WorldWideScience

Sample records for titan organics explorer

  1. Dragonfly: In Situ Exploration of Titan's Organic Chemistry and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; Barnes, J. W.; Trainer, M. G.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Titan's abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry, interior ocean, and past presence of liquid water on the surface make it an ideal destination to study prebiotic chemical processes and document the habitability of an extraterrestrial environment. Titan exploration is a high science priority due to the level of organic synthesis that it supports. Moreover, opportunities for organics to have interacted with liquid water at the surface (e.g., in impact melt sheets) increase the potential for chemical processes to progress further, providing an unparalleled opportunity to investigate prebiotic chemistry, as well as to search for signatures of potential water-based or even hydrocarbon-based life. The diversity of Titan's surface materials and environments drives the scientific need to be able to sample a variety of locations, thus mobility is key for in situ measurements. Titan's atmosphere is 4 times denser than Earth's reducing the wing/rotor area required to generate a given amount of lift, and the low gravity reduces the required magnitude of lift, making heavier-than-air mobility highly efficient. Dragonfly is a rotorcraft lander mission proposed to NASA's New Frontiers Program to take advantage of Titan's unique natural laboratory to understand how far chemistry can progress in environments that provide key ingredients for life. Measuring the compositions of materials in different environments will reveal how far organic chemistry has progressed. Surface material can be sampled into a mass spectrometer to identify the chemical components available and processes at work to produce biologically relevant compounds. Bulk elemental surface composition can be determined by a neutron-activated gamma-ray spectrometer. Meteorology measurements can characterize Titan's atmosphere and diurnal and spatial variations therein. Geologic features can be characterized via remote-sensing observations, which also provide context for samples. Seismic sensing can probe subsurface

  2. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  3. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  4. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  5. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    probe will descend through Titan's atmosphere and land on a liquid surface (at the North pole, in a lake according to the current design). The currently envisaged strawman payload for these elements will be presented. Instruments aboard the balloon would provide high resolution vistas of the surface of Titan as the balloon cruises at 10 km altitude, as well as make compositional measurements of the surface, detailed sounding of crustal layering, and chemical measurements of aerosols. A magnetometer, unimpeded by Titan's ionosphere, would permit sensitive detection of induced or intrinsic fields. The short-lived probe would splash into a large northern sea and spend several hours floating during which direct chemical and physical sampling of the liquid—a carrier for many dissolved organic species— would be undertaken. During its descent the Mare Explorer would provide the first in situ profiling of the winter northern hemispheric atmosphere, which is distinctly different from the equatorial atmosphere where Huygens descended and the balloon will arrive. Coordinated radio science experiments aboard the orbiter and in situ elements would be capable of providing detailed information on Titan's tidal response, and hence its crustal rigidity and thickness.

  6. Titanic exploration with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  7. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  8. Mission Techniques for Exploring Saturn's icy moons Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiѐre hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit within NASA's New Frontiers or ESA's Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, several mission concepts have been developed that potentially fit within various cost classes. Also, a clear blueprint has been laid out for early efforts critical toward reducing the risks inherent in such missions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of potential Titan (and Enceladus) mission

  9. Future Exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan and Enceladus has become very important for the planetary community. The study conducted last year of the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) led to an announcement in which ESA and NASA prioritized future OPF missions, stating that TSSM is planned after EJSM (for details see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/). TSSM consists of a TSSM Orbiter that would carry two in situ elements: the Titan Montgolfiere hot air balloon and the Titan Lake Lander. The mission could launch in the 2023-2025 timeframe on a trajectory to arrive ~9 years later for a 4-year mission in the Saturn system. Soon after arrival at Saturn, the montgolfiere would be delivered to Titan to begin its mission of airborne, scientific observations of Titan from an altitude of about 10 km. The montgolfiere would have a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) power system and would be designed to last at least 6-12 months in Titan's atmosphere. With the predicted winds and weather, that would be sufficient to circumnavigate the globe! On a subsequent fly-by, the TSSM orbiter would release the Lake Lander on a trajectory toward Titan for a targeted entry. It would descend through the atmosphere making scientific measurements, much like Huygens did, and then land and float on one of Titan's seas. This would be its oceanographic phase, making a physical and chemical assessment of the sea. The Lake Lander would operate 8-10 hours until its batteries become depleted. Following the delivery of the in situ elements, the TSSM orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes in situ sampling of Enceladus' plumes as well as Titan flybys. After the Saturn system tour, the TSSM orbiter would enter orbit around Titan for a global survey phase. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be carried out between the TSSM orbiter and the in situ elements. The scientific requirements were developed by the international TSSM Joint Science Definition

  10. The Exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  11. Spacecraft Exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2009-12-01

    The future exploration of Titan and Enceladus is very important for planetary science. The study titled Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) led to an announcement in which ESA and NASA prioritized future OPF missions, stating that TSSM is planned after EJSM (for details see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/). The TSSM concept consists of an Orbiter that would carry two in situ elements: the Titan Montgolfiere hot air balloon and the Titan Lake Lander. This mission could launch in the 2023-2025 timeframe on a trajectory to arrive ~9 years later and begin a 4-year mission in the Saturnian system. At an appropriate time after arrival at Saturn, the montgolfiere would be delivered to Titan to begin its mission of airborne, scientific observations of Titan from an altitude of about 10 km above the surface. The montgolfiere would have a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) power system whose waste heat would warm the gas in the balloon, providing buoyancy. It would be designed to survive at least 6-12 months in Titan’s atmosphere. With the predicted winds and weather, it should be possible to circumnavigate the globe! Later, on a subsequent fly-by, the TSSM orbiter would send the Lake Lander to Titan. It would descend through the atmosphere making scientific measurements, much like Huygens did, and then land and float on one of Titan’s seas. This would be its oceanographic phase of making a physical and chemical assessment of the sea. The Lake Lander would operate for 8-10 hours until its batteries become depleted. Following the delivery of the in situ elements, the TSSM orbiter would then explore the Saturn system for two years on a tour that includes in situ sampling of Enceladus’ plumes as well as flybys of Titan. After the Saturn tour, the TSSM orbiter would go into orbit around Titan and carry out a global survey phase. Synergistic observations would be carried out by the TSSM orbiter and the in situ elements. The scientific requirements for

  12. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  13. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  14. Dragonfly: Exploring Titan's Surface with a New Frontiers Relocatable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    We proposed to the NASA New Frontiers 4 mission call a lander to assess Titan's prebiotic chemistry, evaluate its habitability, and search for biosignatures on its surface. Titan as an Ocean World is ideal for the study of prebiotic chemical processes and the habitability of an extraterrestrial environment due to its abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry and because both liquid water and liquid hydrocarbons can occur on its surface. Transient liquid water surface environments can be created by both impacts and cryovolcanic processes. In both cases, the water could mix with surface organics to form a primordial soup. The mission would sample both organic sediments and water ice to measure surface composition, achieving surface mobility by using rotors to take off, fly, and land at new sites. The Dragonfly rotorcraft lander can thus convey a single capable instrument suite to multiple locations providing the capability to explore diverse locations 10s to 100s of kilometers apart to characterize the habitability of Titan's environment, investigate how far prebiotic chemistry has progressed, and search for chemical signatures indicative of water- and/or hydrocarbon-based life.

  15. Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

  16. Titan!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.

    2010-05-01

    Cassini-Huygens achieved Saturnian orbit on July 1, 2004. The first order of business was the safe delivery of the Huygens atmospheric probe to Titan that took place on January 14, 2005. Huygens descended under parachute obtaining observations all the way down to a safe landing. It revealed Titan for the first time. Stunning are the similarities between Titan and the Earth. Viewing the lakes and seas, the fluvial terrain, the sand dunes and other features through the hazy, nitrogen atmosphere, brings to mind the geological processes that created analogous features on the Earth. On Titan frozen water plays the geological role of rock; liquid methane takes the role of terrestrial water. The atmospheres of both Earth and Titan are predominately nitrogen gas. Titan's atmosphere contains 1.5% methane and no oxygen. The surface pressure on Titan is 1.5 times the Earth's. There are aerosol layers and clouds that come and go. Now, as Saturn proceeds along its solar orbit, the seasons are changing. The effects upon the transport of methane are starting to be seen. A large lake in the South Polar Region seems to be filling more as winter onsets. Will the size and number of the lakes in the South grow during winter? Will the northern lakes and seas diminish or dry up as northern summer progresses? How will the atmospheric circulation change? Much work remains not only for Cassini but also for future missions. Titan has many different environments to explore. These require more capable instruments and in situ probes. This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Amphibious Quadcopter Swarm for the Exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajguru, A.; Faler, A. C.; Franz, B.

    2014-06-01

    This is a proposal for a low mass and cost effective mission architecture consisting of an amphibious quadcopter swarm flight vehicle system for the exploration of Titan's liquid methane lake, Ligeia Mare. The paper focuses on the EDL and operations.

  18. Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie, G.; Teanby, N.A.; Coustenis, A.; Jaumann, R.; Raulin, F; Schmidt, J.; Carrasco, N.; Coates, A.J.; Cordier, D.; de Kok, Remco; Geppert, W.D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lefevre, A.; Livengood, T.A.; Mandt, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Saturn?s moons, Titan and Enceladus, are two of the Solar System?s most enigmatic bodies and are prime targets for future space exploration. Titan provides an analogue for many processes relevant to the Earth, more generally to outer Solar System bodies, and a growing host of newly discovered icy exoplanets. Processes represented include atmospheric dynamics, complex organic chemistry, meteorological cycles (with methane as a working fluid), astrobiology, surface liquids and lakes, g...

  19. Titan Submarine: Exploring the Depths of Kraken

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Titan is unique in the outer solar system in that it is the only one of the bodies outside the Earth with liquid lakes and seas on its surface. The Titanian seas,...

  20. NASA-ESA Joint Mission to Explore Two Worlds of Great Astrobiological Interest - Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, K.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Matson, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rugged shorelines, laced with canyons, leading to ethane/methane seas glimpsed through an organic haze, vast fields of dunes shaped by alien sciroccos… An icy moon festooned with plumes of water-ice and organics, whose warm watery source might be glimpsed through surface cracks that glow in the infrared… The revelations by Cassini-Huygens about Saturn's crown jewels, Titan and Enceladus, have rocked the public with glimpses of new worlds unimagined a decade before. The time is at hand to capitalize on those discoveries with a broad mission of exploration that combines the widest range of planetary science disciplines—Geology, Geophysics, Atmospheres, Astrobiology,Chemistry, Magnetospheres—in a single NASA/ESA collaboration. The Titan Saturn System Mission will explore these exciting new environments, flying through Enceladus' plumes and plunging deep into Titan's atmosphere with instruments tuned to find what Cassini could only hint at. Exploring Titan with an international fleet of vehicles; from orbit, from the surface of a great polar sea, and from the air with the first hot air balloon to ride an extraterrestrial breeze, TSSM will turn our snapshot gaze of these worlds into an epic film. This paper will describe a collaborative NASA-ESA Titan Saturn System Mission that will open a new phase of planetary exploration by projecting robotic presence on the land, on the sea, and in the air of an active, organic-rich world.

  1. Detailed exploration of Titan with a Montgolfiere aerobot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T.; Tipex Team

    The International Cassini/Huygens (CH) mission has verified the expectation that Saturn's moon Titan offers many opportunities for studying high-priority planetary and astrobiology science objectives. CH results to date show that this world, though entirely alien in its frigid environment, presents an Earth-like and diverse appearance due to the relative balance of competing forces such as geology/tectonics, meteorology, aeronomy, and cosmic impacts. But with the limitations of a single Huygens probe, and a finite number of Cassini flybys limited in proximity and remote sensing resolution by Titan's thick atmosphere and hazes, there is much science to be done there after the CH mission has ended. Detailed exploration of Titan's surface and lower atmosphere, especially for astrobiological objectives, is best addressed by in situ investigations. The atmosphere and its hazes severely restrict orbital remote sensing: Titan cannot be mapped from orbit in the same manner as Mars, at (essentially) arbitrarily high resolution, and limited infrared (IR) windows allow only gross compositional interpretations. After CH indeed there will be further orbital investigations to be carried out, notably completion of the global mapping by Synthetic Aperture Radar and IR mapping spectrometry begun by CH, at the best resolutions practical from orbit. But to fully understand Titan as an evolving, planetary-scale body and an abode of preserved protobiological chemistry will require a platform that has access to, and mobility at, the surface and the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. The TiPEx study team weighed the options for Titan in situ exploration, and finds that a mission based on a Montgolfiere (a type of hot-air balloon) aerobot is the best candidate for post-CH exploration. Ground-based platforms of the type used to date on Mars are far too limited in range to sample the diversity of Titan, and do not adequately investigate the lower atmosphere. Titan's cold, dense

  2. Titan Exploration Using a Radioisotopically-Heated Montgolfiere Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results of a recent Titan exploration mission study; one which includes an aerial vehicle in the form of a hot air balloon, or montgolfiere. Unlike terrestrial montgolfieres which require burning fuel, the dual use of MMRTGs to provide a continuous source of heat as well as electrical power would give the balloon an inherent ability to float for a very long time in the atmosphere of Titan. It would ride with the easterly winds at a cruising altitude of about 10,000 km, occasionally changing altitude to take advantage of possible reverse wind directions and even descending to the surface to physically sample sites of interest. Seasonal and tidal north-south winds would allow the mission to explore different latitudes, which Cassini data have shown to be amazingly diverse in geologic nature. Communication from the aerial vehicle would be relayed through an accompanying orbiter spacecraft, as well as transmitted directly to Earth, providing the potential for data return from Titan's surface equivalent to that provided by many comparable orbiter missions at much closer destinations.

  3. Experimental basis for a Titan probe organic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, C.P.; Scattergood, T.W.; Borucki, W.J.; Kasting, J.F.; Miller, S.L.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla)

    1986-01-01

    The recent Voyager flyby of Titan produced evidence for at least nine organic compounds in that atmosphere that are heavier than methane. Several models of Titan's atmosphere, as well as laboratory simulations, suggest the presence of organics considerably more complex that those observed. To ensure that the in situ measurements are definitive with respect to Titan's atmosphere, experiment concepts, and the related instrumentation, must be carefully developed specifically for such a mission. To this end, the possible composition of the environment to be analyzed must be bracketed and model samples must be provided for instrumentation development studies. Laboratory studies to define the optimum flight experiment and sampling strategy for a Titan entry probe are currently being conducted. Titan mixtures are being subjected to a variety of energy sources including high voltage electron from a DC discharge, high current electric shock, and laser detonation. Gaseous and solid products are produced which are then analyzed. Samples from these experiements are also provided to candidate flight experiments as models for instrument development studies. Preliminary results show that existing theoretical models for chemistry in Titan's atmosphere cannot adequetely explain the presence and abundance of all trace gases observed in these experiments

  4. Detection and mapping of organic molecules in Titan's atmosphere using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric photochemistry results in the production of a wide range of organic molecules, including hydrocarbons, nitriles, aromatics and other complex species of possible pre-biotic relevance. Studies of Titan's atmospheric chemistry thus provide a unique opportunity to explore the origin and evolution of organic matter in primitive (terrestrial) planetary atmospheres. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a powerful new facility, well suited to the study of molecular emission from Titan's upper and middle-atmosphere. Results will be presented from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA data obtained during the period 2012-2014 [1,2], including detection and mapping of emission from C2H5CN, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN and CH3CCH. In addition, combining data from multiple ALMA Band 6 observations, we obtained high-resolution spectra with unprecedented sensitivity, enabling the first detection of C2H3CN (vinyl cyanide) on Titan, and derived a mean C2H3CN C2H5CN abundance ratio above 300 km of 0.3. Vinyl cyanide has recently been investigated as a possible constituent of (pre-biotic) vesicle membranes in Titan's liquid CH4 oceans [3]. Radiative transfer models and possible chemical formation pathways for the detected molecules will be discussed. ALMA observations provide instantaneous snapshot mapping of Titan's entire Earth-facing hemisphere for gases inaccessible to previous studies, and therefore provide new insights into photochemical production and transport, particularly at higher altitudes. Our maps show spatially resolved peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres, consistent with the molecular distributions found in previous studies at infrared wavelengths by Voyager and Cassini, but high-altitude longitudinal asymmetries in our nitrile data indicate that the mesosphere may be more spatially variable than previously thought.

  5. Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Cravens, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg, C. A. Griffith, E. Lellouch and T. E. Cravens; Prologue 1: the genesis of Cassini-Huygens W.-H. Ip, T. Owen and D. Gautier; Prologue 2: building a space flight instrument: a P.I.'s perspective M. Tomasko; 1. The origin and evolution of Titan G. Tobie, J. I. Lunine, J. Monteux, O. Mousis and F. Nimmo; 2. Titan's surface geology O. Aharonson, A. G. Hayes, P. O. Hayne, R. M. Lopes, A. Lucas and J. T. Perron; 3. Thermal structure of Titan's troposphere and middle atmosphere F. M. Flasar, R. K. Achterberg and P. J. Schinder; 4. The general circulation of Titan's lower and middle atmosphere S. Lebonnois, F. M. Flasar, T. Tokano and C. E. Newman; 5. The composition of Titan's atmosphere B. Bézard, R. V. Yelle and C. A. Nixon; 6. Storms, clouds, and weather C. A. Griffith, S. Rafkin, P. Rannou and C. P. McKay; 7. Chemistry of Titan's atmosphere V. Vuitton, O. Dutuit, M. A. Smith and N. Balucani; 8. Titan's haze R. West, P. Lavvas, C. Anderson and H. Imanaka; 9. Titan's upper atmosphere: thermal structure, dynamics, and energetics R. V. Yelle and I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg; 10. Titan's upper atmosphere/exosphere, escape processes, and rates D. F. Strobel and J. Cui; 11. Titan's ionosphere M. Galand, A. J. Coates, T. E. Cravens and J.-E. Wahlund; 12. Titan's magnetospheric and plasma environment J.-E. Wahlund, R. Modolo, C. Bertucci and A. J. Coates.

  6. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  7. Lab-on-a-Chip Instrument Development for Titan Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. A.; Greer, F.; Fisher, A.; Hodyss, R. P.; Grunthaner, F.; Jiao, H.; Mair, D.; Harrison, J.

    2009-12-01

    This contribution will describe the initial stages of a new ASTID-funded research program initiated in Fall 2009 aimed at lab-on-a-chip system development for astrobiological investigations on Titan. This technology development builds off related work at JPL and Berkeley [1-3] on the ultrasensitive compositional and chiral analysis of amino acids on Mars in order to search for signatures of past or present life. The Mars-focused instrument system utilizes a microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) system integrated with on-chip perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membrane valves and pumps for automated liquid sample handling, on-chip derivitization of samples with fluorescent tags, dilution, and mixing with standards for data calibration. It utilizes a four-layer wafer stack design with CE channels patterned in glass, along with a PFPE membrane, a pneumatic manifold layer, and a fluidic bus layer. Three pneumatically driven on-chip diaphragm valves placed in series are used to peristaltically pump reagents, buffers, and samples to and from capillary electrophoresis electrode well positions. Electrophoretic separation occurs in the all-glass channels near the base of the structure. The Titan specific lab-on-a-chip system under development here focuses its attention on the unique organic chemistry of Titan. In order to chromatographically separate mixtures of neutral organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the Titan-specific microfluidic platform utilizes the related technique of microcapillary electrochromatography (μCEC). This technique differs from conventional μCE in that microchannels are filled with a porous stationary phase that presents surfaces upon which analyte species can adsorb/desorb. It is this additional surface interaction that enables separations of species critical to the understanding of the astrobiological potential of Titan that are not readily separated by the μCE technique. We have developed two different approaches for the integration

  8. Geochemistry and Organic Chemistry on the Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Beauchamp, P.; Beauchamp, J.; Dougherty, D.; Welch, C.; Raulin, F.; Shapiro, R.; Smith, M.

    2001-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere produces a wealth of organic products from methane and nitrogen. These products, deposited on the surface in liquid and solid form, may interact with surface ices and energy sources to produce compounds of exobiological interest. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Exploring inner structure of Titan's dunes from Cassini Radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    Linear dunes discovered in the equatorial regions of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens mission are morphologically very similar to many terrestrial linear dune fields. These features have been compared with terrestrial longitudinal dune fields like the ones in Namib desert in western Africa. This comparison is based on the overall parallel orientation of Titan's dunes to the predominant wind direction on Titan, their superposition on other geomorphological features and the way they wrap around topographic obstacles. Studying the internal layering of dunes has strong implications in understanding the hypothesis for their origin and evolution. In Titan's case, although the morphology of the dunes has been studied from Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, it has not been possible to investigate their internal structure in detail as of yet. Since no radar sounding data is available for studying Titan's subsurface yet, we have developed another technique to examine the inner layering of the dunes. In this study, we utilize multiple complementary radar datasets, including radar imaging data for Titan's and Earth's dunes and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)/radar sounding data for terrestrial dunes. Based on dielectric mixing models, we suggest that the Cassini Ku-band microwaves should be able to penetrate up to ~ 3 m through Titan's dunes, indicating that the returned radar backscatter signal would include contributions from both surface and shallow subsurface echoes. This implies that the shallow subsurface properties can be retrieved from the observed radar backscatter (σ0). In our analysis, the variation of the radar backscatter as a function of dune height is used to provide an insight into the layering in Titan's dunes. We compare the variation of radar backscatter with elevation over individual dunes on Titan and analogous terrestrial dunes in three sites (Great Sand Sea, Siwa dunes and Qattaniya dunes) in the Egyptian Sahara. We observe a strong, positive

  10. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T): Investigating ocean worlds' evolution and habitability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Postberg, Frank; Soderblom, Jason M.; Wurz, Peter; Tortora, Paolo; Abel, Bernd; Barnes, Jason W.; Berga, Marco; Carrasco, Nathalie; Coustenis, Athena; Paul de Vera, Jean Pierre; D'Ottavio, Andrea; Ferri, Francesca; Hayes, Alexander G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Hillier, Jon K.; Kempf, Sascha; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Martelli, Andrea; Orosei, Roberto; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Reh, Kim; Schmidt, Juergen; Sotin, Christophe; Srama, Ralf; Tobie, Gabriel; Vorburger, Audrey; Vuitton, Véronique; Wong, Andre; Zannoni, Marco

    2018-06-01

    Titan, with its organically rich and dynamic atmosphere and geology, and Enceladus, with its active plume, both harbouring global subsurface oceans, are prime environments in which to investigate the habitability of ocean worlds and the conditions for the emergence of life. We present a space mission concept, the Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T), which is dedicated to investigating the evolution and habitability of these Saturnian satellites. E2T is proposed as a medium-class mission led by ESA in collaboration with NASA in response to ESA's M5 Cosmic Vision Call. E2T proposes a focused payload that would provide in-situ composition investigations and high-resolution imaging during multiple flybys of Enceladus and Titan using a solar-electric powered spacecraft in orbit around Saturn. The E2T mission would provide high-resolution mass spectrometry of the plume currently emanating from Enceladus' south polar terrain and of Titan's changing upper atmosphere. In addition, high-resolution infrared (IR) imaging would detail Titan's geomorphology at 50-100 m resolution and the temperature of the fractures on Enceladus' south polar terrain at meter resolution. These combined measurements of both Titan and Enceladus would enable the E2T mission scenario to achieve two major scientific goals: 1) Study the origin and evolution of volatile-rich ocean worlds; and 2) Explore the habitability and potential for life in ocean worlds. E2T's two high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometers would enable resolution of the ambiguities in chemical analysis left by the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission regarding the identification of low-mass organic species, detect high-mass organic species for the first time, further constrain trace species such as the noble gases, and clarify the evolution of solid and volatile species. The high-resolution IR camera would reveal the geology of Titan's surface and the energy dissipated by Enceladus' fractured south polar terrain and plume

  11. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T): Investigating Ocean Worlds' Evolution and Habitability in the Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed Titan and Enceladus to be two of the most interesting worlds in the Solar System. Titan, with its organically rich and dynamic atmosphere and geology, and Enceladus, with its active plumes, both harboring subsurface oceans, are prime environments in which to investigate the conditions for the emergence of life and the habitability of ocean worlds. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T) is dedicated to investigating the evolution and habitability of these Saturnian satellites and is proposed in response to ESA's M5 Call as a medium-class mission led by ESA in collaboration with NASA. E2T has a focused payload that will provide in-situ composition investigations and high-resolution imaging during multiple flybys of Enceladus and Titan using a solar-electric powered spacecraft in orbit around Saturn. The E2T mission will provide high-resolution mass spectroscopy of the plumes currently emanating from Enceladus's south polar terrain (SPT) and of Titan's changing upper atmosphere. In addition, high-resolution IR imaging will detail Titan's geomorphology at 50-100 m resolution and the source fractures on Enceladus's SPT at meter resolution. These combined measurements of both Titan and Enceladus will permit to achieve the two major scientific goals of the E2T mission: 1) Study the origin and evolution of volatile-rich ocean worlds; and 2) Explore the habitability and potential for life in ocean worlds. More in detail, these goals will be achieved by measuring the nature, abundance and isotopic properties of solid- and vapor-phase species in Enceladus's plume and Titan's upper atmosphere, and determining the processes that are transporting and transforming organic materials on the surface of Titan and the mechanisms controlling, and the energy dissipated by, Enceladus's plumes. E2T's two high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometers will enable us to resolve the ambiguities left by Cassini regarding the identification

  12. Implications of Wind-Assisted Aerial Navigation for Titan Mission Planning and Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, A.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Fathpour, N.; Blackmore, L.; Newman, C.; Kuwata, Y.; Wolf, M.; Assad, C.

    2010-01-01

    The recent Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) proposal incorporates a montgolfiere (hot air balloon) as part of its architecture. Standard montgolfiere balloons generate lift through heating of the atmospheric gases inside the envelope, and use a vent valve for altitude control. A Titan aerobot (robotic aerial vehicle) would have to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electric power, and the excess heat generated can be used to provide thermal lift for a montgolfiere. A hybrid montgolfiere design could have propellers mounted on the gondola to generate horizontal thrust; in spite of the unfavorable aerodynamic drag caused by the shape of the balloon, a limited amount of lateral controllability could be achieved. In planning an aerial mission at Titan, it is extremely important to assess how the moon-wide wind field can be used to extend the navigation capabilities of an aerobot and thereby enhance the scientific return of the mission. In this paper we explore what guidance, navigation and control capabilities can be achieved by a vehicle that uses the Titan wind field. The control planning approach is based on passive wind field riding. The aerobot would use vertical control to select wind layers that would lead it towards a predefined science target, adding horizontal propulsion if available. The work presented in this paper is based on aerodynamic models that characterize balloon performance at Titan, and on TitanWRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), a model that incorporates heat convection, circulation, radiation, Titan haze properties, Saturn's tidal forcing, and other planetary phenomena. Our results show that a simple unpropelled montgolfiere without horizontal actuation will be able to reach a broad array of science targets within the constraints of the wind field. The study also indicates that even a small amount of horizontal thrust allows the balloon to reach any area of interest on Titan, and to do so in a fraction of the time needed

  13. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Atmospheric and Surface Exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) powered airship for the near surface exploration of Titan was evaluated. The analysis did not consider the complete mission only the operation of the airship within the atmosphere of Titan. The baseline airship utilized two ASRG systems with a total of four general-purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. Hydrogen gas was used to provide lift. The ASRG systems, airship electronics and controls and the science payload were contained in a payload enclosure. This enclosure was separated into two sections, one for the ASRG systems and the other for the electronics and payload. Each section operated at atmospheric pressure but at different temperatures. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the surface of Titan based on the available power from the ASRGs. The atmospheric conditions on Titan were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Titan surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the flight altitude and payload mass and volume.

  14. The Possibilities and Challenges in Missions to Europa and Titan for Exploration and as a Stepping Stone to Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Rohan M.

    This enthusiastic project describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality is formulated. The project includes the necessary development strategies in key scientic and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analyzed throughout the project plan include: scientic observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term space flight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientic and technological aspects of this project, it is recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this paper, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. This project illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence of life in its subsurface oceans. The future remains unpredictable, as does the realization of any of these possibilities. However, projects such as this remind us that the final frontier for humans is truly outer space, and only our imagination will determine where the frontier stops. We can dream of visiting other planetary

  15. Organic matter in the Titan lakes, and comparison with primitive Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; McKay, C.; Wilhite, P.; Beeler, D.; Carter, M.; Schurmeier, L.; Jagota, S.; Kawai, J.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Cruikshank, D.; Embaye, T.

    2013-06-01

    Titan is the only world in the solar system besides the Earth that has liquid on its surface. The liquid in the lakes is thought to be composed primarily of ethane with methane and nitrogen in solution. The clouds are thought to be composed of liquid methane drops. Surface liquid is present in polar lakes and in surface materials at equatorial sites. Studying the chemical processing that potentially results from organic material interacting with this liquid is one of the main goals of proposed missions to Titan. We have been engaged in producing tholin under Titan-like conditions for more than three decades, first at the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University in collaboration with Late Dr. Carl Sagan and for over a decade at Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center and Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, SETI Institute. Our focus is to understand the capabilities for analysis of tholin solubility in liquid methane and ethane for flight instruments. Our results are expected to contribute to an understanding of the organic chemistry on Titan and to the development of an explicit and targeted scientific strategy for near term analysis of the products of organic-liquid interactions on Titan. Organics are produced as a haze in Titan's high atmosphere due to photolysis of methane with the Sun's extreme ultraviolet light and subsequent reaction with N. Also tholins are formed at a much higher level on Titan by charged particles of Saturn magnetosphere. However, the presence of organics is not the sole feature, which makes Titan significant to astrobiology; organics are widely present in the outer solar system. The reason Titan is a prime target for future outer solar system missions is the combination of organic material and liquid on the surface; liquid that could over a medium for further organic synthesis. NASA recently selected for further study a Discovery proposal TiME to investigate the chemistry of the

  16. Co-crystal formation between two organic solids on the surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Vu, T. H.; Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Hodyss, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments of Titan molecular materials, informed by modeling, can help us to understand the complex and dynamic surface processes occurring on this moon at cryogenic temperatures. We previously demonstrated that two common organic materials on Titan, ethane and benzene, form a unique and stable co-crystalline structure at Titan surface temperatures. We have now characterized a second co-crystal that is stable on Titan, this time between two solids: acetylene and ammonia. The co-crystal forms within minutes at Titan surface temperature, as evidenced by new Raman spectral features in the lattice vibration and C-H bending regions. In addition, a red shift of the C-H stretching mode suggests that the acetylene-ammonia co-crystal is stabilized by a network of C-H···N interactions. Thermal stability studies indicate that this co-crystal remains intact to >110 K, and experiments with liquid methane and ethane reveal the co-crystal to be resistant to fluvial or pluvial exposure. Non-covalently bound structures such as these co-crystals point to far more complex surface interactions than previously believed on Titan. New physical and mechanical properties (deformation, plasticity, density, etc.), differences in storage of key species (i.e., ethane versus methane), variations in surface transport and new chemical gradients can all result in diverse surface features and chemistries of astrobiological interest.

  17. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruno S; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2010-03-16

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions.

  18. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruno S.; Savage, David A.; Torgler, Benno

    2010-01-01

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions. PMID:20194743

  19. Electron-molecule chemistry and charging processes on organic ices and Titan's icy aerosol surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirim, C.; Gann, R. D.; McLain, J. L.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-09-01

    Electron-induced polymerization processes and charging events that can occur within Titan's atmosphere or on its surface were simulated using electron irradiation and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) studies of nitrogen-containing organic condensates. The DEA studies probe the desorption of H- from hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetonitrile (CH3CN), and aminoacetonitrile (NH2CH2CN) ices, as well as from synthesized tholin materials condensed or deposited onto a graphite substrate maintained at low temperature (90-130 K). The peak cross sections for H- desorption during low-energy (3-15 eV) electron irradiation were measured and range from 3 × 10-21 to 2 × 10-18 cm2. Chemical and structural transformations of HCN ice upon 2 keV electron irradiation were investigated using X-ray photoelectron and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The electron-beam processed materials displayed optical properties very similar to tholins produced by conventional discharge methods. Electron and negative ion trapping lead to 1011 charges cm-2 on a flat surface which, assuming a radius of 0.05 μm for Titan aerosols, is ∼628 charges/radius (in μm). The facile charge trapping indicates that electron interactions with nitriles and complex tholin-like molecules could affect the conductivity of Titan's atmosphere due to the formation of large negative ion complexes. These negatively charged complexes can also precipitate onto Titan's surface and possibly contribute to surface reactions and the formation of dunes.

  20. Titan's organic aerosols: Molecular composition and structure of laboratory analogues inferred from pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisson, Marietta; Szopa, Cyril; Carrasco, Nathalie; Buch, Arnaud; Gautier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Analogues of Titan's aerosols are of primary interest in the understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry and climate, and in the development of in situ instrumentation for future space missions. Numerous studies have been carried out to characterize laboratory analogues of Titan aerosols (tholins), but their molecular composition and structure are still poorly known. If pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyr-GCMS) has been used for years to give clues about their chemical composition, highly disparate results were obtained with this technique. They can be attributed to the variety of analytical conditions used for pyr-GCMS analyses, and/or to differences in the nature of the analogues analyzed, that were produced with different laboratory set-ups under various operating conditions. In order to have a better description of Titan's tholin's molecular composition by pyr-GCMS, we carried out a systematic study with two major objectives: (i) exploring the pyr-GCMS analytical parameters to find the optimal ones for the detection of a wide range of chemical products allowing a characterization of the tholins composition as comprehensive as possible, and (ii) highlighting the role of the CH4 ratio in the gaseous reactive medium on the tholin's molecular structure. We used a radio-frequency plasma discharge to synthetize tholins with different concentrations of CH4 diluted in N2. The samples were pyrolyzed at temperatures covering the 200-700°C range. The extracted gases were then analyzed by GCMS for their molecular identification. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for characterizing the molecular composition of our tholins by GCMS analysis is found to be 600°C. This temperature choice results from the best compromise between the number of compounds released, the quality of the signal and the appearance of pyrolysis artifacts. About a hundred molecules are identified as pyrolysates. A common major chromatographic pattern appears clearly for all the

  1. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package to explore Air:Sea interaction on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The exchange of mass, heat and momentum at the air:sea interface are profound influences on our environment. Titan presents us with an opportunity to study these processes in a novel physical context. The MP3 instrument, under development for the proposed Discovery mission TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) is an integrated suite of small, simple sensors that combines the a traditional meteorology package with liquid physical properties and depth-sounding. In TiME's 6-Titan-day (96-day) nominal mission, MP3 will have an extended measurement opportunity in one of the most evocative environments in the solar system. The mission and instrument benefit from APL's expertise and experience in marine as well as space systems. The topside meteorology sensors (METH, WIND, PRES, TEMP) will yield the first long-duration in-situ data to constrain Global Circulation Models. The sea sensors (TEMP, TURB, DIEL, SOSO) allow high cadence bulk composition measurements to detect heterogeneities as the TiME capsule drifts across Ligeia, while a depth sounder (SONR) will measure the bottom profile. The combination of these sensors (and vehicle dynamics, ACCL) will characterize air:sea exchange. In addition to surface data, a measurement subset (ACCL, PRES, METH, TEMP) is made during descent to characterize the structure of the polar troposphere and marine boundary layer. A single electronics box inside the vehicle performs supervising and data handling functions and is connected to the sensors on the exterior via a wire and fiber optic harness. ACCL: MEMS accelerometers and angular rate sensors measure the vehicle motion during descent and on the surface, to recover wave amplitude and period and to correct wind measurements for vehicle motion. TEMP: Precision sensors are installed at several locations above and below the 'waterline' to measure air and sea temperatures. Installation of topside sensors at several locations ensures that at least one is on the upwind side of the vehicle. PRES: The

  2. Outreach for Cassini Huyghens mission and future Saturn and Titan exploration: From the Antikythera Mechanism to the TSSM mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, Xenophon; Bampasidis, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2010-05-01

    These days Outreach is an activity tightly related to success in science. The public with its great interest to space and astronomy in general, the solar system exploration and Saturn and Titan in particular, loves the scientific outcome of Cassini and Huygens. This love of the public gives a lot, as its known interest to space, persuades politicians and policy makers to support space and future Saturn and Titan explorations. We use the scientific results from Cassini and Huyghens together with a mosaic from ancient science concerning the history of solar system exploration, such as the oldest known complex astronomical device, the Antikyhtera Mechanism, in outreach activities to ensure future missions and continuous support to present ones. A future mission to the Saturnian System focusing on exotic Titan will broaden people's interest not only to Physics and Astronomy, but to Mechanics, Technology and even Philosophy as well, since, obviously, the roots of the vast contribution of Space Science and Astronomy to the contemporary society can be traced back to the first astronomers of Antiquity. As an example we use the Antikythera Mechanism, a favourite astronomical device for the public, which is the first geared astronomical device ever, constructed that combines the spirit of the ancient Astronomy and scientific accuracy. It is common belief that Astronomy and Astrophysics is a perfect tool to easily involve people in Science, as the public is always interested in space subjects, captivated by the beauty and the mystery of the Universe. Years after the successful entry, descent and landing of the Huygens probe on Titan's surface, the outstanding achievements of the Cassini-Huygens mission enhance the outreach potential of Space Science. Titan is an earth-like world, embedded in a dense nitrogen atmospheric envelop and a surface carved by rivers, mountains, dunes and lakes, its exploration will certainly empower the perspective of the society for space activities

  3. Chemistry in the Dunes of Titan: Tribochemical Reactions of Complex Organics and Water Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, J. L.; Thomas, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Titan’s N2-CH4 atmosphere provides the starting material for a wide array of organic compounds to be formed via photochemistry, and the presence of unsaturated hydrocarbon, amine, and polycyclic aromatic species has been supported by data from the Cassini-Huygens mission [1,2]. Production of tholins by UV irradiation of a simulated N2-CH4 environment has yielded products that match the observed optical properties of Titan haze, suggesting that these compounds provide suitable analogs to Titan aerosol compounds [3, 4, 5]. Organics produced in Titan’s atmosphere eventually settle to the surface and very likely contribute to the particulate matter comprising the expansive longitudinal dune features observed at mid-latitudes [6]. Once on the surface, conditions that lead to incorporation of oxygen via contact with water ice or liquid water in Titan’s low temperature environment are of particular interest and have important implications for astrobiology [7; 8]. In this work, we postulate that the mechanical energy from wind-driven grains in the dunes of Titan can ultimately drive chemical processes and lead to the incorporation of oxygen into organic compounds via tribochemical reactions [9] and describe experiments designed to test this hypothesis. While the exact composition of the dunes of Titan is unknown, it is likely that they mainly comprise organic and water ice particles approximately 0.2 mm in diameter, the ideal size for saltation by the winds of Titan [6]. During the saltation process, organic particles undergo charging due to friction between particles, leading in turn to formation of ions and free radicals in localized electrical discharges at particle interfaces [10]. These reactive intermediates can initiate processes such as free radical and ionic polymerization that further transform organics. Of particular interest is the incorporation of oxygen into organic molecules, providing a pathway to the synthesis of biologically relevant compounds

  4. Poster 6: Influence of traces elements in the organic chemistry of upper atmosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Christophe; Carrasco, Nathalie; Trainer, Melissa G.; Gautier, Thomas; Gavilan, Lisseth; Dubois, David; Li, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    In the upper atmosphere of Titan, complex chemistry leads to the formation of organic aerosols. Since the work of Khare et al. in 1984, several experiments investigated the formation of Titan aerosols, so called tholins, in the laboratory. It has been suggested that nitrogen-containing compounds may contribute significantly to the aerosols formation process. In this study, we focused on the influence of pyridine, the simplest nitrogenous aromatic hydrocarbon, on the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere and on aerosol formation. To assess the effect of pyridine on aerosol formation chemistry, we used two different experimental setups : a capacitively coupled radio-frequency (electronic impact), and a VUV Deuterium lamp (photochemistry) in a collaboration between LATMOS (Guyancourt) and NASA-GSFC (Greenbelt), respectively. Aerosols produced with both setups were first analyzed using a FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy - Attenuated Total Reflection) with a spectral range of 4000-800 cm-1 to characterize their optical properties. Next the samples were analysed using a Bruker Autoflex Speed MALDI mass spectrometer with a m/z range up to 2000 Da in order to infer their composition. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that tholins produced with a nitrogen-methane gas mixture (95:5) and nitrogenpyridine gas mixture (99:250ppm) present very similar spectra features. Tholins produced with a mixture of nitrogenmethane-pyridine (99:1:250ppm) do not present aliphatic CH2 or CH3 vibrational signatures. This could indicate a cyclic polymerization by a pyridine skeleton. Mass spectrometry is still in progress to confirm this.

  5. Exploring network organization in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    Constructing a network organization for global R&D is presented as a common sense practice in existing literature. However, there are still queries about the network organization, such as the persistence of hierarchies which make a network organization merely a “bureaucracy-lite” organization....... Furthermore, in practice, we rarely see radical organizational change towards a network organization that adopts an internal market. The co-existence of market, hierarchy and network triggered research interest. A multiple case study of three transnational corporations’ global R&D organization shows...... that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...

  6. Titan after Cassini Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Erd, C.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, the Huygens Probe gave us a snapshot of a world tantalizingly like our own, yet frozen in its evolution on the threshold of life. The descent under parachute, like that of Huygens in 2005, is happening again, but this time in the Saturn-cast twilight of winter in Titan's northern reaches. With a pop, the parachute is released, and then a muffled splash signals the beginning of the first floating exploration of an extraterrestrial sea-this one not of water but of liquid hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, thousands of miles away, a hot air balloon, a "montgolfiere," cruises 6 miles above sunnier terrain, imaging vistas of dunes, river channels, mountains and valleys carved in water ice, and probing the subsurface for vast quantities of "missing" methane and ethane that might be hidden within a porous icy crust. Balloon and floater return their data to a Titan Orbiter equipped to strip away Titan's mysteries with imaging, radar profiling, and atmospheric sampling, much more powerful and more complete than Cassini was capable of. This spacecraft, preparing to enter a circular orbit around Saturn's cloud-shrouded giant moon, has just completed a series of flybys of Enceladus, a tiny but active world with plumes that blow water and organics from the interior into space. Specialized instruments on the orbiter were able to analyze these plumes directly during the flybys. Titan and Enceladus could hardly seem more different, and yet they are linked by their origin in the Saturn system, by a magnetosphere that sweeps up mass and delivers energy, and by the possibility that one or both worlds harbor life. It is the goal of the NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) to explore and investigate these exotic and inviting worlds, to understand their natures and assess the possibilities of habitability in this system so distant from our home world. Orbiting, landing, and ballooning at Titan represent a new and exciting approach to planetary exploration. The TSSM mission

  7. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  8. Search for biochemical fossils on earth and non-biological organic molecules on Jupiter, Saturn and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bartholomew

    1982-07-01

    Recognizable remnants of ancient biochemicals may survive under mild/moderate geological environments. Acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons with terpenoid carbon skeletons (e.g. hopanes) and vanadyl and nickel porphyrins have been isolated from organic matter, including petroleum, in Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Remnants of lignin have also been found. Usually, carbohydrates do not survive long; they degrade and/or react with other organic substances to form macromolecular matter. Proteins, e.g. apparently those in dinosaur bone collagen, break down relatively rapidly. Life arose during the Precambrian and potential biochemical fossils, e.g. n-alkanes, 2,5-dimethylfuran have been isolated from Precambrian kerogens. Traces of hydrocarbons, NH3, PH3 occur on Jupiter and Saturn. Hydrocarbons, N2 and HCN, the latter a key intermediary in the laboratory abiological syntheses of amino acids and nucleic acid bases, are present on Titan where life could not have evolved. Precursor abiological organic molecules of some complexity may have been synthesized on Titan and the Jovian planets.

