarization, dielectric constant, and piezoelectric coefficient) of random and textured ([001] pc) rhombohedral perovskites were estimated by linear averaging of single

  11. PIEZO channel protein naturally expressed in human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 as probed by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuanqi; Yan, Fei; Chen, Runkang; Qian, Ming; Ou, Yun; Xie, Shuhong; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical stimuli drives many physiological processes through mechanically activated channels, and the recent discovery of PIEZO channel has generated great interests in its mechanotransduction. Many previous researches investigated PIEZO proteins by transcribing them in cells that originally have no response to mechanical stimulation, or by forming PIEZO-combined complexes in vitro, and few studied PIEZO protein's natural characteristics in cells. In this study we show that MDA-MB-231, a malignant cell in human breast cancer cell line, expresses the mechanosensitive behavior of PIEZO in nature without extra treatment, and we report its characteristics in response to localized mechanical stimulation under an atomic force microscope, wherein a correlation between the force magnitude applied and the channel opening probability is observed. The results on PIEZO of MDA-MB-231 can help establish a basis of preventing and controlling of human breast cancer cell via mechanical forces.

  12. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  13. Texture variations in sol-gel derived PZT films on substrates with platinum metallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Cobianu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Metalorganic precursor solutions of composition Zr : Ti = 0.53 : 0.47 were used to spin-cast PZT layers on sputtered Pt films. After annealing at temperatures of 550 °C - 800 °C, the PZT films of tetragonal perovskite structure reproducibly showed different textures and surface morphologies,

  14. In situ synchrotron diffraction of lead-zirconate-titanate at its morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenau, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT,Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 ) find in industry intensifiedly applications as piezoactors. Their largest macroscopic strain under electric field they show in the region of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the transition region between the Ti rich tetragonal and the Zr rich structure. The structure of PZT at the MPB was controversially discussed since the detection of a monoclinic intermediate phase by Noheda et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett.,74(14), 2059(1999)], whereby into the considerations the domain structure of the material not entered, which however is essentially responsible for the reaction under electric field. In order to understand the domain structure of PZT under electric field and to study possible causes for the fatigue behaviour of the material under bipolar cycling a bridge must be built between macroscopic and local structure. For this at the measuring place B2 of the Hasylab, Hamburg, synchrotron X-ray powder diffractometry was in situ performed under different sample environments in transmission geometry, which was correlated with transmission-electron-microscopical studies and electron spin resonance. Samples with compositions over the whole MPB were beside temperature-dependent measurements measured at room temperature in high resolution and under applied electric field. Furthermore for studies under electric field at elevated temperatures a special E-field furnace was constructed. It could be shown the large piezoelectric reaction of PZT at its MPB is strongly correlated with a diminishment of the domain structure, which simulates in X-ray diffraction a lower symmetric phase. The stability range of the nanodomains with temperature and electric field reflects in the switching behaviour of the matter and by the detection of a relaxor behavior of the nanodomain structure for the first time a direct comparison with relaxoceramics is possible. The varying stress conditions within the sample influence

  15. Fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Bok; Hsu, David K; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Young-Gil; Barnard, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT, and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications. As a front matching layer between test material (Austenite stainless steel, SUS316) and piezoelectric materials, alumina ceramics was selected. The appropriate acoustic impedance of the backing materials for each transducer was determined based on the results of KLM model simulation. Prototype ultrasonic transducers with the center frequencies of approximately 2.25 and 5MHz for contact measurement were fabricated and compared to each other. The PMN-PT single crystal ultrasonic transducer shows considerably improved performance in sensitivity over the PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of fatigue endurance in ferroelectric PZT ceramic by the addition of bismuth layered SBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsar, O.; Pojprapai, S.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2014-10-01

    Electrical fatigue properties of (1-x)PZT-xSBT ceramics (x = 0-1.0 weight fraction) were characterized. It was found that pure PZT ceramic had severe polarization fatigue. This was mainly attributed to an occurrence of the macroscopic cracks at near-electrode regions. On the contrary, pure SBT ceramic exhibited excellent fatigue resistance, which was attributed primarily to weak domain wall pinning. As small amount of SBT (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) was added into PZT, a small reduction of remanent polarization after fatigue process was observed. This demonstrated that these ceramics had high stability during the repeated domain switching due to their low oxygen vacancy concentration. Therefore, these results suggested that this new ceramic PZT-SBT system seemed to be an alternative material for replacing pure PZT in ferroelectric memory applications.

