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Sample records for tissues mycotoxins produced

  1. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  3. Occurrence of mycotoxin producing fungi in bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G; Hinojo, M J; Mateo, R; Medina, A; Jiménez, M

    2005-11-15

    The natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen is studied in the present report with special attention to analyze the incidence of fungal species that are potential producers of mycotoxins. A total of 90 ready-to-eat bee pollen samples were analyzed. Eighty-seven samples were collected in stores placed in different Spanish areas and three were from Buenos Aires (Argentina). The statistical results (ANOVA) showed that yeasts and Penicillium spp. were the predominant fungi. With regard to the potential mycotoxin producing species, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus niger aggregate, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Alternaria spp. were found. The last genus was isolated very frequently. The potential ability for producing ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) was studied by culturing in vitro the isolates followed by analysis of these mycotoxins in culture extracts by HPLC with fluorescent detection. It was found that 100%, 53.3%, 33.3% and 25% of the isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceus, P. verrucosum and A. niger aggregate, respectively, produced OTA. Moreover, 28.6% of the isolates from the A. flavus plus A. parasiticus group were able to produce aflatoxin B(1). Aflatoxin B(2) was detected in only 10% of the cultures. Aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were not detected in cultures under the assayed conditions. This is the first report carried out on the natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen in general and on the toxigenic capability of these isolates in particular.

  4. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

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    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  5. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  6. Important mycotoxins and the fungi which produce them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf; Samson, R.A

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of the relationship between species and mycotoxins production has proven to be very difficult. The modern literature is cluttered with examples of species purported to make particular mycotoxins, but where the association is incorrect. In some cases, mycotoxins have even been named......, are ever present problems in the food industry around the world. In defining mycotoxins, we exclude fungal metabolites which are active against bacteria, protozoa, and lower animals including insects....

  7. Cytotoxicity assays for mycotoxins produced by Fusarium strains: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Morrison, E.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food and feed. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases. Fusarium species, found worldwide in cereals and other food types for human and animal consumption, are the

  8. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

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    Lars ten Bosch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  9. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hamed K; Yoshizawa, Takumi; Shier, W Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to both plants and mammals. Simple trichothecenes, including type A (e.g., T-2 toxin) and type B (e.g., deoxynivalenol), are generally less toxic than macrocyclic trichothecenes. We sought to determine if simple trichothecenes are a potential source of candidates for development as bioherbicides, which require high phytotoxicity and low mammalian toxicity. We examined 28 simple trichothecenes in vitro for phytotoxicity using a small aquatic plant, Lemna pausicostata, and for mammalian toxicity using four cultured mammalian cell lines. Several structure-activity relationships were identified, including the following two, which may be relevant to bioherbicide development: peracetylation of type B trichothecenes and de-epoxidation of type A trichothecenes both substantially reduced mammalian toxicity with little effect on phytotoxicity. It was concluded that simple trichothecenes possessing strong phytotoxicity and minimal mammalian toxicity in vitro can be identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

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    Dana Tančinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates, Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate, Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate.

  11. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

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    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  12. A critical review of producers of small lactone mycotoxins: patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    A very large number of filamentous fungi has been reported to produce the small lactone mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin. Among the 167 reported fungal producers of patulin, only production by 29 species could be confirmed. Patulin is produced by 3 Aspergillus species, 3...

  13. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

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    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  14. In vivo effects of T-2 mycotoxin on synthesis of proteins and DNA in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were given an ip injection of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2), the T-2 metabolite, T-2 tetraol (tetraol), or cycloheximide. Serum, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, muscle, and intestine were collected at 3, 6, and 9 hr postinjection after a 2-hr pulse at each time with [14C]leucine and [3H]thymidine. Protein and DNA synthesis levels in rats were determined by dual-label counting of the acid-precipitable fraction of tissue homogenates. Rats given a lethal dose of T-2, tetraol, or cycloheximide died between 14 and 20 hr. Maximum inhibition of protein synthesis at the earliest time period was observed in additional rats given the same lethal dose of the three treatments and continued for the duration of the study (9 hr). With sublethal doses of T-2 or tetraol, the same early decrease in protein synthesis was observed but, in most of the tissues, recovery was seen with time. In the T-2-treated rats. DNA synthesis in the six tissues studied was also suppressed, although to a lesser degree. With sublethal doses, complete recovery of DNA synthesis took place in four of the six tissues by 9 hr after toxin exposure. The appearance of newly translated serum proteins did not occur in the animals treated with T-2 mycotoxin or cycloheximide, as evidenced by total and PCA-soluble serum levels of labeled leucine. An increase in tissue-pool levels of free leucine and thymidine in response to T-2 mycotoxin was also noted. T-2 mycotoxin, its metabolite, T-2 tetraol, and cycloheximide cause a rapid inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis in all tissue types studied. These results are compared with the responses seen in in vitro studies