  9. Hybrid inorganic-organic adsorbents Part 1: Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zirconium titanate frameworks containing coordinating organic functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher S; De Los Reyes, Massey; Scales, Nicholas; Hanna, John V; Luca, Vittorio

    2010-12-01

    A series of functional hybrid inorganic-organic adsorbent materials have been prepared through postsynthetic grafting of mesoporous zirconium titanate xerogel powders using a range of synthesized and commercial mono-, bis-, and tris-phosphonic acids, many of which have never before been investigated for the preparation of hybrid phases. The hybrid materials have been characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT) and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic techniques and their adsorption properties studied using a 153Gd radiotracer. The highest level of surface functionalization (molecules/nm2) was observed for methylphosphonic acid (∼3 molecules/nm2). The level of functionalization decreased with an increase in the number of potential surface coordinating groups of the phosphonic acids. Spectral decomposition of the DRIFT and 31P MAS NMR spectra showed that each of the phosphonic acid molecules coordinated strongly to the metal oxide surface but that for the 1,1-bis-phosphonic acids and tris-phosphonic acids the coordination was highly variable resulting in a proportion of free or loosely coordinated phosphonic acid groups. Functionalization of a porous mixed metal oxide framework with the tris-methylenephosphonic acid (ATMP-ZrTi-0.33) resulted in a hybrid with the highest affinity for 153Gd3+ in nitric acid solutions across a wide range of acid concentrations. The ATMP-ZrTi-0.33 hybrid material extracted 153Gd3+ with a Kd value of 1×10(4) in 0.01 M HNO3 far exceeding that of the other hybrid phases. The unfunctionalized mesoporous mixed metal oxide had negligible affinity for Gd3+ (KdATMP-ZrTi-0.33 hybrid phase for Gd3+ has been determined to be about 0.005 mmol/g in 0.01 M HNO3. This behavior and that of the other hybrid phases suggests that the surface-bound ATMP ligand functions as a chelating ligand toward 153Gd3+ under these acidic conditions.

  10. Organic titanates: a model for activating rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaofan; Li, Guangshe; Li, Huixia; Lu, Yantong; Li, Liping

    2018-04-12

    The application of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is challenged by the lack of strategies in rapid room-temperature synthesis with controlled morphologies. Here, we report on an initial study of adopting organic titanates as a model activator that promotes rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled, highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

  11. Study of thin films of carrier-doped strontium titanate with emphasis on their interfaces with organic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Naoki [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: naokis@e.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Harada, Youichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Terashima, Takahito [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanda, Ryoko [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takano, Mikio [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Fifty nanometer-thick metal-doped strontium titanate (M:STO, M = La and V) films deposited epitaxially on single crystalline STO substrates were characterized in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO) covered glasses, to check their applicability to optically transparent anode materials for organic optoelectronic devices. M:STO, in particular V:STO, films turned out to have distinct surface flatness, needfully low electric resistivities and notably large work functions. While their optical transmittances are lower than those of ITOs at this moment, we suggest that M:STO films have a potential to take the place of ITO films. Further, we have observed energy level alignments for copper phthalocyanine thin films at the interface of V:STO.

  12. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Titan Montgolfiere Buoyancy Modulation System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Titan is ideally suited for balloon exploration due to its low gravity and dense atmosphere. Current NASA mission architectures baseline Montgolfiere balloon...

  14. Experimental study of heterogeneous organic chemistry induced by far ultraviolet light: Implications for growth of organic aerosols by CH3 addition in the atmospheres of Titan and early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Sekine, Yasuhito; Sasamori, Tsutoni; Sugita, Seiji

    2018-06-01

    Formation of organic aerosols driven by photochemical reactions has been observed and suggested in CH4-containing atmospheres, including Titan and early Earth. However, the detailed production and growth mechanisms of organic aerosols driven by solar far ultraviolet (FUV) light remain poorly constrained. We conducted laboratory experiments simulating photochemical reactions in a CH4sbnd CO2 atmosphere driven by the FUV radiations dominated by the Lyman-α line. In the experiments, we analyzed time variations in thickness and infrared spectra of solid organic film formed on an optical window in a reaction cell. Gas species formed by FUV irradiation were also analyzed and compared with photochemical model calculations. Our experimental results show that the growth rate of the organic film decreases as the CH4/CO2 ratio of reactant gas mixture decreases, and that the decrease becomes very steep for CH4/CO2 organic film but that the addition reaction of CH3 radicals onto the organic film with the reaction probability around 10-2 can explain the growth rate. At CH4/CO2 organic film. Our results suggest that organic aerosols would grow through CH3 addition onto the surface during the precipitation of aerosol particles in the middle atmosphere of Titan and early Earth. On Titan, effective CH3 addition would reduce C2H6 production in the atmosphere. On early Earth, growth of aerosol particles would be less efficient than those on Titan, possibly resulting in small-sized monomers and influencing UV shielding.

  15. Titan's icy scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P. F.; Turner, J. D.; Neish, C. D.; Mitri, G.; Montiel, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Cassini/VIMS [1] infrared spectral windows to identify and quantify weak surface features, with no assumptions on the haze and surface characteris- tics. This study maps the organic sediments, supplied by past atmospheres, as well as ice-rich regions that constitute Titan's bedrock.

  16. Advances in Architectural Elements For Future Missions to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiere hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit into NASA New Frontiers or ESA Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, a clear blueprint has been laid out for the work needed to reduce the risks inherent in such missions and the areas where advances would be beneficial for elements critical to future Titan missions have been identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the flagship mission architecture and

  17. Three dimensional exploration of radiocapture organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, G.

    1979-01-01

    Multichannel parallel and pinhole scintigraphic collimators are shown to transmit image information concerning the position of the radioactive point source. A procedure for calculating body radioactivity is described using data supplied by a special dual space exploration and collimation system or by a scintillation chamber provided with two opposite image converters, multichannel-parallel collimated. Dynamic scintigraphic studies are standardized and described. The probability frequency of Compton photon energy and its medium value for multichannel-parallel collimation are calculated, and the hexangular symmetry of the image converter is demonstrated The general problem of the digital rebuilding of space distributions in radio-capture organs is discussed using parallel strata images. A procedure for calculating the response of the scintigraphic system at unit pulse is developed using a procedure which may be applied independently of the radionuclide-collimator combination. An utility program (implemented by EMI-1 routine) is developed in order to achieve optimal 2-D Wiener filtering of the scintigraphic images. Application of this utility program permits full projection images of high space-rendering fidelity, equivalent to the increase of geometrical resolution in the system, up to a value which corresponds to the maximum frequency of the operating matrix. A new mathematical model based on superposition for 3-D rebuilding of volume distribution in the Fourier space. The utility program and appropriate MATRID-TRD 2 routine designed for 3-D digital rebuilding is developed, based on the superposition model

  18. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  19. "It's Like Moving the Titanic:" Community Organizing to Address Food (In)Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kristen E

    2017-08-01

    Health communication scholars are uniquely positioned to examine the ways in which individuals organize to address current and future exigencies related to social ills. In particular, organizations are key sites in understanding our health decisions related to food choice. From a young age, children develop habits of eating that stay with them throughout their life. More specifically, food insecurity impacts childhood nutrition. Children from low-income homes experience disproportional negative health outcomes. Appalachian Ohio is an area within the United States that experiences severe poverty. In 2013, community members in a small public school district in Appalachian Ohio formed the Appalachian Nutrition Advisory Council to address the nutritional needs of students in schools. This project stories the ways in which community members creatively organized to supplement existing structures in place designed to address school nutrition and food security.

  20. The age of Titan's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2010-04-01

    High-resolution images of the surface of Titan taken by the Cassini spacecraft reveal a world with an extreme paucity of impact craters. Planetary surfaces are commonly dated by dividing the number of impact craters by the estimated impactor flux, but this approach has been confounded at Titan by several difficulties. First, high-resolution imaging of the surface of Titan is far from complete (in the near-infrared as well as radar). As of December 2007, Cassini RADAR images covered only 22% of its surface. However, we can use Monte-Carlo models to explore how many craters of a given size (with large or very large craters being of particular interest) may be present in the unobserved areas. Second, literature descriptions of the crater formation rate (e.g. Korycansky and Zahnle 2005 and Artemieva and Lunine 2005) are apparently not in agreement. We discuss possible resolutions. Third, since surface modification processes are ongoing, the actual number of craters on Titan's surface remains uncertain, as craters may be eroded beyond recognition, or obscured by lakes or sand seas. In this connection, we use the Earth as an analogue. The Earth is in many ways the most "Titan-like" world in the solar system, with extensive modification by erosion, burial, tectonism, and volcanism. We compare the observed number of terrestrial craters to the expected terrestrial impactor flux to determine the crater reduction factor for a world similar to Titan. From this information, we can back out the actual number of craters on Titan's surface and estimate its crater retention age. An accurate age estimate will be critical for constraining models of Titan's formation and evolution.

  1. Rate Measurements of the Hydrolysis of Complex Organic Macromolecules in Cold Aqueous Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on the Early Earth and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Somogyi, Á.; Imanaka, H .; Lunine, J. I.; Smith, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Organic macromolecules (``complex tholins'') were synthesized from a 0.95 N2 / 0.05 CH4 atmosphere in a high-voltage AC flow discharge reactor. When placed in liquid water, specific water soluble compounds in the macromolecules demonstrated Arrhenius type first order kinetics between 273 and 313 K and produced oxygenated organic species with activation energies in the range of ~60 +/- 10 kJ mol-1. These reactions displayed half lives between 0.3 and 17 days at 273 K. Oxygen incorporation into such materials-a necessary step toward the formation of biological molecules-is therefore fast compared to processes that occur on geologic timescales, which include the freezing of impact melt pools and possible cryovolcanic sites on Saturn's organic-rich moon Titan.

  2. Organizational Ambidexterity : Balancing Exploitation and Exploration in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yigit, Mert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate necessity of ambidexterity for organizations. The main interest of this thesis is to investigate why organizations should be ambidextrous and how organizations can reach ambidexterity under the pressure of limited resources and competitive market condition. Findings: This thesis explored relations and tensions between exploitation and exploration in organizational and individual aspects. Findings in the research show that communication skill of the subu...

  3. Exploring the networking behaviors of hospital organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fausto

    2018-05-08

    Despite an extensive body of knowledge exists on network outcomes and on how hospital network structures may contribute to the creation of outcomes at different levels of analysis, less attention has been paid to understanding how and why hospital organizational networks evolve and change. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of networking behaviors of hospital organizations. Stochastic actor-based model for network dynamics was used to quantitatively examine data covering six-years of patient transfer relations among 35 hospital organizations. Specifically, the study investigated about determinants of patient transfer evolution modeling partner selection choice as a combination of multiple organizational attributes and endogenous network-based processes. The results indicate that having overlapping specialties and treating patients with the same case-mix decrease the likelihood of observing network ties between hospitals. Also, results revealed as geographical proximity and membership of the same LHA have a positive impact on the networking behavior of hospitals organizations, there is a propensity in the network to choose larger hospitals as partners, and to transfer patients between hospitals facing similar levels of operational uncertainty. Organizational attributes (overlapping specialties and case-mix), institutional factors (LHA), and geographical proximity matter in the formation and shaping of hospital networks over time. Managers can benefit from the use of these findings by clearly identifying the role and strategic positioning of their hospital with respect to the entire network. Social network analysis can yield novel information and also aid policy makers in the formation of interventions, encouraging alliances among providers as well as planning health system restructuring.

  4. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  5. Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE): Detection and Analysis of Compounds of Interest to Astrobiology in the Lower Atmosphere and Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeruchi, Noreshige

    2004-01-01

    The Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM) is a proposed concept for the Solar System Exploration Visions Mission, Titan Explorer, a follow-on to the Cassini-Huygens mission. TOAM would use a Titan polar orbiter and a lighter-than-air aerorover to investigate the surface and atmosphere of Titan. Astrobiology issues will be addressed though TOAM investigations including, for example: Distribution and composition of organics (atmospheric, aerosol, surface); Organic chemical processes, their chemical context and energy sources; and Seasonal variations and interactions of the atmosphere and surface. The TIDE instrument will perform in-situ analyses to obtain comprehensive and sensitive molecular and elemental assays of volatile organics in the atmosphere, oceans and surface. TIDE chemical analyses are conducted by a Gas Chromatograph-Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS). This TIDE GC-IMS was a component of the mini-Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (mini-CIDEX) developed for the chemical analysis of a cometary environment. Both the GC and helium IMS of mini-CIDEX have been further developed to better meet the analytical and operational requirements of the TOAM. application. A Micro-ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) GC and Mini-Cell helium IMS are under development to replace their respective mini-CIDEX components, providing similar or advanced analytical capabilities.

  6. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saturn's giant moon Titan has become one of the most fascinating bodies in the Solar System. Titan is the richest laboratory in the solar system for studying...

  7. NIAC Phase 1 Final Study Report on Titan Aerial Daughtercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Saturns giant moon Titan has become one of the most fascinating bodies in the Solar System. Even though it is a billion miles from Earth, data from the Cassini mission reveals that Titan has a very diverse, Earth-like surface, with mountains, fluvial channels, lakes, evaporite basins, plains, dunes, and seas [Lopes 2010] (Figure 1). But unlike Earth, Titans surface likely is composed of organic chemistry products derived from complex atmospheric photochemistry [Lorenz 2008]. In addition, Titan has an active meteorological system with observed storms and precipitation-induced surface darkening suggesting a hydrocarbon cycle analogous to Earths water cycle [Turtle 2011].Titan is the richest laboratory in the solar system for studying prebiotic chemistry, which makes studying its chemistry from the surface and in the atmosphere one of the most important objectives in planetary science [Decadal 2011]. The diversity of surface features on Titan related to organic solids and liquids makes long-range mobility with surface access important [Decadal 2011]. This has not been possible to date, because mission concepts have had either no mobility (landers), no surface access (balloons and airplanes), or low maturity, high risk, and/or high development costs for this environment (e,g. large, self-sufficient, long-duration helicopters). Enabling in situ mobility could revolutionize Titan exploration, similarly to the way rovers revolutionized Mars exploration. Recent progress on several fronts has suggested that small-scale rotorcraft deployed as daughtercraft from a lander or balloon mothercraft may be an effective, affordable approach to expanding Titan surface access. This includes rapid progress on autonomous navigation capabilities of such aircraft for terrestrial applications and on miniaturization, driven by the consumer mobile electronics market, of high performance of sensors, processors, and other avionics components needed for such aircraft. Chemical analysis, for

  8. A method of exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. [hot air balloon heated by solar radiation or planetary thermal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamont, J.

    1978-01-01

    A hot-air balloon, with the air heated by natural sources, is described. Buoyancy is accomplished by either solar heating or by utilizing the IR thermal flux of the planet to heat the gas in the balloon. Altitude control is provided by a valve which is opened and closed by a barometer. The balloon is made of an organic material which has to absorb radiant energy and to emit as little as possible.

  9. Who Says Organic Chemistry Is Difficult? Exploring Perspectives and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Anne; Childs, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Much research has identified organic chemistry as an area of difficulty for learners. There is also much literature pertaining to the factors that contribute to learners' difficulties. This paper explores the intersections of teachers' and learners' perceptions of teaching and learning organic chemistry respectively. Understanding these nuances…

  10. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  11. Cryovolcanism on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, G.; Showman, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Lopes, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    , large scale tectonics stress (due to tides, non-synchronous rotation, satellite volume changes, and/or topography) may all promote resurfacing at localized times and spaces. Thermal convection in the ice-I shell can play an important role in ensuring recent cryovolcanism activity on Titan. Ammonia-water pockets trapped in the ice shell provides a possible mechanism for explaining episodic cryovolcanism. Our model has several advantages over more simplistic ones. Because of the relative inefficiency of trapping liquid in the shell and transporting it to the surface, our mechanism makes volcanism a marginal process. In this way we can explain why Titan did not lose all its ammonia into cryovolcanic flows early in Solar System history as would happen were ammonia-water liquid to be positively buoyant, hence making cryovolcanism too "easy". At the same time, our mechanism allows cryovolcanism to be an important process on regional scales: ammonia should be present at the surface and hence detectable so long as it is not buried by subsequent sedimentation of organic aerosols. Finally, because we posit that the cryovolcanic liquid comes from localized pockets rather than directly from the ocean, our scenario also allows the ocean to remain dilute in ammonia, hence much denser than the overlying ice and mechanically stable over the history of the Solar System.

  12. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  13. ALMA Spectroscopy of Titan's Atmosphere: First Detections of Vinyl Cyanide and Acetonitrile Isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Y Palmer, Maureen; Nixon, Conor A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Mumma, Michael J.; Irwin, Pat G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Serigano, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Studies of Titan's atmospheric chemistry provide a unique opportunity to explore the origin and evolution of complex organic matter in primitive planetary atmospheres. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a powerful new telescope, well suited to the study of molecular emission from Titan's stratosphere and mesosphere. Here we present early results from our ongoing study to exploit the large volume of Titan data taken using ALMA in Early Science Mode (during the period 2012-2014). Combining data from multiple ALMA Band 6 observations, we obtained high-resolution mm-wave spectra with unprecedented sensitivity, enabling the first detection of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN) in Titan's atmosphere. Initial estimates indicate a mesospheric abundance ratio with respect to ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) of [C2H3CN]/[C2H5CN] = 0.31. In addition, we report the first detections on Titan of the 13C and 15N-substituted isotopologues of acetonitrile (13CH3CN and CH3C15N). Radiative transfer models and possible chemical formation pathways for these molecules will be discussed.

  14. Tut and the Titanic and Finding History Beneath the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Gail Skroback; Ballard, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Two articles discuss the controversy about exploration of the shipwrecked Titanic. Suggested are questions for discussion and activities to stimulate student interest and to explore ethical issues involved in the treatment of historic artifacts. (CB)

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Melissa G. [Planetary Environments Laboratory, Code 699, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sebree, Joshua A. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Code 699, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A., E-mail: melissa.trainer@nasa.gov [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Box 216 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  16. The rotation of Titan and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoolst, Tim; Coyette, Alexis; Baland, Rose-Marie; Trinh, Antony

    2016-10-01

    The rotation rates of Titan and Ganymede, the largest satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, are on average equal to their orbital mean motion. Here we discuss small deviations from the average rotation for both satellites and evaluate the polar motion of Titan induced by its surface fluid layers. We examine different causes at various time scales and assess possible consequences and the potential of using librations and polar motion as probes of the interior structure of the satellites.The rotation rate of Titan and Ganymede cannot be constant on the orbital time scale as a result of the gravitational torque of the central planet acting on the satellites. Titan is moreover expected to show significant polar motion and additional variations in the rotation rate due to angular momentum exchange with the atmosphere, mainly at seasonal periods. Observational evidence for deviations from the synchronous state has been reported several times for Titan but is unfortunately inconclusive. The measurements of the rotation variations are based on determinations of the shift in position of Cassini radar images taken during different flybys. The ESA JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission will measure the rotation variations of Ganymede during its orbital phase around the satellite starting in 2032.We report on different theoretical aspects of the librations and polar motion. We consider the influence of the rheology of the ice shell and take into account Cassini measurements of the external gravitational field and of the topography of Titan and similar Galileo data about Ganymede. We also evaluate the librations and polar motion induced by Titan's hydrocarbon seas and use the most recent results of Titan's atmosphere dynamics. We finally evaluate the potential of rotation variations to constrain the satellite's interior structure, in particular its ice shell and ocean.

  17. Improvement in crystallization and electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films by gold doping using metal-organic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Nien, S.-W.; Lee, K.-C.; Wu, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gold (Au) on the crystallization, dielectric constant and leakage current density of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films was investigated. BST thin films with various gold concentrations were prepared via a metal-organic deposition process. The X-ray diffraction shows enhanced crystallization as well as expanded lattice constants for the gold-doped BST films. Thermal analysis reveals that the gold dopant induces more complete decomposition of precursor for the doped films than those of undoped ones. The leakage current density of BST films is greatly reduced by the gold dopant over a range of biases (1-5 V). The distribution of gold was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and found to be inside the BST grains, not in the grain-boundaries. Gold acted as a catalyst, inducing the nucleation of crystallites and improving the crystallinity of the structure. Its addition is shown to be associated to the improvement of the electrical properties of BST films

  18. Selections from 2017: Discoveries in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titans IonospherePublished July2017Main takeaway:Graphic depicting some of the chemical reactions taking place in Titans atmosphere, leading to the generation of organic haze particles. [ESA]In a recently published study led by Ravi Desai (University College London), scientists used data from the Cassini mission to identify negatively charged molecules known as carbon chain anions in the atmosphere of Saturns largest moon, Titan.Why its interesting:Carbon chain anions are the building blocks ofmore complex molecules, and Titans thick nitrogen and methane atmosphere mightmimic the atmosphere of earlyEarth. This first unambiguous detection of carbon chain anions in a planet-like atmosphere might therefore teach us about the conditions and chemical reactions that eventually led to the development of life on Earth. And ifwe can use Titan to learn about how complex molecules grow from these anion chains, we may be able to identify auniversal pathway towards the ingredients for life.What weve learned so far:Cassini measured fewer and fewer lower-mass anions the deeper in Titans ionosphere that it looked and at the same time,an increase in the number of precursors to larger aerosol molecules further down. This tradeoff strongly suggests that the anions are indeed involved in building up the more complex molecules, seeding their eventual growth into the complex organic haze of Titans lower atmosphere.CitationR. T. Desai et al 2017 ApJL 844 L18. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7851

  19. R.M.S Titanic 2003 Expedition on the Russian Research Vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh between 20030622 and 20030702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As the leading ocean agency, and as per the Guidelines for Research, Exploration and Salvage of RMS Titanic, issued under the authority of the RMS Titanic Maritime...

  20. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKING FOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Jerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between communication, with the emphasis on public relations, and social network perspectives. What, then, does social networking for business mean in communication, particularly in public relations? This paper argues that business social networking play an important role in improving organizations communications. The goal of our paper is to identify the basic characteristics of social networks and its role for public relations for the effective implementation of social networking initiatives and tools in the workplace. Business social networking tools such as Facebook and LinkedIn are being used by organizations to reach the corporate objectives and to create a positive company image. Specific social networks, such the personalised networks of influence, are perceived to be one of the main strategic resources for organizations.

  1. Self-organization via active exploration in robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogmen, H.; Prakash, R. V.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a neural network based robotic system. Unlike traditional robotic systems, our approach focussed on non-stationary problems. We indicate that self-organization capability is necessary for any system to operate successfully in a non-stationary environment. We suggest that self-organization should be based on an active exploration process. We investigated neural architectures having novelty sensitivity, selective attention, reinforcement learning, habit formation, flexible criteria categorization properties and analyzed the resulting behavior (consisting of an intelligent initiation of exploration) by computer simulations. While various computer vision researchers acknowledged recently the importance of active processes (Swain and Stricker, 1991), the proposed approaches within the new framework still suffer from a lack of self-organization (Aloimonos and Bandyopadhyay, 1987; Bajcsy, 1988). A self-organizing, neural network based robot (MAVIN) has been recently proposed (Baloch and Waxman, 1991). This robot has the capability of position, size rotation invariant pattern categorization, recognition and pavlovian conditioning. Our robot does not have initially invariant processing properties. The reason for this is the emphasis we put on active exploration. We maintain the point of view that such invariant properties emerge from an internalization of exploratory sensory-motor activity. Rather than coding the equilibria of such mental capabilities, we are seeking to capture its dynamics to understand on the one hand how the emergence of such invariances is possible and on the other hand the dynamics that lead to these invariances. The second point is crucial for an adaptive robot to acquire new invariances in non-stationary environments, as demonstrated by the inverting glass experiments of Helmholtz. We will introduce Pavlovian conditioning circuits in our future work for the precise objective of achieving the generation, coordination, and internalization

  2. The Titan Sky Simulator ™ - Testing Prototype Balloons in Conditions Approximating those in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Julian

    This paper will describe practical work flying prototype balloons in the "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " in conditions approximating those found in Titan's atmosphere. Saturn's moon, Titan, is attracting intense scientific interest. This has led to wide interest in exploring it with Aerobots, balloons or airships. Their function would be similar to the Rovers exploring Mars, but instead of moving laboriously across the rough terrain on wheels, they would float freely from location to location. To design any balloon or airship it is essential to know the temperature of the lifting gas as this influences the volume of the gas, which in turn influences the lift. To determine this temperature it is necessary to know how heat is transferred between the craft and its surroundings. Heat transfer for existing balloons is well understood. However, Titan conditions are utterly different from those in which balloons have ever been flown, so heat transfer rates cannot currently be calculated. In particular, thermal radiation accounts for most heat transfer for existing balloons but over Titan heat transfer will be dominated by convection. To be able to make these fundamental calculations, it is necessary to get fundamental experimental data. This is being obtained by flying balloons in a Simulator filled with nitrogen gas at very low temperature, about 95° K / minus 180° C, typical of Titan's temperatures. Because the gas in the Simulator is so cold, operating at atmospheric pressure the density is close to that of Titan's atmosphere. "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " has an open interior approximately 4.5 meter tall and 2.5 meters square. It has already been operated at 95° K/-180° C. By the time of the Conference it is fully expected to have data to present from actual balloons flying at this temperature. Perhaps the most important purpose of this testing is to validate numerical [computational fluid dynamics] models being developed by Tim Colonius of Caltech. These numerical

  3. ARIES: Enabling Visual Exploration and Organization of Art Image Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissaff, Lhaylla; Wood Ruby, Louisa; Deutch, Samantha; DuBois, R Luke; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Art historians have traditionally used physical light boxes to prepare exhibits or curate collections. On a light box, they can place slides or printed images, move the images around at will, group them as desired, and visual-ly compare them. The transition to digital images has rendered this workflow obsolete. Now, art historians lack well-designed, unified interactive software tools that effectively support the operations they perform with physi-cal light boxes. To address this problem, we designed ARIES (ARt Image Exploration Space), an interactive image manipulation system that enables the exploration and organization of fine digital art. The system allows images to be compared in multiple ways, offering dynamic overlays analogous to a physical light box, and sup-porting advanced image comparisons and feature-matching functions, available through computational image processing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system to support art historians tasks through real use cases.

  4. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan...... Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven...... of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission...

  5. Exploring Business Strategy in Health Information Exchange Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Unlike consumer goods industries, healthcare has been slow to implement technolo gies that support exchange of data in patients' health records. This results in avoid able medication errors, avoidable hospital readmissions, unnecessary duplicate testing, and other inefficient or wasteful practices. Community-based regional health information exchange (HIE) organizations have evolved in response to federal aims to encourage interoperability, yet little is known about their strategic approach. We use the lens of institutional and strategic management theories to empirically explore the differences in business strategies deployed in HIEs that are, to date, financially sustainable versus those that are not. We developed a 20-question survey targeted to CEOs to assess HIE business strategies. Our sample consisted of 60 community-based exchanges distributed throughout the United States, and we achieved a 58% response rate. Questions centered on competitive strategy and financial sustainability. We relied on logistic regression methods to explore relationships between variables. Our regression identified characteristics common to sustainable organizations. We defined sustainability as revenues exceeding operational costs. Seventeen of the 35 organizations (49%) defined themselves as currently sustainable. Focus and cost leadership strategies were significantly associated with sustainability. Growth strate gies, which were much more common than other strategies, were not associated with sustainability. We saw little evidence of a differentiation strategy (i.e., the basis of competition whereby the attributes of a product or service are unmatched by rivals). Most CEOs had a relatively optimistic outlook, with 60% stating they were confident of surviving over the next 5 years; however, nearly 9% of the organizations were in some phase of divestiture or exit from the market. HIEs are evolving differently based on local leadership decisions, yet their strategic approach is

  6. Montgolfiere balloon missions from Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    Montgolfieres, which are balloons that are filled with heated ambient atmospheric gas, appear promising for the exploration of Mars as well as of Saturn's moon, Titan. On Earth, Montgolfieres are also known as 'hot air balloons'. Commercial versions are typically heated by burning propane, although a number of radiant and solar-heated Montgolfieres have been flown on earth by CNES.

  7. Behavior under Extreme Conditions: The Titanic Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Frey; David A. Savage; Benno Torgler

    2011-01-01

    During the night of April 14, 1912, the RMS Titanic collided with an iceberg on her maiden voyage. Two hours and 40 minutes later she sank, resulting in the loss of 1,501 lives—more than two-thirds of her 2,207 passengers and crew. This remains one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history and by far the most famous. For social scientists, evidence about how people behaved as the Titanic sunk offers a quasi-natural field experiment to explore behavior under extreme conditions o...

  8. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  9. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  10. Clash of the Titans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  11. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  12. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures

  13. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  14. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini–Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini–Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  15. Radiation stability of sodium titanate ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    Sodium titanate and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin are being considered as ion exchangers to remove 90 Sr and actinides from the large volume of defense waste stored at Hanford Site in Washington. Preliminary studies to determine the radiation effect on Sr +2 and I - capacity of these ion-exchange materials were conducted. Samples of sodium titanate powder, sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin, as well as the nitrate form of macroreticular anion resin were irradiated with up to 2 x 10 9 Rads of 60 Co gamma rays. Sodium titanate cation capacity decreased about 50% while the sodium titanate loaded macroeticular resin displayed a dramatic decrease in cation capacity when irradiated with 10 8 -10 9 Rad. The latter decrease is tentatively ascribed to radiation damage to the organic portion which subsequently inhibits interaction with the contained sodium titanate. The anion capacity of both macroreticular resin and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin exhibited significant decreases with increasing radiation exposure. These results suggest that consideration should be given to the potential effects of radiation degradation if column regeneration is to be used. 5 figures, 2 tables

  16. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  17. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > About OER > Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and Affiliate Locations Strategic Plan Media News Room OER Symposium Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Organization Home About OER Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and

  18. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  19. All Aboard the "Titanic": Character Journals Are Just the Tip of the Iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a 7th-grade reading class used character journals to explore the sailing and the sinking of the "Titanic." Describes how the students took ownership of their research and enjoyed reading and writing about actual events as they became a passenger or crew member aboard the "Titanic," explored the ship, experienced…

  20. Cosmic-rays induced Titan tholins and their astrobiological significances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Taniuchi, Toshinori; Hosogai, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Khare, Bishun; McKay, Chris

    Titan is the largest satellite of Saturn. It is quite unique satellite since it has a dense atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane, and has been sometimes considered as a model of primitive Earth. In Titan atmosphere, a wide variety of organic compounds and mists made of complex organics. Such solid complex organics are often referred to as tholins. A number of laboratory experiments simulating reactions in Titan atmosphere have been conducted. In most of them, ultraviolet light and discharges (simulating actions of electrons in Saturn magnetosphere) were used, which were simulation of the reactions in upper dilute atmosphere of Titan. We examined possible formation of organic compounds in the lower dense atmosphere of Titan, where cosmic rays are major energies. A Mixture of 35 Torr of methane and 665 Torr of nitrogen was irradiated with high-energy protons (3 MeV) from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan) or from a Tandem accelerator (TIARA, QUBS, JAEA, Japan). In some experiments, 13 C-labelled methane was used. We also performed plasma discharges in a mixture of methane (10 %) and nitrogen (90 %) to simulate the reactions in the upper atmosphere of Titan. Solid products by proton irradiation and those by plasma discharges are hereafter referred to as PI-tholins and PD-tholins, respectively. The resulting PI-tholins were observed with SEM and AFM. They were characterized by pyrolysis-GC/MS, gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, etc. Amino acids in PI-and PD-tholins were analyzed by HPLC, GC/MS and MALDI-TOF-MS after acid hydrolysis. 18 O-Labelled water was used in some cases during hydrolysis. Filamentary and/or globular-like structures were observed by SEM and AFM. By pyrolysis-GC/MS of PI-tholins, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide were detected, which was the same as the results obtained in Titan atmosphere during the Huygens mission. A wide variety of amino acids were detected after hydrolysis of both tholins. It was proved that oxygen atoms in the amino

  1. The tides of Titan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  2. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > About OER > Organization >

    Science.gov (United States)

    About OER Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and Affiliate of Staff and Affiliate Locations About OER Organization Organizational Structure Home About OER Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and Affiliate Locations

  3. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  4. Characterizing the Upper Atmosphere of Titan using the Titan Global Ionosphere- Thermosphere Model: Nitrogen and Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H.; Bar-Nun, A.; Bougher, S. W.; Ridley, A. J.; Magee, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a great deal of effort has been put forth to explain the Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Waite et al [2004]) in-situ measurements of Titan's upper atmosphere (e.g. Muller-Wodarg [2008], Strobel [2008], Yelle et al [2008]). Currently, the community seems to agree that large amounts of CH4 are escaping from Titan's upper atmosphere at a rate of roughly 2.0 x 1027 molecules of CH4/s (3.33 x 1028 amu/s), representing a significant mass source to the Kronian Magnetosphere. However, such large escape fluxes from Titan are currently not corroborated by measurements onboard the Cassini Spacecraft. Thus, we posit another potential scenario: Aerosol depletion of atmospheric methane. Using the three-dimensional Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (T-GITM) (Bell et al [2008]), we explore the possible removal mechanisms of atmospheric gaseous constituents by these aerosols. Titan simulations are directly compared against Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer in-situ densities of N2 and CH4. From this work, we can then compare and contrast this aerosol depletion scenario against the currently posited hydrodynamic escape scenario, illustrating the merits and shortcomings of both.

  5. Titan and habitable planets around M-dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission discovered an active "hydrologic cycle" on Saturn's giant moon Titan, in which methane takes the place of water. Shrouded by a dense nitrogen-methane atmosphere, Titan's surface is blanketed in the equatorial regions by dunes composed of solid organics, sculpted by wind and fluvial erosion, and dotted at the poles with lakes and seas of liquid methane and ethane. The underlying crust is almost certainly water ice, possibly in the form of gas hydrates (clathrate hydrates) dominated by methane as the included species. The processes that work the surface of Titan resemble in their overall balance no other moon in the solar system; instead, they are most like that of the Earth. The presence of methane in place of water, however, means that in any particular planetary system, a body like Titan will always be outside the orbit of an Earth-type planet. Around M-dwarfs, planets with a Titan-like climate will sit at 1 AU--a far more stable environment than the approximately 0.1 AU where Earth-like planets sit. However, an observable Titan-like exoplanet might have to be much larger than Titan itself to be observable, increasing the ratio of heat contributed to the surface atmosphere system from internal (geologic) processes versus photons from the parent star.

  6. Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Barnes, J. W.; McKay, C. P.; Lemke, L.; Beyer, R. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Adamkovics, M.; Atkinson, D. H.; Burr, D. M.; Colaprete, T.; Foch, R.; Le Mouélic, S.; Merrison, J.; Mitchell, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Schaller, E.

    2010-10-01

    Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance - is a small (120 kg), nuclear-powered Titan airplane in the Discovery/New Frontiers class based on the concept of Lemke (2008 IPPW). The scientific goals of the mission are designed around the unique flexibility offered by an airborne platform: to explore Titan's diversity of surface landforms, processes, and compositions, as well as to study and measure the atmospheric circulation, aerosols, and humidity. AVIATR would address and surpass many of the science goals of hot-air balloons in Titan flagship studies. The strawman instrument payload is narrowly focused on the stated scientific objectives. The optical remote sensing suite comprises three instruments - an off-nadir high-resolution 2-micron camera, a horizon-looking 5-micron imager, and a 1-6 micron pushbroom near-infrared spectrometer. The in situ instruments include atmospheric structure, a methane humidity sensor, and a raindrop detector. An airplane has operational advantages over a balloon. Its piloted nature allows a go-to capability to image locations of interest in real time, thereby allowing for directed exploration of many features of primary geologic interest: Titan's sand dunes, mountains, craters, channels, and lakes. Subsequent imaging can capture changes in these features during the primary mission. AVIATR can fly predesigned routes, building up large context mosaics of areas of interest before swooping down to low altitude to acquire high-resolution images at 30-cm spatial sampling, similar to that of HiRISE at Mars. The elevation flexibility of the airplane allows us to acquire atmospheric profiles as a function of altitude at any desired location. Although limited by the direct-to-Earth downlink bandwidth, the total scientific data return from AVIATR will be >40 times that returned from Huygens. To maximize the science per bit, novel data storage and downlink techniques will be employed, including lossy compression

  7. In Search of the Organic: An Unequivocal Exploration into the Principles of Organic Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Matthew Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The architecture is a multi-venue performing arts complex consisting of a full-scale opera house, a mid-size open-air theater, a small recital salon, and an outdoor arena-style street-stage. The building is sited at Buzzard Point in Washington, DC at the terminus of South Capitol Street along the Anacostia River. The thesis is an exploration into the concept of organic architecture and a formal study of its application to the order, structure, and construction of a building. MARCH

  8. How 'healthy' are healthcare organizations? Exploring employee healthcare utilization rates among Dutch healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette

    2017-08-01

    Occupational health and safety research rarely makes use of data on employee healthcare utilization to gain insight into the physical and mental health of healthcare staff. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the prevalence of two relevant types of healthcare utilization among staff working in healthcare organizations: physical therapy and mental healthcare utilization. The paper furthermore explores what role employee and organizational characteristics play in explaining differences in healthcare utilization between organizations. A Dutch healthcare insurance company provided healthcare utilization records for a sample of 417 organizations employing 136,804 healthcare workers in the Netherlands. The results showed that there are large differences between and within healthcare industries when it comes to employee healthcare utilization. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that employee characteristics such as age and gender distributions, and healthcare industry, explain some of the variance between healthcare organizations. Nevertheless, the results of the analyses showed that for all healthcare utilization indicators there is still a large amount of unexplained variance. Further research into the subject of organizational differences in employee healthcare utilization is needed, as finding possibilities to influence employee health and subsequent healthcare utilization is beneficial to employees, employers and society as a whole.

  9. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  10. 钛酸酯偶联剂对包硅铝钛白粉表面的有机改性%Surface Organic Modification of SiO2 & Al2O3 Coated TiO2 Particles with Titanate Coupling Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉兰; 王亭杰; 覃操; 金涌

    2001-01-01

    The surface organic modification of TiO2 particles with titanate coupling reagent,which was pre-coated with double layers of SiO2 and Al2O3,was studied.Experiments showed that the modified particles exhibited hydrophobic characteristics.The modification state of the particle surface was characterized by IR spectroscopic measurement,pyrolytic gas chromatography,thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectra.The titanate coupling reagent binding with the hydroxyl on the particle surface was analyzed.The surface characteristics of pre-modification and post-modification particles were compared.

  11. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  12. Exploring the concept of dining out organically: a managerial perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Grant, M.

    2017-01-01

    Market research suggests that organic food consumption in Europe is growing. The concept of dining out organically may therefore represent a promising business opportunity and yet little is known about how it is perceived by restaurant managers. This study reports on the outcome of a qualitative research conducted with managers of UK casual dining restaurants. It finds that restaurateurs are sceptical about the business feasibility of dining out organically which is viewed as a niche market w...

  13. Titan through Time: Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and its Hydrocarbon Cycle on the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Ashley E.

    The Introduction and Appendix i-A outline briefly the history of Titan exploration since its discovery by Christiaan Huygens in 1675 through the recent International Mission of Cassini-Huygens.. Chapter 1: This chapter discusses two possible pathways of loss of the two main gases from Titan's post-accretional atmosphere, methane (CH 4) and ammonia (NH3), by the mechanisms of thermal escape and emission from the interior coupled with thermal escape. Chapter 2: In this chapter, a simple photolysis model is created, where the second most abundant component of the present-day Titan atmosphere, methane (CH4), can either escape the atmosphere or undergo photolytic conversion to ethane (C2H6). Chapter 3: This chapter examines different fluvial features on Titan, identified by the Cassini spacecraft, and evaluates the possibilities of channel formation by two mechanisms: dissolution of ice by a concentrated solution of ammonium sulfate, and by mechanical erosion by flow of liquid ammonia and liquid ethane. Chapter 4: This chapter presents: (1) new explicit mathematical solutions of mixed 1st and 2nd order chemical reactions, represented by ordinary differential first-degree and Riccati equations; (2) the computed present-day concentrations of the three gases in Titan's scale atmosphere, treated as at near-steady state; and (3) an analysis of the reported and computed atmospheric concentrations of CH4, CH 3, and C2H6 on Titan, based on the reaction rate parameters of the species, the rate parameters taken as constants representative of their mean values. Chapter 5: This chapter examines the possible reactions of methane formation in terms of the thermodynamic relationships of the reactions that include pure carbon as graphite, the gases H2, CO2, H2 O, and serpentinization and magnetite formation from olivine fayalite. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. Titan's Atmospheric Dynamics and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Baines, K. H.; Bird, M. K.; Tokano, T.; West, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation in the solar system, but a circulation that has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10degS, indicate that the zonal winds are generally in the sense of the satellites rotation. They become cyclostrophic approx. 35 km above the surface and generally increase with altitude, with the exception of a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from the temperature field retrieved from Cassini measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds at mid northern latitudes of 190 ms-' near 300 km. Above this level, the vortex decays. Curiously, the zonal winds and temperatures are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by approx.4 degrees. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the offset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the solar equator. The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures in the north polar region near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggests subsidence there during winter and early spring. Stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50degN. Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of winter vortices on Earth-the ozone holes. Global mapping of temperatures, winds, and composition in he troposphere, by contrast, is incomplete. The few suitable discrete clouds that have bee found for tracking indicate smaller velocities than aloft, consistent with the

  15. Exploring Novel Spintronic Responses from Advanced Functional Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-12

    States in Organic Semiconductors Bin Hu Brazil -MRS meeting, Campos do Jordao, September 30 – October 04, 2013 (10) Magneto-Optic, Magneto-Electric, and...Photovoltaic Processes in Organic Solar Cells Bin Hu 2013 TechConnect World, National Innovation Summit and National SBIR Conference, Gaylord Hotel , National

  16. Aerosol chemistry in Titan's ionosphere: simultaneous growth and etching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Cernogora, Guy; Jomard, François; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Vigneron, Jackie

    2016-10-01

    Since the Cassini-CAPS measurements, organic aerosols are known to be present and formed at high altitudes in the diluted and partially ionized medium that is Titan's ionosphere [1]. This unexpected chemistry can be further investigated in the laboratory with plasma experiments simulating the complex ion-neutral chemistry starting from N2-CH4 [2]. Two sorts of solid organic samples can be produced in laboratory experiments simulating Titan's atmospheric reactivity: grains in the volume and thin films on the reactor walls. We expect that grains are more representative of Titan's atmospheric aerosols, but films are used to provide optical indices for radiative models of Titan's atmosphere.The aim of the present study is to address if these two sorts of analogues are chemically equivalent or not, when produced in the same N2-CH4 plasma discharge. The chemical compositions of both these materials are measured by using elemental analysis, XPS analysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We find that films are homogeneous but significantly less rich in nitrogen and hydrogen than grains produced in the same experimental conditions. This surprising difference in their chemical compositions is explained by the efficient etching occurring on the films, which stay in the discharge during the whole plasma duration, whereas the grains are ejected after a few minutes [3]. The impact for our understanding of Titan's aerosols chemical composition is important. Our study shows that chemical growth and etching process are simultaneously at stake in Titan's ionosphere. The more the aerosols stay in the ionosphere, the more graphitized they get through etching process. In order to infer Titan's aerosols composition, our work highlights a need for constraints on the residence time of aerosols in Titan's ionosphere. [1] Waite et al. (2009) Science , 316, p. 870[2] Szopa et al. (2006) PSS, 54, p. 394[3] Carrasco et al. (2016) PSS, 128, p. 52

  17. Exploration of US men's professional sport organization concussion policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Graham Dean; Owen, Matthew; Ackerson, Joseph D; Hale, Matthew H; Gould, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Concussion policies are increasingly being developed and adopted among professional sports organizations. We sought to compare the policies of the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Our objective was to summarize each policy and evaluate the extent to which each policy is organization-specific and/or consistent with medical guidelines. We visited websites for the NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB. We searched media articles reporting concussion policy. We utilized only publically available data. We collected information on each league's approach to the definition of concussion, education provided about concussion, baseline testing requirements, minimum return to play time and return to play protocol. We found that concussion policies vary across these organizations. Most organizations utilize the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) definition (2013) to define concussion. The NFL and NBA mandate preseason education. All organizations require some type of baseline testing. All organizations require sideline evaluation after suspected concussion. The NFL and MLB require Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) testing for sideline evaluation of suspected concussion. MLB is the only organization to require minimum time before return to play. There is a return to play protocol in place for each organization. The NFL and MLB require independent neurologic consultation as part of their return to play protocol. There is variability in concussion policy among the professional sports organizations. The most pronounced variation from the CISG consensus statement is the variability in the minimum time to return to play. Further, the rules of the individual sports have a role in how concussion policy can be designed and implemented. Professional sports set an example for thousands of recreational sports enthusiasts so their publically available policies on concussion have a large impact.