  17. Impedance-Based Cable Force Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage Using Portable PZT-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a portable PZT interface for tension force monitoring in the cable-anchorage subsystem is developed. Firstly, the theoretical background of the impedance-based method is presented. A few damage evaluation approaches are outlined to quantify the variation of impedance signatures. Secondly, a portable PZT interface is designed to monitor impedance signatures from the cable-anchorage subsystem. One degree-of-freedom analytical model of the PZT interface is established to explain how to represent the loss of cable force from the change in the electromechanical impedance of the PZT interface as well as reducing the sensitive frequency band by implementing the interface device. Finally, the applicability of the proposed PZT-interface technique is experimentally evaluated for cable force-loss monitoring in a lab-scaled test structure.

  18. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  19. The tide in the seas of Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.; Dermott, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that, if Titan has oceans consisting of liquid methane, then the present high eccentricity of the satellite necessitates that the depth would be greater than 400 m. Such an ocean should be detectable by radar. The effects of tidal dissipation due to the possible existence of an ocean on Titan are considered. (author)

  20. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure 'module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the 'in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures

  2. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure `module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the `in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures.

  3. Actuation control of a PiezoMEMS biomimetic robotic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Alvaro; Olszewski, Oskar; Jackson, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Biomimetic micro-robots try to mimic the motion of a living system in the form of a synthetically developed microfabricated device. Dynamic motion of living systems have evolved through the years, but trying to mimic these motions is challenging. Micro-robotics are particular challenging as the fabrication of devices and controlling the motion in 3 dimensions is difficult. However, micro-scale robotics have potential to be used in a wide range of applications. MEMS based robots that can move and function in a liquid environment is of particular interest. This paper describes the development of a piezoMEMS based device that mimics the movement of a jellyfish. The paper focuses on the development of a finite element model that investigates a method of controlling the individual piezoelectric beams in order to create a jet propulsion motion, consisting of a quick excitation pulse followed by a slow recovery pulse in order to maximize thrust and velocity. By controlling the individual beams or legs of the jellyfish robot the authors can control the robot to move precisely in 3 dimensions.

  4. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  5. Effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates have been investigated. The composition of the PZT and Mn doping level are Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 ) 1-x Mn x O 3 (x = 0,0.2,0.5,1,2,4 mol%). The PZT thin films doped with a small amount of Mn 2+ (x ≤ 1) showed almost no hysteretic fatigue up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles, coupled with excellent retention properties. However, excessive additions of manganese made the fatigue behaviour worse. We propose that the addition of small amounts of Mn is able to reduce the oxygen vacancy concentration due to the combination of Mn 2+ and oxygen vacancies in PZT films, forming Mn 4+ ions. The interfacial layer between the Pt electrode and PZT films and Mn-doped PZT (x = 4) was detected by measuring the dielectric constant of thin films of different thickness. However, this interfacial layer was not detected in Mn-doped PZT (x = 1). These observations support the concept of the preferential electromigration of oxygen vacancies into sites in planes parallel to the electrodes, which is probably responsible for the hysteretic fatigue

  6. A new traveling wave ultrasonic motor using thick ring stator with nested PZT excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Pei

    2010-05-01

    To avoid the disadvantages of conventional traveling wave ultrasonic motors--lower efficiency PZT working mode of d(31), fragility of the PZT element under strong excitation, fatigue of the adhesive layer under harsh environmental conditions, and low volume of the PZT material in the stator--a new type of traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented in this paper. Here we implement the stator by nesting 64 PZT stacks in 64 slots specifically cut in a thick metal ring and 64 block springs nested within another 64 slots to produce preloading on the PZT stacks. In this new design, the d33 mode of the PZT is used to excite the flexural vibrations of the stator, and fragility of the PZT ceramics and fatigue of the adhesive layer are no longer an issue. The working principle, FEM simulation, fabrication, and performance measurements of a prototype motor were demonstrated to validate the proposed ideas. Typical output of the prototype motor is no-load speed of 15 rpm and maximum torque of 7.96 N x m. Further improvement will potentially enhance its features by increasing the accuracy in fabrication and adopting appropriate frictional material into the interface between the stator and the rotor.