  15. Use of gamma radiation to control fusarium verticilloides producing two known mycotoxins in infected corn grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, K.A.; Abouzeid, M.A.; Hassan, A.A.; Abd-Elrahman, D.G.; Hammad, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg) was isolated from fresh grains collected from corn fields with ears symptoms. When cultured in liquid media under controlled incubation conditions, two already known mycotoxins were produced. The two mycotoxins were obtained through the extraction process of the lyophilized culture filtrate under acidic condition using ethyl acetate and were detected by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in comparison with the authentic of both acids. Mass spectroscopic investigations confirmed the molecular weight of the two toxic compounds which are known as fusaric and 9, 10-dehydro fusaric acids. Application of gamma radiation at doses up to 3 KGy caused a slight decrease in the mould count of isolated pathogen while a 5 KGy dose caused a dramatic reduction in fungal count and at irradiation dose of 12.5 KGy the fungus was completely inhibited for up to 12 weeks of storage

  16. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, M T; Pasqualotto, A C; Warn, P A; Bowyer, P; Denning, D W

    2007-06-01

    Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. Outbreaks associated with A. flavus appear to be associated with single or closely related strains, in contrast to those associated with A. fumigatus. In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. albertensis. The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of annotation. Our understanding of A. flavus lags far behind that of A. fumigatus. Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required.

  17. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Franchi, María Luisa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recove...

  18. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, María Soledad; Decundo, Julieta; Martinez, Mauro; Dieguez, Susana Nelly; Moreyra, Federico; Moreno, Maria Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. PMID:29439459

  19. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

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    María Soledad Nogueira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV, respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g; 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina.

  20. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

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    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  1. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites.

  2. Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe

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    Kočube Šandor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are able to produce a range of mycotoxins, includ­ing e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin. Aflatoxins are mainly produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi, and they contaminate various agricultural products in several parts of the world. Several recent reports have indicated that aflatoxin-producing fungi and consequently aflatoxin contamination occur in agricultural commodities in a number of European countries which have not been faced with this problem before. Indeed, recent surveys have clarified that concentrations of aflatoxins in maize products and milk has been exceeding the EU limit in several regions of Central Europe including Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Northern Italy and Romania. However, aflatoxin contamination and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species have not been identified yet in maize in Hungary. We examined the presence of potential aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli in maize samples collected in southern parts of Hungary. Several A. flavus isolates were identified, and pre­liminary results indicated that some of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Con­tamination of other agricultural products with aflatoxins can also pose problems in Central Europe due to global warming. Ochratoxin contamination of grapes and grape-derived products is usually caused by black Aspergilli, especially by A. carbonarius and A. niger, although these species have been rare in Central European vineyards due to climatic fac­tors. Ochratoxin contamination of other agricultural products including spices and cereals was also observed in the region. Besides, ochratoxin producing Aspergilli are frequently isolated from imported products including coffee beans, dried fruits and spices, and ochra­toxin contamination of these samples was also observed. Fumonisins are produced mainly by Fusarium species, and by the recently identified producers Aspergillus niger and A. awamori. We examined fumonisin

  3. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

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    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  4. Mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in poultry feed for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Franchi, María Luisa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  5. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety. PMID:25126610

  6. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information.

  7. Biological control of mycotoxin-producing molds Controle biológico de fungos de armazenamento produtores de micotoxinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Vasconcelos de Medeiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are produced by the secondary metabolism of many fungi and can be found in almost 25% of the world's agricultural commodities. These compounds are toxic to humans, animals, and plants and therefore, efforts should be made to avoid mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. Besides, up to 25% of all harvested fruits and vegetables are lost due to storage molds and/or mycotoxin contamination and many methods have been applied to mitigate these issues, but most of them rely on the use of fungicides. Although chemicals are often the first defensive line against mycotoxigenic fungi, the indiscriminate use of fungicides are awakening the public perception due to their noxious effects on the environment and human/animal health. Thus, there is an increasing public pressure for a safer and eco-friendly alternative to control these organisms. In this background, biological control using microbial antagonists such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been shown to be a feasible substitute to reduce the use of chemical compounds. Despite of the positive findings using the biocontrol agents only a few products have been registered and are commercially available to control mycotoxin-producing fungi. This review brings about the up-to-date biological control strategies to prevent or reduce harvested commodity damages caused by storage fungi and the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins.As micotoxinas são produzidas pelo metabolismo secundário de várias espécies de fungos e podem ser encontradas em quase 25% das commodities agrícolas. Esses compostos são tóxicos a humanos, animais e plantas e, portanto, esforços para evitar a contaminação de micotoxinas em alimentos e rações devem ser feitos. Além disso, até 25% das frutas e legumes em pós-colheita são perdidos em decorrência do ataque de fungos de armazenamento e/ou contaminações por micotoxinas. Vários métodos têm sido aplicados para mitigar os problemas de micotoxinas

  8. Mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada 1975 to 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M G

    1981-01-01

    Results of analyses of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone were most frequently requested. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 474 specimens at a level of 60 ppb in a sample of hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in four of 148 specimens of grains and two of 19 specimens of corn at levels up to 500 ppb. Trichothecenes were qualitatively found in two of 108 specimens of forage, three of 182 specimens of feeds and one of 148 specimens of grains. Ergot was detected qualitatively in three specimens of rye and one of forage. An overall detection rate of 3.8% of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occasionally occur in farm livestock or poultry. PMID:6455187

  9. Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    extrolite families are reported from the subgenus with an average of 5 extrolite families per species. This is an underestimate as several pigments, volatiles and uncharacterized extrolites are not included in this average. Several reported producers are reidentified and new producers of known extrolites...... species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. In most cases these extrolites are produced consistently by all isolates examined in a species. The important antibiotic penicillin is produced by all members of series Chrysogena and P. griseofulvum. The cholesterol-lowering agent compactin is produced by P...