  18. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  19. Exploring the Temporality of Food Organizations in Liquid Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernes, Tor; Schmidt, Jonathan; Schultz, Majken

    study illustrates how their time enactment takes place along three dimensions. First, through what we call “malleable time”, including the contraction and dilation of time horizons. Second, through what we call “projective time”, signifying the outward enactment of time onto others. Third, through what....... Because food organizations are challenged to enact their time between natural time and human time while abiding by the constraints of industry, liquid modernity challenges their ability to enact multiple and sometimes contrasting temporalities. Drawing on data from a brewery and a dairy corporation, our...... we call “simultaneous time”, signifying the simultaneous enactment of different time horizons. We argue that time enactment poses its own set of dilemmas for managing food organizations, which are discussed, not just for food organizations, but in relation to other organizations confronted...

  20. Functionalized organic frameworks explored as second order NLO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aBio-organic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. bDepartment of ... nominees to the area of crystal engineering and nonlinear optics. ..... In particular, this method was successfully applied.

  1. The key to Mars, Titan and beyond?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear rockets using indigenous Mars propellants for future missions to Mars and Titan, which would drastically reduce the mass and cost of the mission while increasing its capability. Special attention is given to the CO2-powered nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel (NIMF) vehicle for hopping around on Mars. If water is available on Mars, it could make a NIMF propellant yielding an exhaust velocity of 3.4 km/sec, good enough to allow a piloted NIMF spacecraft to ascent from the surface of Mars and propel itself directly to LEO; if water is available on Phobos, a NIMF spacecraft could travel to earth orbit and then back to Phobos or Mars without any additional propellant from earth. One of the many exciting missions beyond Mars that will be made possible by NIMF technology is the exploration of Saturn's moon Titan. A small automated NIMF Titan explorer, with foldout wings and a NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) engine, is proposed

  2. Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) Science Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Sokol, D.

    2016-12-01

    Northrop Grumman has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the lower atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Saturn's ocean moon, Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in-situ instruments to the surface of Titan. T-LEAF is a highly maneuverable sky rover and its aerodynamic shape (i.e., a flying wing) does not restrict it to following prevailing wind patterns on Titan, but allows mission operators to chart its course. This freedom of mobility allows T-LEAF to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations. We will present a straw man concept of T-LEAF, including size, mass, power, on-board science payloads and measurement, and surface science dropsonde deployment CONOPS. We will discuss the various science instruments and their vehicle level impacts, such as meteorological and electric field sensors, acoustic sensors for measuring shallow depths, multi-spectral imagers, high definition cameras and surface science dropsondes. The stability of T-LEAF and its long residence time on Titan will provide for time to perform a large aerial survey of select prime surface targets deployment of dropsondes at selected locations surface measurements that are coordinated with on-board remote measurements communication relay capabilities to orbiter (or Earth). In this context, we will specifically focus upon key factors impacting the design and performance of T-LEAF science: science payload accommodation, constraints and opportunities characteristics of flight, payload deployment and measurement CONOPS in the Titan atmosphere. This presentation will show how these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of Titan's surface.

  3. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  4. Human Missions to Europa and Titan - Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality was formulated. The proposed Development Plan, entitled Theseus, is the outcome of a recent multinational study by a group of students in the framework of the Master of Space Studies (MSS) 2004 course at the International Space University (ISU). The Theseus Program includes the necessary development strategies in key scientific and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analysed throughout the plan include: scientific observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term spaceflight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientific and technological aspects of the Theseus Program, it was recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this chapter, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to four possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. The final chapter of the report builds upon the foundations set by Theseus through a case study. This study illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence

  5. Human Missions to Europa and Titan - Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality was formulated. The proposed Development Plan, entitled Theseus, is the outcome of a recent multinational study by a group of students in the framework of the Master of Space Studies (MSS) 2004 course at the International Space University (ISU). The Theseus Program includes the necessary development strategies in key scientific and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analysed throughout the plan include: scientific observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term spaceflight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientific and technological aspects of the Theseus Program, it was recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this chapter, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to four possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. The final chapter of the report builds upon the foundations set by Theseus through a case study. This study illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence

  6. Remember the Titans: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameca Leary

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a pivotal time in American history, when a 1971 Supreme Court mandate required southern school districts to end segregation (Daugherity, 2011. In Alexandria, Virginia, the merger of three rival high schools yielded a racially diverse football team and coaching staff. Beforehand, blacks and whites had their own schools. Many wondered how the new T.C. Williams Titans football team would fare. This paper takes an in-depth look at the film, Remember the Titans, which is based on this story. It analyzes the film using Gordon Allport’s (1954 Intergroup Contact Theory to assess how people from different backgrounds interact within group settings. It explores how communication barriers and the absence of knowledge can lead to ignorance. A 21st century legacy is also discussed, including ideas for further research. 

  7. Remember the Titans: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameca Leary

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a pivotal time in American history, when a 1971 Supreme Court mandate required southern school districts to end segregation (Daugherity, 2011. In Alexandria, Virginia, the merger of three rival high schools yielded a racially diverse football team and coaching staff. Beforehand, blacks and whites had their own schools. Many wondered how the new T.C. Williams Titans football team would fare. This paper takes an in-depth look at the film, Remember the Titans, which is based on this story. It analyzes the film using Gordon Allport’s (1954 Intergroup Contact Theory to assess how people from different backgrounds interact within group settings. It explores how communication barriers and the absence of knowledge can lead to ignorance. A 21st century legacy is also discussed, including ideas for further research.

  8. Exploring the Origins of Deuterium Enrichments in Solar Nebular Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-03-01

    Deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) enrichments in molecular species provide clues about their original formation environment. The organic materials in primitive solar system bodies generally have higher D/H ratios and show greater D/H variation when compared to D/H in solar system water. We propose this difference arises at least in part due to (1) the availability of additional chemical fractionation pathways for organics beyond that for water, and (2) the higher volatility of key carbon reservoirs compared to oxygen. We test this hypothesis using detailed disk models, including a sophisticated, new disk ionization treatment with a low cosmic-ray ionization rate, and find that disk chemistry leads to higher deuterium enrichment in organics compared to water, helped especially by fractionation via the precursors CH2D+/CH3+. We also find that the D/H ratio in individual species varies significantly depending on their particular formation pathways. For example, from ˜20-40 au, CH4 can reach {{D}}/{{H}}˜ 2× {10}-3, while D/H in CH3OH remains locally unaltered. Finally, while the global organic D/H in our models can reproduce intermediately elevated D/H in the bulk hydrocarbon reservoir, our models are unable to reproduce the most deuterium-enriched organic materials in the solar system, and thus our model requires some inheritance from the cold interstellar medium from which the Sun formed.

  9. UV spectroscopy of Titan's atmosphere, planetary organic chemistry and prebiological synthesis. II - Interpretation of new IUE observations in the 220-335 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Regis; Wagener, Richard; Mckay, Christopher P.; Caldwell, John; Fricke, Karl-Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical model developed by McKay et al. (1989) to characterize the size distribution, thermal structure, and chemical composition of the stratospheric haze of Titan is applied to new 220-335-nm albedo measurements obtained with the long-wavelength prime camera of the IUE during August 1987. Data and model predictions are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is shown that a simple model with particles of one size at a given altitude does not accurately reproduce the observed features in all spectral regions, but that good general agreement is obtained using a model with a uniformly mixed layer at 150-600 km and a bimodal distribution of small 'polymer' haze particles (radius less than 20 nm) and larger haze particles (radius 100-500 nm). The number densities implied by this model require, however, a mechanism such as electrostatic charging or reaction kinetics to inhibit coagulation of the smaller particles.

  10. Titan's methane clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of the 12C/13C and D/H isotopic ratios in Titan's methane show intriguing differences from the values recorded in the giant planets. This implies that either (1) the atmosphere was differently endowed with material at the time of formation, or (2) evolutionary processes are at work in the moon's atmosphere - or some combination of the two. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Instrument (GCMS) found 12CH4/13CH4 = 82 +/- 1 (Niemann et al. 2005), some 7% lower than the giant planets' value of 88 +/- 7 (Sada et al. 1996), which closely matches the terrestrial inorganic standard of 89. The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has previously reported 12CH4/13CH4 of 77 +/-3 based on nadir sounding, which we now revise upwards to 80 +/- 4 based on more accurate limb sounding. The CIRS and GCMS results are therefore in agreement about an overall enrichment in 13CH4 of ~10%. The value of D/H in Titan's CH4 has long been controversial: historical measurements have ranged from about 8-15 x 10-5 (e.g. Coustenis et al. 1989, Coustenis et al. 2003). A recent measurement based on CIRS limb data by Bezard et al. (2007) puts the D/H in CH4 at (13 +/- 1) x 10-5, very much greater than in Jupiter and Saturn, ~2 x 10-5 (Mahaffy et al. 1998, Fletcher et al. 2009). To add complexity, the 12C/13C and D/H vary among molecules in Titan atmosphere, typically showing enhancement in D but depletion in 13C in the daughter species (H2, C2H2, C2H6), relative to the photochemical progenitor, methane. Jennings et al. (2009) have sought to interpret the variance in carbon isotopes as a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE), whilst an explanation for the D/H in all molecules remains elusive (Cordier et al. 2008). In this presentation we argue that evolution of isotopic ratios in Titan's methane over time forms a ticking 'clock', somewhat analogous to isotopic ratios in geochronology. Under plausible assumptions about the initial values and subsequent replenishment, various

  11. The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

  12. Dilemmas and Challenges in the Marketing of Hybrid Organizations: A Theoretical Exploration of Dutch Sheltered Work Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van der Torre (Lieske); H.J.M. Fenger (Menno); M.J.W. van Twist (Mark); D. Bressers (Daphne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the dilemmas and challenges that hybrid organizations face when developing marketing strategies. Hybrid organizations are organizations that combine tasks and characteristics of governmental organizations, private (for profit) organizations, and

  13. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  14. Spectroscopy, morphometry, and photoclinometry of Titan's dunefields from Cassini/VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.W.; Brown, R.H.; Soderblom, L.; Sotin, Christophe; Le, Mouelic S.; Rodriguez, S.; Jaumann, R.; Beyer, R.A.; Buratti, B.J.; Pitman, K.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.; Nicholson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Fine-resolution (500 m/pixel) Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) T20 observations of Titan resolve that moon's sand dunes. The spectral variability in some dune regions shows that there are sand-free interdune areas, wherein VIMS spectra reveal the exposed dune substrate. The interdunes from T20 are, variously, materials that correspond to the equatorial bright, 5-??m-bright, and dark blue spectral units. Our observations show that an enigmatic "dark red" spectral unit seen in T5 in fact represents a macroscopic mixture with 5-??m-bright material and dunes as its spectral endmembers. Looking more broadly, similar mixtures of varying amounts of dune and interdune units of varying composition can explain the spectral and albedo variability within the dark brown dune global spectral unit that is associated with dunes. The presence of interdunes indicates that Titan's dunefields are both mature and recently active. The spectrum of the dune endmember reveals the sand to be composed of less water ice than the rest of Titan; various organics are consistent with the dunes' measured reflectivity. We measure a mean dune spacing of 2.1 km, and find that the dunes are oriented on the average in an east-west direction, but angling up to 10?? from parallel to the equator in specific cases. Where no interdunes are present, we determine the height of one set of dunes photoclinometrically to be between 30 and 70 m. These results pave the way for future exploration and interpretation of Titan's sand dunes. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the magnetic and organic microstructures with photoemission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, D.H., E-mail: dhw@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Yuet-Loy; Hsu, Yao-Jane [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEEM with polarized photon enables additional image contrasts and physical insights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XMCD-based images reveal the shape-dependent domains in Ni80Fe20 microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XLD-based images confirm the success of molecular orientation controls. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two interfaces in Co-Pn-Co structures are magnetically and chemically different. -- Abstract: We present photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) studies on geometrically constrained ferromagnetic, organic, and organics-ferromagnet hybrid structures. Powered by an elliptically polarized undulator, the PEEM at Taiwan Light Source (TLS) is capable of recording polarization enhanced X-ray images and has been employed to examine the domain configurations in a lithographically patterned permalloy film as well as the orientations of pentacene molecules adsorbed on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold surfaces. In addition, magnetic images acquired on cobalt/pentacene and pentacene/cobalt bilayers reveal that in hybrid structures the order of thin film deposition can lead to distinct domain configurations. Spectroscopic evidence further suggests that there is significant orbital hybridization at the interface where metallic cobalt was deposited directly on organic pentacene.

  16. Exploring the magnetic and organic microstructures with photoemission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.H.; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PEEM with polarized photon enables additional image contrasts and physical insights. ► XMCD-based images reveal the shape-dependent domains in Ni80Fe20 microstructures. ► XLD-based images confirm the success of molecular orientation controls. ► The two interfaces in Co–Pn–Co structures are magnetically and chemically different. -- Abstract: We present photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) studies on geometrically constrained ferromagnetic, organic, and organics–ferromagnet hybrid structures. Powered by an elliptically polarized undulator, the PEEM at Taiwan Light Source (TLS) is capable of recording polarization enhanced X-ray images and has been employed to examine the domain configurations in a lithographically patterned permalloy film as well as the orientations of pentacene molecules adsorbed on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold surfaces. In addition, magnetic images acquired on cobalt/pentacene and pentacene/cobalt bilayers reveal that in hybrid structures the order of thin film deposition can lead to distinct domain configurations. Spectroscopic evidence further suggests that there is significant orbital hybridization at the interface where metallic cobalt was deposited directly on organic pentacene.

  17. Acetylene on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Cornet, Thomas; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Clark, Roger Nelson; Maltagliati, Luca; Chevrier, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Titan possesses a thick atmosphere that is mainly composed of N2 (98%), CH4 (2 % overall, but 4.9% close to the surface) and less than 1% of minor species, mostly hydrocarbons [1]. A dissociation of N2 and CH4 forms complex hydrocarbons in the atmsophere and acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are produced most abundently. Since years, C2H2 has been speculated to exist on the surface of Titan based on its high production rate in the stratosphere predicted by photochemical models [2,3] and from its detection as trace gas sublimated/evaporated from the surface after the landing of the Huygens probe by the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) [1]. Here we show evidence of acetylene (C2H2) on the surface of Titan by detecting absorption bands at 1.55 µm and 4.93 µm using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) [4] at equatorial areas of eastern Shangri-La, and Fensal-Aztlan/Quivira.An anti-correlation of absorption band strength with albedo indicates greater concentrations of C2H2 in the dark terrains, such as sand dunes and near the Huygens landing site. The specific location of the C2H2 detections suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering by liquids through dissolution/evaporation processes.References:[1]Niemann et al., Nature 438, 779-784 (2005).[2]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 67 - 99 (2008).[3]Lavvas et al., Planetary and Space Science 56, 27 - 66 (2008).[4] Brown et al., The Cassini-Huygens Mission 111-168 (Springer, 2004).

  18. Titan's Radioactive Haze : Production and Fate of Radiocarbon On Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Jull, A. J. T.; Swindle, T. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    Just as cosmic rays interact with nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere of Earth to gener- ate radiocarbon (14C), the same process should occur in Titan`s nitrogen-rich atmo- sphere. Titan`s atmosphere is thick enough that cosmic ray flux, rather than nitrogen column depth, limits the production of 14 C. Absence of a strong magnetic field and the increased distance from the sun suggest production rates of 9 atom/cm2/s, approx- imately 4 times higher than Earth. On Earth the carbon is rapidly oxidised into CO2. The fate and detectability of 14C on Titan depends on the chemical species into which it is incorporated in Titan's reducing atmosphere : as methane it would be hopelessly diluted even in only the atmosphere (ignoring the other, much more massive carbon reservoirs likely to be present on Titan, like hydrocarbon lakes.) However, in the more likely case that the 14C attaches to the haze that rains out onto the surface (as tholin, HCN or acetylene and their polymers - a much smaller carbon reservoir) , haze in the atmosphere or recently deposited on the surface would therefore be quite intrinsically radioactive. Such activity may modify the haze electrical charging and hence its coag- ulation. Measurements with compact instrumentation on future in-situ missions could place useful constraints on the mass deposition rates of photochemical material on the surface and identify locations where surface deposits of such material are `freshest`.

  19. Exploring Soil Organic Carbon Deposits in a Bavarian Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Stefanie; Hobley, Eleanor; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the landscape is not homogeneous, but shows high variability from the molecular to the landscape scale. The aims of our work are 1.) to detect hot spots of SOC storage within different positions in a landscape; 2.) to outline differences (or similarities) between SOC characteristics of erosional and accumulative landscape positions; and 3.) to determine whether localised SOC deposits are dominated by fresh and labile organic matter (OM) or old and presumably stable OM. These findings are crucial for the evaluation of the landscapés vulnerability towards SOC losses caused by management or natural disturbances such as erosional rainfall events. Sampling sites of our study are located in a catchment at the foothills of the Bavarian Forest in south-east Germany. Within this area three landform positions were chosen for sampling: a) a slope with both erosional depletion and old colluvial deposits, b) a foothill with recent colluvial deposits and c) a floodplain with alluvial deposits. In order to consider both heterogeneity within a single landform position and between landforms several soil profiles were sampled at every position. Samples were taken to a maximal depth of 150 cm, depending on the presence of rocks or ground-water level, and analysed for bulk density, total carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC) and texture. SOC densities and stocks were calculated. A two-step physical density fractionation using Sodium-Polytungstate (1.8 g/cm3 and 2.4 g/cm3) was applied to determine the contribution of the different soil organic matter fractions to the detected SOC deposits. Literature assumes deep buried SOC to be particularly old and stable, so we applied Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Radiocarbon Dating (AMS 14C) to bulk soil samples in order to verify this hypothesis. The results show that the floodplain soils contain higher amounts of SOC compared with slopes and foothills. Heterogeneity within the sites was smaller

  20. Organic environments on Saturn's moon, Titan: simulating chemical reactions and analyzing products by FT-ICR and ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpad; Oh, Chu-Ha; Smith, Mark A; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory simulations have been carried out to model chemical reactions that possibly take place in the stratosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. The aerosol products of these reactions (tholin samples) have been systematically analyzed by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) and laser desorption (LD). A wide variety of ions with a general formula C(x)H(y)N(z) detected by ultrahigh resolution and accurate mass measurements in a Fourier transform/ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cell reflect the complexity of these polymeric products, both in chemical compositions and isomeric distributions. As a common feature, however, tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) data and H/D exchange products in the solution phase support the presence of amino and nitrile functionalities in these (highly unsaturated) "tholin" compounds. The present work demonstrates that ESI-MS coupled with FT-ICR is a suitable and "intact" method to analyze tholin components formed under anaerobic conditions; only species with C(x)H(y)N(z) are detected for freshly prepared and harvested samples. However, when intentionally exposed to water, oxygen-containing compounds are unambiguously detected.

  1. Titan's Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  2. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  3. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Mahaffy, P.; Fairbrother, D.; de Pater, I.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pitman, J.

    2007-08-01

    same time made us aware of how little we understand about these bodies. For example, the source, and/or recycling mechanism, of methane in Titan's atmosphere is still puzzling. Indeed, river beds (mostly dry) and lakes have been spotted, and occasional clouds have been seen, but the physics to explain the observations is still mostly lacking, since our "image" of Titan is still sketchy and quite incomplete. Enceladus, only 500 km in extent, is even more puzzling, with its fiery plumes of vapor, dust and ice emanating from its south polar region, "feeding" Saturn's E ring. Long term variability of magnetospheric plasma, neutral gas, E-ring ice grain density, radio emissions, and corotation of Saturn's planetary magnetic field in response to Enceladus plume activity are of great interest for Saturn system science. Both Titan and Enceladus are bodies of considerable astrobiological interest in view of high organic abundances at Titan and potential subsurface liquid water at Enceladus. We propose to develop a new mission to Titan and Enceladus, the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES), to address these questions using novel new technologies. TOAMES is a multi-faceted mission that starts with orbit insertion around Saturn using aerobraking with Titan's extended atmosphere. We then have an orbital tour around Saturn (for 1-2 years) and close encounters with Enceladus, before it goes into orbit around Titan (via aerocapture). During the early reconnaissance phase around Titan, perhaps 6 months long, the orbiter will use altimetry, radio science and remote sensing instruments to measure Titan's global topography, subsurface structure and atmospheric winds. This information will be used to determine where and when to release the Aerorover, so that it can navigate safely around Titan and identify prime sites for surface sampling and analysis. In situ instruments will sample the upper atmosphere which may provide the seed population for the complex

  4. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  5. Methane, Ethane, and Nitrogen Stability on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Grundy, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Dustrud, S.; Pearce, L.; Lindberg, G.; Roe, H. G.; Tegler, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many outer solar system bodies are likely to have a combination of methane, ethane and nitrogen. In particular the lakes of Titan are known to consist of these species. Understanding the past and current stability of these lakes requires characterizing the interactions of methane and ethane, along with nitrogen, as both liquids and ices. Our cryogenic laboratory setup allows us to explore ices down to 30 K through imaging, and transmission and Raman spectroscopy. Our recent work has shown that although methane and ethane have similar freezing points, when mixed they can remain liquid down to 72 K. Concurrently with the freezing point measurements we acquire transmission or Raman spectra of these mixtures to understand how the structural features change with concentration and temperature. Any mixing of these two species together will depress the freezing point of the lake below Titan's surface temperature, preventing them from freezing. We will present new results utilizing our recently acquired Raman spectrometer that allow us to explore both the liquid and solid phases of the ternary system of methane, ethane and nitrogen. In particular we will explore the effect of nitrogen on the eutectic of the methane-ethane system. At high pressure we find that the ternary creates two separate liquid phases. Through spectroscopy we determined the bottom layer to be nitrogen rich, and the top layer to be ethane rich. Identifying the eutectic, as well as understanding the liquidus and solidus points of combinations of these species, has implications for not only the lakes on the surface of Titan, but also for the evaporation/condensation/cloud cycle in the atmosphere, as well as the stability of these species on other outer solar system bodies. These results will help interpretation of future observational data, and guide current theoretical models.

  6. Titan LEAF: A Sky Rover Granting Targeted Access to Titan's Lakes and Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Floyd; Lee, Greg; Sokol, Daniel; Goldman, Benjamin; Bolisay, Linden

    2016-10-01

    Northrop Grumman, in collaboration with L'Garde Inc. and Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in situ instruments to the surface.T-LEAF is a maneuverable, buoyant air vehicle. Its aerodynamic shape provides its maneuverability, and its internal helium envelope reduces propulsion power requirements and also the risk of crashing. Because of these features, T-LEAF is not restricted to following prevailing wind patterns. This freedom of mobility allows it be commanded to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations.T-LEAF utilizes a variable power propulsion system, from high power at ~200W to low power at ~50W. High power mode uses the propellers and control surfaces for additional mobility and maneuverability. It also allows the vehicle to hover over specific locations for long duration surface observations. Low power mode utilizes GAC's Titan Winged Aerobot (TWA) concept, currently being developed with NASA funding, which achieves guided flight without the use of propellers or control surfaces. Although slower than high powered flight, this mode grants increased power to science instruments while still maintaining control over direction of travel.Additionally, T-LEAF is its own entry vehicle, with its leading edges protected by flexible thermal protection system (f-TPS) materials already being tested by NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) group. This f-TPS technology allows T-LEAF to inflate in space, like HIAD, and then enter the atmosphere fully deployed. This approach accommodates entry velocities from as low as ~1.8 km/s if entering from Titan orbit, up to ~6 km/s if entering directly from Saturn orbit, like the Huygens probe

  7. Hybrid n-Alkylamine Intercalated Layered Titanates for Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; Yuan, H.; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin Jacqueline Huberta; Lette, W.; Schipper, Dirk J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2016-01-01

    The intercalation of different primary n-alkylamines in the structure of a layered titanate of the lepidocrocite type (H1.07Ti1.73O4) for application in high-temperature solid lubrication is reported. The intercalation process of the amines was explored by means of in situ small-angle X-ray

  8. Ghosts of the Past: Character Journals from the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonty, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment used in a reading/language arts course for elementary education majors that uses Robert Ballard's factual book "Exploring the Titanic" as a focal point for a character journal assignment. Notes students' enthusiastic responses to this assignment. Describes how this assignment could be adapted to a middle- or…

  9. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine; Somogyi, Á.; Smith, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, is a world rich in the "stuff of life". Reactions occurring in its dense nitrogen-methane atmosphere produce a wide variety of organic molecules, which subsequently rain down onto its surface. Water - thought to be another important ingredient for life - is likewise abundant on Titan. Theoretical models of Titan's formation predict that its interior consists of an ice I layer several tens of kilometers thick overlying a liquid ammonia-rich water layer several hundred kilometers thick (Tobie et al., 2005). Though its surface temperature of 94K dictates that Titan is on average too cold for liquid water to persist at its surface, melting caused by impacts and/or cryovolcanism may lead to its episodic availability. Impact melt pools on Titan would likely remain liquid for 102 - 104 years before freezing (O'Brien et al., 2005). The combination of complex organic molecules and transient locales of liquid water make Titan an interesting natural laboratory for studying prebiotic chemistry. In this work, we sought to determine what biomolecules might be formed under conditions analogous to those found in transient liquid water environments on Titan. We hydrolyzed Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins", in 13 wt. % ammonia-water at 253K and 293K for a year. Using a combination of high resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectroscopy fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in the hydrolyzed tholin sample. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of detecting amino acids and other prebiotically relevant molecules on its surface This work was supported by the NASA Exobiology Program.

  10. The Michigan Titan Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TTGCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; de Lahaye, V.; Waite, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    The Cassini flybys of Titan since late October, 2004 have provided data critical to better understanding its chemical and thermal structures. With this in mind, a 3-D TGCM of Titan's atmosphere from 600km to the exobase (~1450km) has been developed. This paper presents the first results from the partially operational code. Currently, the TTGCM includes static background chemistry (Lebonnois et al 2001, Vervack et al 2004) coupled with thermal conduction routines. The thermosphere remains dominated by solar EUV forcing and HCN rotational cooling, which is calculated by a full line-by-line radiative transfer routine along the lines of Yelle (1991) and Mueller-Wodarg (2000, 2002). In addition, an approximate treatment of magnetospheric heating is explored. This paper illustrates the model's capabilities as well as some initial results from the Titan Thermospheric General Circulation model that will be compared with both the Cassini INMS data and the model of Mueller-Wodarg (2000,2002).

  11. Titan: a distant but enticing destination for human visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Julian

    2009-10-01

    Until recently, very little was known about Saturn's largest satellite, Titan. But that has changed dramatically since the Cassini spacecraft started orbiting in the Saturn system in 2004. Larger than Mercury and with a dense atmosphere, Titan has many of the characteristics of a planet. Indeed, many scientists now see it as the most interesting place in the Solar System for robotic exploration, with many unique features and even the possibility of exotic forms of life. This paper points out that Titan is also a potential destination for humans. With its predominantly nitrogen atmosphere, moderate gravity, and available water and oxygen, it also appears that, once it becomes possible to travel there, it will prove to be much more hospitable for human visitors than any other destination in the Solar System.

  12. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  13. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  14. End-organ damage in diabetes : Exploring innovative targets and therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi Shishavan, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects the function of blood vessels and various organs, eventually leading to life-threatening DM complications. The prediction of diabetic end-organ damage and exploring novel treatment strategies herein was the topic of this thesis. We first showed that intra-renal small

  15. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  16. Chemistry in Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessis, S.; Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the chemical composition of Titan's ionosphere is a very challenging issue. Latest works perform either inversion of CASSINI's INMS mass spectra (neutral[1] or ion[2]), or design coupled ion-neutral chemistry models[3]. Coupling ionic and neutral chemistry has been reported to be an essential feature of accurate modelling[3]. Electron Dissociative Recombination (EDR), where free electrons recombine with positive ions to produce neutral species, is a key component of ion-neutral coupling. There is a major difficulty in EDR modelling: for heavy ions, the distribution of neutral products is incompletely characterized by experiments. For instance, for some hydrocarbon ions only the carbon repartition is measured, leaving the hydrogen repartition and thus the exact neutral species identity unknown[4]. This precludes reliable deterministic modelling of this process and of ion-neutral coupling. We propose a novel stochastic description of the EDR chemical reactions which enables efficient representation and simulation of the partial experimental knowledge. The description of products distribution in multi-pathways reactions is based on branching ratios, which should sum to unity. The keystone of our approach is the design of a probability density function accounting for all available informations and physical constrains. This is done by Dirichlet modelling which enables one to sample random variables whose sum is constant[5]. The specifics of EDR partial uncertainty call for a hierarchiral Dirichlet representation, which generalizes our previous work[5]. We present results on the importance of ion-neutral coupling based on our stochastic model. C repartition H repartition (measured) (unknown ) → C4H2 + 3H2 + H .. -→ C4 . → C4H2 + 7H → C3H8. + CH C4H+9 + e- -→ C3 + C .. → C3H3 + CH2 + 2H2 → C2H6 + C2H2 + H .. -→ C2 + C2 . → 2C2H2 + 2H2 + H (1) References [1] J. Cui, R.V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J.H. Waite Jr., W.T. Kasprzak

  17. Methane rain on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Courtin, Regis; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is characterized by means of model computations based on Voyager IRIS IR spectra and published data from laboratory determinations of absorption coefficients and cloud refractive indices. The results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is pointed out that the presence of Ar is not required in the model. Particular attention is given to the role of CH4, which is found to form patchy clouds (with particle radii of 50 microns or greater and visible/IR optical depths of 2-5) at altitudes up to about 30 km. The mechanisms by which such rain-sized particles could form are discussed, and it is suggested that the observed 500-600/cm spectrum is affected much less by the CH4 clouds than by H2 or variations in the temperature of the high-altitude haze.

  18. Multi-wavelength search for complex molecules in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Greathouse, T. K.; Richter, M.; Kisiel, Z.; Irwin, P. G.; Teanby, N. A.; Kuan, Y. J.; Charnley, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere is one of the most complex astrochemical environments known: the photochemistry of methane and nitrogen, induced by solar UV and Saturn magnetospheric electron impacts, creates a bonanza of organic molecules like no other place in the solar system. Cassini has unveiled the first glimpses of Titan's chemical wonderland, but many gaps remain. In particular, interpreting the mass spectra of Titan's upper atmosphere requires external knowledge, to disentangle the signature of molecules from their identical-mass brethren. Cassini infrared spectroscopy with CIRS has helped to some extent, but is also limited by low spectral resolution. Potentially to the rescue, comes high-resolution spectroscopy from the Earth at infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths, where molecules exhibit vibrational and rotational transitions respectively. In this presentation, we describe the quest to make new, unique identifications of large molecules in Titan's atmosphere, focusing specifically on cyclic molecules including N-heterocycles. This molecular family is of high astrobiological significance, forming the basic ring structure for DNA nucleobases. We present the latest spectroscopic observations of Titan from ALMA and NASA's IRTF telescope, discussing present findings and directions for future work.

  19. Use of titanates in decontamination of defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    Sodium titanate, an inorganic ion exchange material, has been evaluated for use in a process to remove strontium from Defense Waste or other high-sodium, caustic solutions. Distribution coefficients on the order of 10 5 were observed at sub part per million concentrations of Sr, and the effects of other cation impurities and complexants in the waste were investigated. The preparation and general chemical properties of the exchange material are discussed. This information was used in developing a commercial source which has since supplied a 200 kg batch of the material for evaluation. In column ion exchange experiments with 85 Sr-doped simulated waste, decontamination factors of 500 or greater were observed in the first 2000 to 3500 bed volumes of effluent, depending on the impurities in the simulant. A -40 to +130 mesh range of sodium titanate powder was used as the baseline material, but a study to produce alternate forms of the titanate was carried in parallel. This has resulted in two materials which appear promising with respect to both simplification of handling and chemical properties. One of the materials is an agglomerated form of the titanate formed by extrusion pelletizing using water as a binder, and the second is a macroreticular organic anion resin which was loaded with 30 to 40% (by weight) of sodium titanate. The results of initial testing of these materials are discussed

  20. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.

  1. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures

  2. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  3. Laboratory investigation of nitrile ices of Titan's stratospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nna Mvondo, D.; Anderson, C. M.; McLain, J. L.; Samuelson, R. E.

    2017-09-01

    Titan's mid to lower stratosphere contains complex cloud systems of numerous organic ice particles comprised of both hydrocarbon and nitrile compounds. Most of these stratospheric ice clouds form as a result of vapor condensation formation processes. However, there are additional ice emission features such as dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) and the 220 cm-1 ice emission feature (the "Haystack") that are difficult to explain since there are no observed vapor emission features associated with these ices. In our laboratory, using a high-vacuum chamber coupled to a FTIR spectrometer, we are engaged in a dedicated investigation of Titan's stratospheric ices to interpret and constrain Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) far-IR data. We will present laboratory transmittance spectra obtained for propionitrile (CH3CH2CN), cyanogen (C2N2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ices, as well as various combinations of their mixtures, to better understand the cloud chemistry occurring in Titan's stratosphere.

  4. ALMA observations of Titan's atmospheric chemistry and seasonal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, with a thick (1.45 bar) atmosphere composed primarily of molecular nitrogen and methane. Photochemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere results in the production of a wide range of organic molecules, including hydrocarbons, nitriles and aromatics, some of which could be of pre-biotic relevance. Thus, we obtain insights into the possible molecular inventories of primitive (reducing) planetary atmospheres. Titan's atmosphere also provides a unique laboratory for testing our understanding of fundamental processes involving the chemistry and spectroscopy of complex organic molecules. In this talk, results will be presented from our studies using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the period 2012-2015, focussing in particular on the detection and mapping of emission from various nitrile species. By combining data from multiple ALMA observations, our spectra have reached an unprecedented sensitivity level, enabling the first spectroscopic detection and mapping of C2H3CN (vinyl cyanide) on Titan. Liquid-phase simulations of Titan's seas indicate that vinyl cyanide molecules could combine to form vesicle membranes (similar to the cells of terrestrial biology), and the astrobiological implications of this discovery will be discussed. Furthermore, ALMA observations provide instantaneous snapshot mapping of Titan's entire Earth-facing hemisphere, for gases inaccessible to previous instruments. Combined with complementary data obtained from the Cassini Saturn orbiter, as well as theoretical models and laboratory studies, our observed, seasonally variable, spatially resolved abundance patterns are capable of providing new insights into photochemical production and transport in primitive planetary atmospheres in the Solar System and beyond.

  5. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. To better plan this mission and create a...

  6. Titan Montgolfiere Terrestrial Test Bed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA is proposing to send a Montgolfiere balloon to probe the atmosphere of Titan. In order to better plan this mission and...

  7. Titan's cold case files - Outstanding questions after Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Achterberg, R. K.; Buch, A.; Coll, P.; Clark, R. N.; Courtin, R.; Hayes, A.; Iess, L.; Johnson, R. E.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Mandt, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Raulin, F.; Rymer, A. M.; Todd Smith, H.; Solomonidou, A.; Sotin, C.; Strobel, D.; Turtle, E. P.; Vuitton, V.; West, R. A.; Yelle, R. V.

    2018-06-01

    The entry of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft into orbit around Saturn in July 2004 marked the start of a golden era in the exploration of Titan, Saturn's giant moon. During the Prime Mission (2004-2008), ground-breaking discoveries were made by the Cassini orbiter including the equatorial dune fields (flyby T3, 2005), northern lakes and seas (T16, 2006), and the large positive and negative ions (T16 & T18, 2006), to name a few. In 2005 the Huygens probe descended through Titan's atmosphere, taking the first close-up pictures of the surface, including large networks of dendritic channels leading to a dried-up seabed, and also obtaining detailed profiles of temperature and gas composition during the atmospheric descent. The discoveries continued through the Equinox Mission (2008-2010) and Solstice Mission (2010-2017) totaling 127 targeted flybys of Titan in all. Now at the end of the mission, we are able to look back on the high-level scientific questions from the start of the mission, and assess the progress that has been made towards answering these. At the same time, new scientific questions regarding Titan have emerged from the discoveries that have been made. In this paper we review a cross-section of important scientific questions that remain partially or completely unanswered, ranging from Titan's deep interior to the exosphere. Our intention is to help formulate the science goals for the next generation of planetary missions to Titan, and to stimulate new experimental, observational and theoretical investigations in the interim.

  8. The atmospheric temperature structure of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, J. B.; Courtin, Regis; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of various factors to the thermal structure of Titan's past and present atmosphere are discussed. A one dimensional model of Titan's thermal structure is summarized. The greenhouse effect of Titan's atmosphere, caused primarily by pressure induced opacity of N2, CH4, and H2, is discussed together with the antigreenhouse effect dominated by the haze which absorbs incident sunlight. The implications for the atmosphere of the presence of an ocean on Titan are also discussed.

  9. Coexistence of Dunes and Humid Conditions at Titan's Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Ori, G. G.; Farr, T. G.; Malaska, M.; Le Gall, A.; Liu, Z. Y. C.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Paillou, P.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Turtle, E. P.; Wall, S. D.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    At Titan's equatorial latitudes there are tens of thousands of dunes, a landform typical of desert environments where sand does not become anchored by vegetation or fluids. Model climate simulations predict generally dry conditions at the equator and humid conditions near the poles of Titan, where lakes of methane/ethane are found. However, moderate relative methane humidity was observed at the Huygens landing site, recent rainfall was seen by Cassini ISS near the Belet Sand Sea, and a putative transient lake in Shangri-La was observed by Cassini VIMS, all of which indicate abundant fluids may be present, at least periodically, at Titan's equatorial latitudes. Terrestrial observations and studies demonstrate dunes can exist and migrate in conditions of high humidity. Active dunes are found in humid climates, indicating the movement of sand is not always prohibited by the presence of fluids. Sand mobility is related to precipitation, evaporation and wind speed and direction. If dune surfaces become wetted by rainfall or rising subsurface fluids, they can become immobilized. However, winds can act to dry the uppermost layers, freeing sands for saltation and enabling dune migration in wet conditions. Active dunes are found in tropical NE Brazil and NE Australia, where there are alternating dry and wet periods, a condition possible for Titan's tropics. Rising and falling water levels lead to the alteration of dune forms, mainly from being anchored by vegetation, but also from cementation by carbonates or clays. Studies of Titan's dunes, which could undergo anchoring of organic sediments by hydrocarbon fluids, could inform the relative strength of vegetation vs. cementation at humid dune regions on Earth. Furthermore, a comprehensive survey of dune morphologies near regions deemed low by SARTopo and stereo, where liquids may collect in wet conditions, could reveal if bodies of liquid have recently existed at Titan's tropics.

  10. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  11. Exploring the Change from Low-Trust to High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    what the notion of high-trust organization actually means, and that the change process in the direction of high trust organizations involves not only a quantitative growth in trust, but may involve important qualitative changes in the organization, especially concerning the relations between management......A growing body of literature point to the increasing importance of trust for organizations and for the explicit use of trust as a management tool. The explicit or implicit message in both management literature and research literature on trust as a management tool is that managers should pursue...... projects of personal and organizational change leading to high-trust organizations. In this paper I explore how we may understand this change towards high-trust organizations: What does it mean, what is the content of such a change, and what may be the consequences. I show that it is still rather unclear...

  12. Modeling the Chemical Complexity in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Veronique; Yelle, Roger; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Horst, Sarah; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2018-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is extremely complicated because of the multiplicity of chemical as well as physical processes involved. Chemical processes begin with the dissociation and ionization of the most abundant species, N2 and CH4, by a variety of energy sources, i.e. solar UV and X-ray photons, suprathermal electrons (reactions involving radicals as well as positive and negative ions, all possibly in some excited electronic and vibrational state. Heterogeneous chemistry at the surface of the aerosols could also play a significant role. The efficiency and outcome of these reactions depends strongly on the physical characteristics of the atmosphere, namely pressure and temperature, ranging from 1.5×103 to 10-10 mbar and from 70 to 200 K, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the species is affected by molecular diffusion and winds as well as escape from the top of the atmosphere and condensation in the lower stratosphere.Photochemical and microphysical models are the keystones of our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry. Their main objective is to compute the distribution and nature of minor chemical species (typically containing up to 6 carbon atoms) and haze particles, respectively. Density profiles are compared to the available observations, allowing to identify important processes and to highlight those that remain to be constrained in the laboratory, experimentally and/or theoretically. We argue that positive ion chemistry is at the origin of complex organic molecules, such as benzene, ammonia and hydrogen isocyanide while neutral-neutral radiative association reactions are a significant source of alkanes. We find that negatively charged macromolecules (m/z ~100) attract the abundant positive ions, which ultimately leads to the formation of the aerosols. We also discuss the possibility that an incoming flux of oxygen from Enceladus, another Saturn's satellite, is responsible for the presence of oxygen-bearing species in Titan's reductive

  13. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  14. Crater relaxation on Titan aided by low thermal conductivity sand infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmeier, Lauren R.; Dombard, Andrew J.

    2018-05-01

    Titan's few impact craters are currently many hundreds of meters shallower than the depths expected. Assuming these craters initially had depths equal to that of similar-size fresh craters on Ganymede and Callisto (moons of similar size, composition, and target lithology), then some process has shallowed them over time. Since nearly all of Titan's recognized craters are located within the arid equatorial sand seas of organic-rich dunes, where rain is infrequent, and atmospheric sedimentation is expected to be low, it has been suggested that aeolian infill plays a major role in shallowing the craters. Topographic relaxation at Titan's current heat flow was previously assumed to be an unimportant process on Titan due to its low surface temperature (94 K). However, our estimate of the thermal conductivity of Titan's organic-rich sand is remarkably low (0.025 W m-1 K-1), and when in thick deposits, will result in a thermal blanketing effect that can aid relaxation. Here, we simulate the relaxation of Titan's craters Afekan, Soi, and Sinlap including thermal effects of various amounts of sand inside and around Titan's craters. We find that the combination of aeolian infill and subsequent relaxation can produce the current crater depths in a geologically reasonable period of time using Titan's current heat flow. Instead of needing to fill completely the missing volume with 100% sand, only ∼62%, ∼71%, and ∼97%, of the volume need be sand at the current basal heat flux for Afekan, Soi, and Sinlap, respectively. We conclude that both processes are likely at work shallowing these craters, and this finding contributes to why Titan overall lacks impact craters in the arid equatorial regions.

  15. Exploring Trianglamine Derivatives and Trianglamine Coordination Complexes as Porous Organic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Eziashi, Magdalene

    2018-05-01

    Trianglamines are triangular chiral macrocycles that were first synthesized by Gawronski’s group in Poland in the year 2000.1 Despite their unique properties; triangular pore shape, chirality, symmetric structure and tunable pore size, they are still a poorly researched class of macrocycles today. Trianglamines have yet a role to play as porous organic molecules for separation processes, as macrocyclic precursors to build increasingly complex supramolecular assemblies and as building blocks for caged porous organic structures. The aim of the Thesis work is to explore trianglamine, its derivatives, and assemblies as viable porous organic molecules for potential gas capture and separation.