  7. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  8. Sensitivity enhancement of polysilicon piezo-resistive pressure sensors with phosphorous diffused resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, K; Dasgupta, N; Bhat, K N; Natarajan, K

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the piezo-resistive coefficient in single crystal silicon is higher when P-type impurities such as boron are used for doping the resistors. In this paper we demonstrate that the sensitivity of polycrystalline silicon piezo-resistive pressure sensors can be enhanced considerably when phosphorus diffusion source is used instead of boron dopant for realizing the piezo-resistors. Pressure sensors have been designed and fabricated with the polycrystalline piezo-resistors connected in the form of a Wheatstone bridge and laid out on thermal oxide grown on membranes obtained with a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) approach. The SOI wafers required for this purpose have been realized in-house by Silicon Fusion Bonding (SFB) and etch back technique in our laboratory. This approach provides excellent isolation between the resistors and enables zero temperature coefficient of the polysilicon resistor. The results obtained in our laboratory have clearly demonstrated that by optimizing the phosphorus diffusion temperature and duration, it is possible to achieve sensitivities in excess of 20mV /Bar for bridge input voltage of 10V, with linearity within 1% over a differential pressure range up to 10Bar (10 6 Pascal), and burst pressure in excess of 50 Bar as compared to the 10mV /Bar sensitivity obtained with boron doped polysilicon piezo-resistors. This enhancement is attributed to grain boundary passivation by phosphorous atoms

  9. Confinement Sensing and Signal Optimization via Piezo1/PKA and Myosin II Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chien Hung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cells adopt distinct signaling pathways to optimize cell locomotion in different physical microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanism that enables cells to sense and respond to physical confinement is unknown. Using microfabricated devices and substrate-printing methods along with FRET-based biosensors, we report that, as cells transition from unconfined to confined spaces, intracellular Ca2+ level is increased, leading to phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1-dependent suppression of PKA activity. This Ca2+ elevation requires Piezo1, a stretch-activated cation channel. Moreover, differential regulation of PKA and cell stiffness in unconfined versus confined cells is abrogated by dual, but not individual, inhibition of Piezo1 and myosin II, indicating that these proteins can independently mediate confinement sensing. Signals activated by Piezo1 and myosin II in response to confinement both feed into a signaling circuit that optimizes cell motility. This study provides a mechanism by which confinement-induced signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different physical microenvironments. : Hung et al. demonstrate that a Piezo1-dependent intracellular calcium increase negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA as cells transit from unconfined to confined spaces. The Piezo1/PKA and myosin II signaling modules constitute two confinement-sensing mechanisms. This study provides a paradigm by which signaling enables cells to sense and adapt to different microenvironments.

  10. Measuring leg movements during sleep using accelerometry: comparison with EMG and piezo-electric scored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Leong, Matthew; Barton, Katrina; Freakley, Craig; Downey, Carl; Vanniekerk, Mark; Jorgensen, Greg; Douglas, James

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) can cause significant disturbance to sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness and reduced quality of life. In conventional clinical practice, PLMS are measured using overnight electromyogram (EMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, although historically they have also been measured using piezo-electric gauges placed over the muscle. However, PLMS counts (PLM index) do not correlate well with clinical symptomology. In this study, we propose that because EMG and piezo derived signals measure muscle activation rather than actual movement, they may count events with no appreciable movement of the limb and therefore no contribution to sleep disturbance. The aim of this study is thus to determine the percentage of clinically scored limb movements which are not associated with movement of the great toe measured using accelerometry. 9 participants were studied simultaneously with an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram (including EMG and piezo instrumentation of the right leg) and high temporal resolution accelerometry of the right great toe. Limb movements were scored, and peak acceleration during each scored movement was quantified. Across the participant population, 54.9% (range: 26.7-76.3) and 39.0% (range: 4.8-69.6) of limb movements scored using piezo and EMG instrumentation respectively, were not associated with toe movement measured with accelerometry. If sleep disturbance is the consequence of the limb movements, these results may explain why conventional piezo or EMG derived PLMI is poorly correlated with clinical symptomology.