  10. Biosynthesis and characterization of ¹⁵N₆-labeled phomopsin A, a lupin associated mycotoxin produced by Diaporthe toxica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloß, Svenja; Wedell, Ines; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

    2015-06-15

    The hepatotoxin phomopsin A (PHO-A), a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, occurs predominantly on sweet lupins. Along with the growing interest in sweet lupins for food and feed commodities, concerns have been raised about fungal infestations, and consequently, about the determination of PHO-A. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents the most suitable analytical technique for sensitive and selective detection of mycotoxins including PHO-A. However, isotopic labeled substances are needed as internal standards for a reliable and convenient quantification. As no isotope standard for PHO-A is currently available, a biosynthesis of fully (15)N6-labeled PHO-A was established by cultivation of D. toxica on defined media containing Na(15)NO3 and (15)N-labeled yeast extract as the only nitrogen sources. The identity of (15)N6-PHO-A was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The new (15)N6-labeled standard will facilitate the method development for PHO-A including a more accurate quantification by LC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycotoxin producing potential of some isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Eurotium groups from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Kady, I; el-Maraghy, S; Zohri, A N

    1994-09-01

    All strains (92) of A. flavus group proved to be positive for production of aflatoxin (45 to 1200 micrograms/50 ml medium) on potato dextrose liquid medium, while 59 strains only proved to be positive (35-310 micrograms/50 ml) on 15% NaCl potato-dextrose liquid medium. Most of the strains tested of A. flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris and A. oryzae produced aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2. All positive strains of A. tamarii produced aflatoxins G1 & G2 while the tested isolate of A. zonatus produced aflatoxins B1 & G1. Of 95 strains tested of Eurotium, aflatoxins B1 & G1 were produced by one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. repens and E. rubrum. Gliotoxin was detected in the extract of two strains of E. chevalieri and one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium and E. pseudoglaucum on the salt-free medium, and two strains of each of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium and one of E. pseudoglaucum on 15% NaCl medium. Sterigmatocystin was produced by some strains of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. amstelodami, E. pseudoglaucum and E. rubrum on the two experimental media. One strain only of E. repens produced ochratoxin A while citrinin was detected in the extract of one strain of E. pseudoglaucum.

  12. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in sweet potato root tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M. [Kagawa Univ., Miki (Japan); Yoshizawa, T.

    1990-12-15

    Sweet potato root tissues were used as an experimental model system for metabolism of trichothecenes in plants. {sup 14}C-Labeledeoxynivalenol was rapidly metabolized in the root tissues, most of the administered deoxynivalenol having disappeared by day 2. The half-life of the toxin in the root tissues was estimated to be less than 5hr. By reverse-phase HPLC and TLC, it was demonstrated that the toxin was converted to at least three metabolites in the root tissues. The relationships between the parent toxin and the three metabolites are discussed on the basis of the time course of the metabolic transformation of the toxin in the root tissues. (author)

  13. An integrated sample preparation to determine coccidiostats and emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins in various poultry tissues with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestoi, Marika; Rokka, Mervi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    The usefulness of an existing sample preparation technique used for ionophoric coccidiostats (lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin) was applied in the analysis of emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs) in poultry tissues (liver and meat). Also, maduramicin and liver as a new sample matrix was introduced. The developed methods were validated and applied for the determination of coccidiostats and BEA/ENNs in Finnish poultry tissues in 2004-2005. The validation parameters demonstrated that the integrated sample preparation technique is applicable to the parallel determination of these contaminants in poultry tissues. Of the samples analysed (276 meat and 43 liver), only trace levels of LAS, MON, SAL, NAR and MAD were detected in 7, 3, 5, 6 and 4% of the samples, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, traces of BEA and ENNs could also be detected in animal tissues. BEA and ENNs A, A1, B and B1 were found in 2, 0.3, 0.6, 4 and 3% of the samples, respectively. The simultaneous presence of coccidiostats and mycotoxins was detected in three turkey samples in 2004.

  14. Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Siegel, David; Merkel, Stefan; Maul, Ronald; Nehls, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a "carry-over" of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk, and eggs after feeding of contaminated hay or corn. As a consequence of their diverse chemical structures and varying physical properties, mycotoxins exhibit a wide range of biological effects. Individual mycotoxins can be genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and oestrogenic. To protect consumer health and to reduce economic losses, surveillance and control of mycotoxins in food and feed has become a major objective for producers, regulatory authorities and researchers worldwide. However, the variety of chemical structures makes it impossible to use one single technique for mycotoxin analysis. Hence, a vast number of analytical methods has been developed and validated. The heterogeneity of food matrices combined with the demand for a fast, simultaneous and accurate determination of multiple mycotoxins creates enormous challenges for routine analysis. The most crucial issues will be discussed in this review. These are (1) the collection of representative samples, (2) the performance of classical and emerging analytical methods based on chromatographic or immunochemical techniques, (3) the validation of official methods for enforcement, and (4) the limitations and future prospects of the current methods.