  16. Calorimetric measurements on hafnium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandan, R.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Panneerselvam, G.; Nagarajan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its desirable nuclear and mechanical properties such as good absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons (105 barns), hafnium titanate (HfTiO 4 ) finds application as control rods for nuclear reactors. An accurate knowledge of the thermo physical properties of this material is necessary for design of control rod and for modeling its performance. Heat capacity is an important thermodynamic property that determines the temperature dependent variation of all other thermodynamic properties. Hence enthalpy increments of hafnium titanate (HfTiO 4 ) were measured in the temperature range 803-1663 K by employing the method of inverse drop calorimetry using high temperature differential calorimeter

  17. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  18. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  19. Are Titan's radial Labyrinth terrains surface expressions of large laccoliths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmeier, L.; Dombard, A. J.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Labyrinth terrain unit may be the one of the best examples of the surface expression of Titan's complicated history. They are characterized as highly eroded, dissected, and elevated plateaus and remnant ridges, with an assumed composition that is likely organic-rich based on radar emissivity. How these features accumulated organic-rich sediments and formed topographic highs by either locally uplifting or surviving pervasive regional deflation or erosion is an important question for understanding the history of Titan. There are several subsets of Labyrinth terrains, presumably with differing evolutionary histories and formation processes. We aim to explain the formation of a subset of Labyrinth terrain units informally referred to as "radial Labyrinth terrains." They are elevated and appear dome-like, circular in planform, have a strong radial dissection pattern, are bordered by Undifferentiated Plains units, and are found in the mid-latitudes. Based on their shape, clustering, and dimensions, we suggest that they may be the surface expression of large subsurface laccoliths. A recent study by Manga and Michaut (Icarus, 2017) explained Europa's lenticulae (pits, domes, spots) with the formation of saucer-shaped sills that form laccoliths around the brittle-ductile transition depth within the ice shell (1-5 km). Here, we apply the same scaling relationships and find that the larger size of radial labyrinth terrains with Titan's higher gravity implies deeper intrusion depths of around 20-40 km. This intrusion depth matches the expected brittle-ductile transition on Titan based on our finite element simulations and yield strength envelope analyses. We hypothesize that Titan's radial labyrinth terrains formed as cryovolcanic (water) intrusions that rose to the brittle-ductile transition within the ice shell where they spread horizontally, and uplifted the overlying ice. The organic-rich sedimentary cover also uplifted, becoming more susceptible to pluvial and fluvial

  20. Interaction of Titan's atmosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 measurements made during the Titan flyby reveal that Saturn's rotating magnetospheric plasma interacts directly with Titan's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This results from the lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Titan. The interaction induces a magnetosphere which deflects the flowing plasma around Titan and forms a plasma wake downstream. Within the tail of the induced magnetosphere, ions of ionospheric origin flow away from Titan. Just outside Titan's magnetosphere, a substantial ion-exosphere forms from an extensive hydrogen-nitrogen exosphere. The exospheric ions are picked up and carried downstream into the wake by the plasma flowing around Titan. Mass loading produced by the addition of exospheric ions slows the wake plasma down considerably in the vicinity of the magnetopause. 36 references

  1. Oceanographic data collected during the Titanic Expedition 2004 (titanic2004) on NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-05-27 to 2004-06-12 (NODC Accession 0072311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nearly 20 years after first finding the sunken remains of the RMS Titanic, marine explorer Robert Ballard returned in June 2004 to help the National Oceanic and...

  2. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  3. Dilemmas and Challenges in the Marketing of Hybrid Organizations: A Theoretical Exploration of Dutch Sheltered Work Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lieske van der Torre; Menno Fenger; Mark van Twist; Daphne Bressers

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the dilemmas and challenges that hybrid organizations face when developing marketing strategies. Hybrid organizations are organizations that combine tasks and characteristics of governmental organizations, private (for profit) organizations, and non-profit organizations. In this article, we show that these organizations are confronted with different target groups, organizational identities and key images. In some instances, the key messages t...

  4. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Mcdonald, G. D.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Arakawa, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    PAHs are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites, are identified, with a net abundance of about 0.0001 g/g (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins.

  6. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  7. Heavy Ion Formation in Titan's Ionosphere: Magnetospheric Introduction of Free Oxygen and a Source of Titan's Aerosols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Ali, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, R. E.; Coates, A. J.; Young, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    of freeing oxygen within aerosols could be driven by cosmic ray interactions with aerosols at all heights. This process could drive pre-biotic chemistry within the descending aerosols. Cosmic ray interactions with grains at the surface, including water frost depositing on grains from cryovolcanism, would further add to abundance of trapped free oxygen. Pre-biotic chemistry could arise within surface microcosms of the composite organic-ice grains, in part driven by free oxygen in the presence of organics and any heat sources, thereby raising the astrobiological potential for microscopic equivalents of Darwin's "warm ponds" on Titan.

  8. The dynamics in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared M.

    2008-06-01

    This thesis explores the dynamics of two terrestrial bodies: Mars and Titan. At Mars, the coupled Mars General Circulation Model - Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MGCM-MTGCM) is employed to investigate the phenomenon known as Mars winter polar warming. At Titan, a new theoretical model, the Titan Global Ionosphere - Thermosphere Model (T-GITM), is developed, based upon previous work by Ridley et al. [2006]. Using this new model, three separate numerical studies quantify the impacts of solar cycle, seasons, and lower boundary zonal winds on the Titan thermosphere structure and dynamics. At Mars, this thesis investigates thermospheric winter polar warming through three major studies: (1) a systematic analysis of vertical dust mixing in the lower atmosphere and its impact upon the dynamics of the lower thermosphere (100-130 km), (2) an interannual investigation utilizing three years of lower atmosphere infrared (IR) dust optical depth data acquired by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), and finally (3) a brief study of the MTGCM's response to variations in upward propagating waves and tides from the lower atmosphere. Ultimately, this investigation suggests that an interhemispheric summer-to-winter Hadley circulation, originating in the lower atmosphere and extending into the upper atmosphere, is responsible for thermospheric winter polar warming [ Bell etal. , 2007]. A major branch of this thesis builds upon the previous work of Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000], Müller-Wodarg et al. [2003], M7uuml;ller-Wodarg et al. [2006], and Yelle et al. [2006] as it attempts to explain the structures in Titan's upper atmosphere, between 500-1500 km. Building also upon the recent development of GITM by Ridley et al. [2006], this thesis presents a new theoretical framework, T-GITM. This model is then employed to conduct a series of numerical experiments to quantify the impacts of the solar cycle, the season, and the

  9. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 ± 1 K and 293 ± 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  10. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  11. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Purpose: Very little research has been done to find out what happens to organizing in Chinese companies that are located in countries characterized by cooperative capitalism. I focus on this phenomenon and explore what happens to organizing in two Chinese high-tech companies located in Denmark....... Design/methodology/approach: Case studies, interviewing, and three questions inspired by the work of Boltanski & Thévenot: 1) What type of test scenarios are the Chinese and Danes becoming engaged in? 2) Which worlds are called upon as justification of actions by the Chinese and Danes in the test...... have enacted an industrial world and a civic world. Furthermore, it is suggested that controversies also occur when Chinese managers enact a fuzzy world. Different worlds collide in these types of test scenarios, creating ambiguity about the worth of the persons involved and the organizing principles...

  12. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  13. Titan's geoid and hydrology: implications for Titan's geological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Seignovert, Benoit; Lawrence, Kenneth; MacKenzie, Shannon; Barnes, Jason; Brown, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A 1x1 degree altitude map of Titan is constructed from the degree 4 gravity potential [1] and Titan's shape [2] determined by the Radio Science measurements and RADAR observations of the Cassini mission. The amplitude of the latitudinal altitude variations is equal to 300 m compared to 600 m for the amplitude of the latitudinal shape variations. The two polar caps form marked depressions with an abrupt change in topography at exactly 60 degrees at both caps. Three models are envisaged to explain the low altitude of the polar caps: (i) thinner ice crust due to higher heat flux at the poles, (ii) fossil shape acquired if Titan had higher spin rate in the past, and (iii) subsidence of the crust following the formation of a denser layer of clathrates as ethane rain reacts with the H2O ice crust [3]. The later model is favored because of the strong correlation between the location of the cloud system during the winter season and the latitude of the abrupt change in altitude. Low altitude polar caps would be the place where liquids would run to and eventually form large seas. Indeed, the large seas of Titan are found at the deepest locations at the North Pole. However, the lakes and terrains considered to be evaporite candidates due to their spectral characteristics in the infrared [4,5] seem to be perched. Lakes may have been filled during Titan's winter and then slowly evaporated leaving material on the surface. Interestingly, the largest evaporite deposits are located at the equator in a deep depression 150 m below the altitude of the northern seas. This observation seems to rule out the presence of a global subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir unless the evaporation rate at the equator is faster than the transport of fluids from the North Pole to the equator. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science, doi 10.1126/science.1219631. [2] Lorenz R.D. (2013

  14. Titan from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert H; Waite, J. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn's largest moon Titan featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses Titan’s origin and evolution, internal structure, surface geology, the atmosphere and ionosphere as well as magnetospheric interactions. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  15. Thermal stability of titanate nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Daniela; Kužel, R.; Kovářová, Jana; Dybal, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 2a (2009), s. 41-43 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura - Colloquium of Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association. Hluboká nad Vltavou, 22.06.2009-25.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0717; GA AV ČR KAN200520704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : titanate nanotubes * thermal stability Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  17. Exploring Diversification as A Management Strategy in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) creates both environmental uncertainties and opportunities for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers. One managerial response to uncertainties and emergent opportunities is strategic diversification of various dimensions of organizational activity. This paper explored organizational outcomes related to diversification of funding sources, services offered, and referral sources in a national sample of 590 SUD treatment organizations. Funding diversification was related to higher average levels of census, organization size, and recent expansion of operations. Service diversification was related to higher average levels of use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT), organization size, and expansion. Referral source diversification was related only to greater average use of MAT. Overall, strategic diversification in the three areas explored was related to positive organizational outcomes. Considering alternative strategies of diversification may help position SUD treatment centers to deliver more innovative treatments such as MAT as well as enhance capacity to satisfy current unmet treatment needs of individuals with behavioral health coverage provided under the ACA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The organic haze produced from complex CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan plays an important role in processes that occur in the atmosphere and on its surface. The haze particles act as condensation nuclei and are therefore involved in Titan's methane hydrological cycle. They also may behave like sediment on Titan's surface and participate in both fluvial and aeolian processes. Models that seek to understand these processes require information about the physical properties of the particles including their size and density. Although measurements obtained by Cassini-Huygens have placed constraints on the size of the haze particles, their densities remain unknown. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments and measured the size, number density, and particle density of Titan aerosol analogs, or tholins, for CH{sub 4} concentrations from 0.01% to 10% using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that the densities currently in use by many Titan models are higher than the measured densities of our tholins.

  19. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A

    2013-01-01

    The organic haze produced from complex CH 4 /N 2 chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan plays an important role in processes that occur in the atmosphere and on its surface. The haze particles act as condensation nuclei and are therefore involved in Titan's methane hydrological cycle. They also may behave like sediment on Titan's surface and participate in both fluvial and aeolian processes. Models that seek to understand these processes require information about the physical properties of the particles including their size and density. Although measurements obtained by Cassini-Huygens have placed constraints on the size of the haze particles, their densities remain unknown. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments and measured the size, number density, and particle density of Titan aerosol analogs, or tholins, for CH 4 concentrations from 0.01% to 10% using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that the densities currently in use by many Titan models are higher than the measured densities of our tholins.

  20. Topography on Titan : New Results on Large and Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Although topographic coverage of Titan is and will remain sparse, some significant results have been obtained from global, regional and local measurements, via stereo, radarclinometry (shape-from-shading), autostereo (deviation from an assumed symmetric shape due to the inclined incidence), altimetry and SARtopo (monopulse) techniques. The global ellipsoidal shape (Zebker et al., 2009) provides important geophysical constraints on the interior. Hypsometry (Lorenz et al., 2011) provides insight into the balance of constructional and erosive processes and the strength of the lithosphere. Some local observations to be summarized in the talk include the measurement of mountains, the quantification of slopes that divert dunes and that drive fluid flow in river networks, as well as depth measurement of several impact craters and the assessment of candidate cryovolcanic structures. A recent new observation is a long altimetry pass T77 along the equator at the western edge of Xanadu, acquired both to constrain Titan's global shape and to understand the surface slopes and properties that may maintain the striking contrast between the dune fields of Shangri-La and the rugged and radiometrically anomalous Xanadu region. T77 also featured a SAR observation of the Ksa impact structure (discovered in SAR on T17), allowing a stereo DEM to be constructed. A feature shared by Earth and Titan is the ephemeral topography of liquids on the surface. Titan's lakes and seas likely vary in depth on geological (Myr-Gyr) and astronomical (~10 kyr) timescales : the depth of Ontario Lacus has been observed to vary on a seasonal timescale (~1 m/yr). Periodic changes of the order of 0.2-5m may occur diurnally, forced by Saturn gravitational tides. Finally, waves may be generated, at least during the windy season (which for Titan's north may be just about to begin) which can be constrained by radar and optical scattering measurements. Looking to the future, a Phase A study of the Titan Mare

  1. Nitrogen Fixation by Photochemistry in the Atmosphere of Titan and Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia

    The observation of N-containing organic molecules and the composition of the haze aerosols, as determined by the Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser (ACP) on-board Huygens, are clear indications that some chemistry involving nitrogen active forms and hydrocarbons is operative in the upper atmosphere of Titan. Neutral-neutral reactions involving the first electronically excited state of atomic nitrogen, N(2D), and small hydrocarbons have the right prerequisites to be among the most significant pathways to formation of nitriles, imines and other simple N-containing organic molecules. The closed-shell products methanimine, ethanimine, ketenimine, 2H-azirine and the radical products CH3N, HCCN and CH2NCH can be the intermediate molecular species that, via addition reactions, polymerization and copolymerization form the N-rich organic aerosols of Titan as well as tholins in bulk reactors simulating Titan's atmosphere.

  2. The tide in the seas of Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.; Dermott, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that, if Titan has oceans consisting of liquid methane, then the present high eccentricity of the satellite necessitates that the depth would be greater than 400 m. Such an ocean should be detectable by radar. The effects of tidal dissipation due to the possible existence of an ocean on Titan are considered. (author)

  3. Dilemmas and Challenges in the Marketing of Hybrid Organizations: A Theoretical Exploration of Dutch Sheltered Work Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske van der Torre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the dilemmas and challenges that hybrid organizations face when developing marketing strategies. Hybrid organizations are organizations that combine tasks and characteristics of governmental organizations, private (for profit organizations, and non-profit organizations. In this article, we show that these organizations are confronted with different target groups, organizational identities and key images. In some instances, the key messages that need to be transmitted through marketing strategies may even be incompatible. Dutch sheltered work companies are illustrative examples of hybrid organizations. They compete with temp work agencies in providing employees to employers, they provide care for people with severe disabilities and they implement the Dutch Sheltered Work Act in their role of governmental agencies. This article theoretically identifies the challenges and dilemmas that may be involved in the marketing of these diverse activities and explores strategies that may be used to overcome these challenges and dilemmas.

  4. Haunting the Text: Nicola Pierce’s Spirit of the Titanic and Irish Historical Children’s Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    My article explores representations of Irish identity, history, and trauma in the Irish writer Nicola Pierce’s contemporary children’s novel, Spirit of the Titanic (2011). I examine the representation of Irish society and culture around the time of the construction of the Titanic,\\ud with a particular emphasis on the portrayal of marginalised individuals and groups. My article analyses the representation of history and the portrayal of trauma and affective ties, and concludes that Spirit of t...

  5. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  7. Insights on landscape evolution and climatic forcing on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A.; Daudon, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Cornet, T.; Perron, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The landscapes of Titan were observed for nearly 13 years by the Cassini spacecraft and Huygens probe. With dunes, mountains, seas, lakes, rivers..., the great morphological variety observed testifies to the geological richness that Titan shares with the Earth. In this study, we combine analysis of radar and hyperspectral data provided by the Cassini-Huygens mission, with models of valley and river network evolution to better understand the processes at work that sculpt these familiar landscapes. We develop quantitative criteria for comparing 3D morphologies obtained by numerical simulation with those derived for Titan by photogrammetry. These criteria are validated on Earth's landscapes. We simulate morphologies similar to those observed and show that landscapes at the equator and poles are mainly controlled by river incision and mass wasting such as landslides for which we quantify their respective contribution. Subsequently, we relate modeling to precipitation rates of methane and show values that are to be compared with general circulation model predictions (GCM). Our results also show a very young age of formation of the observed morphologies, less than a few million years. Finally, we provide new constraints on current amplitude of the tidal effects and organic precipitation rates from atmosphere chemistry.

  8. Investigating the Chemical Pathways to PAH- and PANH-Based Aerosols in Titan's Atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella Marion; Contreras, Cesar; Ricketts, Claire Louise; Salama, Farid

    2011-01-01

    A complex organic chemistry between Titan's two main constituents, N2 and CH4, leads to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid organic aerosols. These aerosols are at the origin of the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. In situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard Cassini have revealed the presence of large amounts of neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules in the ionosphere of Titan. In particular, benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3), which are critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, have been detected, suggesting that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan s aerosols. Moreover, results from numerical models as well as laboratory simulations of Titan s atmospheric chemistry are also suggesting chemical pathways that link the simple precursor molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN ...) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (or PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols.

  9. Chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere is reviewed in the light of the scientific findings from the Voyager mission. It is argued that the present N 2 atmosphere may be Titan's initial atmosphere rather than photochemically derived from an original NH 3 atmosphere. The escape rate of hydrogen from Titan is controlled by photochemical production from hydrocarbons. CH 4 is irreversibly converted to less hydrogen rich hydrocarbons, which over geologic time accumulate on the surface to a layer thickness of approximately 0.5 km. Magnetospheric electrons interacting with Titan's exosphere may dissociate enough N 2 into hot, escaping N atoms to remove approximately 0.2 of Titan's present atmosphere over geologic time. The energy dissipation of magnetospheric electrons exceeds solar e.u.v. energy deposition in Titan's atmosphere by an order of magnitude and is the principal driver of nitrogen photochemistry. The environmental conditions in Titan's upper atmosphere are favorable to building up complex molecules, particularly in the north polar cap region. (author)

  10. Untangling the Chemical Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and Surface -- From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Ralf I.; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Ennis, Courtney; Zhang, Fangtong; Gu, Xibin; Krishtal, Sergey P.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-16

    The arrival of the Cassini-Huygens probe at Saturn's moon Titan - the only Solar System body besides Earth and Venus with a solid surface and a thick atmosphere with a pressure of 1.4 atm at surface level - in 2004 opened up a new chapter in the history of Solar System exploration. The mission revealed Titan as a world with striking Earth-like landscapes involving hydrocarbon lakes and seas as well as sand dunes and lava-like features interspersed with craters and icy mountains of hitherto unknown chemical composition. The discovery of a dynamic atmosphere and active weather system illustrates further the similarities between Titan and Earth. The aerosol-based haze layers, which give Titan its orange-brownish color, are not only Titan's most prominent optically visible features, but also play a crucial role in determining Titan's thermal structure and chemistry. These smog-like haze layers are thought to be very similar to those that were present in Earth's atmosphere before life developed more than 3.8 billion years ago, absorbing the destructive ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, thus acting as 'prebiotic ozone' to preserve astrobiologically important molecules on Titan. Compared to Earth, Titan's low surface temperature of 94 K and the absence of liquid water preclude the evolution of biological chemistry as we know it. Exactly because of these low temperatures, Titan provides us with a unique prebiotic 'atmospheric laboratory' yielding vital clues - at the frozen stage - on the likely chemical composition of the atmosphere of the primitive Earth. However, the underlying chemical processes, which initiate the haze formation from simple molecules, have been not understood well to date.

  11. Titan the earth-like moon

    CERN Document Server

    Coustenis, Athena

    1999-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with Titan, one of the most mysterious bodies in the solar system. The largest satellite of the giant planet Saturn, Titan is itself larger than the planet Mercury, and is unique in being the only known moon with a thick atmosphere. In addition, its atmosphere bears a startling resemblance to the Earth's, but is much colder.The American and European space agencies, NASA and ESA, have recently combined efforts to send a huge robot spacecraft to orbit Saturn and land on Titan. This book provides the background to this, the greatest deep space venture of our time, a

  12. Ceria and strontium titanate based electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A ceramic anode structure obtainable by a process comprising the steps of: (a) providing a slurry by dispersing a powder of an electronically conductive phase and by adding a binder to the dispersion, in which said powder is selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate......, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate, and mixtures thereof, (b) sintering the slurry of step (a), (c) providing a precursor solution of ceria, said solution containing a solvent and a surfactant, (d) impregnating the resulting sintered structure of step (b...

  13. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  14. Organizing, exploring, and analyzing antibody sequence data: the case for relational-database managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, John

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances in the acquisition of DNA and protein sequence information and the resulting onrush of data can quickly overwhelm the scientist unprepared for the volume of information that must be evaluated and carefully dissected to discover its significance. Few laboratories have the luxury of dedicated personnel to organize, analyze, or consistently record a mix of arriving sequence data. A methodology based on a modern relational-database manager is presented that is both a natural storage vessel for antibody sequence information and a conduit for organizing and exploring sequence data and accompanying annotation text. The expertise necessary to implement such a plan is equal to that required by electronic word processors or spreadsheet applications. Antibody sequence projects maintained as independent databases are selectively unified by the relational-database manager into larger database families that contribute to local analyses, reports, interactive HTML pages, or exported to facilities dedicated to sophisticated sequence analysis techniques. Database files are transposable among current versions of Microsoft, Macintosh, and UNIX operating systems.

  15. Exploring Reasons for the Resistance to Sustainable Management within Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Heinrich Daub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.

  16. Using the Weighted Rich-Club Coefficient to Explore Traffic Organization in Mobility Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasco, José J.; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro

    The aim of a transportation system is to enable the movement of goods or persons between any two locations with the highest possible efficiency. This simple principle inspires highly complex structures in a number of real-world mobility networks of different kind that often exhibit a hierarchical organization. In this paper, we rely on a framework that has been recently introduced for the study of the management and distribution of resources in different real-world systems. This framework offers a new method for exploring the tendency of the top elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the system’s resources. Such tendency is known as the weighted rich-club effect. We apply the method to three cases of mobility networks at different scales of resolution: the US air transportation network, the US counties daily commuting, and the Italian municipalities commuting datasets. In all cases, a strong weighted rich-club effect is found. We also show that a very simple model can account for part of the intrinsic features of mobility networks, while deviations found between the theoretical predictions and the empirical observations point to the presence of higher levels of organization.

  17. Exploring the state of health and safety management system performance measurement in mining organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily Joy; Yorio, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Complex arguments continue to be articulated regarding the theoretical foundation of health and safety management system (HSMS) performance measurement. The culmination of these efforts has begun to enhance a collective understanding. Despite this enhanced theoretical understanding, however, there are still continuing debates and little consensus. The goal of the current research effort was to empirically explore common methods to HSMS performance measurement in mining organizations. The purpose was to determine if value and insight could be added into the ongoing approaches of the best ways to engage in health and safety performance measurement. Nine site-level health and safety management professionals were provided with 133 practices corresponding to 20 HSMS elements, each fitting into the plan, do, check, act phases common to most HSMS. Participants were asked to supply detailed information as to how they (1) assess the performance of each practice in their organization, or (2) would assess each practice if it were an identified strategic imperative. Qualitative content analysis indicated that the approximately 1200 responses provided could be described and categorized into interventions , organizational performance , and worker performance . A discussion of how these categories relate to existing indicator frameworks is provided. The analysis also revealed divergence in two important measurement issues; (1) quantitative vs qualitative measurement and reporting; and (2) the primary use of objective or subjective metrics. In lieu of these findings we ultimately recommend a balanced measurement and reporting approach within the three metric categories and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  18. Light scattering measurements with Titan's aerosols analogues produced by dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Szopa, C.; Cernogora, G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    The Titan s atmosphere contains solid aerosols produced by the photochemistry of nitrogen and methane These aerosols are at the origin of the characteristic brown yellow colour of Titan During the descent of the Huygens probe the 14 th January 2005 optical measurements of the Titan s haze and Titan s surface have been done In order to explain the obtained results laboratory simulations are necessary We produce analogues of the Titan s aerosols in a RF capacitively coupled low-pressure plasma in a N 2 --CH 4 mixture representative of the Titan s atmosphere Szopa et al 2006 Szopa et al this conference The morphology of the produced solid aerosols is observed by SEM analyses They are quasi spherical and their mean size is function of the plasma conditions Moreover their colour changes from yellow to brown as a function of CH 4 ratio in the plasma In order to have information on the optical properties of the produced aerosols measurements have been performed with the PROGRA2 experiment Renard et al 2002 The PROGRA2 experiment measures the phase dependence of the linear polarization of the light scattered by dust particles for two wavelengths 543 5 nm and 632 8 nm The particles are lifted either in microgravity in the CNES ESA dedicated airplane or by an air-draught in ground-based conditions The aim of this work is to build a database for further modelling of the optical properties of Titan s in connection with the Huygens data These particles have also an astrophysical interest as organic compounds Hadamcik et

  19. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package for Titan Air-Sea Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Stofan, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka, E.; Newman, C. E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B. C.; Yelland, M.; Leese, M. R.; Boldt, J.; Darlington, E.; Neish, C. D.; Sotzen, K.; Arvelo, J.; Rasbach, C.; Kretsch, W.; Strohbehn, K.; Grey, M.; Mann, J.; Zimmerman, H.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    MP3 is a sensor suite for the proposed Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery mission to Ligeia Mare. MP3 will measure temperatures, and wind velocity, methane humidity, and pressure, as well as sea turbidity, dielectric properties, and depth via sonar.

  20. Synergism of Saturn, Enceladus and Titan and Formation of HCNO Prebiotic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    irradiation would provide further energy for processing into more complex organic forms. Further ionizing irradiation from cosmic rays deep in the atmosphere "tho lin" molecules are produced with all the molecular components present from which prebiotic organic molecules can form. This synergy of Saturn system, exogenic irradiation, and molecular processes provides a potential pathway for accumulation of prebiotic chemistry on the surface of Titan. Since fullerenes are also thought to exist in interstellar space, similar processes may also occur there to seed molecular clouds with prebiotic chemical species. We will also discuss possible future laboratory experiments that could be done to investigate fullerene formation at Titan and the trapping of oxygen in fullerenes.

  1. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  2. Titanic või turist? / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Tartu maanteel asuva endise Turisti poe (arhitektid Peep Jänes, Henno Sepmann) asemele tahavad hoone omanikud ehitada kõrghoone nimega Titanic. Hoone ajutine võtmine muinsuskaitse alla on põhjustanud kohtuvaidluse

  3. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  4. Cassini-Huygens makes first close approach to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    distance of 295 000 kilometres. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will pass within 246 000 kilometres of this moon at a speed of 13.8 kilometres per second. At this distance the narrow-angle camera should be able to resolve features down to about 1.4 kilometres in size. Note to Editors The Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn is the most ambitious effort in planetary space exploration ever mounted. A cooperative endeavour of the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Cassini-Huygens is sending a sophisticated robotic spacecraft to orbit the ringed planet and study the Saturnian system in detail over a four-year period. On board Cassini is a scientific probe called Huygens, provided by ESA, which will be released from the main spacecraft to parachute through the atmosphere to the surface of Saturn’s largest and most interesting moon, Titan. For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission please see: http://saturn.esa.int

  5. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffey, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; TOAM Team

    2006-12-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG 500 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan’s atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  6. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  7. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  8. Nonthermal atmospheric escape from Mars and Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, H.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy flux spectra and particle concentrations of the hot O and N coronae from Mars and Titan, respectively, resulting primarily from dissociative recombination of molecular ions, have been calculated by means of a Monte Carlo method. The calculated energy flux spectra lead to an escape flux null esc ∼ 6 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Mars and null esc ∼ 2 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Titan, corresponding to a mass loss of about 0.14 kg/s for Mars and about 0.3 kg/s for Titan. (The contribution of electron impact ionization on N 2 amounts to only about 25% of Titan's mass loss.) Mass loss via solar and magnetospheric wind is also estimated using newly calculated mass loading limits. The mass loss via ion pickup from the extended hot atom corona for Mars amounts to about 0.25 kg/s (O + ) and for Titan to about 50 g/s (N 2 + or H 2 CN + ). Thus, the total mass loss rate from Mars and Titan is about the same, i.e., 0.4 kg/s

  9. Influence of trace aromatics on the chemical growth mechanisms of Titan aerosol analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Thomas; Sebree, Joshua A.; Li, Xiang; Pinnick, Veronica T.; Grubisic, Andrej; Loeffler, Mark J.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2017-06-01

    The chemical structure and formation pathways of Titan aerosols remain largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effect of trace aromatics on the chemical composition and formation pathways of laboratory analogues of Titan's organic aerosols. The aerosol analogues were produced using four different trace aromatic molecules, comprised of one or two aromatic rings, each with or without a nitrogen heteroatom. Samples were then analyzed by laser desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDMS), revealing a high variability in the sample composition depending on the trace aromatic used. Our work reveals that the final chemical structure of the aerosols depends strongly on the number of aromatic rings in the trace molecule, leading either to a polymeric or to a random co-polymeric growth of the sample. These different chemical structures can affect the physical properties of the aerosol. Future analysis of Titan's aerosols using better resolution could potentially determine whether either of the growth hypotheses are preferred.

  10. Satisfaction and complications with the Titan® one-touch release penile implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeborg, Lisa; Fode, Mikkel; Fahrenkrug, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess complication rates and patient satisfaction with Coloplast Titan® one-touch release (OTR) inflatable penile implants inserted at one university hospital centre between November 2008 and April 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 33 patients with orga......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess complication rates and patient satisfaction with Coloplast Titan® one-touch release (OTR) inflatable penile implants inserted at one university hospital centre between November 2008 and April 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 33 patients...... with organic erectile dysfunction underwent penile implant surgery during the study period. The Titan OTR inflatable penile implants were inserted using a penoscrotal approach. Patient and partner satisfaction was assessed with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire...

  11. Learning from the Grassroots: Exploring Democratic Adult Learning Opportunities Connected to Grassroots Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Grassroots organizations emerge when groups of people decide to work collectively to form an organization as a way to initiate change. Rather than seeking leadership from established government or corporate organizations or departments, the purpose of the organization, the framework for decision making, and the individuals involved in leadership…

  12. Reduced-graphene-oxide-and-strontium-titanate-based double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GO)/strontium titanate were pre- ... R-GO and strontium titanate were synthesized and characterized before ... Microwave absorption capabilities of the composite absorbers were investigated using a .... was backed with a conducting metal sheet.

  13. Communication prompts donation: exploring the beliefs underlying registration and discussion of the organ donation decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2009-09-01

    To use a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to explore the beliefs underlying communication of the donation decision for people who had not previously registered their consent on a donor register or discussed their decision with significant others. Initially, a focus group study elicited the common TPB (behavioural, normative, and control) beliefs about registering and discussing the organ donation decision. The main study assessed the important TPB belief predictors of intentions to register and discuss the donation decision. University students and community members from Queensland, Australia (N=123) completed items assessing their intentions and the TPB behavioural, normative, and control beliefs for registering and discussing their donation decision. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses revealed significant paths between people's intentions to register their donation decisions and underlying behavioural (e.g. enabling efficient donation procedures), normative (e.g. friends, doctors/medical professionals), and control (e.g. lack of motivation, knowing details about transplant recipients) beliefs (R2=.30). There were also significant paths between people's intentions to discuss their donation decision and underlying behavioural (e.g. feeling uncomfortable talking about death related topics) and normative (e.g. partner/spouse, family members) beliefs, but not control beliefs (R2=.33). There was a significant path between intentions to register and intentions to discuss one's donation decision. Results highlight the importance of focusing on behavioural and normative beliefs about communicating the donation decision, specifically for people who have not previously communicated their decision, and suggest potential targets for interventions designed to promote decision communication.

  14. Exploring the Consumption of Organic Foods in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan A. A. Al-Taie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of organic food consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, examine the consumers’ perceptions of the effects of organic foods on human health and the environment, and investigate the factors that limit the consumption of organic foods. Five hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed to communities in the UAE from October to December 2013, and 266 questionnaires were completed and returned giving us a response rate of 53%. Our findings indicated that organic food is more recognized among the youth. Furthermore, organic fish, fruits, and chocolates are consumed more than other types of organic foods. Health and environmental awareness are the main reasons that people consume organic foods. Moreover, the development of society, an individual’s social level and peers, and advertisements encourage people to buy organic foods by presenting the consumption of organic foods as a new trendy lifestyle that generates a type of prestige. Conversely, cost, availability, shelf life, taste, and a lack of knowledge are the main factors that limit the consumption of organic foods. We recommend that organic foods should be highlighted more through research, media, lectures, and health campaigns to enhance the public’s knowledge of organic foods. Moreover, we believe that the cost of organic foods could be reduced by increasing the number of standard local organic food farms throughout the UAE.

  15. Putative cryomagma interaction with aerosols deposit at Titan's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Patrice; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Raulin, Francois; Coscia, David; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Poch, Olivier; Cabane, Michel; Brassé, Coralie

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan’s atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma [1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan aerosol analogues, that have been qualified as representative of Titan’s aerosols [2]. Indeed the first results obtained by the ACP experiment onboard Huygens probe revealed that the main products obtained after thermolysis of Titan’s collected aerosols, were ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Then performing a direct comparison of the volatiles produced after a thermal treatment done in conditions similar to the ones used by the ACP experiment, we may estimate that the tholins we used are relevant to chemical analogues of Titan’s aerosols, and to note free of oxygen. Taking into account recent studies proposing that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), and assuming the presence of specific gas species [4, 5], in particular CO2 and H2S, trapped in likely internal ocean, we determine a new probable composition of the cryomagma which could potentially interact with deposited Titan’s aerosols. We then carried out different hydrolyses, taking into account this composition, and we established the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. References: [1] Mitri et al., 2008. Resurfacing of Titan by ammonia-water cryomagma. Icarus. 196, 216-224. [2] Coll et al. 2013, Can laboratory tholins mimic the chemistry producing Titan's aerosols? A review in light of ACP experimental results, Planetary and Space Science 77, 91-103. [3] Tobie et al. 2012. Titan’s Bulk Composition Constrained by Cassini-Huygens: implication for internal outgassing. The

  16. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > About OER > Organization > Map of

    Science.gov (United States)

    About OER Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and Affiliate of Staff and Affiliate Locations About OER Organization Map of Staff and Affiliate Locations Home About OER Overview Organization Guiding Documents Organizational Structure Map of Staff and Affiliate

  17. Exploring the Role of Faith-Based Organizations in Addressing Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erica; Freedman, Lori R; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is prevalent with significant health and social consequences. Faith-based organizations could play an important role in ARA prevention and intervention. Studies on the role of faith-based organizations in interpersonal violence have focused on adult survivor perspectives rather than adolescents. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with faith-based organization leaders, parents, and youth. Findings highlight that church leaders, parents, and youth all expect that faith-based organizations can play a role in educating teens about healthy relationships. Divergent perspectives about how faith-based organizations should address adolescent sexuality and privacy need to be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Titan Submarine : AUV Design for Cryogenic Extraterrestrial Seas of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Oleson, Steven; Colozza, Tony; Hartwig, Jason; Schmitz, Paul; Landis, Geoff; Paul, Michael; Walsh, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has three seas, apparently composed predominantly of liquid methane, near its north pole. The largest of these, Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare, span about 400km and 1000km respectively, and are linked by a narrow strait. Radar measurements from the Cassini spacecraft (currently in orbit around Saturn) show that Ligeia at least is 160m deep, Kraken perhaps deeper. Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere somewhat denser than Earth's, and gravity about the same as the Earth's moon, and its surface temperature is about 92K ; the seas are liquid under conditions rather similar to those of liquified natural gas (LNG) a commodity with familiar engineering properties. We report a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) study into a submersible vehicle able to explore these seas, to survey shoreline geomorphology, investigate air-sea exchange processes, measure composition to evaluate stratification and mixing, and map the seabed. The Titan environment poses unique thermal management and buoyancy control challenges (the temperature-dependent solubility of nitrogen in methane leads to the requirement to isolate displacement gas from liquid in buoyancy control tanks, and may result in some effervescence due to the heat dissipation into the liquid from the vehicle's radioisotope power supply, a potential noise source for sonar systems). The vehicle must also be delivered from the air, either by parachute extraction from or controlled ditching of a slender entry system, and must communicate its results back to Earth. Nominally the latter function is achieved with a large dorsal phased-array antenna, operated while surfaced, but solutions using an orbiting relay spacecraft and even communication while submerged, are being examined. While these aspects seem fantastical, in many respects the structural, propulsion and navigation/autonomy challenges of such a vehicle are little different from terrestrial autonomous underwater vehicles. We discuss the results of the study

  19. TITAN'S TRANSPORT-DRIVEN METHANE CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the occurrence of large cloud outbursts and precipitation on Titan have been disputed. A global- and annual-mean estimate of surface fluxes indicated only 1% of the insolation, or ∼0.04 W m –2 , is exchanged as sensible and/or latent fluxes. Since these fluxes are responsible for driving atmospheric convection, it has been argued that moist convection should be quite rare and precipitation even rarer, even if evaporation globally dominates the surface-atmosphere energy exchange. In contrast, climate simulations indicate substantial cloud formation and/or precipitation. We argue that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative imbalance is diagnostic of horizontal heat transport by Titan's atmosphere, and thus constrains the strength of the methane cycle. Simple calculations show the TOA radiative imbalance is ∼0.5-1 W m –2 in Titan's equatorial region, which implies 2-3 MW of latitudinal heat transport by the atmosphere. Our simulation of Titan's climate suggests this transport may occur primarily as latent heat, with net evaporation at the equator and net accumulation at higher latitudes. Thus, the methane cycle could be 10-20 times previous estimates. Opposing seasonal transport at solstices, compensation by sensible heat transport, and focusing of precipitation by large-scale dynamics could further enhance the local, instantaneous strength of Titan's methane cycle by a factor of several. A limited supply of surface liquids in regions of large surface radiative imbalance may throttle the methane cycle, and if so, we predict more frequent large storms over the lakes district during Titan's northern summer.

  20. Experimental simulations of ethylene evaporites on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplinski, E.; Farnsworth, K.; Singh, S.; Chevrier, V.

    2017-12-01

    Titan has an abundance of lakes and seas, as identified by the Cassini spacecraft. Major components of these liquid bodies include methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6), however minor constituents are also thought to exist (e.g. ethylene (C2H4)). As the lakes and seas evaporate, 5-μm-bright deposits, resembling evaporite deposits on Earth, are left behind in a "bathtub ring" fashion. Previous studies include models of evaporites, and observations of the 5-μm-bright regions, but the community is still lacking a complete suite of experimental evaporite studies. In this study, we experimentally investigate evaporites in order to determine their composition and how they affect infrared spectra during the evaporation process. The University of Arkansas owns a specialized chamber that simulates the surface conditions of Titan ( 90 K and 1.5 bar). Gaseous hydrocarbons are condensed within the chamber and analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and band depth calculations. In this study, three types of experiments were performed: ethane/ethylene, methane/ethylene, and methane/ethane/ethylene. For these experiments, methane was the only species that readily evaporated at Titan conditions (due to its high volatility), while ethane, being the more stable solvent, did not readily evaporate. Therefore, we will present spectral results of ethylene evaporite formation within these mixtures. Our results imply that evaporite formation is strongly dependent on the composition of the solvent. The north polar lakes of Titan are predicted to be methane-rich, indicating that they may be more likely to form evaporites. Alternatively, Ontario Lacus, a south polar lake, is predominately composed of ethane, which may make it more difficult to form evaporites. As we continue to study Titan's mysterious lakes and seas, we hope to draw insights on their exact composition, conditions for evaporite formation, habitability potential, and comparing Titan to prebiotic Earth.

  1. Identification of cryovolcanism on Titan using fuzzy cognitive maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Roberto; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Bishop, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    Future planetary exploration of Titan will require higher degrees of on-board automation, including autonomous determination of sites where the probability of significant scientific findings is the highest. In this paper, a novel Artificial Intelligence (AI) method for the identification and interpretation of sites that yield the highest potential of cryovolcanic activity is presented. We introduce the theory of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) as a tool for the analysis of remotely collected data in planetary exploration. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction of planetary scientists and AI experts. As an application example, we show how FCM can be employed to solve the challenging problem of recognizing cryovolcanism from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Cassini data. The fuzzy cognitive map is constructed using what is currently known about cryovolcanism on Titan and relies on geological mapping performed by planetary scientists to interpret different locales as cryovolcanic in nature. The system is not conceived to replace the human scientific interpretation, but to enhance the scientists' ability to deal with large amounts of data, and it is a first step in designing AI systems that will be able, in the future, to autonomously make decisions in situations where human analysis and interpretation is not readily available or could not be sufficiently timely. The proposed FCM is tested on Cassini radar data to show the effectiveness of the system in reaching conclusions put forward by human experts and published in the literature. Four tests are performed using the Ta SAR image (October 2004 fly-by). Two regions (i.e. Ganesa Macula and the lobate high backscattering region East of Ganesa) are interpreted by the designed FCM as exhibiting cryovolcanism in agreement with the initial interpretation of the regions by Stofan et al. (2006). Importantly, the proposed FCM is shown to be flexible and adaptive as new

  2. Predicting Passenger Survival Rates on the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Chanda

    2017-01-01

    The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most infamous shipwrecks in history. On April 15, 1912, during her maiden voyage, the Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, killing 1502 out of 2224 passengers and crew. This sensational tragedy shocked the international community and led to better safety regulations for ships. One of the reasons that the shipwreck led to such loss of life was that there were not enough lifeboats for the passengers and crew. Although there was some el...