  11. Tuning Piezo ion channels to detect molecular-scale movements relevant for fine touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kate; Herget, Regina; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Lewin, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    In sensory neurons, mechanotransduction is sensitive, fast and requires mechanosensitive ion channels. Here we develop a new method to directly monitor mechanotransduction at defined regions of the cell-substrate interface. We show that molecular-scale (~13 nm) displacements are sufficient to gate mechanosensitive currents in mouse touch receptors. Using neurons from knockout mice, we show that displacement thresholds increase by one order of magnitude in the absence of stomatin-like protein 3 (STOML3). Piezo1 is the founding member of a class of mammalian stretch-activated ion channels, and we show that STOML3, but not other stomatin-domain proteins, brings the activation threshold for Piezo1 and Piezo2 currents down to ~10 nm. Structure–function experiments localize the Piezo modulatory activity of STOML3 to the stomatin domain, and higher-order scaffolds are a prerequisite for function. STOML3 is the first potent modulator of Piezo channels that tunes the sensitivity of mechanically gated channels to detect molecular-scale stimuli relevant for fine touch. PMID:24662763

  12. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  13. Ultrasonic guided wave sensing characteristics of large area thin piezo coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, V. T.; Jeyaseelan, A. Antony; Dutta, Soma; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the characterization method and performance enhancement of thin piezo coating for ultrasonic guided wave sensing applications. We deposited the coatings by an in situ slurry coating method and studied their guided wave sensing properties on a one-dimensional metallic beam as a substrate waveguide. The developed piezo coatings show good sensitivity to the longitudinal and flexural modes of guided waves. Sensing voltage due to the guided waves at various different ultrasonic frequencies shows a linear dependence on the thickness of the coating. The coatings also exhibit linear sensor output voltage with respect to the induced dynamic strain magnitude. Diameter/size of the piezo coatings strongly influences the voltage response in relation to the wavelength. The proposed method used a characterization set-up involving coated sensors, reference transducers and an analytical model to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient of the piezo coating. The method eliminates the size dependent effect on the piezo property accurately and gives further insight to design better sensors/filters with respect to frequency/wavelength of interest. The developed coatings will have interesting applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) and internet of things (IOT).

  14. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurogi, H.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pb(Zr X Ti 1-X )O 3 (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, λ=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm -2 on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P r =15 μC cm -2 , 30 μC cm -2 and E c =200 kV cm -1 , 100 kV cm -1 for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10 8 cycles of switching. (orig.)

  15. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, H; Yamagata, Y; Ebihara, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.; Inoue, N [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Suizenji, 1-6-36, Kumamoto 862 (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Pb(Zr{sub X}Ti{sub 1-X})O{sub 3} (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, {lambda}=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm{sup -2} on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P{sub r}=15 {mu}C cm{sup -2}, 30 {mu}C cm{sup -2} and E{sub c}=200 kV cm{sup -1}, 100 kV cm{sup -1} for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10{sup 8} cycles of switching. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. The large magnetoelectric effect in Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers derived by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, K; Wang, Y G; Wu, W; Pan, D A

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure and magnetic properties of the electroless deposited Ni layers with different pH values are characterized by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The influence of the bias magnetic field and the magnetic field frequency (f) on ME coupling is discussed. It is seen that α E,31 depends strongly on H dc and f. The value of the ME coefficient increases as the thickness of the Ni layer and the pH of the bath increase. A maximum of the ME voltage coefficient α E,31 = 5.77 V cm -1 Oe -1 at resonance frequency with a deposited Ni layer thickness t Ni = 302 μm is obtained. The large ME coefficient makes these Ni-PZT-Ni trilayers suitable for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. (fast track communication)