  15. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela eATANASOVA-PENICHON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation.

  16. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  17. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Tola; Bedaso Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are poisonous chemical compounds produced by certain fungi. There are five mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins that occur quite often in food: deoxynivalenol/Nivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin, fumonisins and aflatoxins. The fungi that produce mycotoxins in food fall broadly into two groups: those that invade before harvest, commonly called field fungi, and those that occur only after harvest, called storage fungi. There are three types of toxicogenic field fungi: plant pathogens su...

  19. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  20. Modelling climate change impacts on mycotoxin contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Liu, C.; Battilani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Projected climate change effects will influence primary agricultural systems and thus food security, directly via impacts on yields, and indirectly via impacts on its safety, with mycotoxins considered as crucial hazards. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide variety of fungal species, each having their

  1. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  2. VHH Antibodies: Reagents for Mycotoxin Detection in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and they are a worldwide public health concern. A VHH antibody (or nanobody is the smallest antigen binding entity and is produced by heavy chain only antibodies. Compared with conventional antibodies, VHH antibodies overcome many pitfalls typically encountered in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics. Likewise, VHH antibodies are particularly useful for monitoring mycotoxins in food and feedstuffs, as they are easily genetic engineered and have superior stability. In this review, we summarize the efforts to produce anti-mycotoxins VHH antibodies and associated assays, presenting VHH as a potential tool in mycotoxin analysis.

  3. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshannaq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds. These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed can cause acute or chronic toxicity in human and animals. In addition to concerns over adverse effects from direct consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and feeds, there is also public health concern over the potential ingestion of animal-derived food products, such as meat, milk, or eggs, containing residues or metabolites of mycotoxins. Members of three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, are the major mycotoxin producers. While over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, six (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and patulin are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide. This review summarizes the toxicity of the six mycotoxins, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them, and the current methods for detection and analysis of these mycotoxins.

  4. Human skin kinetics of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; ROCHE, NATHALIE; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are an emerging group of naturally occurring bioactive peptides, some of which are already developed as pharmaceutical drugs, e.g. valinomycin. They are produced by bacteria, marine organisms and fungi [1]. Some CDPs are secondary fungal metabolites, which can be very toxic to humans and animals, and are therefore called mycotoxins. Currently, dermal exposure data of CDP mycotoxins is scarce and fragmentary with a lack of understanding about the local skin and syst...

  5. A classification of the mechanisms producing pathological tissue changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, John O; Oh, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    The objectives are to present a classification of mechanisms which can produce pathological changes in body tissues and fluids, as well as to clarify and define the term biocorrosion, which has had a singular use in engineering. Considering the emerging field of biomedical engineering, it is essential to use precise definitions in the lexicons of engineering, bioengineering and related sciences such as medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine. The mechanisms of stress, friction and biocorrosion and their pathological effects on tissues are described. Biocorrosion refers to the chemical, biochemical and electrochemical changes by degradation or induced growth of living body tissues and fluids. Various agents which can affect living tissues causing biocorrosion are enumerated which support the necessity and justify the use of this encompassing and more precise definition of biocorrosion. A distinction is made between the mechanisms of corrosion and biocorrosion.

  6. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  7. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  8. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Ledoux, D R; Naehrer, K; Berthiller, F; Applegate, T J; Grenier, B; Phillips, T D; Schatzmayr, G

    2015-06-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as "biotransformation" or "biodetoxification," utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses the above

  9. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G. R.; Ledoux, D. R.; Naehrer, K.; Berthiller, F.; Applegate, T. J.; Grenier, B.; Phillips, T. D.; Schatzmayr, G.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as “biotransformation” or “biodetoxification,” utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses

  10. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Name\tRomsyah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all stages of production. Pre harvest control is conducted through the selection of resistant varieties, insect control and weeds management mechanically or applying fungicides and herbicides, plant rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as biological control . Harvesting at the right time using clean equipments from fungal contamination and insect infestation avoids the contamination of mycotoxins . Post harvest control by physical selection, washing and dilution, drying, storage, application of chemicals and binding agents, natural products, nutrients and vitamins, microbiological control, heating and radiation could also minimize mycotoxin in food and feed . Although chemicals can effectively reduce mycotoxin, the use of those on food/feed should be considered the safety . The addition of natural products, nutrition supplements and vitamins suppress the negative effect of mycotoxin on animals . The use of non-toxigenic fungi and other microbes as biological control is the effective and safe methods for food/feed . The implementation of integrated mycotoxin control system by utilizing the HACCP concept would meet the qualified and safe food/feed products .