  3. Technological properties and structure of titanate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Power substantiation of existence of tough stream of complex anion ([TiO 6 ] 8- ) as a prevalent unit in titanate melts is given on the base of up-to-date knowledge about structure of metallurgical slags and results of investigations of thermophysical properties of these melts. It is shown that high crystallization ability of titanate melts at technological temperatures is determined by heterogeneity of liquid state - by presence up to 30 % of dispersed particles of solid phase solutions in matrix liquid [ru

  4. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  5. Titan 2D: Understanding Titan’s Seasonal Atmospheric Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Zhang, X.; Li, C.; Hu, R.; Shia, R.; Newman, C.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Yung, Y.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we present results from a novel two-dimensional (2D) model that simulates the physics and chemistry of Titan’s atmosphere. Despite being an icy moon of Saturn, Titan is the only Solar System object aside from Earth that is sheathed by a thick nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. This vulnerable gaseous envelope—an embodiment of a delicate coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamics—is Nature’s laboratory for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Titan’s large obliquity generates pronounced seasonal cycles in its atmosphere, and the Cassini spacecraft has been observing these variations since 2004. In particular, Cassini measurements show that the latitudinal distribution of Titan’s rich mélange of hydrocarbon species follows seasonal patterns. The mixing ratios of hydrocarbons increase with latitude towards the winter pole, suggesting a pole-to-pole circulation that reverses after equinox. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere, we show that photochemistry alone cannot produce the observed meridional hydrocarbon distribution. This necessitates the employment of a 2D chemistry-transport model that includes meridional circulation as well as diffusive processes and photochemistry. Of additional concern, no previous 2D model of Titan extends beyond 500 km altitude—a critical limitation since the peak of methane photolysis is at 800 km. Our 2D model is the first to include Titan’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The meridional circulation in our 2D model is derived from the outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs): the TitanWRF GCM (Newman et al. 2011) covering the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere, and a thermosphere general circulation model (TGCM) covering the remainder of the atmosphere through the thermosphere (Müller-Wodarg et al. 2003; 2008). This presentation will focus on the utilization of these advances applied to the 2D Caltech/JPL KINETICS model to

  6. Bismuth titanate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Liu, H.D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth titanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of bismuth titanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Bismuth titanate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue and Rhodamine B. - Abstract: Bismuth titanate nanorods have been prepared using a facile hydrothermal process without additives. The bismuth titanate products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern shows that the bismuth titanate nanorods are composed of cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase. Electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the bismuth titanate nanorods are 50-200 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Hydrothermal temperature and reaction time play important roles on the formation and size of the bismuth titanate nanorods. UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum indicates that bismuth titanate nanorods have a band gap of 2.58 eV. The bismuth titanate nanorods exhibit good photocatalytic activities in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation. The bismuth titanate nanorods with cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase are a promising candidate as a visible light photocatalyst

  7. Study of irradiation of flash lightning type in a Titan simulated atmosphere; Estudio de irradiaciones tipo relampago en una atmosfera simulada de Titan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa C, J.G. De la

    2001-07-01

    Titan is the greatest satellite of the Saturn planet and the unique moon of the Solar System which presents a dense atmosphere constituted by nitrogen, methane and traces of hydrocarbons and nitriles. Constantly it is bombarded by different energy sources which interacting with the atmosphere cause countless of chemical reactions which have giving origin to the synthesis of organic molecules from its formation since 4.5 thousand millions of years ago. The electric activity was not detected in the satellite when the space probe Voyager I had its nearest match with Titan in November 1980, however, due to the presence of methane clouds rain and of convective activity in the troposphere of the satellite, it is thought in the possible existence of electrical activity in this. In this work it is studied the production of gaseous compounds generated by irradiations type flash lightning in the Titan simulated atmosphere constituted by nitrogen and methane. The lightning are imitated by laser induced plasma (LIP) with similar physical properties to the naturals produced in the Earth. The separation and identification of the organic compounds generated by simulated lightning s were carried out by attached methods of analysis such as the Gas chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR-S) and Mass spectroscopy (MS). The compounds which were identified are: hydrocarbons and nitriles, some of them already have been identified in Titan as well as the hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetylene, etilene and cyanoacetylene. Moreover we studied the influence that different parameters of irradiation have in the production of organic molecules generated submitting to discharges type lightning the simulated atmosphere of Titan. It was realized an estimation of the available energy in the satellite which could be vanished as discharges type lightning. By means of a model based on conditions of thermodynamic equilibria it was calculated the temperature to which are freeze

  8. A post-Cassini view of Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2018-05-01

    The methane-based hydrologic cycle on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is an extreme analogue to Earth's water cycle. Titan is the only planetary body in the Solar System, other than Earth, that is known to have an active hydrologic cycle. With a surface pressure of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90 to 95 K, methane and ethane condense out of a nitrogen-based atmosphere and flow as liquids on the moon's surface. Exchange processes between atmospheric, surface and subsurface reservoirs produce methane and ethane cloud systems, as well as erosional and depositional landscapes that have strikingly similar forms to their terrestrial counterparts. Over its 13-year exploration of the Saturn system, the Cassini-Huygens mission revealed that Titan's hydrocarbon-based hydrology is driven by nested methane cycles that operate over a range of timescales, including geologic, orbital (for example, Croll-Milankovitch cycles), seasonal and that of a single convective storm. In this Review Article, we describe the dominant exchange processes that operate over these timescales and present a post-Cassini view of Titan's methane-based hydrologic system.

  9. Exploring the energy landscape of the charge transport levels in organic semiconductors at the molecular scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, J; Verlaak, S; Martinelli, N; Mityashin, A; Olivier, Y; Van Regemorter, T; D'Avino, G; Muccioli, L; Zannoni, C; Castet, F; Beljonne, D; Heremans, P

    2013-02-19

    The extraordinary semiconducting properties of conjugated organic materials continue to attract attention across disciplines including materials science, engineering, chemistry, and physics, particularly with application to organic electronics. Such materials are used as active components in light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, or photovoltaic cells, as a substitute for (mostly Si-based) inorganic semiconducting materials. Many strategies developed for inorganic semiconductor device building (doping, p-n junctions, etc.) have been attempted, often successfully, with organics, even though the key electronic and photophysical properties of organic thin films are fundamentally different from those of their bulk inorganic counterparts. In particular, organic materials consist of individual units (molecules or conjugated segments) that are coupled by weak intermolecular forces. The flexibility of organic synthesis has allowed the development of more efficient opto-electronic devices including impressive improvements in quantum yields for charge generation in organic solar cells and in light emission in electroluminescent displays. Nonetheless, a number of fundamental questions regarding the working principles of these devices remain that preclude their full optimization. For example, the role of intermolecular interactions in driving the geometric and electronic structures of solid-state conjugated materials, though ubiquitous in organic electronic devices, has long been overlooked, especially when it comes to these interfaces with other (in)organic materials or metals. Because they are soft and in most cases disordered, conjugated organic materials support localized electrons or holes associated with local geometric distortions, also known as polarons, as primary charge carriers. The spatial localization of excess charges in organics together with low dielectric constant (ε) entails very large electrostatic effects. It is therefore not obvious how these

  10. On the shores of Titan's farthest sea a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Titan is practically a planet in its own right, with a diameter similar to that of Mercury, methane rainstorms, organic soot and ethane seas. All of the most detailed knowledge on the moon's geology, volcanology, meteorology, marine sciences and chemistry are gathered together here to paint a factually accurate hypothetical future of early human colonization on this strange world. The views from Titan’s Mayda Outpost are spectacular, but all is not well at the moon's remote science base. On the shore of a methane sea beneath glowering skies, atmospherics researcher Abigail Marco finds herself in the middle of murder, piracy and colleagues who seem to be seeing sea monsters and dead people from the past. On the Shores of Titan’s Farthest Sea provides thrills, excitement and mystery – couched in the latest science – on one of the Solar System’s most bizarre worlds, Saturn’s huge moon Titan. "This riveting story, set against a plausibly well integrated interplanetary space, carries us along with its ...

  11. Hydrolysis of Laboratory Made Tholins in Aqueous Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine; Somogyi, Á.; Lunine, J.; Smith, M.

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory experiments that simulate the reactions occurring in Titan's thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere produce complex organic precipitates known as tholins. Tholins have the general formula CxHyNz, and are spectrally similar to Titan's haze. When placed in liquid water, specific water soluble compounds in the tholins have been shown to produce oxygenated organic species with activation energies in the range of 60 ± 10 kJ mol-1 and half-lives between 0.3 and 17 days at 273 K (Neish et al. 2008). Oxygen incorporation into such materials - a necessary step towards the formation of biological molecules - is therefore fast compared to the freezing of impact melts and cryolavas on Titan. The rates quoted above are for reactions occurring in pure liquid water. The composition of impact melts and lavas on Titan are not likely to be pure water, but rather contain a few percent ammonia. Tobie et al. (2005) predict that Titan has a subsurface water layer with an ammonia concentration of 14 wt. % in the present era. The presence of ammonia would likely change the reaction rates and yields of the hydrolysis reactions of tholins. We have therefore extended our work to include the measurement of tholin hydrolysis rate coefficients in ammonia-water solutions. In this work, tholins were synthesized from a 0.98 N2/0.02 CH4 atmosphere in a high voltage AC flow discharge reactor, and dissolved in a 13 wt. % ammonia-water solution. Rates were determined by monitoring intensity changes of select species over time using high resolution FT-ICR MS. Comparisons between rates of similar species observed at different pH will be presented. This work was supported by the NASA Exobiology Program. C. Neish was supported by an NSERC Postgraduate Scholarship.

  12. Exploring the Use of Enterprise Content Management Systems in Unification Types of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Noreen Izza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to better understand how highly standardized and integrated businesses known as unification types of organizations use Enterprise Content Management Systems (ECMS to support their business processes. Multiple case study approach was used to study the ways two unification organizations use their ECMS in their daily work practices. Arising from these case studies are insights into the differing ways in which ECMS is used to support businesses. Based on the comparisons of the two cases, this study proposed that unification organizations may use ECMS in four ways, for: (1 collaboration, (2 information sharing that supports a standardized process structure, (3 building custom workflows that support integrated and standardized processes, and (4 providing links and access to information systems. These findings may guide organizations that are highly standardized and integrated in fashion, to achieve their intended ECMS-use, to understand reasons for ECMS failures and underutilization and to exploit technologies investments.

  13. Towards an organization with a memory: exploring the organizational generation of adverse events in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denis; Toft, Brian

    2005-05-01

    The role of organizational factors in the generation of adverse events, and the manner in which such factors can also inhibit an organization's abilities to learn, have become important agenda items within health care. The government report 'An organization with a memory' highlighted many of the problems facing health care and suggested changes that need to be made if the sector is to learn effective lessons and prevent adverse events from occurring. This paper seeks to examine some of these organizational factors in more detail and suggests issues that managers need to consider as part of their wider strategies for the prevention and management of risk. The paper sets out five core elements that are held to be importance in shaping the manner in which the potential for risk is incubated within organizations. Although the paper focuses its attention on health care, the points made have validity across the public sector and into private sector organizations.

  14. Exploring Trianglamine Derivatives and Trianglamine Coordination Complexes as Porous Organic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Eziashi, Magdalene

    2018-01-01

    , they are still a poorly researched class of macrocycles today. Trianglamines have yet a role to play as porous organic molecules for separation processes, as macrocyclic precursors to build increasingly complex supramolecular assemblies and as building blocks

  15. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  16. Infrared characterization of strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, B.G.; Pietka, A.; Mendes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium titanate thin films have been prepared at different oxygen pressures with various post-deposition annealing treatments. The films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at room temperature on Si(0 0 1) substrates with a silica buffer layer. Infrared reflectance measurements were performed in order to determine relevant film parameters such as layer thicknesses and chemical composition. The infrared reflectance spectra were fitted by using adequate dielectric function forms for each layer. The fitting procedure provided the extraction of the dielectric functions of the strontium titanate film, the silica layer and the substrate. The as-deposited films are found to be amorphous, and their infrared spectra present peaks corresponding to modes with high damping constants. As the annealing time and temperature increases the strontium titanate layer becomes more ordered so that it can be described by its SrTiO 3 bulk mode parameters. Also, the silica layer grows along with the ordering of the strontium titanate film, due to oxidation during annealing

  17. The mechanochemical stability of hydrogen titanate nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.; Friscic, I.; Ivekovic, D.; Tomasic, N.; Su, D.S.; Zhang, J.; Gajovic, A.

    2010-01-01

    The structural stability of some nanostructured titanates was investigated in terms of their subsequent processing and possible applications. With the aim to investigate their mechanochemical stability, we applied high-energy ball milling and studied the resulting induced phase transitions. Hydrogen titanates with two different morphologies, microcrystals and nanotubes, were taken into consideration. The phase-transition sequence was studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, while the morphology and crystal structure, on the nanoscale, were analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. During the mechanochemical treatment of both morphologies, the phase transitions from hydrogen titanate to TiO 2 anatase and subsequently to TiO 2 rutile were observed. In the case of hydrogen trititanate crystals, the phase transition to anatase starts after a longer milling time than in the case of the titanate nanotubes, which is explained by the larger particle size of the crystalline powder. However, the phase transition from anatase to rutile occurred more quickly in the crystalline powder than in the case of the nanotubes.

  18. The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida

    2018-04-01

    Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.

  19. An update of nitrile photochemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are undertaken between laboratory kinetics experiments and Voyager observations in order to shed light on possible chemical reaction pathways to the generation of cyanogen and dicyanoacetylene in Titan's upper atmosphere. The predicted concentrations of the simple nitrile compounds are found to be of a magnitude realistically corresponding to the Voyager observations.

  20. Low-Latitude Ethane Rain on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Clark, R. N.; Lawrence, K. J.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cassini ISS observed multiple widespread changes in surface brightness in Titan's equatorial regions over the past three years. These brightness variations are attributed to rainfall from cloud systems that appear to form seasonally. Determining the composition of this rainfall is an important step in understanding the "methanological" cycle on Titan. I use data from Cassini VIMS to complete a spectroscopic investigation of multiple rain-wetted areas. I compute "before-and-after" spectral ratios of any areas that show either deposition or evaporation of rain. By comparing these spectral ratios to a model of liquid ethane, I find that the rain is most likely composed of liquid ethane. The spectrum of liquid ethane contains multiple absorption features that fall within the 2-micron and 5-micron spectral windows in Titan's atmosphere. I show that these features are visible in the spectra taken of Titan's surface and that they are characteristically different than those in the spectrum of liquid methane. Furthermore, just as ISS saw the surface brightness reverting to its original state after a period of time, I show that VIMS observations of later flybys show the surface composition in different stages of returning to its initial form.

  1. Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S.J.; Seraji, S.; Forbess, M.J.; Wu Yun; Chou, T.P.; Nguyen, C.; Cao Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2001-08-16

    Nanorods of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-a ferro- and piezoelectric material-up to 10 {mu}m in length and 70 to 150 nm in diameter are produced by sol-gel electrophoresis of PZT in a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, which is used as a template. (orig.)

  2. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  3. Radiation effects in uranium-niobium titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, J.; Wang, S.X.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Pyrochlore is an important actinide host phase proposed for the immobilization of high level nuclear wastes and excess weapon plutonium.[1] Synthetic pyrochlore has a great variety of chemical compositions due to the possibility of extensive substitutions in the pyrochlore structure.[2] During the synthesis of pyrochlore, additional complex titanate phases may form in small quantities. The response of these phases to radiation damage must be evaluated because volume expansion of minor phases may cause micro-fracturing. In this work, two complex uranium-niobium titanates, U 3 NbO 9.8 (U-rich titanate) and Nb 3 UO 10 (Nb-rich titanate) were synthesized by the alkoxide/nitrate route at 1300 deg. C under an argon atmosphere. The phase composition and structure were analyzed by EDS, BSE, XRD, EMPA and TEM techniques. An 800 KeVKr 2+ irradiation was performed using the IVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in a temperature range from 30 K to 973 K. The radiation effects were observed by in situ TEM

  4. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  5. Instrumentation for in situ sampling and analysis of compounds of interest to Astrobiology in the lower atmosphere and surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paul M.; Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert; Kaye, William; Takeuchi, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation for exploration of the solar system will require new enabling technology for in situ sample acquisition and analysis of pre-biotic chemistry in extreme planetary environments, such as that encountered at the surface of Titan. The potential use of balloon aero-rovers for Titan places special emphasis on the importance of miniaturization, low power and low usage of consumables. To help meet this need, we are developing a miniature gas chromatograph coupled with a new Mini-Cell ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS), and one of us (PMH) has begun development work on a miniaturized cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This instrumentation, and its approach for meeting measurement needs for the analysis of prebiotic chemistry on Titan, will be discussed.

  6. Mapping the Biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization, and sustainability of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth’s species. We conclude that a goal to describe 10 million new species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation, and...

  7. Exploring barriers to organ donation in the African-American communities of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Debra R; McNiesh, Susan

    2012-07-01

    There are a disproportionate number of African-Americans on transplant waiting lists across the country. The outcomes of a transplant are greatly improved when the donor and the recipient are from the same ethnic group. Sadly, the demand for cadaver organs in the African-American community exceeds the supply. Researchers in the past have sought to identify barriers to organ and tissue donation. To date, the studies have been conducted in the eastern and southern regions of the United States. This study examines whether the previously identified barriers are applicable in the African-American communities of California. A revised version of the Bone Marrow Donation Intention Tool was administered both in person and online. A t-test was used for analysis. The findings revealed statistically significant agreement/disagreement statements. These statements indicated that the barriers to organ donation from other areas of the United States were not representative of the respondents on the west coast.

  8. The Exploration of the Relationship between Participation in Organized Activity and Cross-Group Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Suh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether participation in an organized activity contributes to the formation of cross-group friendships. The results of this study indicate that community service and school-based extracurricular activities significantly contribute to the formation of cross-group friendships among young adults. The findings also suggest that a variety of organized activities should be developed and implemented to facilitate cross-group friendships. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  9. Exploring the Contribution of Primary Marine Organic Matter to the Arctic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Boyer, M.; Abbatt, J.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean is a significant source of aerosol to the atmosphere, and contributes significantly to the aerosol population especially in remote locations. Both primary and secondary processes connect the ocean to ambient aerosol loadings, but the extent to which the ocean is a source of organic material to the atmosphere is a current topic of scientific debate. The contribution of primary marine aerosol to atmospheric organic matter may have an influence on the water uptake properties and chemical reactivity of primary marine aerosol particles, influencing their climate-relevant properties. In this study, we characterize the contribution of primary marine aerosol to the arctic marine boundary layer using coincident quantitative measurements of freshly-produced sea spray aerosol and ambient marine aerosol to the arctic boundary layer during an expedition aboard the CCGS Amundsen. Sea spray production experiments were conducted during the cruise using a tank fitted with a plunging waterfall apparatus, a technique which has been recently shown to closely mimic the aerosol production behavior of controlled breaking waves. Comparison of the chemical composition of sea spray particles generated from water samples in various locations throughout the Canadian Archipelago will be presented. A tracer analysis of specific compounds known to be important contributors to primary marine organic material are tracked using GC/MS, along with those known to be tracers of biological aerosol and other organic matter sources. Size-segregated trends in tracer concentrations and ratios with inorganic components will be discussed in the context of understanding the contribution of primary organics to the Arctic atmosphere and in comparison with other sources of organic material observed during the ship-board campaign.

  10. Atmospheric Circulation, Chemistry, and Infrared Spectra of Titan-like Exoplanets around Different Stellar Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Juan M.; Kataria, Tiffany; Gao, Peter

    2018-01-01

    With the discovery of ever smaller and colder exoplanets, terrestrial worlds with hazy atmospheres must be increasingly considered. Our solar system’s Titan is a prototypical hazy planet, whose atmosphere may be representative of a large number of planets in our Galaxy. As a step toward characterizing such worlds, we present simulations of exoplanets that resemble Titan but orbit three different stellar hosts: G, K, and M dwarf stars. We use general circulation and photochemistry models to explore the circulation and chemistry of these Titan-like planets under varying stellar spectra, in all cases assuming a Titan-like insolation. Due to the strong absorption of visible light by atmospheric haze, the redder radiation accompanying later stellar types produces more isothermal stratospheres, stronger meridional temperature gradients at mbar pressures, and deeper and stronger zonal winds. In all cases, the planets’ atmospheres are strongly superrotating, but meridional circulation cells are weaker aloft under redder starlight. The photochemistry of hydrocarbon and nitrile species varies with stellar spectra, with variations in the FUV/NUV flux ratio playing an important role. Our results tentatively suggest that column haze production rates could be similar under all three hosts, implying that planets around many different stars could have similar characteristics to Titan’s atmosphere. Lastly, we present theoretical emission spectra. Overall, our study indicates that, despite important and subtle differences, the circulation and chemistry of Titan-like exoplanets are relatively insensitive to differences in the host star. These findings may be further probed with future space-based facilities, like WFIRST, LUVOIR, HabEx, and OST.

  11. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  12. Legitimizing knwoledge of the workplace? Exploring critical perspectives on learning partnerships between universities and corporate organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustavs, J.; Clegg, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of changing conditions of funding, emanating in a sense of crisis about viability and the need to find new sources of revenue, many universities in Australia and elsewhere are moving into new areas of application in novel partnerships with corporate organizations, to deliver 'work-based

  13. Exploring orange peel treatment with deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bruinhorst, A.; Kouris, P.; Timmer, J.M.K.; de Croon, M.H.J.M.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The disintegration of orange peel waste in deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids is presented in this work. The albedo and flavedo layers of the peel were studied separately, showing faster disintegration of the latter. Addition of water to the deep eutectic solvents lowered the amount of

  14. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  15. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.; David Kilcoyne, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  16. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); David Kilcoyne, A. L., E-mail: ykebukawa@ciw.edu, E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 7R0222, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  17. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  18. Exploring an innovation project as source of change in organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Peters, Lois S.

    2015-01-01

    This study builds new empirically based theory on how the processing of an innovation project with a high degree of uncertainty induces change in key components in organization design. By using an embedded case study as our research strategy and organisation design theory as our analytical lens, we...

  19. Exploring the Nutrient Release Potential of Organic Materials as Integrated Soil Fertility Management Components Using SAFERNAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient release potential of different organic materials and assess their role in integrated soil fertility management for coffee using the new coffee yield model SAFERNAC. It involved an incubation experiment conducted at TaCRI Lyamungu Screenhouse for

  20. Organizing for moral excellence in the military; a theoretical exploration and demonstration through casuistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulpers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a virtue ethical perspective on moral military behavior in relation to the infrastructural design of the military organization. To this end, Aristotelian virtue ethics is integrated with insights from social cognitive theory on moral behaviour and moral development and insights

  1. Exploring the relationship between practice, institution, and change in the 'Organizing Society'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2005-01-01

    The interest for practice-based studies of work and organization stems from the belief that such phenomena as knowledge, meaning, human activity, science, power, language, social institutions, and historical transformations occur and are components of the field of practices. By assuming...

  2. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  3. Recruitment and selection in violent extremist organizations: Exploring what industrial and organizational psychology might contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Samuel T; Shortland, Neil D; Crayne, Matthew P; Ligon, Gina S

    2017-04-01

    For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  5. Exploring the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon in three Chinese lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengchang; Xu, Libin; Liao, Haiqing; Zhao, Xiaoli [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment; Sun, Yongge [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Environmental and Biogeochemistry; Guo, Jianyang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). State Key Lab. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic carbon (TOC) in lake sediments. However, with respect to the complex organic matter in recent sediments, it is still unclear which part of TOC plays a key role in controlling PAHs distributions in natural sediments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between PAHs and TOC components of different origins in lake sediments. Materials and methods: Sediment cores from three Chinese lakes with different trophic conditions - Lakes Bosten, Dianchi, and Poyang - were collected using a piston core sampler. The cores were sectioned into 1- or 2-cm intervals immediately after collection and transported on ice to the laboratory where they were stored at -20 C. The subsamples were freeze-dried and ground with a mortar and pestle for analyses. PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS and TOC was determined with a PE elemental analyzer after the removal of carbonates. Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis technique was used to deconvolute the TOC in the sediments into free and volatile hydrocarbons (S1), kerogen-derived hydrocarbons (S2), and residual carbon (RC); S2 was further separated into thermal less stable macromolecular organic matter (S2a) and high molecular weight kerogens (S2b). Results and discussion: Positive correlations between TOC and PAHs were observed in these lakes. Results show that the more labile, minor components of TOC (S1 and S2a) played a more important role in controlling PAH distributions than the major components of TOC (S2b and RC), probably due to the different accessibilities of the organic components. The algae-derived organic carbon had a greater influence on the distribution of low molecular weight PAHs than that of high molecular weight PAHs in sediments. This suggests that PAHs scavenging in the water column by algae is mainly targeted at low molecular weight PAHs, and that preferential scavenging of low

  6. Lead titanate nanotubes synthesized via ion-exchange method: Characteristics and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liang; Cao Lixin; Li Jingyu; Liu Wei; Zhang Fen; Zhu Lin; Su Ge

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Lead titanate nanotubes PbTi 3 O 7 were firstly synthesized by ion-exchange method. → Sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability. → Lead titanate nanotubes show a distinct red shift on absorption edge. - Abstract: A two-step method is presented for the synthesis of one dimensional lead titanate (PbTi 3 O 7 ) nanotubes. Firstly, titanate nanotubes were prepared by an alkaline hydrothermal process with TiO 2 nanopowder as precursor, and then lead titanate nanotubes were formed through an ion-exchange reaction. We found that sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability with lead ions, while protonated titanate nanotubes have not. For the first time, we distinguished the difference between sodium titanate nanotubes and protonated titanate nanotubes in the ion-exchange process, which reveals a layer space effect of nanotubes in the ion-exchange reaction. In comparison with sodium titanate, the synthesized lead titanate nanotubes show a narrowed bandgap.

  7. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Shota; Sato, Soh

    2013-01-01

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst

  8. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassé, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, François; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have

  9. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  10. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  11. Phosphate-rich sedimentary rocks: significance for organic facies and petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waples, D W

    1982-03-01

    Phosphorus-bearing rocks and sediments can be divided into two genetically distinct classes: phosphatic shales or limestones and phosphorites. Phosphatic shales are primary sediments in which phosphate nodules or micronodules have formed diagenetically by precipitation of calcium phosphates derived mainly from organic phosphorus. The nodules form in reducing environments at shallow depths within the sediments, where loss of phosphate by diffusion to the overlying water column is minimized. Highly biogenic sediments containing large amounts of organic matter and some fine clastic debris provide ideal environments for the formation of phosphate nodules. Phosphorites, in contrast, represent concentrated accumulations of reworked phosphate nodules which originated in phosphatic shales or limestones. Currents, wave action, recrystallization, and erosion and resedimentation are important mechanisms in the concentration process. Phosphatic shales and limestones may become excellent oil source rocks if thermal maturity is achieved. They are useful facies indicators for anoxic or nearly anoxic depositional environments, and are often associated with restricted basins, or, during certain geologic periods, with broad shelves developed during transgressions. Phosphorites, in contrast, are often correlated with sea-level regressions or uplifts. They are modest source rocks because of their low organic carbon contents and the fact that they were reworked under oxidizing conditions. Nevertheless, because phosphorites are derived from, and often grade into, phosphatic shales, they also are of potential utility in the search for oil source beds.

  12. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  13. Description of tritium release from lithium titanate at constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, L; Lagos, S; Jimenez, J; Saravia, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-03-01

    Lithium Titanate Ceramics have been prepared by the solid-state route, pebbles and pellets were fabricated by extrusion and their microstructure was characterized in our laboratories. The ceramic material was irradiated in the La Reina Reactor, RECH-1. A study of post-irradiation annealing test, was performed measuring Tritium release from the Lithium Titanate at constant temperature. The Bertone`s method modified by R. Verrall is used to determine the parameters of Tritium release from Lithium Titanate. (author)

  14. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  15. Study of irradiation of flash lightning type in a Titan simulated atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa C, J.G. De la

    2001-01-01

    Titan is the greatest satellite of the Saturn planet and the unique moon of the Solar System which presents a dense atmosphere constituted by nitrogen, methane and traces of hydrocarbons and nitriles. Constantly it is bombarded by different energy sources which interacting with the atmosphere cause countless of chemical reactions which have giving origin to the synthesis of organic molecules from its formation since 4.5 thousand millions of years ago. The electric activity was not detected in the satellite when the space probe Voyager I had its nearest match with Titan in November 1980, however, due to the presence of methane clouds rain and of convective activity in the troposphere of the satellite, it is thought in the possible existence of electrical activity in this. In this work it is studied the production of gaseous compounds generated by irradiations type flash lightning in the Titan simulated atmosphere constituted by nitrogen and methane. The lightning are imitated by laser induced plasma (LIP) with similar physical properties to the naturals produced in the Earth. The separation and identification of the organic compounds generated by simulated lightning s were carried out by attached methods of analysis such as the Gas chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR-S) and Mass spectroscopy (MS). The compounds which were identified are: hydrocarbons and nitriles, some of them already have been identified in Titan as well as the hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetylene, etilene and cyanoacetylene. Moreover we studied the influence that different parameters of irradiation have in the production of organic molecules generated submitting to discharges type lightning the simulated atmosphere of Titan. It was realized an estimation of the available energy in the satellite which could be vanished as discharges type lightning. By means of a model based on conditions of thermodynamic equilibria it was calculated the temperature to which are freeze

  16. Exploring the structure and organization of information within nursing clinical handovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maree; Jefferies, Diana; Nicholls, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Clinical handover is the primary source of patient information for nurses; however, inadequate information transfer compromises patient safety. We investigated the content and organization of information conveyed at 81 handovers. A structure that captures and presents the information transferred at handover emerged: identification of the patient and clinical risks, clinical history/presentation, clinical status, care plan and outcomes/goals of care (ICCCO). This approach covers essential information while allowing for prioritization of information when required. Further research into the impact of ICCCO on patient safety is in progress. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Exploring the role of intermediary organizations in firm and user community collaborations: Resolving or multiplying paradoxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsdahl Lauritzen, Ghita

    2015-01-01

    Research on user innovation shows that innovation can be impeded by the conflicting demands that arise in the context of collaborations between firms and their user communities. One stream of research, however, applies a paradox lens to argue that intermediary organizations can help to resolve...... these conflicts, by bridging the opposing logics in which they originate. On the basis of an embedded case study, this article suggests that instead of resolving a paradox of innovation, intermediaries create new paradoxical tensions. Further, I argue that mediating firm-community collaboration is not a matter...

  18. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Courtin, Regis

    1993-01-01

    The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.

  19. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  20. Characterization of organic materials by LIBS for exploration of correlation between molecular and elemental LIBS signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Rai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed for the preparation of a database by accumulating LIBS spectra of 4-nitroaniline and 4-nitrotoluene in air and argon. Changes in the behavior of the molecular bands of the C2 Swan system and CN violet system as well as of atomic lines of C, H and N in the LIBS signal are appreciable in argon. In order to explore the correlation between observed LIBS signal and molecular composition of these materials, normalized intensities of the emission lines have been estimated for each compound. It has been found that the relative rates of increase/decrease in the normalized intensities for all sets are higher for 4-nitrotoluene in argon. The cause of the higher rate for 4-nitrotoluene might be due to the possession of a distinctive functional group. The ultimate goal behind the whole study is to use this data-base as input for the discrimination of energetic materials.

  1. Exploring how organic matter controls structural transformations in natural aquatic nanocolloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen M; Jarvie, Helen P

    2012-07-03

    The response of the dispersion nanostructure of surface river bed sediment to the controlled removal and readdition of natural organic matter (NOM), in the absence and presence of background electrolyte, was examined using the technique of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Partial NOM removal induced aggregation of the mineral particles, but more extensive NOM removal restored colloidal stability. When peat humic acid (PHA) was added to a NOM-deficient sediment concentration-related structural transformations were observed: at 255 mg/L PHA aggregation of the nanocolloid was actually enhanced, but at 380 mg/L PHA disaggregation and colloidal stability were promoted. The addition of 2 mM CaCl(2) induced mild aggregation in the native sediment but not in sediments with added PHA, suggesting that the native NOM and the PHA respond differently to changes in ionic strength. A first attempt at using SANS to directly characterize the thickness and coverage of an adsorbed PHA layer in a natural nanocolloid is also presented. The results are discussed in the context of a hierarchical aquatic colloidal nanostructure, and the implications for contemporary studies of the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in sustaining the transport of colloidal iron in upland catchments.

  2. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers’ trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society’s fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health.

  3. Exploring sources of biogenic secondary organic aerosol compounds using chemical analysis and the FLEXPART model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tracers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs can provide information on origin of SOA, as well as regional scale processes involved in their formation. In this study 9 carboxylic acids, 11 organosulfates (OSs and 2 nitrooxy organosulfates (NOSs were determined in daily aerosol particle filter samples from Vavihill measurement station in southern Sweden during June and July 2012. Several of the observed compounds are photo-oxidation products from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. Highest average mass concentrations were observed for carboxylic acids derived from fatty acids and monoterpenes (12. 3 ± 15. 6 and 13. 8 ± 11. 6 ng m−3, respectively. The FLEXPART model was used to link nine specific surface types to single measured compounds. It was found that the surface category sea and ocean was dominating the air mass exposure (56 % but contributed to low mass concentration of observed chemical compounds. A principal component (PC analysis identified four components, where the one with highest explanatory power (49 % displayed clear impact of coniferous forest on measured mass concentration of a majority of the compounds. The three remaining PCs were more difficult to interpret, although azelaic, suberic, and pimelic acid were closely related to each other but not to any clear surface category. Hence, future studies should aim to deduce the biogenic sources and surface category of these compounds. This study bridges micro-level chemical speciation to air mass surface exposure at the macro level.

  4. The thermal structure of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1989-01-01

    The present radiative-convective model of the Titan atmosphere thermal structure obtains the solar and IR radiation in a series of spectral intervals with vertical resolution. Haze properties have been determined with a microphysics model encompassing a minimum of free parameters. It is determined that gas and haze opacity alone, using temperatures established by Voyager observations, yields a model that is within a few percent of the radiative convective balance throughout the Titan atmosphere. Model calculations of the surface temperature are generally colder than the observed value by 5-10 K; better agreement is obtained through adjustment of the model parameters. Sunlight absorption by stratospheric haze and pressure-induced gas opacity in the IR are the most important thermal structure-controlling factors.

  5. Heat capacity measurements on dysprosium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandan, R.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Panneerselvam, G.; Nagarajan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Dysprosium titanate is considered as a candidate material for use in the control rods of future nuclear reactors. The Dy 2 TiO 5 compound was prepared by solid-state synthesis and characterized by XRD technique. The high temperature enthalpy increments of dysprosium titanates have been measured for the first time by employing the method of inverse drop calorimetry in the temperature range 748-1645 K by using high temperature drop calorimeter. The calorimeter, the method of measurement and the procedure adopted for enthalpy increment measurements and analysis of the measured data to compute thermodynamic functions have been described elsewhere. The measured enthalpy increments were fitted to polynomial in temperature by using the least squares method. The fit equation in the temperature range from 298 to 1800 K is given

  6. Big Impacts and Transient Oceans on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Nixon, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the thermal consequences of very big impacts on Titan [1]. Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile-rich surface cause it to respond to big impacts in a somewhat Earth-like manner. Here we construct a simple globally-averaged model that tracks the flow of energy through the environment in the weeks, years, and millenia after a big comet strikes Titan. The model Titan is endowed with 1.4 bars of N2 and 0.07 bars of CH4, methane lakes, a water ice crust, and enough methane underground to saturate the regolith to the surface. We assume that half of the impact energy is immediately available to the atmosphere and surface while the other half is buried at the site of the crater and is unavailable on time scales of interest. The atmosphere and surface are treated as isothermal. We make the simplifying assumptions that the crust is everywhere as methane saturated as it was at the Huygens landing site, that the concentration of methane in the regolith is the same as it is at the surface, and that the crust is made of water ice. Heat flow into and out of the crust is approximated by step-functions. If the impact is great enough, ice melts. The meltwater oceans cool to the atmosphere conductively through an ice lid while at the base melting their way into the interior, driven down in part through Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities between the dense water and the warm ice. Topography, CO2, and hydrocarbons other than methane are ignored. Methane and ethane clathrate hydrates are discussed quantitatively but not fully incorporated into the model.

  7. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  8. Interactive communication with the public: qualitative exploration of the use of social media by food and health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran Christine; Panagiotopoulos, Panagiotis; Regan, Áine; De Brún, Aoife; Barnett, Julie; Wall, Patrick; McConnon, Áine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the use and impact of social media on 2-way communication between consumers and public organizations in the food safety and nutrition area. In-depth qualitative study conducted between October, 2012 and January, 2013, using semi-structured interviews in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Sixteen professionals worked on the public interface within 5 national organizations with a role in communicating on food safety and nutrition issues in this thematic analysis. Five main themes were identified: gradual shift toward social media-based queries and complaints; challenges and limitations of social media to deal with queries and complaints; benefits of using social media in query and complaint services; content redesign driven by social media use; and using social media to learn more about consumers. Social media penetrated and brought new opportunities to food organizations' interactions with the public. Given the increasing use of social media by the public, food organizations need to explore such new opportunities for communication and research. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Spatiotemporal Organization of Membrane Proteins in Living Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xue, Yiqun; Xing, Jingjing; Song, Kai; Lin, Jinxing

    2018-04-29

    Plasma membrane proteins have important roles in transport and signal transduction. Deciphering the spatiotemporal organization of these proteins provides crucial information for elucidating the links between the behaviors of different molecules. However, monitoring membrane proteins without disrupting their membrane environment remains difficult. Over the past decade, many studies have developed single-molecule techniques, opening avenues for probing the stoichiometry and interactions of membrane proteins in their native environment by providing nanometer-scale spatial information and nanosecond-scale temporal information. In this review, we assess recent progress in the development of labeling and imaging technology for membrane protein analysis. We focus in particular on several single-molecule techniques for quantifying the dynamics and assembly of membrane proteins. Finally, we provide examples of how these new techniques are advancing our understanding of the complex biological functions of membrane proteins.

  10. Exploring the onset of collective motion in self-organised trails of social organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, E.; Hernández, A.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the emergence of self-organised trails between two specific target areas in collective motion of social organisms by means of an agent-based model. We present numerical evidences that an increase in the efficiency of navigation, in dependence of the colony size, exists. Moreover, the shift, from the diffusive to the directed motion can be quantitatively characterised, identifying and measuring a well defined crossover point. This point corresponds to the minimal number of individuals necessary for the onset of collective cooperation. Finally, by means of a finite-size scaling analysis, we describe its scaling behaviour as a function of the environment size. This last result can be of particular interest for interpreting empirical observations or for the design of artificial swarms.

  11. Investigations of the Structure of Titanate Nanoscrolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, D.A.; Buckley, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nanosized materials have attracted much research lately due to their unique properties and their potential application in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Nanostructured materials have also sparked interest as possible hydrogen storage candidates. Research at Curtin University has shown titanate nanoscrolls to absorb modest amounts of hydrogen at low temperatures. Whether or not this capacity can be improved will be dependent on a thorough understanding of the structure and the way it interacts with hydrogen. Titanate nanoscrolls are made via a soft chemical process that involves ageing TiO 2 powder in a concentrated NaOH solution. The resultant nanoscrolls, once filtered and washed, are typically 8-10 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers long. The walls consist of 3-5 layers and the diameter of the hollow centre is typically 5 nm. A number of different structures have been assigned to nanoscrolls produced via the soft chemical process. These include anatase, H 2 Ti 3 O 7 , lepidocrocite-type structure and H 2 Ti 4 O 9 .H 2 O. Many of these structures are similar, consisting of titanate type layers, and qualitatively reproduce the X-ray diffraction data. However, preliminary data suggests that these structures are inconsistent with neutron diffraction data. Here we attempt a more quantitative analysis of the structure than those published previously using neutron and X-ray diffraction. (authors)

  12. Titanate nanotube coatings on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632, Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, A. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Anjum, F.; Brandi, F. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Rigid, biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were coated with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using a spin-coating method. TNTs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 150 °C under 4.7 bar ambient pressure. The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. For scaffold coating, a stable ethanolic TNT sol was prepared by a simple colloid chemical route without the use of any binding compounds or additives. Scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis revealed that the scaffolds were homogenously coated by TNTs. The developed TNT coating can further improve the surface geometry of fabricated scaffolds, and therefore it can further increase the cell adhesion. Highlights: ► Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. ► Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. ► The titanate nanotube coating can further improve the surface geometry of scaffolds. ► These reproducible platforms will be of high importance for biological applications.

  13. Modified titanate perovskites in photocatalytic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczak, M.; Ludwiczak, M.; Laniecki, M. [A. Mickiewicz Univ. (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Received materials have structure of perovskite, what was shown by XRD diffraction patterns. Perovskite structure is present in all samples with strontium, barium and one sample with calcium. Moreover, received barium and strontium titanate are very similar to pattern materials. XRD results show, that temperature 500 C is too low to create perovskite structure in CaTiO{sub 3}. However, it is high enough in case of SrTiO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}. One regularity is obvious, surface area increases for samples calcined in lower temperature. There is a connection between surface area and dispersion of platinum. Both of them reach the greatest value to the calcium titanate. Catalytic activity was shown by all of received samples. Measurable values were received to samples calcined in 700 C. Calcium titanate had the best catalytic activity, both an amount of hydrogen and a ratio of hydrogen to platinum. There is one regularity to all samples, the ration of hydrogen to platinum increase when amount of platinum decrease. (orig.)

  14. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, O; Hondow, N S; Brydson, R M D; Milne, S J; Brown, A P; Posada, O M; Wälti, C; Saunders, M; Murray, C A

    2015-01-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L 3 -edge energy separation of the t 2g , e g peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t 2g and e g peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO 3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers. (paper)

  15. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2018-01-01

    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  16. Sequence capture by hybridization to explore modern and ancient genomic diversity in model and nonmodel organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2016-06-02

    The recent expansion of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved biological research. Nevertheless, deep exploration of genomes or metagenomic samples remains difficult because of the sequencing depth and the associated costs required. Therefore, different partitioning strategies have been developed to sequence informative subsets of studied genomes. Among these strategies, hybridization capture has proven to be an innovative and efficient tool for targeting and enriching specific biomarkers in complex DNA mixtures. It has been successfully applied in numerous areas of biology, such as exome resequencing for the identification of mutations underlying Mendelian or complex diseases and cancers, and its usefulness has been demonstrated in the agronomic field through the linking of genetic variants to agricultural phenotypic traits of interest. Moreover, hybridization capture has provided access to underexplored, but relevant fractions of genomes through its ability to enrich defined targets and their flanking regions. Finally, on the basis of restricted genomic information, this method has also allowed the expansion of knowledge of nonreference species and ancient genomes and provided a better understanding of metagenomic samples. In this review, we present the major advances and discoveries permitted by hybridization capture and highlight the potency of this approach in all areas of biology. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D; Fletcher, Ian W; Tardio, Sabrina; Hack, Ethan

    2018-02-05

    Terrestrialization depended on the evolution of biosynthetic pathways for biopolymers including lignin, cutin and suberin, which were concentrated in specific tissues, layers or organs such as the xylem, cuticle and roots on the submillimetre scale. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible especially for individual cells, to resolve the biomolecular composition of the different components of fossil plants on such a scale using the well-established coupled techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here, we report the application of techniques for surface analysis to investigate the composition of Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of two different spots (both 300 µm × 600 µm) confirmed the presence of carbon. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed 'chemical maps' (imaging mode with 300 nm resolution) of aliphatic and aromatic carbon in the intact fossil that correlate with the vascular structures observed in high-resolution optical images. This study shows that imaging ToF-SIMS has value for determining the location of the molecular components of fossil embryophytes while retaining structural information that will help elucidate how terrestrialization shaped the early evolution of land plant cell wall biochemistry.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Uranium exploration, non-governmental organizations, and local communities. The origin, anatomy, and consequences of a new challenge in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerola, Toni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of global warming has returned nuclear power to the agenda. Many countries, including Finland, have decided to construct more nuclear power plants. They will need uranium, and its price is rising in the international market. A new uranium exploration boom is going on. Finland is politically and economically stable, with good infrastructure and basic geodata, attracting foreign companies to explore the promising uranium showings of the country. However, this has triggered an extensive anti-uranium campaign in northern, eastern, and southern, but not in central Finland, which is related to anti-nuclear movement, green and leftist parties, and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs. The resistance, created mainly by lack of public awareness of geology and mining, surprised mining companies, the geological community, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, who found themselves in a completely new situation. Here we will examine the origin, anatomy, and consequences of this challenge and how to deal with it. The picture presented herewithin is based on author’s active participation in uranium exploration in Finland, discussions with other geologists and activists, following the issue in newspapers, web-pages, reviews, and participating in NGO meetings.

  19. Mergers and acquisitions in Western European health care: exploring the role of financial services organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Federica; Maarse, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Recent policy developments in Western European health care - for example in the Netherlands - aim to enhance efficiency and curb public expenditures by strengthening the role of private sector. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) play an important role in this respect. This article presents an analysis of 1606 acquisition deals targeting health care provider organizations in Western Europe between 1990 and 2009. We particularly investigate the role of financial services organisations as acquirers. Our analysis highlights (a) a rise of M&As in Western Europe since 2000, (b) an increase of M&As with financial service organisations acting as acquirer in absolute terms, and (c) a dominant role of the latter type of M&As in cross-border deals. To explain these developments, we make a distinction between an integration and a diversification rationale for M&As and we argue that the deals with financial services organisations in the role of acquirer are driven by a diversification rationale. We then provide arguments why health care, from the acquirer's perspective, can be considered as an interesting target in a diversification strategy and we advance reasons why health care providers may welcome this development. Although caution in drawing conclusions is needed, our findings suggest a penetration of private capital into health care provision that may be interpreted as a specific form of privatisation. Furthermore, they point to a rising internationalisation of health care. Both findings may entail far-reaching implications for health care, as they may induce both cultural privatisation and cultural internationalisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the aqueous vertical ionization of organic molecules by molecular simulation and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentscher, Peter R; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Guerard, Jennifer J; Arey, J Samuel

    2015-01-08

    To study the influence of aqueous solvent on the electronic energy levels of dissolved organic molecules, we conducted liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements of the aqueous vertical ionization energies (VIEaq) of aniline (7.49 eV), veratrole alcohol (7.68 eV), and imidazole (8.51 eV). We also reanalyzed previously reported experimental PES data for phenol, phenolate, thymidine, and protonated imidazolium cation. We then simulated PE spectra by means of QM/MM molecular dynamics and EOM-IP-CCSD calculations with effective fragment potentials, used to describe the aqueous vertical ionization energies for six molecules, including aniline, phenol, veratrole alcohol, imidazole, methoxybenzene, and dimethylsulfide. Experimental and computational data enable us to decompose the VIEaq into elementary processes. For neutral compounds, the shift in VIE upon solvation, ΔVIEaq, was found to range from ≈-0.5 to -0.91 eV. The ΔVIEaq was further explained in terms of the influence of deforming the gas phase solute into its solution phase conformation, the influence of solute hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor interactions with proximate solvent molecules, and the polarization of about 3000 outerlying solvent molecules. Among the neutral compounds, variability in ΔVIEaq appeared largely controlled by differences in solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis of the flexible molecule veratrole alcohol reveals that the VIE is strongly dependent on molecular conformation in both gas and aqueous phases. Finally, aqueous reorganization energies of the oxidation half-cell ionization reaction were determined from experimental data or estimated from simulation for the six compounds aniline, phenol, phenolate, veratrole alcohol, dimethylsulfide, and methoxybenzene, revealing a surprising constancy of 2.06 to 2.35 eV.