  17. Lead zirconate titanate nanoscale patterning by ultraviolet-based lithography lift-off technique for nano-electromechanical system applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Costecalde, Jean; Rèmiens, Denis; Soyer, Caroline; Nicu, Liviu

    2012-09-01

    The advantage of using lead zirconate titanate (PbZr(0.54)Ti(0.46)O(3)) ceramics as an active material in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comes from its relatively high piezoelectric coefficients. However, its integration within a technological process is limited by the difficulty of structuring this material with submicrometer resolution at the wafer scale. In this work, we develop a specific patterning method based on optical lithography coupled with a dual-layer resist process. The main objective is to obtain sub-micrometer features by lifting off a 100-nm-thick PZT layer while preserving the material's piezoelectric properties. A subsequent result of the developed method is the ability to stack several layers with a lateral resolution of few tens of nanometers, which is mandatory for the fabrication of NEMS with integrated actuation and read-out capabilities.

  18. Model-Based, Closed-Loop Control of PZT Creep for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Turteltaub, K W

    2014-09-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers typically employ a PZT stack to modulate the cavity transmission spectrum. While PZTs ease instrument complexity and aid measurement sensitivity, PZT hysteresis hinders the implementation of cavity-length-stabilized, data-acquisition routines. Once the cavity length is stabilized, the cavity's free spectral range imparts extreme linearity and precision to the measured spectrum's wavelength axis. Methods such as frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy have successfully mitigated PZT hysteresis, but their complexity limits commercial applications. Described herein is a single-laser, model-based, closed-loop method for cavity length control.

  19. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  20. Chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere is reviewed in the light of the scientific findings from the Voyager mission. It is argued that the present N 2 atmosphere may be Titan's initial atmosphere rather than photochemically derived from an original NH 3 atmosphere. The escape rate of hydrogen from Titan is controlled by photochemical production from hydrocarbons. CH 4 is irreversibly converted to less hydrogen rich hydrocarbons, which over geologic time accumulate on the surface to a layer thickness of approximately 0.5 km. Magnetospheric electrons interacting with Titan's exosphere may dissociate enough N 2 into hot, escaping N atoms to remove approximately 0.2 of Titan's present atmosphere over geologic time. The energy dissipation of magnetospheric electrons exceeds solar e.u.v. energy deposition in Titan's atmosphere by an order of magnitude and is the principal driver of nitrogen photochemistry. The environmental conditions in Titan's upper atmosphere are favorable to building up complex molecules, particularly in the north polar cap region. (author)

  1. Thickness dependence of the poling and current-voltage characteristics of paint films made up of lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1995-11-01

    A specially prepared paint made up of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder and epoxy resin was coated on an aluminum plate and was cured at room temperature, thus forming the paint film of 25-300 μm thickness with a PZT volume fraction of 53%. The paint film was then poled at room temperature, and the poling behavior was determined by measuring the piezoelectric activity as a function of poling field. The poling behavior shows that the piezoelectric activity obtained at a given poling field increases with an increase in the film thickness from 25 to 300 μm. The current-voltage characteristic of the paint film, on the other hand, shows that the increase in the film thickness leads not only to an increase in the magnitude of the current density at a given electric field but also to an increase in the critical electric field at which the transition from the ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction takes place. This fact indicates that the amount of the space charge of electrons injected into the paint film decreases as the film thickness increases. Furthermore, comparison of the current-voltage characteristic of the paint film with that of a pure epoxy film reveals that the space charge is accumulated largely at the interface between the PZT and epoxy phases in the paint film. On the basis of this finding, a model is developed for the poling behavior of the paint film by taking into account a possible effect of the space-charge accumulation and a broad distribution of the electric field in the PZT phase. This model is shown to give an excellent fit to the experimental data of the piezoelectric activity obtained here as a function of poling field and film thickness.

  2. Pressure, temperature, and electric field dependence of phase transformations in niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wen D.; Carlos Valadez, J.; Gallagher, John A.; Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S., E-mail: cslynch@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wes [TRS Technologies, 2820 East College Avenue, State College, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops were open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.