  11. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  12. Pleural tissue hyaluronan produced by postmortem ventilation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P M; Lai-Fook, S J

    2000-01-01

    We developed a method that used Alcian blue bound to hyaluronan to measure pleural hyaluronan in rabbits postmortem. Rabbits were killed, then ventilated with 21% O2--5% CO2--74% N2 for 3 h. The pleural liquid was removed by suction and 5 ml Alcian blue stock solution (0.33 mg/ml, 3.3 pH) was injected into each chest cavity. After 10 min, the Alcian blue solution was removed and the unbound Alcian blue solution (supernatant) separated by centrifugation and filtration. The supernatant transmissibility (T) was measured spectrophotometrically at 613 nm. Supernatant Alcian blue concentration (Cab) was obtained from a calibration curve of T versus dilutions of stock solution Cab. Alcian blue bound to pleural tissue hyaluronan was obtained by subtracting supernatant Cab from stock solution Cab. Pleural tissue hyaluronan was obtained from a calibration curve of hyaluronan versus Alcian blue bound to hyaluronan. Compared with control rabbits, pleural tissue hyaluronan (0.21 +/- 0.04 mg/kg) increased twofold, whereas pleural liquid volume decreased by 30% after 3 h of ventilation. Pleural effusions present 3 h postmortem without ventilation did not change pleural tissue hyaluronan from control values. Thus ventilation-induced pleural liquid shear stress, not increased filtration, was the stimulus for the increased hyaluronan produced from pleural mesothelial cells.

  13. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  14. Growth and mycotoxin production by Chaetomium globosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Matthew R; Douglas, David R; Jumper, Cynthia A; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    Chaetomium globosum, the most common species within this genus, produces chaetoglobosins A and C when cultured on building material. Relatively low levels of these compounds have been shown to be lethal to various tissue culture cell lines. This study had two major objectives: (1) to determine the frequency at which Chaetomium species are isolated in water-damaged buildings and (2) to examine the production of chaetoglobosins A and C in isolates of C. globosum obtained from different buildings. Out of 794 water-damaged buildings, Chaetomium species were isolated in 49% of these structures. C. globosum ATCC 16021 was grown on four different media: oatmeal agar (OA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), corn meal agar (CMA), and malt extract agar (MEA). After 4 weeks, fungal growth was evaluated based on colony diameter and the quantity of spores produced on agar plates. In addition, production of chaetoglobosin A and C was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography. Colony diameter, spore production, and mycotoxin production by C. globosum were the highest on OA. Out of 30 C. globosum isolates cultured on OA for 4 weeks, 16 produced detectable amounts of chaetoglobosin A and every isolate produced chaetoglobosin C.

  15. Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui; Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran

    2018-01-01

    The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria–xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin contamination and

  16. Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria–xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin

  17. Predominant mycotoxins, mycotoxigenic fungi and climate change related to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Wine is a significant contributor to the economies of many countries. However, the commodity can become contaminated with mycotoxins produced by certain fungi. Most information on mycotoxins in wine is from Spain, Italy and France. Grapes can be infected by mycotoxigenic fungi, of which Aspergillus carbonarius producing ochratoxin A (OTA) is of highest concern. Climate is the most important factor in determining contamination once the fungi are established, with high temperatures being a major factor for OTA contamination: OTA in wine is at higher concentrations in warmer southern Europe than northern. Contamination by fumonisins is a particular concern, related to Aspergillus niger producing these compounds and the fungus being isolated frequently from grapes. Aflatoxins can be present in wine, but patulin is seldom detected. Alternaria mycotoxins (e.g. alternariol) have been frequently observed. There are indications that T-2 toxin may be common. Also, the combined effects of mycotoxins in wine require consideration. No other mycotoxins are currently of concern. Accurate fungal identifications and mycotoxin detection from the fungi are important and a consideration of practical methods are required. There is a diversity of wines that can be contaminated (e.g. red, white, sweet, dry and fortified). The occurrence of OTA is higher in red and sweet than white wines. Steps to control mycotoxins in wine involve good agriculture practices. The effect of climate change on vines and mycotoxins in wine needs urgent consideration by well-constructed modelling studies and expert interpretation of existing data. Reliable models of the effect of climate change on vines is a priority: the health of vines affects mycotoxin contamination. A modelling study of OTA in grapes at higher temperatures over 100years is required. Progress has been made in reducing OTA in wine. The other mycotoxins require consideration and the effects of climate change will become crucial. Copyright

  18. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins. Among the most important mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium are the trichothecenes and the fumonisins. Fumonisins cause fatal livestock diseases and are considered potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins for humans, while trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes the main aspects of morphology, pathology, and toxigenicity of the main Fusarium species that colonize different agricultural crops and environments worldwide, and cause mycotoxin contamination of food and feed.

  19. Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are poisonous chemical compounds produced by certain fungi. There are five mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins that occur quite often in food: deoxynivalenol/Nivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin, fumonisins and aflatoxins. The fungi that produce mycotoxins in food fall broadly into two groups: those that invade before harvest, commonly called field fungi, and those that occur only after harvest, called storage fungi. There are three types of toxicogenic field fungi: plant pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol; fungi that grow on senescent or stressed plants, such as Fusarium moniliforme (fumonisin and sometimes Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxin; and fungi that initially colonise the plant before harvest and predispose the commodity to mycotoxin contamination after harvest, such as Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin and Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxin. The favourable conditions for mycotoxins production are instigated with poor hygienic conditions at the time of transportation and storage, high temperature and moisture content and heavy rains. Mycotoxins are distributed in different items such as animal feeds, cereal crops, leguminous plants and animal products. Concentrated animal feed stuffs harbor highest level of mycotoxins. Noug cake and sorghum was warranted as the main source of aflatoxin contaminant among those concentrated animal feeds. Health effects occur in companion animals, livestock, poultry and humans because aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxins, immunosuppressant, and mutagens and carcinogens. Factors that affect mycotoxins production and contamination can be categorized as physical, chemical and biological. Therefore, African countries particularly Ethiopian governmental jurisdictions shouldimplement and regulate level of mycotoxins in animal feed stuffs and human foods.