  1. Exploring the Disappearing Ocean Micro Plastic Mystery: New Insights from Dissolved Organic Carbon photo production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Zhao, S.; Li, D.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging as a novel planetary threat, plastic waste, dominated by millimeter-sized plastic (microplastic), is omnipresent in the oceans, posing broad environmental threats. However, only 1% of the microplastic waste exported from the land is found in the ocean. Most of the lost fraction is in the form of microplastics. The fate of these buoyant plastic fragments is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the fate and impact of plastics in marine ecosystems. To date, an effective sink for the lost microplastics has not been found. In this study, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) photo-production from the three dominant forms of ocean microplastics was assessed. These plastics were: 1) Polyethylene (PE) both for postconsumer samples and pure standard samples; 2) polypropylene (PP); and, expanded polystyrene (EPS). In addition, a Neustonic microplastic samples from the North Pacific Gyre were irradiated. These real-world samples were dominated by PE ( 80%). All samples were placed in seawater, in quartz flasks, and irradiated in a solar simulator for 2 months. During irradiation, DOC photo-production from PP, EPS, and the PE standard was exponential, while DOC photo-production from postconsumer PE and the Neustonic samples was linear. Scanning electron microscopy indicated surface ablation and micro-fragmentation during the irradiation of the three plastics that showed exponential DOC production (PP, EPS and standard PE), suggesting the increase in photo-reactivity of these plastics was a result of an increase in their surface to volume ratios and therefore their per-unit mass light exposure. Based on DOC production, the half-life of the microplastics ranged from 0.26 years for EPS to 86 years for PE, suggesting sunlight is a major removal term for buoyant oceanic microplastics. With respect to the broader carbon cycle, we conservatively estimate that plastic photodegradation releases 6 to 17 thousand metric tons of radiocarbon dead DOC to the surface ocean each year.

  2. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  3. Screening of spontaneous polarization in lead titanate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyachenko, V.G.; Semenchev, A.F.; Fesenko, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations into electric conductivity of lead titanate crystals with different domain structure including single-domain are reported. The data obtained give grounds to believe that spontaneous titanate polarization is realized by the surface level and charge volumetric of free carriers and ionized impurity

  4. A Raman Study of Titanate Nanotubes | Liu | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the addition of NaOH or KOH on commercial Degussa Titania P25 was investigated using TEM, Raman and in situ Raman spectroscopy. Treatment of titania with conc. NaOH generated a tubular material corresponding to a sodium titanate. An in situ Raman study on the sodium titanate nanotubes as a function ...

  5. Reduced-graphene-oxide-and-strontium-titanate-based double

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave-absorbing materials based on reduced graphene oxide (r-GO)/ strontium titanate were prepared by embedding in epoxy matrix. R-GO and strontium titanate were synthesized and characterized before composite fabrication. Microstructures of the constituent elements were studied by scanning electron ...

  6. Thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient strontium titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Choongho; Scullin, Matthew L.; Huijben, Mark; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We report significant thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (Sr1−xLaxTiO3−δ) films as compared to unreduced strontium titanates. Our experimental results suggest that the oxygen vacancies could have played an important role in the reduction. This could

  7. Maintenance procedures for the TITAN-I and TITAN-II reversed field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Duggan, W.; Krakowski, R.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The TITAN reactor is a compact, high-power-density (neutron wall loading 18 MW/m 2 ) machine, based on the reversed-field-pinch (RFP) confinement concept. Two designs for the fusion power core have been examined: TITAN-I is based on a self-cooled lithium loop with a vanadium-alloy structure for the first wall, blanket and shield; and TITAN-II is based on an aqueous loop-in-pool design with a LiNO 3 solution as the coolant and breeder. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core, (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure is possible. The potential advantages of single-piece maintenance procedures are: (1) Short period of down time; (2) improved reliability; (3) no adverse effects resulting from unequal levels of irradiation; and (4) ability to continually modify the FPC design. Increased availability can be expected from a fully pre-tested, single-piece FPC. Pre-testing of the FPC throughout the assembly process and prior to installation into the reactor vault is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Thermal stability of titanate nanorods and titania nanowires formed from titanate nanotubes by heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brunátová, T.; Matěj, Z.; Oleynikov, P.; Vesely, J.; Danis, S.; Popelková, Daniela; Kuzel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 98, December (2014), s. 26-36 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : titania nanowires * titanate nanorods * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2014

  9. Interaction mechanisms between organic UV filters and bovine serum albumin as determined by comprehensive spectroscopy exploration and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Junjie; Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Jiang, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Organic UV filters are a group of emerging PPCP (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) contaminants. Current information is insufficient to understand the in vivo processes and health risks of organic UV filters in humans. The interaction mechanism of UV filters with serum albumin provides critical information for the health risk assessment of these active ingredients in sunscreen products. This study investigates the interaction mechanisms of five commonly used UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM; homosalate, HMS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), competitive binding experiments and molecular docking. Our results indicated that the fluorescence of BSA was quenched by these UV filters through a static quenching mechanism. The values of the binding constant (Ka) ranged from (0.78±0.02)×10(3) to (1.29±0.01)×10(5) L mol(-1). Further exploration by synchronous fluorescence and CD showed that the conformation of BSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of these organic UV filters. It was confirmed that the UV filters can disrupt the α-helical stability of BSA. Moreover, the results of molecular docking revealed that the UV filter molecule is located in site II (sub-domain IIIA) of BSA, which was further confirmed by the results of competitive binding experiments. In addition, binding occurred mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. This study raises critical concerns regarding the transportation, distribution and toxicity effects of organic UV filters in human body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Redesigning the DOE Data Explorer to Embed Dataset Relationships at the Point of Search and to Reflect Landing Page Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Studwell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research is producing ever-increasing amounts of data. Organizing and reflecting relationships across data collections, datasets, publications, and other research objects are essential functionalities of the modern science environment, yet challenging to implement. Landing pages are often used for providing ‘big picture’ contextual frameworks for datasets and data collections, and many large-volume data holders are utilizing them in thoughtful, creative ways. The benefits of their organizational efforts, however, are not realized unless the user eventually sees the landing page at the end point of their search. What if that organization and ‘big picture’ context could benefit the user at the beginning of the search? That is a challenging approach, but The Department of Energy’s (DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI is redesigning the database functionality of the DOE Data Explorer (DDE with that goal in mind. Phase I is focused on redesigning the DDE database to leverage relationships between two existing distinct populations in DDE, data Projects and individual Datasets, and then adding a third intermediate population, data Collections. Mapped, structured linkages, designed to show user relationships, will allow users to make informed search choices. These linkages will be sustainable and scalable, created automatically with the use of new metadata fields and existing authorities. Phase II will study selected DOE Data ID Service clients, analyzing how their landing pages are organized, and how that organization might be used to improve DDE search capabilities. At the heart of both phases is the realization that adding more metadata information for cross-referencing may require additional effort for data scientists. OSTI’s approach seeks to leverage existing metadata and landing page intelligence without imposing an additional burden on the data creators.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation on the interaction of titanate nanotubes with bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.Z.; Zhao, Y.S.; Teng, H.H.; Shi, S.Y.; Ren, B.X.

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the transport mechanism and evaluate the biological safety of titanate nanotubes, the interactions of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by applying spectroscopic methods under simulated physiological conditions. After taking into account the inner filter effect, the fluorescence intensity of BSA was found to be significantly enhanced by the presence of TNTs, indicating that the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues in BSA became more hydrophobic. In addition, the absorption spectra of BSA showed a hyperchromic effect around 280 nm as the concentration of TNTs increased, suggesting that TNTs changed the microenvironment of the tryptophan and tyrosine residues. This is consistent with the results from fluorescence spectroscopy studies. However, circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that no significant conformational change in BSA occurred during the interaction. We believe that Trp-213 was buried more compactly in the internal hydrophobic region, and hydrophobicity increased around Trp-134 with increasing TNTs concentration. From a spectroscopic point of view, this work elucidates the interaction mechanism of titanate nanotubes with BSA, and the methods used in this paper can also be applied to explore the molecular mechanism underlying toxicity of other nanomaterials. (authors)

  12. Composition And Geometry Of Titan'S Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Alice; Janssen, M. A.; Wye, L. C.; Lorenz, R. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2009-09-01

    Fields of linear dunes cover a large portion of Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more of them are unveiled and examined by the microwave Titan RADAR Mapper both in the active and passive modes of operation of the instrument and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this presentation, we will show that the joint analysis of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and radiometry observations of the dunes at closest approach supports the idea of different composition between the dunes and the interdunes. It suggests that the icy bedrock of Titan may be exposed, or partially exposed, in the interdunes. We also see regional differences among dune fields. Dunes are highly directional features; their visibility is controlled by the look direction and the incidence angle. We have developed a backscatter and emissivity model that takes into account the topography of the dunes relative to the geometry of observation as well as the composition of the dunes and interdunes. Compared to observations and, in particular, to multiple observations of areas at the overlap of several swaths, we argue the need for a diffuse scattering mechanism. The presence of ripples in the dunes and/or interdunes might account for the recorded backscatter. In this presentation we will also report the results of the T61 experiment. The T61 HiSAR sequence (on August 25, 2009) was designed to examine a small region of the Shangri-La dune field with a substantial sampling of incidence angles around the direction perpendicular to the dunes long axis. The spot in question was already observed during the T55 SAR swath and the T61 experiment should allow us to determine the slope of the dunes.

  13. Electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Campos, Luis; Buljan, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Research on tritium breeder material is fundamental to the development of deuterium-tritium type fusion reactors for producing clean, non contaminating, electrical energy, since only energy and helium, a harmless gas, are produced from the fusion reaction. Lithium titanate ceramic is one of the possible candidates for the tritium breeder material. This last material is thought to form part of the first wall of the nucleus of the reactor which will provide the necessary tritium for the fusion and will also serve as a shield. Lithium titanate has advantageous characteristics compared to other materials. Some of these are low activation under the irradiation of neutrons, good thermal stability, high density of lithium atoms and relatively fast tritium release at low temperatures. However, there are still several physical and chemical properties with respect to the tritium release mechanism and mechanical properties that have not been studied at all. This work presents a theoretical study of the electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic and the corresponding tritiated material. Band calculations using the Extended H kel Tight-Binding approach were carried out. Results show that after substituting lithium for tritium atoms, the electronic states for the latter appear in the middle of prohibited band gap which it is an indication that the tritiated material should behave as a semiconductor, contrary to Li 2 TiO 3 which is a dielectric isolator. A study was also carried out to determine the energetically most favorable sites for the substitution of lithium for tritium atoms. Additionally, we analyzed possible pathways for the diffusion of a tritium atom within the crystalline structure of the Li 2 TiO 3

  14. An Exploration of the Preparation and Organization of Teaching Practice Exercise to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers toward Improving Teaching Profession at Morogoro Teachers' College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungure, Daudi Mika

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the preparation and organization of teaching practice exercise to prospective science and mathematics teachers in Tanzania teachers college specifically Morogoro Teachers' College toward improving teaching profession. Due to the challenges stated by different scholars on preparation and organization of teaching practice…

  15. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m 2 ) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately

  16. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m/sup 2/) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately.

  17. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  18. FEI Titan 80-300 STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heggen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The FEI Titan 80-300 STEM is a scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission electron gun, a three-condenser lens system, a monochromator unit, and a Cs probe corrector (CEOS, a post-column energy filter system (Gatan Tridiem 865 ER as well as a Gatan 2k slow scan CCD system. Characterised by a STEM resolution of 80 pm at 300 kV, the instrument was one of the first of a small number of sub-ångström resolution scanning transmission electron microscopes in the world when commissioned in 2006.

  19. RMS Titanic and the emergence of new concepts on consortial nature of microbial events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullimore, D Roy; Pellegrino, Charles; Johnston, Lori

    2002-01-01

    The RMS Titanic sank in 1912 and created a historical event that still ripples through time. Stories were told and lessons learned but the science has only just begun. Today the fading remains of the ship resemble the hanging gardens of Babylon except that it is not plants that drape the walls but complex microbial growths called rusticles. These organisms have been found to be not a species, like plants and animals, but to be structures created by complex communities of bacterial species. Like the discovery of tube worms in the mid-oceanic vents, the nature of these rusticles presents another biological discovery of a fundamental nature. Essentially these microbial consortia on the RMS Titanic have generated structures of a mass that would rival whales and elephants while gradually extracting the iron from the steel. Rusticle-like consortia appear to play many roles within the environment, and it is perhaps the RMS Titanic that is showing that there is a new way to understand the form, function, and nature of microorganisms. This understanding would develop by considering the bacteria not as individual species functioning independently but as consortia of species functioning in community structures within a common habitat. This concept, if adopted, would change dramatically the manner in which a microbial ecologist and any scientist or engineer would view the occurrence of a slime, encrustation, biocolloid, rust flake, iron pan, salt deposit, and perhaps even some of the diseases that remain unexplained as a disease of unknown cause.

  20. Studies on sintered titanates and zeolites as hosts for medium-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.; Faelth, L.

    1981-01-01

    In Sweden, a system for transferring long-lived activities from organic to inorganic ion exchangers such as titanates and zeolites was demonstrated on a bench scale. The stability of this system depends on the conditioning of the inorganic ion exchangers. The purpose of this paper was to study and compare the quality of the products obtained by hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing in order to guide the choice of full scale equipment. Due to the leakage of argon, the hot isostatic pressing did not appear to have an advantage. The extremely large surfaces of authentic titanates must be ascribed to this phenomenon. The merits of the two sintering methods could not be objectively compared from the results obtained. Therefore, more experiments are needed and planned. These are studies on the conditioning of the titanates previous to the sintering, on the welding technique and performance, and at a higher sintering temperature, 1300 0 C, known to yield very good results. Formally, a leach rate of 3 μg d -1 cm -2 for the zeolites corresponds to the leaching out of cesium from a surface layer of 0.15 cm during 300 years. The same leach rate of strontium from titanates corresponds to a depth of 0.08 cm for 300 years. Bearing in mind that the temperature of the deposit will be at least 80 0 C lower, and the water flow much lower, the examples mentioned here might be quite satisfying. After a more successful sintering, the leach rates may be still better and a leaching test at more realistic conditions might be worthwhile

  1. Presence of PAH or HAC below 900 km in the Titan's stratosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Daniel; COURS, Thibaud; Rey, Michael; Maltagliati, Luca; Seignovert, Benoit; Biennier, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, during Cassini's 10th flyby of Titan (T10), Bellucci et al. (2009) observed a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere through the solar port of the Cassini/VIMS instrument. These authors noticed the existence of an unexplained additional absorption superimposed to the CH4 3.3 microns band. Because they were unable to model this absorption with gases, they attributed this intriguing feature to the signature of solid state organic components. Kim et al. (2011) revisited the data collected by Bellucci et al. (2009) and they considered the possible contribution of aerosols formed by hydrocarbon ices. They specifically took into account C2H6, CH4, CH3CN, C5H12 and C6H12 ices. More recently, Maltagliati et al. (2015) analyzed a set of four VIMS solar occultations, corresponding to flybys performed between January 2006 and September 2011 at different latitudes. They confirmed the presence of the 3.3 µm absorption in all occultations and underlined the possible importance of gaseous ethane, which has a strong plateau of absorption lines in that wavelength range. In this work, we show that neither hydrocarbon ices nor molecular C2H6 cannot satisfactorily explain the observed absorption. Our simulations speak in favor of an absorption due to the presence of PAH molecules or HAC in the stratosphere of Titan. PAH have been already considered by Lopes-Puertas et al. (2013) at altitudes larger than ~900 km and tentatively identified in the stratosphere by Maltagliati et al. (2015); PAH and HAC are good candidates for Titan's aerosols precursors.

  2. PEROXOTITANATE- AND MONOSODIUM METAL-TITANATE COMPOUNDS AS INHIBITORS OF BACTERIAL GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2011-01-19

    Sodium titanates are ion-exchange materials that effectively bind a variety of metal ions over a wide pH range. Sodium titanates alone have no known adverse biological effects but metal-exchanged titanates (or metal titanates) can deliver metal ions to mammalian cells to alter cell processes in vitro. In this work, we test a hypothesis that metal-titanate compounds inhibit bacterial growth; demonstration of this principle is one prerequisite to developing metal-based, titanate-delivered antibacterial agents. Focusing initially on oral diseases, we exposed five species of oral bacteria to titanates for 24 h, with or without loading of Au(III), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Pt(IV), and measuring bacterial growth in planktonic assays through increases in optical density. In each experiment, bacterial growth was compared with control cultures of titanates or bacteria alone. We observed no suppression of bacterial growth by the sodium titanates alone, but significant (p < 0.05, two-sided t-tests) suppression was observed with metal-titanate compounds, particularly Au(III)-titanates, but with other metal titanates as well. Growth inhibition ranged from 15 to 100% depending on the metal ion and bacterial species involved. Furthermore, in specific cases, the titanates inhibited bacterial growth 5- to 375-fold versus metal ions alone, suggesting that titanates enhanced metal-bacteria interactions. This work supports further development of metal titanates as a novel class of antibacterials.

  3. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J; Orlovs, A; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 deg. C improves phase composition of lithium titanates

  4. Storms in the tropics of Titan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, E L; Roe, H G; Schneider, T; Brown, M E

    2009-08-13

    Methane clouds, lakes and most fluvial features on Saturn's moon Titan have been observed in the moist high latitudes, while the tropics have been nearly devoid of convective clouds and have shown an abundance of wind-carved surface features like dunes. The presence of small-scale channels and dry riverbeds near the equator observed by the Huygens probe at latitudes thought incapable of supporting convection (and thus strong rain) has been suggested to be due to geological seepage or other mechanisms not related to precipitation. Here we report the presence of bright, transient, tropospheric clouds in tropical latitudes. We find that the initial pulse of cloud activity generated planetary waves that instigated cloud activity at other latitudes across Titan that had been cloud-free for at least several years. These observations show that convective pulses at one latitude can trigger short-term convection at other latitudes, even those not generally considered capable of supporting convection, and may also explain the presence of methane-carved rivers and channels near the Huygens landing site.

  5. Big Bang Cosmic Titanic: Cause for Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Robert

    2013-04-01

    This abstract alerts physicists to a situation that, unless soon addressed, may yet affect PRL integrity. I refer to Stanley Brown's and DAE Robert Caldwell's rejection of PRL submission LJ12135, A Cosmic Titanic: Big Bang Cosmology Unravels Upon Discovery of Serious Flaws in Its Foundational Expansion Redshift Assumption, by their claim that BB is an established theory while ignoring our paper's Titanic, namely, that BB's foundational spacetime expansion redshifts assumption has now been proven to be irrefutably false because it is contradicted by our seminal discovery that GPS operation unequivocally proves that GR effects do not produce in-flight photon wavelength changes demanded by this central assumption. This discovery causes the big bang to collapse as quickly as did Ptolemaic cosmology when Copernicus discovered its foundational assumption was heliocentric, not geocentric. Additional evidence that something is amiss in PRL's treatment of LJ12135 comes from both Brown and EiC Gene Spouse agreeing to meet at my exhibit during last year's Atlanta APS to discuss this cover-up issue. Sprouse kept his commitment; Brown didn't. Question: If Brown could have refuted my claim of a cover-up, why didn't he come to present it before Gene Sprouse? I am appealing LJ12135's rejection.

  6. Ionization balance in Titan's nightside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigren, E.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Snowden, D.; Cui, J.; Lavvas, P.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vuitton, V.; Mandt, K.

    2015-03-01

    Based on a multi-instrumental Cassini dataset we make model versus observation comparisons of plasma number densities, nP = (nenI)1/2 (ne and nI being the electron number density and total positive ion number density, respectively) and short-lived ion number densities (N+, CH2+, CH3+, CH4+) in the southern hemisphere of Titan's nightside ionosphere over altitudes ranging from 1100 and 1200 km and from 1100 to 1350 km, respectively. The nP model assumes photochemical equilibrium, ion-electron pair production driven by magnetospheric electron precipitation and dissociative recombination as the principal plasma neutralization process. The model to derive short-lived-ion number densities assumes photochemical equilibrium for the short-lived ions, primary ion production by electron-impact ionization of N2 and CH4 and removal of the short-lived ions through reactions with CH4. It is shown that the models reasonably reproduce the observations, both with regards to nP and the number densities of the short-lived ions. This is contrasted by the difficulties in accurately reproducing ion and electron number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere.

  7. Discovery of Temperate Latitude Clouds on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, H. G.; Bouchez, A. H.; Trujillo, C. A.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Until now, all the clouds imaged in Titan's troposphere have been found at far southern latitudes (60°-90° south). The occurrence and location of these clouds is thought to be the result of convection driven by the maximum annual solar heating of Titan's surface, which occurs at summer solstice (2002 October) in this south polar region. We report the first observations of a new recurring type of tropospheric cloud feature, confined narrowly to ~40° south latitude, which cannot be explained by this simple insolation hypothesis. We propose two classes of formation scenario, one linked to surface geography and the other to seasonally evolving circulation, which will be easily distinguished with continued observations over the next few years. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  8. Titan Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. A.; Pitman, K. M.

    2009-05-01

    Titan's thick haze obscures its surface at visible wavelengths and hinders surface photometric studies in the near-infrared. The large vertical extent of the haze produces two effects which require radiative transfer analysis beyond the capability of plane-parallel multi-scatter models. Haze aerosols extend to altitudes above 500 km and require a spherical-shell RT algorithm close to the limb or terminator. Even near nadir viewing, horizontal scattering at spatial scales less than a few hundred km requires a code capable of simulating the adjacency effect. The adjacency effect will reduce contrast more for small spatial scales than for large spatial scales, and the amount of contrast reduction depends on many factors (haze optical thickness, vertical distribution, single scattering albedo, scattering geometry, spatial scale). Titan's haze is strongly forward scattering even near 1-µm wavelength and many RT codes do a poor job. Fortunately the problem is more tractable at longer wavelengths. We show how data from the Cassini VIMS and ISS instruments can be used to understand surface contrast and atmospheric haze properties.

  9. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating...... factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates...

  10. Progressive Climate Change on Titan: Implications for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; A. D. Howard

    2014-01-01

    Titan's landscape is profoundly shaped by its atmosphere and comparable in magnitude perhaps with only the Earth and Mars amongst the worlds of the Solar System. Like the Earth, climate dictates the intensity and relative roles of fluvial and aeolian activity from place to place and over geologic time. Thus Titan's landscape is the record of climate change. We have investigated three broad classes of Titan climate evolution hypotheses (Steady State, Progressive, and Cyclic), regulated by the role, sources, and availability of methane. We favor the Progressive hypotheses, which we will outline here, then discuss their implication for habitability.

  11. Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wagner, George W.; Kulkarni, Harsha; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Lu-Chang; Wu, Yue

    2005-08-01

    Titanate nanoscrolls, a recently discovered variant of TiO 2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination. The large surface area of the uncapped tubules provides the desired rapid absorption of the contaminant while water molecules, intrinsic constituents of titanate nanoscrolls, provide the necessary chemistry for hydrolytic reaction. In this study the decomposition of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), a simulant for the CWA mustard, was monitored using 13C NMR. The NMR spectra reveal reaction products as expected from the hydrolysis of CEES. This demonstrates that titanate nanoscrolls could potentially be employed as a decontaminant for CWAs.

  12. Exploring the spatio-temporal interrelation between groundwater and surface water by using the self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a soft-computing methodology to visibly explore the spatio-temporal groundwater variations of the Kuoping River basin in southern Taiwan. The self-organizing map (SOM) is implemented to investigate the interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the river basin based on large high-dimensional data sets coupled with their occurrence times. We find that extracting the occurrence time from each 30-day moving average data set in the clustered neurons of the SOM is a crucial step to learn the spatio-temporal interaction between surface water and groundwater. We design 2-D Topological Bubble Map to summarize all the groundwater values of four aquifers in a neuron, which can visibly explore the major features of the groundwater in the vertical direction. The constructed SOM topological maps nicely display that: (1) the groundwater movement, in general, extends from the eastern area to the western, where groundwater in the eastern area can be easily recharged from precipitation in wet seasons and discharged into streams during dry seasons due to the high permeability in this area; (2) the water movements in the four aquifers of the study area are quite different, and the seasonal variations of groundwater in the second and third aquifers are larger than those of the others; and (3) the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of groundwater and surface water are comprehensively linked together over the constructed maps to present groundwater characteristics and the interrelation between groundwater and surface water. The proposed modeling methodology not only can classify the large complex high-dimensional data sets into visible topological maps to effectively facilitate the quantitative status of regional groundwater resources but can also provide useful elaboration for future groundwater management.

  13. Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Persson, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic. Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care. Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops. This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.

  14. Organic aerosol source apportionment in London 2013 with ME-2: exploring the solution space with annual and seasonal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Reyes-Villegas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear engine (ME-2 factorization tool is being widely used following the recent development of the Source Finder (SoFi interface at the Paul Scherrer Institute. However, the success of this tool, when using the a value approach, largely depends on the inputs (i.e. target profiles applied as well as the experience of the user. A strategy to explore the solution space is proposed, in which the solution that best describes the organic aerosol (OA sources is determined according to the systematic application of predefined statistical tests. This includes trilinear regression, which proves to be a useful tool for comparing different ME-2 solutions. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM measurements were carried out at the urban background site of North Kensington, London from March to December 2013, where for the first time the behaviour of OA sources and their possible environmental implications were studied using an ACSM. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA (BBOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, semivolatile oxygenated OA (SVOOA and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LVOOA. ME-2 analysis of the seasonal data sets (spring, summer and autumn showed a higher variability in the OA sources that was not detected in the combined March–December data set; this variability was explored with the triangle plots f44 : f43 f44 : f60, in which a high variation of SVOOA relative to LVOOA was observed in the f44 : f43 analysis. Hence, it was possible to conclude that, when performing source apportionment to long-term measurements, important information may be lost and this analysis should be done to short periods of time, such as seasonally. Further analysis on the atmospheric implications of these OA sources was carried out, identifying evidence of the possible contribution of heavy-duty diesel vehicles to air pollution during weekdays compared to those fuelled by petrol.

  15. Legal protection of the underwater cultural heritage: lessons from the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Dromgoole, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Dr Sarah Dromgoole (Reader in Law, University of Leicester) charts the history of the legal protection of the underwater cultural heritage and considers some of the lessons that can be learnt from developments in respect of the remains of RMS Titanic. One or two issues of an ethical nature are also explored. Article based on a lecture delivered at the IALS in June 2005 and published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society fo...

  16. A Report of Clouds on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Paul; Hayes, Alexander; Adamkovics, Mate; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Kelland, John; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lora, Juan M.; Rojo, Patricio; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2017-10-01

    We present in this work a detailed analysis of many of the clouds in the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) dataset in order to understand their global and seasonal properties. Clouds are one of the few direct observables in Titan’s atmosphere (Griffith et al 2009, Rodriguez et al 2009, Adamkovics et al 2010), and so determining their characteristics allows for a better understanding of surface atmosphere interactions, winds, transport of volatile material, and general circulation. We find the clouds on Titan generally reside in at 5-15km altitude, which agrees with previous modelling efforts (Rafkin et al. 2015), as well as a power law distribution for cloud optical depth. We assume an average cloud droplet size of 100um. No seasonal dependence is observed with either cloud altitude or optical depth, suggesting there is no preferred seasonal formation mechanisms. Combining these characteristics with cloud size (Kelland et al 2017) can trace the transport of volatiles in Titan’s atmosphere, which can be compared against general circulation models (GCMs) (Lora et al 2015). We also present some specific analysis of interesting cloud systems including hypothesized surface fogs (Brown et al 2009) and orographic cloud formation (Barth et al 2010, Corlies et al 2017). In this analysis we use a correlation between Cassini VIMS and RADAR observations as well as an updated topographic map of Titan’s southern hemisphere to better understand the role that topography plays in influencing and driving atmospheric phenomena.Finally, with the end of the Cassini mission, ground based observing now acts as the only means with which to observe clouds on Titan. We present an update of an ongoing cloud campaign to search for clouds on Titan and to understand their seasonal evolution.References:Adamkovics et al. 2010, Icarus 208:868Barth et al. 2010, Planet. Space Sci. 58:1740Corlies et al. 2017, 48th LPSC, 2870CGriffith et al. 2009, ApJ 702:L105Kelland et al

  17. Specular Reflections from Titan's Equatorial Region: Solving the Decade Old Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Campbell, D. B.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    Specular reflections from Titan's equatorial region have been detected using the Arecibo Observatory's (AO) 13 cm wavelength radar system (Campbell et al., 2003, Science, 302, 431). Fitting the echo spectra to radar scattering models indicated that they originated from smooth surfaces with root-mean-square slopes of only a few degrees; on this basis they were interpreted as evidence for liquid surfaces. The Cassini Saturn Orbiter however has detected stable surface liquids only in the polar regions and not in the southern tropical regions covered by the AO tracks. High resolution Cassini imagery that overlaps with the AO tracks between the years 2000 and 2008 does not suggest the presence of hydrocarbon liquids and exhibits no apparent correlation with the 13 cm scattering (Black et al., 2011, Icarus, 212, 300). In this work in progress, we explore alternative explanations for the origin of these low latitude specular reflections and attempt to resolve this now decade old mystery. In particular, we use the accumulating Cassini RADAR altimetry coverage to compare the nadir backscatter at 2.2 cm to that at 13 cm. This nadir-to-nadir comparison allows us to constrain whether the southern tropical regions are also smooth and specular at smaller scales. We also plan to constrain whether these regions are representative of Titan in general or have unusually smooth surface by utilizing the complete Cassini altimetry dataset that includes observations dispersed around the globe. Distant Cassini RADAR scatterometry-mode observations suggest that Titan exhibits a greater nadir backscatter than expected from traditional quasi-specular plus diffuse backscattering models (L. Wye, 2011, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University), hinting that unusually specular radar echoes may be the general behavior for Titan. Additionally, we employ the long baseline of Cassini observations over nearly half a Titan year, to constrain the possible temporal evolution in backscatter that was suggested

  18. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors

  19. Niobium-doped strontium titanates as SOFC anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L. Reine

    2008-01-01

    been synthesized with a recently developed modified glycine-nitrate process. The synthesized powders have been calcined and sintered in air or in 9% H(2) / N(2) between 800 - 1400 degrees C. After calcination the samples were single phase Nb-doped strontium titanate with grain sizes of less than 100 nm...... in diameter on average. The phase purity, defect structure, and microstructure of the materials have been analyzed with SEM, XRD, and TGA. The electrical conductivity of the Nb-doped titanate decreased with increasing temperature and showed a phonon scattering conduction mechanism with sigma > 120 S...... ability of the Nb-doped titanates to be used as a part of a SOFC anode. However, the catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient and it needs to be improved if titanate based materials are to be realized as constituents in SOFC anodes....

  20. Cation interdiffusion in polycrystalline calcium and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.P.; Jain, H.; Smyth, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a method that has been developed to study bulk lattice interdiffusion between calcium and strontium titanate by fabrication of a diffusion couple using cosintering. The measured interdiffusion coefficients, D(C), indicate that strontium impurity diffusion in calcium titanate occurs at a faster rate than calcium impurity diffusion in strontium titanate. These interdiffusion coefficients are composition independent when the concentration of the calcium cation exceeds that of the strontium cation; otherwise D(C) is strongly composition dependent. Investigations into the effect of cation nonstoichiometry give results that are consistent with a defect incorporation reaction in which excess TiO 2 , within the solid solubility limit, produces A-site cation vacancies as compensating defects. The interdiffusion coefficients increase with increasing concentrations of TiO 2 , so it is concluded that interdiffusion of these alkaline-earth cations in their titanates occurs via a vacancy mechanism

  1. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  2. The Titanic Origin of Humans: The Melian Nymphs and Zagreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velvet Yates

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hesiod's creation myth implies that the human race derived from the "ash tree nymphs" (meliai; the Neoplatonists, with their etymological arguments, seem to have this in mind in tracing human origins to the Titans' "limbs" (melea.

  3. Simulating the 3-D Structure of Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Waite, H.; Westlake, J.; Magee, B.

    2009-05-01

    We present results from the 3-D Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (Bell et al [2009], PSS, in review). We show comparisons between simulated N2, CH4, and H2 density fields and the in-situ data from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS). We describe the temperature and wind fields consistent with these density calculations. Variations with local time, longitude, and latitude will be addressed. Potential plasma heating sources can be estimated using the 1-D model of De La Haye et al [2007, 2008] and the impacts on the thermosphere of Titan can be assessed in a global sense in Titan-GITM. Lastly, we will place these findings within the context of recent work in modeling the 2-D structure of Titan's upper atmosphere (Mueller-Wodarg et al [2008]).

  4. Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.

  5. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  6. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m 2 and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m 2 ; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings

  7. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Li, X. [Jilin Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept of Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate 7 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B.; Li, X.

    1998-01-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate

  9. Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.

  10. Does Titan have an Active Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Robert M. Nelson-1, L. W. Kamp-1, R. M. C. Lopes-1, D. L. Matson-1, R. L. Kirk-2, B. W. Hapke-3, M. D. Boryta-4, F. E. Leader-1, W. D. Smythe-1, K. L. Mitchell-1, K. H. Baines-1, R. Jaumann-5, C. Sotin-1, R. N. Clark-6, D. P. Cruikshank-7 , P. Drossart-8, J. I. Lunine-9, M. Combes-10, G. Bellucci-11, J.-P. Bibring-12, F. Capaccioni-11, P. Cerroni-11, A. Coradini-11, V. Formisano-11, G. Filacchione-11, Y. Langevin-12, T. B. McCord-13, V. Mennella-14, B. Sicardy-8, P. G. J. Irwin-15 ,J.C. Pearl-16 1-JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109;2-USGS, Flagstaff; 3-U Pittsburgh; 4-Mt. San Antonio College; 5-DLR, Berlin;6-USGS Denver; 7-NASA AMES; 8-U Paris-Meudon; 9-U Arizona; 10- Obs de Paris; 11-INAF-ISAF Rome; 12-U Paris -Sud. Orsay; 13-Bear Flt Cntr. Winthrop WA;14-Obs Capodimonte Naples; 15-Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, UK, 16-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD Surface changes on Saturn’s moon Titan have been reported during the Cassini spacecraft’s four-year orbital tour of the Saturnian system based on Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data [1]. Titan’s surface is hard to observe because it’s atmosphere is opaque at visual wavelengths due to absorption by methane in Titan’s atmosphere. VIMS is able to image the surface through “windows” at infrared wavelengths where the methane is relatively transparent [1,2]. VIMS infrared images find surface reflectance variability at Hotei Reggio (26S,78W) and suggest that the variability might be due to deposition, followed by coverage or dissipation, of ammonia frost. Subsequently, Cassini RADAR images found that Hotei Reggio, has lobate “flow” forms, consistent with the morphology of volcanic terrain [3]. Here we report the discovery of lobate “flow” patterns at Hotei Reggio based on VIMS infrared images taken during Cassini close flybys during 2008-2009. This new evidence is consistent with the suggestion that the brightness variability at Hotei Reggio is associated with

  11. What makes the difference in perovskite titanates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated in detail the lattice dynamics of five different perovskite titanates ATiO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Eu) where the A sites are occupied by +2 ions. In spite of the largely ionic character of these ions, the properties of these compounds differ substantially. They range from order/disorder like, to displacive ferroelectric, quantum paraelectric, and antiferromagnetic. All compounds crystallize in the cubic structure at high temperature and undergo structural phase transitions to tetragonal symmetry, partly followed by further transitions to lower symmetries. Since the TiO6 moiety is the essential electronic and structural unit, the question arises, what makes the significant difference between them. It is shown that the lattice dynamics of these compounds are very different, and that mode-mode coupling effects give rise to many distinct properties. In addition, the oxygen ion nonlinear polarizability plays a key role since it dominates the anharmonicity of these perovskites and determines the structural instability.

  12. Cassini ISS Observations Of The Early Stages Of The Formation Of Titan's South Polar Hood And Vortex In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Del Genio, A.; Perry, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Porco, C.; Ovanessian, A.

    2012-10-01

    Northern spring equinox on Titan occurred on August 11, 2009. In March of 2012 the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on the Cassini spacecraft saw the first evidence for the formation of a polar hood in the atmosphere above Titan’s south pole. Views of the limb showed an optical thickening primarily at about 360 km altitude across a few degrees of latitude centered on the pole. Images of Titan in front of Saturn provide a nearly direct measure of the line-of-sight optical depth as a function of latitude and altitude from about 250 km and higher. Two or more distinct layers are seen, both near the pole and at other latitudes. The highest of these, near 360 km altitude, hosts the embryonic polar hood. On June 27, 2012 ISS observed the pole from high latitude. These images show a distinct and unusual cloudy patch, elongated and not centered on the pole and with an elevated perimeter. The morphology and color indicate an unfamiliar (for Titan) composition and dynamical regime. The interior of the feature consists of concentrations of cloud/haze organized on spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Its morphology is reminiscent of the open cellular convection sometimes seen in the atmospheric boundary layer over Earth’s oceans under conditions of large-scale subsidence. Unlike Earth, where such convection is forced by large surface heat fluxes or the onset of drizzle, convection at 360 km on Titan is more likely to be driven from above by radiative cooling. During the 9 hours we observed Titan, this feature completed a little over one rotation around the pole, providing direct evidence for a polar vortex rotating at a rate roughly consistent with angular-momentum-conserving flow for air displaced from the equator. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  13. Titan atmospheric composition by hypervelocity shock layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.F.; Park, C.; Whiting, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Cassini Mission, a NASA/ESA cooperative project which includes a deployment of probe into the atmosphere of Titan, is described, with particular attention given to the shock radiometer experiment planned for the Titan probe for the analysis of Titan's atmosphere. Results from a shock layer analysis are presented, demonstrating that the mole fractions of the major species (N2, CH4, and, possibly Ar) in the Titan atmosphere can be successfully determined by the Titan-probe radiometer, by measuring the intensity of the CN(violet) radiation emitted in the shock layer during the high velocity portion of the probe entry between 200 and 400 km altitude. It is shown that the sensitivity of the CN(violet) radiation makes it possible to determine the mole fractions of N2, CH4, and Ar to about 0.015, 0.003, and 0.01, respectively, i.e., much better than the present uncertainties in the composition of Titan atmosphere. 29 refs

  14. Titan's methane cycle and its effect on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M.; Peckyno, R. S.; Le Gall, A. A.; Wye, L.; Stofan, E. R.; Radebaugh, J.; Hayes, A. G.; Aharonson, O.; Wall, S. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2010-12-01

    Titan’s surface geology reflects surface-atmospheric interaction in ways similar to Earth’s. The methane cycle on Titan is a major contributor to the formation of surface features such as lakes, seas, rivers, and dunes. We used data from Cassini RADAR to map the distribution and relative ages of terrains that allow us to determine the geological processes that have shaped Titan’s surface. These SAR swaths (up to Titan flyby T64) cover about ~45% percent of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from 350 m to about >2 km. The data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution and significance of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth. In this paper, we update the geologic unit map that used flybys up to T30 (Lopes et al., 2010, Icarus, 205, 540-558), representing ~20% of the surface. We find that the overall correlations found previously still hold given more than double the areal coverage. In terms of global areal distribution, both dunes and mountainous terrains (including Xanadu) cover more area (respectively 9.2% and 14.6% of the observed area) than other identified geologic units. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky, mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes filled with liquid are found at high latitudes only (above 60 degrees). Impact structures are mostly located at low latitudes, with no confidently identified craters above 60 degrees latitude, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Putative cryovolcanic features, consisting mostly of flows, are not ubiquitous and are mostly located in the areas surrounding Xanadu. We examine temporal relationships between

  15. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  16. Too Much of a Good Thing ? Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology and `Waste' Heat in the Titan Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    Unlike most solar system surface environments, Titan has an atmosphere that is both cold and dense. This means heat transfer to and from a vehicle is determined by convection, rather than by radiation which dominates on Earth and Mars. With surface temperatures near 94K, batteries and systems require heating to operate. Solar power is impractical, so a spacecraft intended to operate for longer than a few hours on Titan must have a radioisotope power source (RPS). Such sources convert heat from Plutonium decay into electricity, with an efficiency that varies from about 5% for thermoelectric systems to 20% for engine cycles such as Stirling. For vehicles with 100-200W electrical power, the 500-4000 W ‘waste’ heat in the Titan environment can be valuable in that it can be exploited to maintain thermal conditions inside the vehicle. The generally benign Titan environment, and the outstanding scientific and popular interest in its exploration, has attracted a number of mission concepts including a lander for Titan’s equatorial dunefields, light gas and hot air (‘Montgolfière’) balloons, airplanes, and capsules that float on its polar seas (e.g. the proposed Titan Mare Explorer.) However, the choice of conversion technology is key to the success of these different platforms. Waste heat can perturb meteorological measurements in several ways. First by creating a warm air plume (an effect observed on Viking and Curiosity.) Second, rain or seaspray falling onto hot radiator surfaces can evaporate causing a local enhancement of methane humidity. Third, sufficiently strong heating could perturb local winds. Similar effects, and the potential generation of effervescence or even fog, may result for capsules floating in liquid hydrocarbons. For landers and drifting buoys, these perturbations may significantly degrade environmental measurements, or at least demand tall meteorology masts, for the higher waste heat output of thermoelectric systems, and a Stirling system

  17. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  18. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  19. Space Biology Model Organism Research on the Deep Space Gateway to Pioneer Discovery and Advance Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K. Y.; Tomko, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Quincy, C. D.; Rayl, N. A.; Sowa, M. B.; Taylor, E. M.; Sun, S. C.; Kundrot, C. E.

    2018-02-01

    Model organisms are foundational for conducting physiological and systems biology research to define how life responds to the deep space environment. The organisms, areas of research, and Deep Space Gateway capabilities needed will be presented.

  20. Electrical Properties of Tholins and Derived Constraints on the Huygens Landing Site Composition at the Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A.; Hamelin, M.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schreiber, F.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Szopa, C.; Brouet, Y.; Simões, F.; Correia, J. J.; Ruffié, G.

    2018-04-01

    In 2005, the complex permittivity of the surface of Saturn's moon Titan was measured by the PWA-MIP/HASI (Permittivity Wave Altimetry-Mutual Impedance Probe/Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument) experiment on board the Huygens probe. The analysis of these measurements was recently refined but could not be interpreted in terms of composition due to the lack of knowledge on the low-frequency/low-temperature electrical properties of Titan's organic material, a likely key ingredient of the surface composition. In order to fill that gap, we developed a dedicated measurement bench and investigated the complex permittivity of analogs of Titan's organic aerosols called "tholins." These laboratory measurements, together with those performed in the microwave domain, are then used to derive constraints on the composition of Titan's first meter below the surface based on both the PWA-MIP/HASI and the Cassini Radar observations. Assuming a ternary mixture of water ice, tholin-like dust and pores (filled or not with liquid methane), we find that at least 10% of water ice and 15% of porosity are required to explain observations. On the other hand, there should be at most 50-60% of organic dust. PWA-MIP/HASI measurements also suggest the presence of a thin conductive superficial layer at the Huygens landing site. Using accurate numerical simulations, we put constraints on the electrical conductivity of this layer as a function of its thickness (e.g., in the range 7-40 nS/m for a 7-mm thick layer). Potential candidates for the composition of this layer are discussed.