  3. Titan the earth-like moon

    CERN Document Server

    Coustenis, Athena

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with Titan, one of the most mysterious bodies in the solar system. The largest satellite of the giant planet Saturn, Titan is itself larger than the planet Mercury, and is unique in being the only known moon with a thick atmosphere. In addition, its atmosphere bears a startling resemblance to the Earth's, but is much colder.The American and European space agencies, NASA and ESA, have recently combined efforts to send a huge robot spacecraft to orbit Saturn and land on Titan. This book provides the background to this, the greatest deep space venture of our time, a

  4. Ceria and strontium titanate based electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A ceramic anode structure obtainable by a process comprising the steps of: (a) providing a slurry by dispersing a powder of an electronically conductive phase and by adding a binder to the dispersion, in which said powder is selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate......, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate, and mixtures thereof, (b) sintering the slurry of step (a), (c) providing a precursor solution of ceria, said solution containing a solvent and a surfactant, (d) impregnating the resulting sintered structure of step (b...

  5. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  6. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  7. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  8. The annealing effects on irradiated SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaz, E.; Blue, T. E.; Zhang, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature on annealing of Silicon Carbide (SiC) piezo resistive pressure sensor which was broken after high fluence neutron irradiation, were investigated. Previously, SiC piezo resistive sensor irradiated with gamma ray and fast neutron in the Co-60 gamma-ray irradiator and Beam Port 1 (BP1) and Auxiliary Irradiation Facility (AIF) at the Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (OSUNRL) respectively. The Annealing temperatures were tested up to 400 C. The Pressure-Output voltage results showed recovery after annealing process on SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor. The bridge resistances of the SiC pressure sensor stayed at the same level up to 300 C. After 400 C annealing, the resistance values changed dramatically.

  9. High-power piezo drive amplifier for large stack and PFC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, Dan J.; Gamble, Mike

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of Boeing High Power Piezo Drive Amplifiers. Described is the development and testing of a 1500 Vpp, 8 amp switching amplifier. This amplifier is used to drive a piezo stack driven rotor blade trailing edge flap on a full size helicopter. Also discuss is a switching amplifier designed to drive a Piezo Fiber Composite (PFC) active twist rotor blade. This amplifier was designed to drive the PFC material at 2000 Vpp and 0.5 amps. These amplifiers recycle reactive energy, allowing for a power and weight efficient amplifier design. This work was done in conjunction with the DARPA sponsored Phase II Smart Rotor Blade program and the NASA Langley Research Center sponsored Active Twist Rotor (ATR) blade program.

  10. A piezo-film-based measurement system for global haemodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Fabrizio; Cimmino, Pasquale; Arpaia, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    A non-invasive piezo-film-based measurement method for haemodynamic assessment is proposed. The design of a system, able to reconstruct the blood pressure waveform online by dealing with problems arising from the piezo-film capacitive nature in the targeted frequency range (from quasi-dc up to 12 Hz), is illustrated. The system is based on a commercial piezo-film placed easily on the radial artery with a special brace without any discomfort for the patient. The analogical conditioning circuit and digital signal processing are continuously tuned with the signal from the sensor to reconstruct the blood pressure signal online. Diagnostic schema, based on physio-pathological models, have been implemented in order to compute online trends of max[dP(t)/d(t)] and volemic status highly useful for the intensivist and anaesthesiologist. The system was characterized by numerical simulation and experimental in vivo comparison to the traditional reference system

  11. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  12. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-05-01

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  13. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2014-01-01

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope

  14. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  15. Physical properties of inorganic PMW-PNN-PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Sang-Hoon; Yoo, Ju-hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Baek, Sam-ki; Ha, Jun-Soo; No, Chung-Han; Song, Hyun-Seon; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2015-07-01

    In this work, inorganic Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)0.03(Ni1/3Nb2/3)x(Zr0.5Ti0.5)0.97-xO3 (x = 0.02 ∼ 0.12) composition ceramics were fabricated by the conventional solid state reaction method. And then their micro structure and ferroelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of PNN substitution. Small amounts of Li2CO3 and CaCO3 were used in order to decrease the sintering temperature of the ceramics. The 0.10 mol PNN-substituted PMW-PNN- PZT ceramics sintered at 920°C showed the excellent physical properties of piezoelectric constant (d33), electromechanical coupling factor (kp), mechanical quality coefficient (Qm), and dielectric constant of 566 pC/N, 0.61, 73, and 2183, respectively.