  20. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  1. Fusarium mycotoxins: a trans-disciplinary overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to health risks and economic losses associated with mycotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Phylogenetic studies have made tremendous progress in d...

  2. Biosensors and multiple mycotoxin analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, B. van der; Spath, S.; Dietrich, H.; Stigter, E.; Boonzaaijer, G.; Osenbruggen, T. van; Koopal, K.

    2003-01-01

    An immunochemical biosensor assay for the detection of multiple mycotoxins in a sample is described.The inhibition assay is designed to measure four different mycotoxins in a single measurement, following extraction, sample clean-up and incubation with an appropriate cocktail of anti-mycotoxin

  3. Tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of a fusion protein containing a Fusarium-specific antibody and a fungal chitinase protects wheat against Fusarium pathogens and mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Du, Hong-Jie; Wei, Qi-Yong; Huang, Tao; Yang, Peng; Kong, Xian-Wei; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small grain cereals is a globally devastating disease caused by toxigenic Fusarium pathogens. Controlling FHB is a challenge because germplasm that is naturally resistant against these pathogens is inadequate. Current control measures rely on fungicides. Here, an antibody fusion comprised of the Fusarium spp.-specific recombinant antibody gene CWP2 derived from chicken, and the endochitinase gene Ech42 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride was introduced into the elite wheat cultivar Zhengmai9023 by particle bombardment. Expression of this fusion gene was regulated by the lemma/palea-specific promoter Lem2 derived from barley; its expression was confirmed as lemma/palea-specific in transgenic wheat. Single-floret inoculation of independent transgenic wheat lines of the T3 to T6 generations revealed significant resistance (type II) to fungal spreading, and natural infection assays in the field showed significant resistance (type I) to initial infection. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed marked reduction of mycotoxins in the grains of the transgenic wheat lines. Progenies of crosses between the transgenic lines and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Huamai13 also showed significantly enhanced FHB resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the tissue-specific expression of the antibody fusion was induced by salicylic acid drenching and induced to a greater extent by F. graminearum infection. Histochemical analysis showed substantial restriction of mycelial growth in the lemma tissues of the transgenic plants. Thus, the combined tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of this Fusarium-specific antibody fusion can effectively protect wheat against Fusarium pathogens and reduce mycotoxin content in grain. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mycotoxin metrology: Gravimetric production of zearalenone calibration solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, E. C. P.; Simon, M. E.; Li, Xiuqin; Li, Xiaomin; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Westwood, S.; Josephs, R. D.; Wielgosz, R. I.; Cunha, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Food safety is a major concern for countries developing metrology and quality assurance systems, including the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins. To improve the mycotoxin analysis and ensure the metrological traceability, CRM of calibration solution should be used. The production of certified mycotoxin solutions is a major challenge due to the limited amount of standard for conducting a proper purity study and due to the cost of standards. The CBKT project was started at BIPM and Inmetro produced gravimetrically one batch of zearelenone in acetronitrile (14.708 ± 0.016 μg/g, k=2) and conducted homogeneity, stability and value assignment studies.

  5. Use of computed tomography and histopathologic review for lung lesions produced by the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and fumonisin mycotoxins in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósa, R; Magyar, T; Stoev, S D; Glávits, R; Donkó, T; Repa, I; Kovács, M

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a primary role in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The objective of this study was to determine whether fumonisin mycotoxins influence the character and/or the severity of pathological processes induced in the lungs of pigs by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Four groups of pigs (n = 7/group) were used, one fed 20 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1) from 16 days of age (group F), one only infected with M. hyopneumoniae on study day 30 (group M), and a group fed FB1 and infected with M. hyopneumoniae (group MF), along with an untreated control group (group C). Computed tomography (CT) scans of infected pigs (M and MF) on study day 44 demonstrated lesions extending to the cranial and middle or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lungs. The CT images obtained on study day 58 showed similar but milder lesions in 5 animals from group M, whereas lungs from 2 pigs in group MF appeared progressively worse. The evolution of average pulmonary density calculated from combined pixel frequency values, as measured by quantitative CT, was significantly influenced by the treatment and the age of the animals. The most characteristic histopathologic lesion in FB1-treated pigs was pulmonary edema, whereas the pathomorphological changes in Mycoplasma-infected pigs were consistent with catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. FB1 aggravated the progression of infection, as demonstrated by severe illness requiring euthanasia observed in 1 pig and evidence of progressive pathology in 2 pigs (group MF) between study days 44 and 58.