  1. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Jennings, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini spacecraft has obtained spectra of Titan during most of the 44 flybys of the Cassini prime mission. Water vapor on Titan was first detected using whole-disk observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 336, L85-L89). CIRS data permlt the retrieval of the latitudinal variation of water on Titan and some limited information on its vertical profile. Emission lines of H2O on Titan are very weak in the CIRS data. Thus, large spectral averages as well as improvements in calibration are necessary to detect water vapor. Water abundances were retrieved in nadir spectra at 55 South, the Equator, and at 19 North. Limb spectra of the Equator were also modeled to constrain the vertical distribution of water. Stratospheric temperatures in the 0.5 - 4.0 mbar range were obtained by inverting spectra of CH4 in the v4 band centered at 1304/cm. The temperature in the lower stratosphere (4 - 20 mbar) was derived from fitting pure rotation lines of CH4 between 80 and 160/cm. The origin of H2O and CO2 is believed to be from the ablation of micrometeorites containing water ice, followed by photochemistry. This external source of water originates either within the Saturn system or from the interplanetary medium. Recently, Horst et al (J. Geophys. Res. 2008, in press) developed a photochemical model of Titan in which there are two external sources of oxygen. Oxygen ions (probably from Enceladus) precipitate into Titan's atmosphere to form CO at very high altitudes (1100 km). Water ice ablation at lower altitudes (700 km) forms H2O and subsequent chemistry produces CO2. CIRS measurements of CO, CO2, and now of H2O will provide valuable constraints to these photochemical models and - improve our understanding of oxygen chemistry on Titan.

  2. Preparation and characterization of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Pan Hui; Xue Xiaoxiao; Qian Junjie; Yu Laigui; Yang Jianjun; Zhang Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were synthesized from TiO 2 -carbon composites. → The carbon shell of TiO 2 particles obstructed the reaction between TiO 2 and NaOH. → TEM, XRD, and Raman spectra reveal the formation processes of the TNT/CCs. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites(TNT/CCs) were synthesized by allowing carbon-coated TiO 2 (CCT) powder to react with a dense aqueous solution of NaOH at 120 deg. C for a proper period of time. As-prepared CCT and TNT/CCs were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectrometry. The processes for formation of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were discussed. It was found that the TiO 2 particles in TiO 2 -carbon composite were enwrapped by a fine layer of carbon with a thickness of about 4 nm. This carbon layer functioned to inhibit the transformation from anatase TiO 2 to orthorhombic titanate. As a result, the anatase TiO 2 in CCT was incompletely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes upon 24 h of reaction in the dense and hot NaOH solution. When the carbon layers were gradually peeled off along with the formation of more orthorhombic titanate nanotubes at extended reaction durations (e.g., 72 h), anatase TiO 2 particles in CCT were completely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes, yielding TNT/CCs whose morphology was highly dependent on the reaction time and temperature.

  3. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R. C.; Cassini Radar Science Team, T.

    2011-12-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity between and among patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crest orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune-field patterns with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the re-orientation model presented by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well organized patterns have the longest reorientation time scales (~10^5 migration timescales), while the topographically or spatially isolated patches of dunes show the shortest reorientation times (~10

  4. Fabrication and properties of yttrium doped barium titanate film by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, H.; Yuasa, M.; Okazaki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Semiconductive barium titanate films were fabricated by RF sputtering on fused quartz, alumina and barium titanate ceramic substrates using barium titanate ceramic with a small amount of yttria as a target. The films on the barium titanate substrates turned blue color and showed a small PTC effect by heat-treating at 1000 0 C in the air after deposition at the substrate temperature of 600 0 C

  5. Freeze cast porous barium titanate for enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, J. I.; Zhang, Y.; Kraśny, M. J.; Lewis, R. W. C.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting is an important developing technology for a new generation of self-powered sensor networks. This paper demonstrates the significant improvement in the piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of barium titanate by forming highly aligned porosity using freeze casting. Firstly, a finite element model demonstrating the effect of pore morphology and angle with respect to poling field on the poling behaviour of porous ferroelectrics was developed. A second model was then developed to understand the influence of microstructure-property relationships on the poling behaviour of porous freeze cast ferroelectric materials and their resultant piezoelectric and energy harvesting properties. To compare with model predictions, porous barium titanate was fabricated using freeze casting to form highly aligned microstructures with excellent longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficients, d 33. The freeze cast barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity had a d 33  =  134.5 pC N‑1 compared to d 33  =  144.5 pC N‑1 for dense barium titanate. The d 33 coefficients of the freeze cast materials were also higher than materials with uniformly distributed spherical porosity due to improved poling of the aligned microstructures, as predicted by the models. Both model and experimental data indicated that introducing porosity provides a large reduction in the permittivity () of barium titanate, which leads to a substantial increase in energy harvesting figure of merit, , with a maximum of 3.79 pm2 N‑1 for barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity, compared to only 1.40 pm2 N‑1 for dense barium titanate. Dense and porous barium titanate materials were then used to harvest energy from a mechanical excitation by rectification and storage of the piezoelectric charge on a capacitor. The porous barium titanate charged the capacitor to a voltage of 234 mV compared to 96 mV for the dense material, indicating a 2.4-fold increase that was similar to that

  6. From the Organizational Operations to Explore the Development of Institutional Citizen Journalism in Taiwan: Using Four News Organizations as Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ling Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study adopts multiple methods to examine four different-operated citizen websites of news organizations in Taiwan, in order to understand the development of institutional citizen journalism. It finds that structural factors of news organizations (such as orientation of the company, ownership, production model, staffing, etc.) will affect the design and operation of citizen websites. On the surface, no matter what size of company, four news organizations accord with the ideal of citi...

  7. Crater Topography on Titan: Implications for Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lorenz, R. D.; Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B. W.; Turtle, E.; Mitchell, K.; Hayes, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review of available crater topography measurements for Saturn's moon Titan. In general, the depths of Titan's craters are within the range of depths observed for similarly sized fresh craters on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than Ganymede's average depth vs. diameter trend. Depth-to-diameter ratios are between 0.0012 +/- 0.0003 (for the largest crater studied, Menrva, D approximately 425 km) and 0.017 +/- 0.004 (for the smallest crater studied, Ksa, D approximately 39 km). When we evaluate the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit parameter, we find that there is less than a 10% probability that Titan's craters have a current depth distribution that is consistent with the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede. There is, however, a much higher probability that the relative depths are uniformly distributed between 0 (fresh) and 1 (completely infilled). This distribution is consistent with an infilling process that is relatively constant with time, such as aeolian deposition. Assuming that Ganymede represents a close 'airless' analogue to Titan, the difference in depths represents the first quantitative measure of the amount of modification that has shaped Titan's surface, the only body in the outer Solar System with extensive surface-atmosphere exchange.

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of Ce-doped bismuth titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nikolina; Srdic, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    Ce-modified bismuth titanate nanopowders Bi 4-x Ce x Ti 3 O 12 (x ≤ 1) have been synthesized using a coprecipitation method. DTA/TG, FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS and BET methods were used in order to investigate the effect of Ce-substitution on the structure, morphology and sinterability of the obtained powders. The phase structure investigation revealed that after calcinations at 600 deg. C powder without Ce addition exhibited pure bismuth titanate phase; however, powders with Ce (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) had bismuth titanate pyrochlore phase as the second phase. The strongest effect of Ce addition on the structure was noted for the powder with the highest amount of Ce (x = 1) having a cubic pyrochlore structure. The presence of pure pyrochlore phase was explained by its stabilization due to the incorporation of cerium ions in titanate structure. Ce-modified bismuth titanate ceramic had a density over 95% of theoretical density and the fracture in transgranular manner most probably due to preferable distribution of Ce in boundary region

  9. Titan as an analog of Earth’s past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunine J. I.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Titan, the second-largest moon in the solar system, is revealed by the joint ESA-NASA mission Cassini-Huygens to have a dense atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, lakes and seas of liquid methane and ethane, evidence for fluvial (river-based erosion, and vast equatorial expanses of dunes made of organic material. It also has an ocean, probably mostly of water, beneath its icy crust. The presence of organic material and episodes of melting of the icy crust or breaching to reveal the ocean beneath provides the possibility of chemistry replicating that leading to the origin of life, on scales of time and space much larger than can be achieved in the laboratory. In this sense Titan may replicate aspects of Earth’s past. But the methane cycle, which operates in the absence of a massive ocean covering Titan’s surface, more resembles the kind of hydrological cycle Earth might have in the far future as the brightness of the Sun increases and water begins to escape rapidly.

  10. Fracture mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiman, S.W.; Chuck, L.; Mecholsky, J.J.; Shelleman, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics can be formed over a wide range of PbTiO 3 /PbZrO 3 ratios and exist in a number of crystal structures. This study involved the use of various fracture mechanics techniques to determine critical fracture toughness, K /SUB IC/ , as a function of composition, microstructure, temperature, and electrical and thermal history. The results of these experiments indicate that variations in K /SUB IC/ are related to phase transformations in the material as well as to other toughening mechanisms such as twinning and microcracking. In addition, the strength and fracture toughness of selected PZT ceramics were determined using specimens in which a crack was introduced by a Vicker's hardness indentor. The variation of K /SUB IC/ with composition and microstructure was related to the extent of twin-crack interaction. Comparison of the plot of strength as a function of indentation load with that predicted from indentation fracture models indicates the presence of internal stresses which contribute to failure. The magnitude of these internal stresses has been correlated with electrical properties of the ceramic. Fractographic analysis was used to determine the magnitude of internal stresses in specimens failing from ''natural flaws.''

  11. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  12. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  13. Environmental risks and environmental justice, or how titanic risks are not so titanic after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Margarita V; Freudenburg, William R

    2010-01-01

    Some of the best-known social scientific theories of risks are those that have been elaborated by Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck. Although their arguments differ greatly, they agree in seeing the technologically induced risks of today's "Risk Society" as global - so pervasive that they transcend all socioeconomic as well as geopolitical and national boundaries. Most empirical work, however, provides greater support for a theoretical tradition exemplified by Short and Erikson. In this paper, we argue that many of the technological mega-risks described by Giddens and Beck as "transcending" social boundaries are better described as "Titanic risks," referring not so much to their colossal impact as to the fact that - as was the case for the majority of the victims on the Titanic - actual risks are related to victims' socioeconomic as well as sociogeographic locations. Previous research has shown this to be the case with high-risk technologies, such as nuclear energy and weaponry, and also with localized ones, such as toxic waste disposal. This article illustrates that the same is true even for the most genuinely "global" risks of all, namely those associated with global climate disruption.

  14. Exploring the influence of external actors on the cooperation in public–private project organizations for constructing infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, L.S.W.; Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.; Bakker, H.L.M.; Hertogh, M.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Though different forms of public–private partnerships exist, in the organizational structure of most forms a public and a private project organization can be derived, resulting in two collaborating project organizations. The literature on project management however mostly considers one project

  15. A whiff of nebular gas in Titan's atmosphere - Potential implications for the conditions and timing of Titan's formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glein, Christopher R.

    2017-09-01

    In situ data from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe indicate that Titan's atmosphere contains small amounts of the primordial noble gases 36Ar and 22Ne (tentative detection), but it is unknown how they were obtained by the satellite. Based on the apparent similarity in the 22Ne/36Ar (atom) ratio between Titan's atmosphere and the solar composition, a previously neglected hypothesis for the origin of primordial noble gases in Titan's atmosphere is suggested - these species may have been acquired near the end of Titan's formation, when the moon could have gravitationally captured some nebular gas that would have been present in its formation environment (the Saturnian subnebula). These noble gases may be remnants of a primary atmosphere. This could be considered the simplest hypothesis to explain the 22Ne/36Ar ratio observed at Titan. However, the 22Ne/36Ar ratio may not be exactly solar if these species can be fractionated by external photoevaporation in the solar nebula, atmospheric escape from Titan, or sequestration on the surface of Titan. While the GCMS data are consistent with a 22Ne/36Ar ratio of 0.05 to 2.5 times solar (1σ range), simple estimates that attempt to account for some of the effects of these evolutionary processes suggest a sub-solar ratio, which may be depleted by approximately one order of magnitude. Models based on capture of nebular gas can explain why the GCMS did not detect any other primordial noble gas isotopes, as their predicted abundances are below the detection limits (especially for 84Kr and 132Xe). It is also predicted that atmospheric Xe on Titan should be dominated by radiogenic 129Xe if the source of primordial Xe is nebular gas. Of order 10-2-10-1 bar of primordial H2 may have been captured along with the noble gases from a gas-starved disk, but this H2 would have quickly escaped from the initial atmosphere. To have the opportunity to capture nebular gas, Titan should have formed within ∼10 Myr of the formation of the

  16. Formation of amino acids and nucleotide bases in a Titan atmosphere simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, S M; Yelle, R V; Buch, A; Carrasco, N; Cernogora, G; Dutuit, O; Quirico, E; Sciamma-O'Brien, E; Smith, M A; Somogyi, A; Szopa, C; Thissen, R; Vuitton, V

    2012-09-01

    The discovery of large (>100 u) molecules in Titan's upper atmosphere has heightened astrobiological interest in this unique satellite. In particular, complex organic aerosols produced in atmospheres containing C, N, O, and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. In this work, aerosols produced in a Titan atmosphere simulation experiment with enhanced CO (N(2)/CH(4)/CO gas mixtures of 96.2%/2.0%/1.8% and 93.2%/5.0%/1.8%) were found to contain 18 molecules with molecular formulae that correspond to biological amino acids and nucleotide bases. Very high-resolution mass spectrometry of isotopically labeled samples confirmed that C(4)H(5)N(3)O, C(4)H(4)N(2)O(2), C(5)H(6)N(2)O(2), C(5)H(5)N(5), and C(6)H(9)N(3)O(2) are produced by chemistry in the simulation chamber. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the non-isotopic samples confirmed the presence of cytosine (C(4)H(5)N(3)O), uracil (C(5)H(4)N(2)O(2)), thymine (C(5)H(6)N(2)O(2)), guanine (C(5)H(5)N(5)O), glycine (C(2)H(5)NO(2)), and alanine (C(3)H(7)NO(2)). Adenine (C(5)H(5)N(5)) was detected by GC-MS in isotopically labeled samples. The remaining prebiotic molecules were detected in unlabeled samples only and may have been affected by contamination in the chamber. These results demonstrate that prebiotic molecules can be formed by the high-energy chemistry similar to that which occurs in planetary upper atmospheres and therefore identifies a new source of prebiotic material, potentially increasing the range of planets where life could begin.

  17. Exploration on relationship between uranium and organic materials in carbonate-siliceous pelite type uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongjie

    1996-01-01

    The author determines the content of uranium and organic carbon of part specimen of surrounding rocks and ores, which sampled from carbonate and black shale type uranium deposits in Xiushui, Jiangxi Province, and Tongcheng, Hubei Province. According to the analytical operation regulations of organic materials, extraction and separation of chloroform pitch is carried out. Internal relationships between uranium and organic derivative is discussed. The conclusion shows that: (1) certain co-relationship between U and organic carbon and chloroform extract is detected; (2) evolutionary processes of organic materials in the exogenetic uranium deposits are not all the same; (3) non-hydrocarbon is closely related to uranium, so it can be regarded as indicator of uranium gathering in exogenetic uranium deposits

  18. Exploring perceptions of a learning organization by RNs and relationship to EBP beliefs and implementation in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to provide patient care based on best evidence. The context of the acute care setting presents a challenging environment for registered nurses (RNs) to utilize research and implement best evidence in practice. No organizational infrastructure has been identified that offers acute care RNs the support needed for evidence-based practice (EBP). The value of "learning organizations" has long been understood by corporate leaders. Potentially, the dimensions of a "learning organization" may offer a supportive EBP infrastructure for acute care RNs. (1) What is the relationship of the characteristics of the learning organization to registered nurses' beliefs regarding EBP? (2) Is there an impact of EBP beliefs on RNs' implementation of EBP? A descriptive, survey design study was conducted. Three established questionnaires were distributed to 1,750 RNs employed within six acute care hospitals. There were 594 questionnaires returned for a response rate of 34%. RNs rated their organizations in the mid-range on the dimensions of learning organization. Perceptions of the learning organization were found to be significant, although relatively small, predictors explaining 6% of knowledge beliefs, 11% of value beliefs, and 14% of resource beliefs. EBP beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation reported by RNs. The study results indicate relationships between RNs' reported perception of a learning organization and EBP beliefs, and between EBP beliefs and implementation. However, findings were mixed. Overall, nurses rated their organizations the lowest in the dimensions of "promote inquiry and dialogue" and "empower people toward a collective vision." Leaders have an opportunity to offer a more supportive infrastructure through improving their organization in these two areas. RN beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation in this study with a residual 77% yet to be identified. Acute care hospitals were perceived mid-range on learning

  19. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  1. ATOMIC CARBON IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Yung, Y. L.; Ajello, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The atomic carbon emission C I line feature at 1657 A ( 3 P 0 J - 3 P J ) in the upper atmosphere of Titan is first identified from the airglow spectra obtained by the Cassini Ultra-violet Imaging Spectrograph. A one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan is used to study the photochemistry of atomic carbon on Titan. Reaction between CH and atomic hydrogen is the major source of atomic carbon, and reactions with hydrocarbons (C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 ) are the most important loss processes. Resonance scattering of sunlight by atomic carbon is the dominant emission mechanism. The emission intensity calculations based on model results show good agreement with the observations.

  2. Photometric changes on Saturn's Titan: Evidence for active cryovolcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.M.; Kamp, L.W.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Matson, D.L.; Kirk, R.L.; Hapke, B.W.; Wall, S.D.; Boryta, M.D.; Leader, F.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Mitchell, K.L.; Baines, K.H.; Jaumann, R.; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Lunine, J.I.; Combes, M.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Formisano, V.; Filacchione, G.; Langevin, Y.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Irwin, P.G.J.; Pearl, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report infrared spectrophotometric variability on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan detected in images returned by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. The changes were observed at 7??S, 138??W and occurred between October 27, 2005 and January 15, 2006. After that date the surface was unchanged until the most recent observation, March 18, 2006. We previously reported spectrophotometric variability at another location (26??S, 78??W). Cassini Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) images find that the surface morphology at both locations is consistent with surface flows possibly resulting from cryovolcanic activity (Wall et al., companion paper, this issue). The VIMS-reported time variability and SAR morphology results suggest that Titan currently exhibits intermittent surface changes consistent with present ongoing surface processes. We suggest that these processes involve material from Titan's interior being extruded or effiised and deposited on the surface, as might be expected from cryovolcanism. ?? 2009.

  3. Strontium titanate thin film deposition - structural and electronical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzig, Florian; Hanzig, Juliane; Stoecker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Abendroth, Barbara; Meyer, Dirk C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik (Germany); Franke, Michael [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Elektronik- und Sensormaterialien (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Strontium titanate is on the one hand a widely-used model oxide for solids which crystallize in perovskite type of structure. On the other hand, with its large band-gap energy and its mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, SrTiO{sub 3} is a promising isolating material in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for resistive switching memory cells. Here, we used physical vapour deposition methods (e. g. electron-beam and sputtering) to produce strontium titanate layers. Sample thicknesses were probed with X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Additionally, layer densities and dielectric functions were quantified with XRR and SE, respectively. Using infrared spectroscopy free electron concentrations were obtained. Phase and element composition analysis was carried out with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequent temperature treatment of samples lead to crystallization of the initially amorphous strontium titanate.

  4. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  5. From the Organizational Operations to Explore the Development of Institutional Citizen Journalism in Taiwan: Using Four News Organizations as Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts multiple methods to examine four different-operated citizen websites of news organizations in Taiwan, in order to understand the development of institutional citizen journalism. It finds that structural factors of news organizations (such as orientation of the company, ownership, production model, staffing, etc. will affect the design and operation of citizen websites. On the surface, no matter what size of company, four news organizations accord with the ideal of citizen journalism-- citizens have the right of access to media and the freedom of expression, they allow citizen journalists to publish their news without editorial review. Based on the actual operation, news organizations separate the citizen journalism from professional journalism; once entering the professional field, citizen-produced news is still edited by professional editors. Moreover, news organizations also try to use a variety of means (e.g., education training, incentives, etc. as implicit ways to affect the performance of citizen reporters. Therefore, the development of citizen journalism within a news organization, citizen reporters are to some extent still subject to the “brand” of and institutional procedures of the organization.

  6. Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-08-01

    Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Observations of CO in Titan's Atmosphere Using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the dense, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere of Titan, photodissociation of molecular nitrogen and methane leads to a wealth of complex hydrocarbons and nitriles in small abundances. Past millimeter/submillimeter observations, including ground-based observations as well as those by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft, have proven the significance of this wavelength region for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, latitudinal and seasonal variations, and molecular detections. Previous ALMA studies of Titan have presented mapping and vertical column densities of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) and cyanoacetylene (HC3N) (Cordiner et al. 2014) as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan’s atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015).Here, we report several submillimetric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C17O in Titan’s atmosphere obtained with flux calibration data from the ALMA Science Archive. We employ NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code, to determine the stratospheric abundances of these molecules. The abundance of CO in Titan's atmosphere is determined to be approximately 50±1 ppm, constant with altitude, and isotopic ratios are determined to be approximately 12C/13C = 90, 16O/18O = 470, and 16O/17O = 2800. This report presents the first spectroscopic detection of C17O in the outer solar system, detected at >11σ confidence. This talk will focus on isotopic ratios in CO in Titan's atmosphere and will compare our results to previously measured values for Titan and other bodies in the Solar System. General implications for the history of Titan from measurements of CO and its isotopologues will be

  8. Latitudinal and altitudinal controls of Titan's dune field morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2012-01-01

    Dune fields dominate ˜13% of Titan's surface and represent an important sink of carbon in the methane cycle. Herein, we discuss correlations in dune morphometry with altitude and latitude. These correlations, which have important implications in terms of geological processes and climate on Titan, are investigated through the microwave electromagnetic signatures of dune fields using Cassini radar and radiometry observations. The backscatter and emissivity from Titan's dune terrains are primarily controlled by the amount of interdune area within the radar footprint and are also expected to vary with the degree of the interdunal sand cover. Using SAR-derived topography, we find that Titan's main dune fields (Shangri-La, Fensal, Belet and Aztlan) tend to occupy the lowest elevation areas in Equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between ˜-400 and ˜0 m (relative to the geoid). In elevated dune terrains, we show a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio and possibly a thinner sand cover in the interdune areas. A similar correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. The altitudinal trend among Titan's sand seas is consistent with the idea that sediment source zones most probably occur in lowlands, which would reduce the sand supply toward elevated regions. The latitudinal preference could result from a gradual increase in dampness with latitude due to the asymmetric seasonal forcing associated with Titan's current orbital configuration unless it is indicative of a latitudinal preference in the sand source distribution or wind transport capacity.

  9. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N2 and CH4: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D; Klas, M; Zahoran, M; Mason, N J; Vladoiu, R; Manole, M

    2009-01-01

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N 2 : CH 4 mixture (98 : 2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C 2 H 2 , produced by dissociation of CH 4 , with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmosphere. A small amount (0.2%) of CH 4 was decomposed after 12 min of treatment requiring an average energy of 2.7 kWh g -1 . After 14 min the discharge was terminated due to the formation of a solid yellow deposit on the central wire electrode. Such a deposit is similar to that observed in other discharges and is believed to be an analogue of the aerosol and dust observed in Titan's atmosphere and is composed of chemical species commonly known as 'tholins'. We have also explored the electrical properties of the discharge. The admixture of methane into nitrogen caused an increase in the onset voltage of the discharge and consequently led to a reduction in the measured discharge current.

  10. Theoretical Calculations on Sediment Transport on Titan, and the Possible Production of Streamlined Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) has been returning images of Titan, along with other Saturnian satellites. Images taken through the 938 nm methane window see down to Titan's surface. One of the purposes of the Cassini mission is to investigate possible fluid cycling on Titan. Lemniscate features shown recently and radar evidence of surface flow prompted us to consider theoretically the creation by methane fluid flow of streamlined forms on Titan. This follows work by other groups in theoretical consideration of fluid motion on Titan's surface.

  11. Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Y. Barilan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving.

  12. Lanthanoid titanate film structure deposited at different temperatures in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushkov, V.D.; Zaslavskij, A.M.; Mel'nikov, A.V.; Zverlin, A.V.; Slivinskaya, A.Eh.

    1991-01-01

    Influence of deposition temperature on the structure of lanthanoid titanate films, prepared by the method of high-rate vacuum condensation. It is shown that formation of crystal structure, close to equilibrium samples, proceeds at 1100-1300 deg C deposition temperatures. Increase of temperature in this range promotes formation of films with higher degree of structural perfection. Amorphous films of lanthanoid titanates form at 200-1000 deg C. Deposition temperature shouldn't exceed 1400 deg C to prevent the formation of perovskite like phases in films

  13. Materials and ceramics on the base of aluminium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the doping and technological parameters on the thermodynamical stability of the aluminium titanate is investigated. The condition necessary to make aluminium titanate stable and established. it is shown, how the condition of the synthesis and the content of the admixture phases affect the stability of the solid solutions. The technology of obtaining the ceramics stable with respect to decay (with thermal expansion coefficient CTE = 26x10/sup -6/ grad/sup -1/ and thermoresistancy > 80 heating cycles, sigma curve equal or greater than 80 Mpa) is worked out. (author)

  14. Upper limit set for level of lightning activity on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent lightning detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for lightning-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, lightning spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan lightning of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial lightning, is inferred.

  15. Greening the Restaurant Industry: Exploring Corporate Social Responsibilty (CSR) motives of certified organic food service businesses in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With growing levels of organic food consumption in the retail sector and government municipality goals to increase consumption of organic foods at public schools and institutions, private, independant food service businesses in Sweden risk slipping under the radar when it comes to understanding how they are responding to the global problem of industrialised, fossil fuel intensive and highly unsustainable agriculture. In Sweden, KRAV, an incorporaed association that develops standards for orga...

  16. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  17. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  18. Self-consistent modeling of induced magnetic field in Titan's atmosphere accounting for the generation of Schumann resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, Christian

    2015-02-01

    This model is worked out in the frame of physical mechanisms proposed in previous studies accounting for the generation and the observation of an atypical Schumann Resonance (SR) during the descent of the Huygens Probe in the Titan's atmosphere on 14 January 2005. While Titan is staying inside the subsonic co-rotating magnetosphere of Saturn, a secondary magnetic field carrying an Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) modulation is shown to be generated through ion-acoustic instabilities of the Pedersen current sheets induced at the interface region between the impacting magnetospheric plasma and Titan's ionosphere. The stronger induced magnetic field components are focused within field-aligned arcs-like structures hanging down the current sheets, with minimum amplitude of about 0.3 nT throughout the ramside hemisphere from the ionopause down to the Moon surface, including the icy crust and its interface with a conductive water ocean. The deep penetration of the modulated magnetic field in the atmosphere is thought to be allowed thanks to the force balance between the average temporal variations of thermal and magnetic pressures within the field-aligned arcs. However, there is a first cause of diffusion of the ELF magnetic components, probably due to feeding one, or eventually several SR eigenmodes. A second leakage source is ascribed to a system of eddy-Foucault currents assumed to be induced through the buried water ocean. The amplitude spectrum distribution of the induced ELF magnetic field components inside the SR cavity is found fully consistent with the measurements of the Huygens wave-field strength. Waiting for expected future in-situ exploration of Titan's lower atmosphere and the surface, the Huygens data are the only experimental means available to date for constraining the proposed model.

  19. The organic food philosophy. A qualitative exploration of the practices, values, and beliefs of Dutch organic consumers within a cultural-historical frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Food consumption has been identified as a realm of key importance for progressing the world towards more sustainable consumption overall. Consumers have the option to choose organic food as a visible product of more ecologically integrated farming methods and, in general, more carefully produced

  20. Selective adsorption and ion exchange of metal cations and anions with silico-titanates and layered titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.G.; Philip, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Metal ions may be removed from aqueous wastes from metal processing plants and from refineries. They may also be used in concentrating radioactive elements found in dilute, aqueous, nuclear wastes. A new series of silico-titanates and alkali titanates are shown to have specific selectivity for cations of lead, mercury, and cadmium and the dichromate anion in solutions with low and high pH. Furthermore, one particular silico-titanate, TAM-5, was found to be highly selective for Cs + and Sr 2+ in solutions of 5.7 M Na + and 0.6 M Oh - . A high potential exists for these materials for removing Cs + and Sr 2+ from radioactive aqueous wastes containing high concentrations of Na + at high and low pH

  1. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  2. MONOSODIUM TITANATE MULTI-STRIKE TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNES, MARKJ

    2004-01-01

    Research over the past decade has studied the adsorption of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) in alkaline solutions. Tests showed that MST would remove the targeted radionuclides from simulated alkaline waste. Testing also indicated that Pu removal kinetics and Np capacity of the MST material impacts the size of equipment and waste blending plans for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Additionally, calculations suggested the baseline MST process may not achieve the desired decontamination in wastes containing elevated concentrations of Pu and Np. In this task, the authors investigated the performance of non-baseline process parameters and their effectiveness for treating waste feed in the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The work addresses a DOE request in support of technical needs expressed, in part, by the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The work investigated the effect of increased MST addition (up to 1.2 g/L) and the benefit of extra filtration steps with multiple additions of MST to salt waste containing actinides and strontium. Both simulant and actual waste testing occurred. Actual waste tests used a Tank 39H composite waste solution. In addition, testing to determine desorption of actinides from residual MST occurred. The release of sorbed Sr and actinides from loaded MST during the washing stages in the Salt Waste Processing Facility is an unresolved process behavior. Desorption tests assessed this potential problem using loaded MST from the residue of the MST adsorption tests. Analysis of non-radioactive Sr in the tests proved difficult due to the low concentration of nonradioactive Sr and its nearness to the method detection limit for ICP-MS. Efforts to use AMP to minimize dilution of actual waste for removal from the cell did not help for this analysis since instrument dilution still proved necessary due to the salt content

  3. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  4. Impressions of Action and Critical Action Learning: Exploring the Leadership Development of Senior Doctors in an English Healthcare Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Janet; Warwick, Rob; Palmer, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the influence of one cycle of a learning set experience in a postgraduate medical leadership development programme. It does so from two perspectives: first, from the self-reports of nine senior doctors working in leadership roles in England in the National Health Service; and second from a researcher perspective as we…

  5. Antibacterial Properties of Titanate Nano fiber Thin Films Formed on a Titanium Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, M.; Inoue, Y.; Morita, T.; Torikai, T.; Watari, T.; Noda, I.; Hotokebuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sodium titanate nano fiber thin film and a silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film formed on the surface of a titanium plate exhibited strong antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the major bacteria causing in-hospital infections. Exposure of the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film to ultraviolet rays generated a high antibacterial activity due to photo catalysis and the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film immediately after its synthesis possessed a high antibacterial activity even without exposure to ultraviolet rays. Elution of silver from the silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film caused by the silver ion exchange reaction was considered to contribute substantially to the strong antibacterial activity. The titanate nano fiber thin films adhered firmly to titanium. Therefore, these titanate nano fiber thin film/titanium composites will be extremely useful as implant materials that have excellent antibacterial activities.

  6. Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T residual gravity anomalies. The existence of mass anomalies in the rocky core is a most likely explanation. However, as the observed geoid and topography are mostly sensitive to the lateral structure of the outer ice shell, no information can be retrieved on the ice shell thickness, ocean density and/or size of the rocky core. Constraints on these internal parameters can be obtained from the tidal Love number and

  7. Development of partitioning method: adsorption behavior of Sr on titanic acid pelletized with binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr was examined with the titanic acid with the binder and with binderless titanic acid. Then the effect of the difference of the neutralizer was also examined. When the initial concentration of Sr was constant, distribution coefficient (Kd) increased with pH after adsorption. At pH 4, Kd decreased in order of the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution without the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution and pelletized with the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with KOH solution and pelletized with the binder. At pH 6, Kd decreased with increasing the concentration of Sr in the solution, but the decreasing tendency of Kd for each titanic acid was the same. Adsorption kinetics was examined with titanic acids neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution, keeping the initial concentration of Sr and the initial pH constant. It took about one hour to reach Kd of 100mL/g for the titanic acid without the binder but over 10 hours for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder. It was confirmed that by pelletizing titanic acid with the binder, Kd of Sr became small and it took very long time to reach the adsorption equilibrium. However, by sufficient conditioning with water of the titanic acid pelletized with the binder, 1) it took about half time of titanic acid without conditioning to reach Kd of 100mL/g, 2) after 24 hours mixing, Kd for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder was almost equal to that for the titanic acid without the binder, 3) apparent ion exchange capacity obtained through a column test became over about 1meq/g. (J.P.N.)

  8. Development of partitioning method: adsorption behavior of Sr on titanic acid pelletized with binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr was examined with the titanic acid with the binder and with binderless titanic acid. Then the effect of the difference of the neutralizer was also examined. When the initial concentration of Sr was constant, distribution coefficient (Kd) increased with pH after adsorption. At pH 4, Kd decreased in order of the titanic acid neutralized with NH 4 OH solution without the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with NH 4 OH solution and pelletized with the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with KOH solution and pelletized with the binder. At pH 6, Kd decreased with increasing the concentration of Sr in the solution, but the decreasing tendency of Kd for each titanic acid was the same. Adsorption kinetics was examined with titanic acids neutralized with NH 4 OH solution, keeping the initial concentration of Sr and the initial pH constant. It took about one hour to reach Kd of 100mL/g for the titanic acid without the binder but over 10 hours for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder. It was confirmed that by pelletizing titanic acid with the binder, Kd of Sr became small and it took very long time to reach the adsorption equilibrium. However, by sufficient conditioning with water of the titanic acid pelletized with the binder, 1) it took about half time of titanic acid without conditioning to reach Kd of 100mL/g, 2) after 24 hours mixing, Kd for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder was almost equal to that for the titanic acid without the binder, 3) apparent ion exchange capacity obtained through a column test became over about 1meq/g. (J.P.N.)

  9. Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

    2015-05-01

    Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink.

  10. Highly diverse, massive organic data as explored by a composite QSPR strategy: an advanced study of boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A A; Ivanov, A A; Oliferenko, A A; Palyulin, V A; Zefirov, N S

    2005-06-01

    An improved strategy of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of diverse and inhomogeneous organic datasets has been proposed. A molecular connectivity term was successively corrected for different structural features encoded in fragmental descriptors. The so-called solvation index 1chis (a weighted Randic index) was used as a "leading" variable and standardized molecular fragments were employed as "corrective" class-specific variables. Performance of the new approach was illustrated by modelling a dataset of experimental normal boiling points of 833 organic compounds belonging to 20 structural classes. Firstly, separate QSPR models were derived for each class and for eight groups of structurally similar classes. Finally, a general model formed by combining all the classes together was derived (r2=0.957, s=12.9degreesC). The strategy outlined can find application in QSPR analyses of massive, highly diverse databases of organic compounds.

  11. Poster 7: Could PAH or HAC explain the Titan's stratosphere absorption around 3.4 µm revealed by solar occultations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Daniel; Cours, Thibaud; Rey, Michael; Maltagliati, Luca; Seignovert, Benoit; Biennier, Ludovic

    2016-06-01

    In 2006, during Cassini's 10th flyby of Titan (T10), Bellucci et al. (2009) observed a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere through the solar port of the Cassini/VIMS instrument. These authors noticed the existence of an unexplained additional absorption superimposed to the CH4 3.3 µm band. Because they were unable to model this absorption with gases, they attributed this intriguing feature to the signature of solid state organic components. Kim et al. (2011) revisited the data collected by Bellucci et al. (2009) and they considered the possible contribution of aerosols formed by hydrocarbon ices. They specifically took into account C2H6, CH4, CH3CN, C5H12 and C6H12 ices. More recently, Maltagliati et al. (2015) analyzed a set of four VIMS solar occultations, corresponding to flybys performed between January 2006 and September 2011 at different latitudes. They confirmed the presence of the 3.3 µm absorption in all occultations and underlined the possible importance of gaseous ethane, which has a strong plateau of absorption lines in that wavelength range.In this work, we show that neither hydrocarbon ices nor molecular C2H6 cannot satisfactorily explain the observed absorption. Our simulations speak in favor of an absorption due to the presence of PAH molecules or HAC in the stratosphere of Titan. PAH have been already considered by Lopes-Puertas et al. (2013) at altitudes larger than ˜900 km and tentatively identified in the stratosphere by Maltagliati et al. (2015); PAH and HAC are good candidates for Titan's aerosols precursors.

  12. Exploring Patterns of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition with Students and the Public Through the Global Decomposition Project (GDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Decomposition Project (GDP) is a program designed to introduce and educate students and the general public about soil organic matter and decomposition through a standardized protocol for collecting, reporting, and sharing data. This easy-to-use hands-on activity focuses on questions such as "How do environmental conditions control decomposition of organic matter in soil?" and "Why do some areas accumulate organic matter and others do not?" Soil organic matter is important to local ecosystems because it affects soil structure, regulates soil moisture and temperature, and provides energy and nutrients to soil organisms. It is also important globally because it stores a large amount of carbon, and when microbes "eat", or decompose organic matter they release greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which affects the earth's climate. The protocol describes a commonly used method to measure decomposition using a paper made of cellulose, a component of plant cell walls. Participants can receive pre-made cellulose decomposition bags, or make decomposition bags using instructions in the protocol and easily obtained materials (e.g., window screen and lignin-free paper). Individual results will be shared with all participants and the broader public through an online database. We will present decomposition bag results from a research site in Alaskan tundra, as well as from a middle-school-student led experiment in California. The GDP demonstrates how scientific methods can be extended to educate broader audiences, while at the same time, data collected by students and the public can provide new insight into global patterns of soil decomposition. The GDP provides a pathway for scientists and educators to interact and reach meaningful education and research goals.

  13. Positively charged microporous ceramic membrane for the removal of Titan Yellow through electrostatic adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuting; Li, Na; Zhu, Mengfu; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Yu; Deng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    To develop a depth filter based on the electrostatic adsorption principle, positively charged microporous ceramic membrane was prepared from a diatomaceous earth ceramic membrane. The internal surface of the highly porous ceramic membrane was coated with uniformly distributed electropositive nano-Y2O3 coating. The dye removal performance was evaluated through pressurized filtration tests using Titan Yellow aqueous solution. It showed that positively charged microporous ceramic membrane exhibited a flow rate of 421L/(m(2)·hr) under the trans-membrane pressure of 0.03bar. Moreover it could effectively remove Titan Yellow with feed concentration of 10mg/L between pH3 to 8. The removal rate increased with the enhancement of the surface charge properties with a maximum rejection of 99.6%. This study provides a new and feasible method of removing organic dyes in wastewater. It is convinced that there will be a broad market for the application of charged ceramic membrane in the field of dye removal or recovery from industry wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Hayes, A. G.; McCormick, C.; Ballard, C.; Troy, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity among bedform patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crestline orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune crestline orientation with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the time-scale of the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the crestline re-orientation model developed by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We use Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images processed through a de-noising algorithm recently developed by Lucas et al. [LPSC, 2012] to measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well-organized patterns have the

  15. Managing corporate visual identity : exploring the differences between manufacturing and service, and profit-making and nonprofit organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Annette; de Jong, Menno; Elving, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Corporate Visual Identity (CVI) is a crucial part of the identity of any organization. Most research on managing corporate identity deals with the strategic development of corporate identity and the design and effects of specific elements of the CVI. This study focuses on an aspect of CVI management

  16. Are Mentor Relationships Helping Organizations? An Exploration of Developing Mentee-Mentor-Organizational Identifications Using Turning Point Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie; Bach, Betsy Wackernagel

    1989-01-01

    Examines developing mentor relationships and the association between mentor relationships and individual-organizational relationships. Indicates that many turning points occur later than proposed in broad-phase models of mentor relationship development. Finds that mentor relationships should not be assumed to benefit organizations. (SR)

  17. What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Akinola, Modupe; Chugh, Dolly

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how discrimination manifests before individuals formally apply to organizations or how it varies within and between organizations. We address this knowledge gap through an audit study in academia of over 6,500 professors at top U.S. universities drawn from 89 disciplines and 259 institutions. In our experiment, professors were contacted by fictional prospective students seeking to discuss research opportunities prior to applying to a doctoral program. Names of students were randomly assigned to signal gender and race (White, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Chinese), but messages were otherwise identical. We hypothesized that discrimination would appear at the informal "pathway" preceding entry to academia and would vary by discipline and university as a function of faculty representation and pay. We found that when considering requests from prospective students seeking mentoring in the future, faculty were significantly more responsive to White males than to all other categories of students, collectively, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions. Counterintuitively, the representation of women and minorities and discrimination were uncorrelated, a finding that suggests greater representation cannot be assumed to reduce discrimination. This research highlights the importance of studying decisions made before formal entry points into organizations and reveals that discrimination is not evenly distributed within and between organizations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Exploring Leadership within the Modern Organization: Understanding the Dynamics of Effective Leadership of a Virtual, Multigenerational Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a relatively new but growing set of leadership challenges that the leader of the modern organization faces more frequently due to the dynamics of the workplace. The new challenges involve leading a workforce virtually, in that more frequently workers are physically dispersed away from the leader and fellow workers. The second…

  19. Faculty Perceptions about Teaching Online: Exploring the Literature Using the Technology Acceptance Model as an Organizing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Nancy Pope; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Moss, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic leaders can better implement institutional strategic plans to promote online programs if they understand faculty perceptions about teaching online. An extended version of a model for technology acceptance, or TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), provided a framework for surveying and organizing the research literature about factors that…

  20. Sodium titanate nanorods: Preparation, microstructure characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Večerníková, Eva; Szatmáry, Lórant; Klementová, Mariana; Balek, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1-2 (2006), s. 20-30 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : sodium titanate * nanorods * ethylene glycol Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2006

  1. Co-catalyst free Titanate Nanorods for improved Hydrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Herein, we report a simplified method for the preparation of photo-active titanate nanorods catalyst .... The TEM images were taken with Philips Technai G2 FEI F12 trans- mission electron microscope operating at 80-100 kV. Optical properties were measured in DRS ..... Chen X, Shen S, Guo L and Mao S S 2010 Chem. Rev ...

  2. Who Would Survive the 'Titanic' Today? A Classroom Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Torrez, Lorenzo I.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise, based on the "Titanic" sinking, from an undergraduate experimental psychology course. The exercise demonstrates the subjectivity and complexity that accompanies generalizing psychological knowledge to different historical eras. Includes instructions for using the exercise and the results from a student…

  3. A Flood of Tears: "Titanic" and the Tearjerker Romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of tearjerker romances and adolescent responses, particularly female responses, focuses on the recent movie "Titanic." Places the tearjerker romance in context with other works representing a wave of new romanticism and includes an annotated bibliography of tearjerkers in several genres appealing to adolescents. (LRW)

  4. "Titanic" : kümme aastat hiljem / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika suurfilmi "Titanic" (1997) saamis- ja eduloost. Rubriik "Mis on neist saanud?" annab teada, kuidas film mõjutas tegijate (režissöör James Cameron, näitlejad Kate Winslet ja Leonardo DiCaprio, laulja Celine Dion) edasist karjääri

  5. The Voyage between Truth and Fiction: Stories of the "Titanic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the activities in a high school English class aimed at instructing students concerning the concept of "historical fiction." Outlines class activities in which students are asked to write fictional narratives based on the historical facts concerning the sinking of the "Titanic." (HB)

  6. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  7. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  8. Microstructure of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng JuLin

    1989-01-01

    Transmission and high-resolution electron microscopy reveal the microtexture of lead zirconium titanate ceramics. Fine scale (≤ 500 Aangstroem) ferroelastic and ferroelectric twin domains, as well as dislocations were found in a complex texture. Correlations between stoichiometry, microstructure and piezoelectric properties are discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  9. Fatigue studies in compensated bulk lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Cyril; Morrison, Finlay D.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Scott, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Impedance analysis studies were carried out on compensated bulk lead zirconate titanate samples. Fatigue is concomitant with the onset of dielectric loss. This is shown to be dominantly due to an irreversibly modified near-surface layer that can be polished off. The highly compensated nature of these samples minimizes the role of oxygen vacancies

  10. Growth of larger hydrocarbons in the ionosphere of Titan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricketts, Claire; Schröder, Detlef; Alcaraz, Ch.; Roithová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 16 (2008), s. 4779-4783 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-Ccoupling * dications * mass spectrometry * synchrotron radiation * Titan Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.454, year: 2008

  11. Chemistry of the galactic cosmic ray induced ionosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Rodrigo, R.; Lara, L. M.