  16. Characterization of Kerfless Linear Arrays Based on PZT Thick Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, Tomasz; Bierregaard, Louise Moller; Ringgaard, Erling; Xu, Ruichao; Guizzetti, Michele; Levassort, Franck; Certon, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Multielement transducers enabling novel cost-effective fabrication of imaging arrays for medical applications have been presented earlier. Due to the favorable low lateral coupling of the screen-printed PZT, the elements can be defined by the top electrode pattern only, leading to a kerfless design with low crosstalk between the elements. The thick-film-based linear arrays have proved to be compatible with a commercial ultrasonic scanner and to support linear array beamforming as well as phased array beamforming. The main objective of the presented work is to investigate the performance of the devices at the transducer level by extensive measurements of the test structures. The arrays have been characterized by several different measurement techniques. First, electrical impedance measurements on several elements in air and liquid have been conducted in order to support material parameter identification using the Krimholtz-Leedom-Matthaei model. It has been found that electromechanical coupling is at the level of 35%. The arrays have also been characterized by a pulse-echo system. The measured sensitivity is around -60 dB, and the fractional bandwidth is close to 60%, while the center frequency is about 12 MHz over the whole array. Finally, laser interferometry measurements have been conducted indicating very good displacement level as well as pressure. The in-depth characterization of the array structure has given insight into the performance parameters for the array based on PZT thick film, and the obtained information will be used to optimize the key parameters for the next generation of cost-effective arrays based on piezoelectric thick film.

  17. The piezo-magnetic parameters of Terfenol-D: An experimental viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davino, D.; Giustiniani, A.; Visone, C.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostrictive and all multifunctional materials have experienced in the last decades a growing technological interest. Several contributions, in the literature, propose the above-mentioned materials in innovative sensors and actuators both for bulk and MEMS devices. More recently, magnetostrictive materials have been proposed for energy harvesting applications by exploiting the so-called Villari effect. In this case, the behavior and the amplitude of the piezo-magnetic coefficients are an important element to evaluate the conversion efficiency. Aim of this paper is to study the experimental behavior of the piezo-magnetic coefficients of a commercial Terfenol-D rod under controlled conditions.

  18. Enhanced Output Power of PZT Nanogenerator by Controlling Surface Morphology of Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Lee, Won-Hee; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric power generation using Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) nanowires grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3(nb:STO) substrate has been demonstrated. The epitaxial PZT nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal method, with a diameter and length of approximately 300 nm and 7 μm, respecively, were vertically aligned on the substrate. An embossed Au top electrode was applied to maximize the effective power generation area for non-uniform PZT nanowires. The PZT nanogenerator produced output power density of 0.56 μW/cm2 with a voltage of 0.9 V and current of 75 nA. This research suggests that the morphology control of top electrode can be useful to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric power generation.

  19. Feasibility Verification of Mountable PZT-Interface for Impedance Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated to numerically evaluate the performance of the mountable PZT-interface for impedance monitoring in tendon-anchorage. Firstly, electromechanical impedance monitoring and feature classification methods are outlined. Secondly, a structural model of tendon-anchorage subsystem with mountable PZT-interface is designed for impedance monitoring. Finally, the feasibility of the mountable PZT-interface is numerically examined. A finite element (FE model is designed for the lab-scaled tendon-anchorage. The FE model of the PZT-interface is tuned as its impedance signatures meet the experimental test results at the same frequency ranges and also with identical patterns. Equivalent model properties of the FE model corresponding to prestress forces inflicted on the lab-tested structure are identified from the fine-tuning practice.

  20. Micro-machined high-frequency (80 MHz) PZT thick film linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a micromachined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (-6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of -41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of -21 dB were found at the center frequency.