  6. Mycotoxin occurrence in maize produced in Northern Italy over the years 2009–2011: focus on the role of crop related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco CAMARDO LEGGIERI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of mycotoxins associated with Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus in Northern Italy, and the role of cropping systems, were investigated on 140 field samples collected over the years 2009–2011. Samples were analysed for fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFs, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN using validated analytical methods. Information on: maize hybrid, preceding crop, tillage applied, mineral nutrition, pest and disease control, severity of European Corn Borer (ECB attack, sowing and harvesting dates, kernel moisture at harvesting and longitude of the sampled province, were also collected. During this period there were distinct differences in FBs and AFs concentrations between years and geographic origins, and very low contamination with DON and ZEN was always found. The incidence of AFs exceeded 75% across all samples, and was almost 100% for FBs. The meteorological trends were quite different in the 3 years surveyed. 2009 was the coldest in June and the warmest in August, 2010 the most humid, and in 2011 cold weather occurred during flowering and dry conditions during ripening. The run of a logistic equation with the backward stepwise approach selected three parameters, (seeding week, ECB severity and longitude of sampling province to predict AFB1 contamination and four parameters (year, sowing week, ECB severity and longitude of sampling province to predict FB contamination. The internal validation gave good results, with 76% correct predictions. The probability of harvesting maize with more than 5 µg kg-1 of AFB1 varied between 86 and 5%, and the probability of harvesting maize with more than 4,000 µg kg-1 of FBs varied between 81 and 2%, respectively, for conducive and non-conducive environments. Therefore, considerable variability was found even if a limited area and only 3 years were considered.

  7. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  8. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  9. Mycotoxins in Meat and Processed Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Jean-Denis; Guerre, Philippe

    Mycotoxins are toxic substances elaborated by fungi. They constitute a heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites with diverse potent pharmacological and toxic effects in humans and animals. More than 300 secondary metabolites have been identified but around 30 are of real concern for human and animal health (for review, see Bennett & Klich, 2003). These molecules are produced during mould development on plants in the field or during storage period. They can be found as natural contaminants of many vegetal foods or feeds, mainly cereals, but also fruits, nuts, grains, forage as well as compound foods intended for human or animal consumption. Most important mycotoxins are produced by moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genus (Bhatnagar, Yu, & Ehrlich, 2002; Conkova, Laciakova, Kovac, & Seidel, 2003; Pitt, 2002). These molecules are usually classified depending on the fungal species that produce them (Table 4.1)

  10. Mycotoxin in the food supply chain-implications for public health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, D; Nastasijevic, I; Petrovic, Z

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic chemical substances, produced mainly by microscopic filamentous fungal species. Regarding potential synergisms or even mitigating effects between toxic elements, mycotoxin contamination will continue to be an area of concern for producers, manufacturers, regulatory agencies, researchers, and consumers in the future. In Serbia, recent drought and then flooding confirmed that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. In this article, we review key aspects of mycotoxin contamination of the food supply chain and implications for public health from the Serbian perspective.

  11. Overview of the most important mycotoxins for the pig and poultry husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi, which may be present on a variety of crops. They are considered a major issue worldwide because of their harmful effects on animals. These contaminants lead to great economic losses, especially in pig and poultry husbandry. Over 400 mycotoxins have been identifi ed. However, only few of them have a signifi cant toxic effect and are of major concern. In this paper, the most important mycotoxins are described, including deoxynivalenol (DON...

  12. Assessment of mycotoxins in Vitis vinifera wines of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine is prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp., and it was recently discovered that some of these species can also produce the mycotoxin fumonisin B2. Although wine...

  13. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Name Romsyah

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all s...

  14. Acrolein: An Effective Biomarker for Tissue Damage Produced from Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Uemura, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    It is thought that the major factor responsible for cell damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS), but our recent studies have shown that acrolein (CH 2 =CH-CHO) produced from spermine and spermidine is more toxic than ROS. Thus, (1) the mechanism of acrolein production during brain stroke, (2) one of the mechanisms of acrolein toxicity, and (3) the role of glutathione in acrolein detoxification are described in this chapter.

  15. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Peraica

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN. Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.

  17. Quorum quenchers and sensors as possible roles for mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assumed role for mycotoxins is to act as defensive metabolites thus serving as protection for fungi from biotic antagonisms and as such do not interact with the daily metabolic requirements of the producing fungus. Preventive strategies are devoted to reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins bas...

  18. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  19. Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: current situation and possibilities of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the different mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) produced in agricultural crops in the West African sub-region. The acute and chronic toxic effects of the various mycotoxins are presented. Maize and groundnuts have been found to be excellent substrate for aflatoxin contamination, while ...