    1999-09-01

    Titan's lower ionosphere (from 1 to 400 km) has been studied with a one-dimensional ion-neutral model. In this region of the atmosphere, galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are the main ionization source. They penetrate to the deeper atmosphere and ionize the neutral constituents of Titan's atmosphere (mainly N2, CH4, Ar, H2, and CO) to produce N2+, N+, Ar+, CH4+, CH3+, CH2+, H2+, H+, and CO+. Fast reactions with the neutrals convert these ions into ions such as CH5+, C2H5+, and N2H+. Different pathways are proposed to obtain the ion and electron densities. The most abundant ions are cluster ions, like CH5+.CH4, HCO+.H2, and HCNH+.C2H4, and long chain hydrocarbon ions. In atmospheres very rich in N2, such as Titan's, ions like H4C7N+ and CH3CNH+ also represent an important contribution to the total positive ion density. Three-body reactions may play an important role in the dense atmosphere of Titan, and special attention is devoted to them. The calculated electron density in the lower atmosphere reaches a peak of ~2150 cm-3 at an altitude of 90 km.

  12. Barium titanate inverted opals-synthesis, characterization, and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soten, I.; Miguez, H.; Yang, S.M.; Petrov, S.; Coombs, N.; Tetreault, N.; Ozin, G.A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Matsuura, N.; Ruda, H.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2002-01-01

    The engineering of cubic or tetragonal polymorphs of nanocrystalline barium titanate inverted opals has been achieved by thermally induced transformations. Optical characterization demonstrated photonic crystal behavior of the opals. The tuning of the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition around the Curie temperature is shown in this paper. (orig.)

  13. 3D hybrid simulation of the Titan's plasma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander; Sittler, Edward, Jr.; Hartle, Richard

    2007-11-01

    Titan plays an important role as a simulation laboratory for multiscale kinetic plasma processes which are key processes in space and laboratory plasmas. A development of multiscale combined numerical methods allows us to use more realistic plasma models at Titan. In this report, we describe a Particle-Ion--Fluid-Ion--Fluid--Electron method of kinetic ion-neutral simulation code. This method takes into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. The model of atmosphere of Titan was based on a paper by Sittler, Hartle, Vinas et al., [2005]. The background ions H^+, O^+ and pickup ions H2^+, CH4^+ and N2^+ are described in a kinetic approximation, where the electrons are approximated as a fluid. In this report we study the coupling between background ions and pickup ions on the multiple space scales determined by the ion gyroradiis. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions near Titan are discussed in this report and compared with recent measurements made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS, [Hartle, Sittler et al., 2006]). E C Sittler Jr., R E Hartle, A F Vinas, R E Johnson, H T Smith and I Mueller-Wodarg, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09302, 2005.R E Hartle, E C Sittler, F M Neubauer, R E Johnson, et al., Planet. Space Sci., 54, 1211, 2006.

  14. Electrical and thermal properties of lead titanate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, J.; Deshpande, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Glass samples with composition of (50-X)PbO-(25+X)TiO 2 -25B 2 O 3 (where X=0, 5, 10 and 12.5 mol%) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. The glass transition temperature, T g and crystallization temperature T c were determined from the DTA. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The glass ceramic samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and dielectric constant measurements. The XRD results revealed the formation of ferroelectric lead titanate (PT) as a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. The density increases and the CTE decreases for all glass ceramics with increase in X (mol%). This may be attributed to increase in PT phase. The SEM results which show rounded crystallites of lead titanate, also supports other results. Hysteresis loops observed at room temperature confirms the ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics. The optimized glass ceramic sample exhibits high dielectric constant which is of technical importance. -- Research Highlights: →Lead titanate glass ceramics prepared by conventional quenching technique. →Lead titanate is a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. →The ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics is confirmed by the hysteresis study. →The high value of ε observed at room temperature is quite promising in the study.

  15. IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses. C R GAUTAM*, DEVENDRA KUMAR. † and OM PARKASH. †. Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India. †. Department of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 3 January ...

  16. Probing Small Lakes on Titan Using the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Poggiali, V.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitri, G.; Mitchell, K. L.; Janssen, M. A.; Casarano, D.; Notarnicola, C.; Le Gall, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The T126 Cassini's final flyby of Titan has offered a unique opportunity to observe an area in the Northern Polar terrain, where several small - medium size (10 - 50 km) hydrocarbon lakes are present and have been previously imaged by Cassini. The successful observation allowed the radar to operate at the closest approach over several small lakes, using its altimetry mode for the investigation of depth and liquid composition. Herein we present the result of a dedicate processing previously applied to altimetric data acquired over Ligeia Mare where the radar revealed the bathymetry and composition of the sea [1,2]. We show that, the optimal geometry condition met during the T126 fly-by allowed the radar to probe Titan's lakes revealing that such small liquid bodies can exceed one-hundred meters of depth. [1] M. Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014, Mar.). The bathymetry of a Titan Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. [Online]. 41 (5), pp. 1432-1437. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058618 [2] M.Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2016, Oct). Radar Sounding Using the Cassini Altimeter: Waveform Modeling and Monte Carlo Approach for Data Inversion of Observations of Titan's Seas, IEEE Transactions On Geoscience And Remote Sensing, Vol. 54, No. 10, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2563426.

  17. Pyroelectricity versus conductivity in soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamel, T.M.; With, de G.

    2007-01-01

    The electrical behavior of modified soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics has been studied as a function of temperature at different direct current (dc) electric fields and grain sizes. As ferroelectrics, such as PZT, are highly polarizable materials, poling, depolarization, and electric

  18. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  19. Pressure-assisted sintering of high purity barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Cruijsem, S.; Varst, van der P.G.T.; With, de G.; Bortzmeyer, D.; Boussuge, M.; Chartier, Th.; Hausonne, J.M.; Mocellin, A.; Rousset, A.; Thevenot, F.

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of High Purity Barium titanate (HPB) ceramics is strongly dependent on the grain size and porosity. For applications, control of grain size and porosity is required. Pressure-assisted sintering techniques at relatively low temperatures meet these requirements. In this study,

  20. Ionic and electronic conductivity in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Pham thi ngoc mai, P.T.N.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate impedance measurements on differently sized samples of lead–zirconate–titanate (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3, PZT) have been analyzed with a CNLS procedure, resulting in the separation of the ionic and electronic conductivities over a temperature range from f150 to 630 jC. At 603 jC the electronic

  1. Can a Unified Service Delivery Philosophy Be Identified in Aging and Disability Organizations? Exploring Competing Service Delivery Models Through the Voices of the Workforce in These Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bronwyn

    2018-01-01

    Services for older adults and younger people with disabilities are increasingly merging, as reflected in the creation of Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs). Using ADRCs to coordinate services is challenging, primarily because these fields have different service delivery philosophies. Independent Living Centers, which serve people with disabilities, have a philosophy that emphasizes consumer control and peer mentoring. However, the aging service delivery philosophy is based in a case management or medical model in which the role of consumers directing their services is less pronounced. Using institutional logics theory and a qualitative research design, this study explored whether a unified service delivery philosophy for ADRCs was emerging. Based on focus groups and questionnaires with staff from ADRCs, findings revealed that competing service delivery models continue to operate in the aging and disability fields.

  2. Titan's Surface Composition from Cassini VIMS Solar Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas; Hayne, Paul; Sotin, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Titan's surface is obscured by a thick absorbing and scattering atmosphere, allowing direct observation of the surface within only a few spectral win-dows in the near-infrared, complicating efforts to identify and map geologi-cally important materials using remote sensing IR spectroscopy. We there-fore investigate the atmosphere's infrared transmission with direct measure-ments using Titan's occultation of the Sun as well as Titan's reflectance measured at differing illumination and observation angles observed by Cas-sini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). We use two im-portant spectral windows: the 2.7-2.8-mm "double window" and the broad 5-mm window. By estimating atmospheric attenuation within these windows, we seek an empirical correction factor that can be applied to VIMS meas-urements to estimate the true surface reflectance and map inferred composi-tional variations. Applying the empirical corrections, we correct the VIMS data for the viewing geometry-dependent atmospheric effects to derive the 5-µm reflectance and 2.8/2.7-µm reflectance ratio. We then compare the cor-rected reflectances to compounds proposed to exist on Titan's surface. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scattering in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass water ice for the majority of the low-to-mid latitude area covered by VIMS measurements. Four compositional units are defined and mapped on Titan's surface based on the positions of data clusters in 5-mm vs. 2.8/2.7-mm scatter plots; a simple ternary mixture of H2O, hydrocarbons and CO2 might explain the reflectance properties of these surface units. The vast equatorial "dune seas" are compositionally very homogeneous, perhaps suggesting transport and mixing of particles over very large distances and/or and very consistent formation process and source material. The composi-tional branch characterizing Tui Regio and Hotei Regio is

  3. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  4. Synthesis and Exploration of Ladder-Structured Large Aromatic Dianhydrides as Organic Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Chen, Wangqiao; Wang, Zilong; Jie, Kenneth Choo Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qichun

    2017-04-18

    Compared to anode materials in Li-ion batteries, the research on cathode materials is far behind, and their capacities are much smaller. Thus, in order to address these issues, we believe that organic conjugated materials could be a solution. In this study, we synthesized two non-polymeric dianhydrides with large aromatic structures: NDA-4N (naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms) and PDA-4N (perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms). Their electrochemical properties have been investigated between 2.0 and 3.9 V (vs. Li + /Li). Benefiting from multi-electron reactions, NDA-4N and PDA-4N could reversibly achieve 79.7 % and 92.3 %, respectively, of their theoretical capacity. Further cycling reveals that the organic compound with a relatively larger aromatic building block could achieve a better stability, as an obvious 36.5 % improvement of the capacity retention was obtained when the backbone was switched from naphthalene to perylene. This study proposes an opportunity to attain promising small-molecule-based cathode materials through tailoring organic structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Spectroscopic detection and mapping of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Yukiko Palmer, Maureen; Lai, James; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven B.; Vuitton, Veronique; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick; Molter, Ned; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide (otherwise known as acrylonitrile; C2H3CN) on Titan was obtained by Palmer et al. (2017), based on three rotational emission lines observed with ALMA at millimeter wavelengths (in receiver band 6). The astrobiological significance of this detection was highlighted due to the theorized ability of C2H3CN molecules to combine into cell membrane-like structures under the cold conditions found in Titan's hydrocarbon lakes. Here we report the detection of three additional C2H3CN transitions at higher frequencies (from ALMA band 7 flux calibration data). We present the first emission maps for this gas on Titan, and compare the molecular distribution with that of other nitriles observed with ALMA including HC3N, CH3CN, C2H5CN and HNC. The molecular abundance patterns are interpreted based on our understanding of Titan's high-altitude photochemistry and time-variable global circulation. Similar to the short-lived HC3N molecule, vinyl cyanide is found to be most abundant in the vicinity of the southern (winter) pole, whereas the longer-lived CH3CN is more concentrated in the north. The vertical abundance profile of C2H3CN (from radiative transfer modeling), as well as its latitudinal distribution, are consistent with a short photochemical lifetime for this species. Complementary results from our more recent (2017) nitrile mapping studies at higher spatial resolution will also be discussed.REFERENCES:Palmer, M. Y., Cordiner, M. A., Nixon, C. A. et al. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan", Sci. Adv. 2017, 3, e1700022

  6. Absent organs--present selves: exploring embodiment and gender identity in young Norwegian women's accounts of hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrække, Kari Nyheim; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how younger women in Norway construct their embodiment and sense of self after hysterectomy. To do this, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight ethnic Norwegian women aged between 25 and 43 who had undergone hysterectomy. In line with a broad phenomenological approach to illness, the study was designed to explore the trajectories of the women's illness with a specific focus on concrete human experience and identity claims from a subjective point of view. In analysing the stories, we encountered feelings of suffering due to the loss of the uterus as well as profound side-effects, such as menopause. However, we also found evidence of relief from being treated for heavy bleeding and serious illness. In order to accentuate the individual voices in these illness stories, we chose a case-oriented analysis in line with Radley and Chamberlain (2001) and Riessman (2008). From this, two main seemingly contradictory storylines stood out: They have removed what made me a woman versus Without a uterus, I feel more like a woman. We also identified heteronormativity as an unstated issue in both these storylines and in the research data as a whole. Acknowledging diversity in the way women experience hysterectomy is important for a better understanding of the ways in which hysterectomy may affect women as humans as well as for developing more cultural competent healthcare services for this group.

  7. Initial evaluation of Sandia National Laboratory-prepared crystalline silico-titanates for cesium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a study of a new class of inorganic ion exchange materials that selectively extracts cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and plutonium (Pu) from alkaline radioactive waste solutions. These materials, identified as crystalline silico-titanates (CST), were developed by scientists at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Texas A ampersand M. This report summarizes preliminary results for the measurement of batch distribution coefficient (K d ) values for the powdered CST materials compared to previously tested ion exchange materials: IONSIV IE-96 (a zeolite produced by UOP), CS-100 (an organic resin produced by Rohm and Haas), and BIB-DJ (a new resorcinol-formaldehyde organic resin produced by Boulder Scientific). Excellent results were obtained for CST inorganic exchangers that could be significant in the development of processes for the near-term pretreatment of Hanford alkaline wastes. The following observations and conclusions resulted from this study: (1) Several CST samples prepared at SNL had a higher capacity to remove Cs from solution as compared to BIB-DJ, IE-96, and CS-100. (2) Cesium distribution results showed that CST samples TAM-40, -42, -43, -70, and -74 had λ values of ∼2,200 (λ = Cs K d x ρ b ; where λ represents the number of exchanger bed volumes of feed that can be loaded on an ion exchange column) at a pH value >14. (3) Cesium distribution values for CST exchangers doubled as the aqueous temperature decreased from 40 degrees to 10 degrees C. (4) Crystalline silico-titanates have the capacity to remove Cs as well as Sr and Pu from alkaline wastes unless organic complexants are present. Experimental results indicated that complexed Sr was not removed, and Pu is not expected to be removed

  8. Substrate clamping effects on irreversible domain wall dynamics in lead zirconate titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggio, F; Jesse, S; Kumar, A; Ovchinnikov, O; Kim, H; Jackson, T N; Damjanovic, D; Kalinin, S V; Trolier-McKinstry, S

    2012-04-13

    The role of long-range strain interactions on domain wall dynamics is explored through macroscopic and local measurements of nonlinear behavior in mechanically clamped and released polycrystalline lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. Released films show a dramatic change in the global dielectric nonlinearity and its frequency dependence as a function of mechanical clamping. Furthermore, we observe a transition from strong clustering of the nonlinear response for the clamped case to almost uniform nonlinearity for the released film. This behavior is ascribed to increased mobility of domain walls. These results suggest the dominant role of collective strain interactions mediated by the local and global mechanical boundary conditions on the domain wall dynamics. The work presented in this Letter demonstrates that measurements on clamped films may considerably underestimate the piezoelectric coefficients and coupling constants of released structures used in microelectromechanical systems, energy harvesting systems, and microrobots.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of novel lanthanide- and actinide-containing titanates and zircono-titanates; relevance to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, S.L.S.

    1995-08-01

    Before experiments using actinide elements are performed, synthetic routes are tested using lanthanides of comparable ionic radii as surrogates. Compound and solid solution formation in several lanthanide-containing titanate and zircono-titanate systems have been established using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which helped to define interesting and novel experiments, some of which have been performed and are discussed, for selected actinide elements. The aqueous solubilities of several lanthanide- and actinide-containing compounds, representative of the systems studied, were tested in several leachants, including the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine, following modified Materials Characterization Center procedures (MCC-3). The WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine is a synthetic substitute for that found in nature at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The concentrations of cerium, used as a surrogate for plutonium, leached by the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine from all the cerium-containing compounds and solid solutions tested were below the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry limit of detection (10 ppm) established for cerium in this brine. The concentrations of plutonium leached from the two plutonium-containing solid solutions were less than 1 ppm as determined by gross alpha counting and alpha pulse height analysis. Concentrations of strontium leached by the WIPP brine from stable strontium containing titanate compounds, studied as possible immobilizers of both 90 Sr and actinide elements, were also quite low. These compound and solid solution formation investigations and the aqueous solubility studies suggest that the types of titanate and zircono-titanate compounds and solid solutions studied in this work appear to be useful as host matrices for nuclear waste immobilization

  10. Sound and Music in A Mixed Martial Arts Gym: Exploring the Functions and Effects of Organized Noise as an Aid to Training and Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two distinct yet interrelated parts. First, it is a study into the sociology of sound and music—an exploration of how the phenomena of noise organizes and structures human behavior. Second, it is an auditory ethnographic excursion into the world of mixed martial arts (MMA fighting. Using a general qualitative approach grounded by the soundscape, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we query MMA fighters’ experiences with sound and music, noting how these “sonic things” become key aids in bonding, training, and fighting. Lastly, we describe how participants use music to achieve various motivational and psychophysical outcomes.

  11. Exploring the evolutionary diversity and assembly modes of multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes: lessons from unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Daphné; Huot, Jonathan L; Bader, Gaétan; Enkler, Ludovic; Senger, Bruno; Becker, Hubert Dominique

    2014-11-28

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are ubiquitous and ancient enzymes, mostly known for their essential role in generating aminoacylated tRNAs. During the last two decades, many aaRSs have been found to perform additional and equally crucial tasks outside translation. In metazoans, aaRSs have been shown to assemble, together with non-enzymatic assembly proteins called aaRSs-interacting multifunctional proteins (AIMPs), into so-called multi-synthetase complexes (MSCs). Metazoan MSCs are dynamic particles able to specifically release some of their constituents in response to a given stimulus. Upon their release from MSCs, aaRSs can reach other subcellular compartments, where they often participate to cellular processes that do not exploit their primary function of synthesizing aminoacyl-tRNAs. The dynamics of MSCs and the expansion of the aaRSs functional repertoire are features that are so far thought to be restricted to higher and multicellular eukaryotes. However, much can be learnt about how MSCs are assembled and function from apparently 'simple' organisms. Here we provide an overview on the diversity of these MSCs, their composition, mode of assembly and the functions that their constituents, namely aaRSs and AIMPs, exert in unicellular organisms. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the vertical profile of atmospheric organic aerosol: comparing 17 aircraft field campaigns with a global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global organic aerosol (OA budget is highly uncertain and past studies suggest that models substantially underestimate observed concentrations. Few of these studies have examined the vertical distribution of OA. Furthermore, many model-measurement comparisons have been performed with different models for single field campaigns. We synthesize organic aerosol measurements from 17 aircraft campaigns from 2001–2009 and use these observations to consistently evaluate a GEOS-Chem model simulation. Remote, polluted and fire-influenced conditions are all represented in this extensive dataset. Mean observed OA concentrations range from 0.2–8.2 μg sm−3 and make up 15 to 70% of non-refractory aerosol. The standard GEOS-Chem simulation reproduces the observed vertical profile, although observations are underestimated in 13 of the 17 field campaigns (the median observed to simulated ratio ranges from 0.4 to 4.2, with the largest model bias in anthropogenic regions. However, the model is best able to capture the observed variability in these anthropogenically-influenced regions (R2=0.18−0.57, but has little skill in remote or fire-influenced regions. The model bias increases as a function of relative humidity for 11 of the campaigns, possibly indicative of missing aqueous phase SOA production. However, model simulations of aqueous phase SOA suggest a pronounced signature in the mid-troposphere (2–6 km which is not supported in the observations examined here. Spracklen et al. (2011 suggest adding ~100 Tg yr−1 source of anthropogenically-controlled SOA to close the measurement-model gap, which we add as anthropogenic SOA. This eliminates the model underestimate near source, but leads to overestimates aloft in a few regions and in remote regions, suggesting either additional sinks of OA or higher volatility aerosol at colder temperatures. Sensitivity simulations indicate that fragmentation of organics upon

  13. Crater topography on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Bray, V.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B.; Turtle, E.; Cassini Radar Team

    2012-04-01

    Unique among the icy satellites, Titan’s surface shows evidence for extensive modification by fluvial and aeolian erosion, which act to change the topography of its surface over time. Quantifying the extent of this landscape evolution is difficult, since the original, ‘non-eroded’ surface topography is generally unknown. However, fresh craters on icy satellites have a well-known shape and morphology, which has been determined from extensive studies on the airless worlds of the outer solar system (Schenk et al., 2004). By comparing the topography of craters on Titan to similarly sized, pristine analogues on airless bodies, we can obtain one of the few direct measures of the amount of erosion that has occurred on Titan. Cassini RADAR has imaged >30% of the surface of Titan, and more than 60 potential craters have been identified in this data set (Wood et al., 2010; Neish and Lorenz, 2012). Topographic information for these craters can be obtained from a technique known as ‘SARTopo’, which estimates surface heights by comparing the calibration of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) beams (Stiles et al., 2009). We present topography data for several craters on Titan, and compare the data to similarly sized craters on Ganymede, for which topography has been extracted from stereo-derived digital elevation models (Bray et al., 2012). We find that the depths of craters on Titan are generally within the range of depths observed on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than the average (Fig. 1). A statistical comparison between the two data sets suggests that it is extremely unlikely that Titan’s craters were selected from the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede, and that is it much more probable that the relative depths of Titan are uniformly distributed between ‘fresh’ and ‘completely infilled’. This is consistent with an infilling process that varies linearly with time, such as aeolian infilling. Figure 1: Depth of

  14. Organic geochemistry of deep ground waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: implications for radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Hubbard, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    This report describes the organic geochemistry of 11 ground-water samples from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and discusses the implications of their organic geochemical compositions in terms of radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and the petroleum potential of two candidate repository sites in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions are the principal organic constituents present. Stability constant data and simple chemical equilibria calculations suggest that short-chain aliphatic acids are relatively weak complexing agents. The extent of complexation of a typical actinide by selected inorganic ligands present in these brines is expected to far outweigh actinide complexation by the aliphatic acid anions. Various lines of evidence suggest that some portion of the bromide concentrations in the brines is derived from the same source as the short-chain aliphatic acid anions. When the postulated organic components are subtracted from total bromide concentrations, the origins of the Palo Duro brines, based on chloride versus bromide relationships, appear largely consistent with origins based on isotopic evidence. The short-chain aliphatic acid anion content of the Palo Duro brines is postulated to have been much greater in the geologic past. Aliphatic acid anions are but one of numerous petroleum proximity indicators, which consistently suggest a greater petroleum exploration potential for the area surrounding the Swisher County site than the region encompassing the candidate site in Deaf Smith County. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions appear to provide a useful petroleum exploration tool as long as the complex reactions that may dimish their concentrations in ground water are recognized. 71 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Deuterated complex organic molecules in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Deuteration is a powerful tracer of the history of the cold prestellar phase in star-forming regions. Apart from methanol, little is known about deuterium fractionation of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, especially in regions forming high-mass stars. Aims: Our goal is to detect deuterated complex organic molecules toward the high mass star-forming region Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) and derive the level of deuteration for these molecules. Methods: We use a complete 3-mm spectral line survey performed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to search for deuterated complex organic molecules toward the hot molecular core Sgr B2(N2). We constructed population diagrams and integrated intensity maps to fit rotational temperatures and emission sizes for each molecule. Column densities are derived by modeling the full spectrum under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We compare the results to predictions of two astrochemical models that treat the deuteration process. Results: We report the detection of CH2DCN toward Sgr B2(N2) with a deuteration level of 0.4%, and tentative detections of CH2DOH, CH2DCH2CN, the chiral molecule CH3CHDCN, and DC3N with levels in the range 0.05%-0.12%. A stringent deuteration upper limit is obtained for CH3OD (cyanide, the four deuterated species of ethanol, and CH2DOCHO. Ethyl cyanide is less deuterated than methyl cyanide by at least a factor five. The [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] abundance ratio is higher than 1.8. It may still be consistent with the value obtained in Orion KL. Except for methyl cyanide, the measured deuteration levels lie at least a factor four below the predictions of current astrochemical models. The deuteration levels in Sgr B2(N2) are also lower than in Orion KL by a factor of a few up to a factor ten. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the deuteration levels of Sgr B2(N2) and the predictions of chemical models, and the difference between Sgr B2(N2) and Orion KL may

  16. Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Renata; Erjavec, Boštjan; Senila, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is classified as an advanced oxidation process, which proved to be highly efficient for the removal of emerging organic pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) from water. In this study, BPA was successfully removed in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over bare titanate nanotube-based catalysts at very short space time of 0.6 min gCAT g(-1). The as-prepared titanate nanotubes, which underwent heat treatment at 600 °C, showed high activity for the removal of aqueous BPA. Liquid-phase recycling (5- or 10-fold recycle) enabled complete BPA conversion already at 200 °C, together with high conversion of total organic carbon (TOC), i.e., 73 and 98 %, respectively. The catalyst was chemically stable in the given range of operating conditions for 189 h on stream.

  17. Exploring the Best Practices of Nursing Research Councils in Magnet® Organizations: Findings From a Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer; Lindauer, Cathleen; Parks, Joyce; Scala, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this descriptive qualitative study was to identify best practices of nursing research councils (NRCs) at Magnet®-designated hospitals. Nursing research (NR) is essential, adding to the body of nursing knowledge. Applying NR to the bedside improves care, enhances patient safety, and is an imperative for nursing leaders. We interviewed NR designees at 26 Magnet-recognized hospitals about the structure and function of their NRCs and used structural coding to identify best practices. Most organizations link NR and evidence-based practice. Council membership includes leadership and clinical nurses. Councils conduct scientific reviews for nursing studies, supporting nurse principal investigators. Tracking and reporting of NR vary widely and are challenging. Councils provide education, sponsor research days, and collaborate interprofessionally, including with academic partners. Findings from this study demonstrate the need to create formal processes to track and report NR and to develop outcome-focused NR education.

  18. Exploring the Role of the Spatial Characteristics of Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance in Predicting Soil Organic Carbon Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon stock plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and the precision agriculture. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS can directly reflect the internal physical construction and chemical substances of soil. The partial least squares regression (PLSR is a classical and highly commonly used model in constructing soil spectral models and predicting soil properties. Nevertheless, using PLSR alone may not consider soil as characterized by strong spatial heterogeneity and dependence. However, considering the spatial characteristics of soil can offer valuable spatial information to guarantee the prediction accuracy of soil spectral models. Thus, this study aims to construct a rapid and accurate soil spectral model in predicting soil organic carbon density (SOCD with the aid of the spatial autocorrelation of soil spectral reflectance. A total of 231 topsoil samples (0–30 cm were collected from the Jianghan Plain, Wuhan, China. The spectral reflectance (350–2500 nm was used as auxiliary variable. A geographically-weighted regression (GWR model was used to evaluate the potential improvement of SOCD prediction when the spatial information of the spectral features was considered. Results showed that: (1 The principal components extracted from PLSR have a strong relationship with the regression coefficients at the average sampling distance (300 m based on the Moran’s I values. (2 The eigenvectors of the principal components exhibited strong relationships with the absorption spectral features, and the regression coefficients of GWR varied with the geographical locations. (3 GWR displayed a higher accuracy than that of PLSR in predicting the SOCD by VNIRS. This study aimed to help people realize the importance of the spatial characteristics of soil properties and their spectra. This work also introduced guidelines for the application of GWR in predicting soil properties by VNIRS.

  19. Effects of hydrothermal post-treatment on microstructures and morphology of titanate nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huogen; Yu Jiaguo; Cheng Bei; Zhou Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Titanate nanoribbons were prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of rutile-type TiO 2 powders in a 10 M NaOH solution at 200 deg. C for 48 h. The as-prepared titanate nanoribbons were then hydrothermally post-treated at 150 deg. C for 12-36 h. The titanate nanoribbons before and after hydrothermal post-treatment were characterized with FESEM, XRD, TEM, UV-VIS and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that the hydrothermal post-treatment not only promoted the phase transformation from titanate to anatase TiO 2 , but also was beneficial to the removal of Na + ions remained in the titanate nanoribbons. After hydrothermal post-treatment, the TiO 2 samples retained the one-dimensional structure feature of the titanate nanoribbons and showed an obvious increase in the specific surface area and the pore volume

  20. Titan's Topography and Shape at the End of the Cassini Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, P.; Hayes, A. G.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R.; Poggiali, V.; Zebker, H.; Iess, L.

    2017-12-01

    With the conclusion of the Cassini mission, we present an updated topographic map of Titan, including all the available altimetry, SARtopo, and stereophotogrammetry topographic data sets available from the mission. We use radial basis functions to interpolate the sparse data set, which covers only ˜9% of Titan's global area. The most notable updates to the topography include higher coverage of the poles of Titan, improved fits to the global shape, and a finer resolution of the global interpolation. We also present a statistical analysis of the error in the derived products and perform a global minimization on a profile-by-profile basis to account for observed biases in the input data set. We find a greater flattening of Titan than measured, additional topographic rises in Titan's southern hemisphere and better constrain the possible locations of past and present liquids on Titan's surface.

  1. Application of TITAN for Simulation of Particle Streaming in a Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royston Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The TITAN hybrid deterministic transport code is applied to the simulation of particle streaming in a nuclear power plant duct. A simple model is used consisting of a concrete duct emerging from the pressure vessel with an isotropic surface source with a U-235 fission spectrum located at the pressure vessel end. Multiple methods of simulating the duct using the TITAN code are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the code and the advantages of TITAN's algorithms. These methods include a discrete ordinates (SN calculation, a characteristics method calculation, and the use of a fictitious quadrature set with simplified ray-tracing. The TITAN code's results are compared with MCNP5 solutions. While all TITAN solutions are obtained in a shorter computation time than the MCNP5 solution, the TITAN solution with the fictitious quadrature set shows the largest speedup.

  2. Geodetic data support trapping of ethane in Titan's polar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Rambaux, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Titan's surface is characterized by polar depressions that strongly influence interpretations of the gravity data. This study investigates several geodynamical models that can explain these depressions. For each model, the values of the three moments of inertia are computed numerically by discretizing the interior in spherical coordinates. The study shows that a Pratt model where the polar subsurface is made of ethane clathrates can explain the polar depression, the abrupt jump in altitude at about 60 degrees latitude, and the values of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. This model, proposed by Choukroun and Sotin [1], is based on the stability of ethane clathrate hydrates relative to methane clathrate hydrates. In addition to fitting the geodetic data, it explains the absence of ethane in Titan's atmosphere although ethane is the main product of the photolysis of methane. Other geophysical models based on latitudinal variations in the tidal heating production or in the heat flux at the base of the icy crust do not provide such a good match to the gravity and topographic observations. The ethane-clathrate model predicts that all the ethane produced by photolysis of methane at the present rate during the last billion years could be stored in the polar subsurface. It is consistent with the age of Titan's surface and that of Titan's atmospheric methane inferred from geological and geochemical observations by the Cassini/Huygens mission. The present study also emphasizes the role of mass anomalies on the interpretation of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. It shows that for Titan, a slow rotator, the values of the two equatorial moments of inertia (MoI) are largely affected by the polar depressions whereas the value of polar MoI is not. Therefore, as pointed out by previous calculations [2], calculating the moment of inertia (MoI) factor from the value of J2 could lead to major errors. This is not the case for our preferred Titan's model for which the negative polar

  3. Screening novel candidates and exploring design strategies for organic dye sensitizers with rigid π-linker: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Kai-Li [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000 Gansu (China); Liu, Le-Yan [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000 Gansu (China); Geng, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: zhiyuangeng@126.com [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); Yan, Pen-Ji; Lu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Rui-Rui [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations have been carried out to explore the underlying origin of merits for rigid π-spacer based on reference dyes C255 and C254. The results demonstrate that higher short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of C255 is primarily ascribed to the lower EBE, while the biggish short-circuit current density (V{sub OC}) mainly originates from the larger μ{sub normal} compared to C254. Besides, a novel index integral of overlap between hole and electron (S) is firstly introduced to quantitatively estimate the facility of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and preliminarily confirmed to be effective for the research target of this work. Furthermore, three series of dyes (C-series, A-series, AC-series) have been designed and characterized to screen promising sensitizer candidates and design strategies, while delightful results have been achieved including 6 promising candidates, design stratagem on efficiently reducing the charge recombination and combinational tactics on screening new dyes with excellent spectral properties or outstanding DSSC performance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Novel S index was introduced in and confirmed to be effective to estimate ICT. • The merits of rigid π bridge have been theoretically revealed. • Six promising candidates have been screened out. • New strategy on reduce charge recombination was reported. • Novel combinational tactics were acquired and justified to be feasible.

  4. Spiral Survey Expedition: A proposal to organize for the Survey, exploration and eventual colonization of the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Scott

    1993-12-01

    This paper details a plan to explore the galaxy. Areas of interest to an era of cyberspace include the Tech-Index information system for the expedition and the role cyberspace has in increasing expedition productivity and increasing the capabilities of cyberspace by expanding the goals and data set. The paper offers lists of projects for the cybermarket pool. The expedition is described also as a developers tool for cyberspace to acknowledge the scope of the human mind far surpasses present engineering yet guides our direction of energies and materials. Maintaining the biological capability to reproduce the Terran biosphere via Evolution park conservation areas is discussed. The ecological repair of Spaceship Earth and the build up of an interstellar industrial base from simple recyling and educational programs is meshed with a proposed 'reverse engineering cyberspace' plan. A set of constructive contests are proposed with 3 new currencies offered as prizes. The Planet, The Solar System, The Galaxy are 3 areas of focus. Each of these areas are considered in a cyberspectrum of (1) Sentience; (2) Biological diversity; and (3) Energy/Matter resources.

  5. Spiral Survey Expedition: A proposal to organize for the Survey, exploration and eventual colonization of the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Scott

    1993-01-01

    This paper details a plan to explore the galaxy. Areas of interest to an era of cyberspace include the Tech-Index information system for the expedition and the role cyberspace has in increasing expedition productivity and increasing the capabilities of cyberspace by expanding the goals and data set. The paper offers lists of projects for the cybermarket pool. The expedition is described also as a developers tool for cyberspace to acknowledge the scope of the human mind far surpasses present engineering yet guides our direction of energies and materials. Maintaining the biological capability to reproduce the Terran biosphere via Evolution park conservation areas is discussed. The ecological repair of Spaceship Earth and the build up of an interstellar industrial base from simple recyling and educational programs is meshed with a proposed 'reverse engineering cyberspace' plan. A set of constructive contests are proposed with 3 new currencies offered as prizes. The Planet, The Solar System, The Galaxy are 3 areas of focus. Each of these areas are considered in a cyberspectrum of (1) Sentience; (2) Biological diversity; and (3) Energy/Matter resources.

  6. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitnis, Dipti [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Thejokalyani, N., E-mail: thejokalyani@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2017-05-15

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex under UV light.

  7. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Dipti; Thejokalyani, N.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA) 3 bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex under UV light.

  8. Investigation on corrosion resistance of metal superficially modified with alkoxy titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Kangde; Song Shizhe; Shen Ningxiang

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made in order to determine corrosion protection performance of alkoxy titanate modified iron in a 3% NaCl solution. The effectiveness of alkoxy titanates as corrosion retarders for chloride environments is confirmed by both stepped potential sweep technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Ion microanalysis (IMA) depth profiles are used to elucidate the corrosion inhibitive action of different alkoxy titanate. (orig.)

  9. Exploring Charge Transport in Guest Molecule Infiltrated Cu3(BTC)2 Metal Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Francois Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this Exploratory Express project was to expand the understanding of the physical properties of our recently discovered class of materials consisting of metal-organic frameworks with electroactive ‘guest’ molecules that together form an electrically conducting charge-transfer complex (molecule@MOF). Thin films of Cu3(BTC)2 were grown on fused silica using solution step-by-step growth and were infiltrated with the molecule tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The infiltrated MOF films were extensively characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and thermoelectric properties. Thermopower measurements on TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2 revealed a positive Seebeck coefficient of ~400 μV/k, indicating that holes are the primary carriers in this material. The high value of the Seebeck coefficient and the expected low thermal conductivity suggest that molecule@MOF materials may be attractive for thermoelectric power conversion applications requiring low cost, solution-processable, and non-toxic active materials.

  10. Improvement of conditions for ceramics sintering on the base of lead zirconate-titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinchuk, M.D.; Kim, P.V.; Bykov, I.P.; Lyashchenko, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Lead zirconate-titanate powders of different graininess are studied for their phase composition. The finest grains of the powder consist of lead zirconate-titanate with the rhombohedral structure. Grains of 3-5 μm size are a mixture of lead zirconate-titanate and lead titanate, the latter exceeding 50% (by weight) causes the effect of anomalous expansion in the process of sintering. Control of the technological parameters of the synthesis permits producing powder with favourable correlation of the above phases and grain sizes. Sintering of such a powder induces no effect of the anomalous expansion with an increased density of the product attained

  11. Obstetric transition in the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health: exploring pathways for maternal mortality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange da Cruz Chaves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test whether the proposed features of the Obstetric Transition Model-a theoretical framework that may explain gradual changes that countries experience as they eliminate avoidable maternal mortality-are observed in a large, multicountry, maternal and perinatal health database; and to discuss the dynamic process of maternal mortality reduction using this model as a theoretical framework. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study by the World Health Organization that collected information on more than 300 000 women who delivered in 359 health facilities in 29 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, during a 2-4-month period in 2010-2011. The ratios of Potentially Life-Threatening Conditions, Severe Maternal Outcomes, Maternal Near Miss, and Maternal Death were estimated and stratified by stages of obstetric transition. The characteristics of each stage are defined. RESULTS: Data from 314 623 women showed that female fertility, indirectly estimated by parity, was higher in countries at a lower obstetric transition stage, ranging from a mean of 3 children in Stage II to 1.8 children in Stage IV. Medicalization increased with obstetric transition stage. In Stage IV, women had 2.4 times the cesarean deliveries (15.3% in Stage II and 36.7% in Stage IV and 2.6 times the labor inductions (7.1% in Stage II and 18.8% in Stage IV as women in Stage II. The mean age of primiparous women also increased with stage. The occurrence of uterine rupture had a decreasing trend, dropping by 5.2 times, from 178 to 34 cases per 100 000 live births, as a country transitioned from Stage II to IV. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the concept of obstetric transition using multicountry data. The Obstetric Transition Model could provide justification for customizing strategies for reducing maternal mortality according to a country's stage in the obstetric transition.

  12. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Klaus; Feteira, Antonio; Li, Ming

    2015-12-04

    The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized.

  13. Numerical simulation of the circulation of the atmosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdin, F.; Levan, P.; Talagrand, O.; Courtin, Regis; Gautier, Daniel; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Titan's atmosphere is described. Initial results obtained with an economical two dimensional (2D) axisymmetric version of the model presented a strong superrotation in the upper stratosphere. Because of this result, a more general numerical study of superrotation was started with a somewhat different version of the GCM. It appears that for a slowly rotating planet which strongly absorbs solar radiation, circulation is dominated by global equator to pole Hadley circulation and strong superrotation. The theoretical study of this superrotation is discussed. It is also shown that 2D simulations systemically lead to instabilities which make 2D models poorly adapted to numerical simulation of Titan's (or Venus) atmosphere.

  14. Incorporation of transuranic elements in titanate nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.J.; Ray, I.L.F.; Theile, H.; Trisoglio, C.; Walker, C.T.; White, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of actinide elements and their rare-earth element analogues in titanate nuclear waste forms in reviewed. New partitioning data are presented for three waste forms containing Purex waste simulant in combination with either NpO 2 , PuO 2 , or Am 2 O 3 . The greater proportion of transuranics partition between perovskite and zirconolite, while some americium may enter loveringite. Autoradiography revealed clusters of plutonium atoms which have been interpreted as unreacted dioxide or sesquioxide. It is concluded that the solid-state behavior of transuranic elements in titanate waste forms is poorly understood, certainly not well enough to tailor a ceramic for the incorporation of waste from reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuel in which transuranic species are more abundant than in Purex waste

  15. A 3-D Chemistry Transport Model for Titan's Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doege, M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Brasseur, G. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Tokano, T.; Newman, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    MOZART-2 (Horowitz et al., 2003) has been adapted to investigate seasonal and diurnal differences in neutral composition in Titan's atmosphere between the surface and 1,200 km altitude. The chemical scheme with 64 solution species and 383 reactions is based on a simplified version of the Lavvas et al. (2008) scheme, without haze production. Wind and temperature fields were taken from the Cologne GCM (Tokano, 2007) or TitanWRF (Richardson et al., 2007) for the troposphere and stratosphere, and from the London TGCM (Mueller-Wodarg, 2000) for the thermosphere. Pronounced hemispheric concentration gradients develop in the thermosphere, and a strong diurnal cycle in composition is found, similar to the findings of Mueller-Wodarg (2003) for methane. Sensitivity experiments with different strengths of thermospheric circulation to account for uncertainty about the wind fields in that region are presented.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiqin; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands

  17. A preliminary assessment of the Titan planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Results of a preliminary assessment of the characteristic features of the Titan planetary boundary are addressed. These were derived from the combined application of a patched Ekman surface layer model and Rossby number similarity theory. Both these models together with Obukhov scaling, surface speed limits and saltation are discussed. A characteristic Akman depth of approximately 0.7 km is anticipated, with an eddy viscosity approximately equal to 1000 sq cm/s, an associated friction velocity approximately 0.01 m/s, and a surface wind typically smaller than 0.6 m/s. Actual values of these parameters probably vary by as much as a factor of two or three, in response to local temporal variations in surface roughness and stability. The saltation threshold for the windblown injection of approximately 50 micrometer particulates into the atmosphere is less than twice the nominal friction velocity, suggesting that dusty breezes might be an occassional feature of the Titan meteorology.

  18. FEI Titan G2 60-300 HOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Boothroyd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The FEI Titan G2 60-300 HOLO is a unique fourth generation transmission electron microscope, which has been specifically designed for the investigation of electromagnetic fields of materials using off-axis electron holography. It has a Lorentz lens to allow magnetic field free imaging plus two electron biprisms, which in combination enable more uniform holographic fringes to be used. The instrument also has an ultra-wide objective lens pole piece gap which is ideal for in situ experiments. For these purposes, the FEI Titan G2 60-300 HOLO is equipped with a Schottky type high-brightness electron gun (FEI X-FEG, an image Cs corrector (CEOS, a post-column energy filter system (Gatan Tridiem 865 ER as well as a 4 megapixel CCD system (Gatan UltraScan 1000 XP. Typical examples of use and technical specifications for the instrument are given below.

  19. Social class and survival on the S.S. Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W

    1986-01-01

    Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.

  20. TITAN - a 9 MW, 179 bar pressurised water rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogford, D.J.; Lee, D.H.

    1987-02-01

    The report describes the TITAN rig built at Winfrith for thermal hydraulic experiments with water at up to 179 bar pressure. A power supply of 9 MW is available. The report describes three typical experiments that show the versatility of the rig. The first is a 25 rod pressurized water reactor fuel bundle critical heat flux experiment, the second is a parallel channel evaporator test and the third is a model jet pump test. (author)