  20. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT in red yeast rice (RYR products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8% complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of

  1. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation and Some Environmental Conditions on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins Producing Moulds in Corn Meal and Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Mucor were the most common genera isolated from wheat flour and corn meal. Aspergillus flavus, A.ocllraceus, P. viridieatum,. P.islalldicum, F. monilforme, F. tricinctum,and F. equisetie were aflatoxin B, ochratoxin A and zearalenone producers. Irradiation at a dose 5 kGy reduced the total fungal counts relative to un-irradiated controls. There was no growth at 7.0 kGy. At 18% moisture level, there was no deterioration at 34 degree C for 3 kGy irradiated samples after 2 weeks of storage. A dose of 5 kGy inhibited the toxigenic mould growth in wheat flour and corn meal stored for 12 months at 18% moisture content and at 25 degree C

  2. Inhaled mycotoxins lead to acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Garosi, G; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1994-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected, but never proved, to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin. We observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) due to inhalation of ochratoxin A produced by a mould of the species Aspergillus ochraceus. After working 8 h in a granary closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered respiratory distress; the woman developed non-oliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis. A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  3. Mycotoxin occurrence on baled and pit silages collected in Co. Meath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of baled silages produced in Ireland have identified considerable filamentous fungal contamination. Many of these fungi are toxigenic, capable of producing secondary metabolites, namely mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are potentially detrimental to livestock health and some can pose a risk to consumers of animal products. Baled (n=20 and pit (n=18 silages from a sample of farms (n=38 in Co. Meath were examined to assess the occurrence of mycotoxins and ascertain whether sampling position within the pit silos (feed face vs. 3 m behind the feed face has an effect on mycotoxin content or other chemical compositional variables. Of the 20 mycotoxins assayed, baled silages contained [mean of positive values (no. of values in mean] mycotoxin concentrations (μg/kg dry matter of beauvericin 36 (2, enniatin (enn. A 9.3 (3, enn. A1 54 (8, enn. B 351 (9, enn. B1 136 (10, mycophenolic acid (MPA 11,157 (8 and roquefortine C (Roq. C 1037 (8 and pit silages contained beauvericin 25 (2 enn. A1 18 (2, enn. B 194 (9, enn. B1 57 (3, MPA 287 (6, Roq. C 3649 (6 and zearalenone 76 (1. There was no difference (P>0.05 observed in the mycotoxin concentrations between baled and pit silages, and 11 of the 20 mycotoxins assayed were below the limits of detection. The position of sampling had no effect on the mycotoxin concentration detected in pit silages. It is concluded that mycotoxin concentrations detected in these pit and baled silages in Co. Meath did not exceed EU regulation or guidance limits, and that similar chemical composition and mycotoxin concentration values occurred at the pit silage feed face and 3 m behind this feed face.

  4. Mycoflora and Natural Incidence of Selected Mycotoxins in Rabbit and Chinchilla Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response when ingested by animals or man. Demand of natural fur, such as those from rabbit and chinchilla, produced under controlled conditions, has increased worldwide. The toxicogenic mycoflora contaminating feeds for these animals was enumerated and identified. Six of the major mycotoxins implicated in animal mycotoxicosis were detected and quantified. Moulds count ranged from <10 to 4.7×105 CFU g-1; 14% of the samples exceeded the limit that determines hygienic feed quality. More than twenty species belonging to the five most important mycotoxigenic mould genera were recovered. Among the analyzed mycotoxins, aflatoxins were recovered in 100% of the examined samples, deoxynivalenol in 95%, fumonisins in 100%, ochratoxin A in 98%, T2 toxin in 98%, and zearalenone in 100%. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins was observed in 100% of the samples analyzed. Exposure to multiple mycotoxins was thus demonstrated for these animals.

  5. Fungal species and multiple mycotoxin contamination of cultivated forage crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kononenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grass samples used for animal feed by combining mycotoxin measures and mycological determination of mycobiota were explored. The samples of the plant material were collected in 2014 in two stages: before the first mowing (May–June and before the second one (July–August from the fields of stock-farms located in northwestern part of the Russia. All samples were divided into three types: grasses, mixture of different grasses and clover, alfalfa mixed with timothy. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1, alternariol, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, emodin, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A, PR-toxin, roridin A, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone were determined using ELISA. The multiple fungal and mycotoxin contaminations are already formed in plant tissues by the moment of first mowing. The complexes of mycotoxins including up to 14–16 components and the combined character of plant contamination quite correspond to the taxonomic variety of mycobiota.

  6. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle P. Oswald

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  7. How Do Grass Species, Season and Ensiling Influence Mycotoxin Content in Forage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that have harmful effects on mammals. The aim of this study was to assess the content of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material of selected forage grass species both during and at the end of the growing season. We further assessed mycotoxin content in subsequently produced first-cutting silages with respect to the species used in this study: Lolium perenne (cv. Kentaur, Festulolium pabulare (cv. Felina, Festulolium braunii (cv. Perseus, and mixtures of these species with Festuca rubra (cv. Gondolin or Poa pratensis (Slezanka. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were mainly detected in the fresh-cut grass material, while fumonisin and aflatoxin contents were below the detection limits. July and October were the most risky periods for mycotoxins to occur. During the cold temperatures in November and December, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material declined. Although June was a period with low incidence of mycotoxins in green silage, contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in silages from the first cutting exceeded by several times those determined in their biomass collected directly from the field. Moreover, we observed that use of preservatives or inoculants did not prevent mycotoxin production.

  8. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  9. Acute renal failure from inhalation of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Loi, F; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1993-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin, however, the hypothesis has never been verified. Recently, we observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) undeniably due to inhalation of ochratoxin of Aspergillus ochraceus. After spending 8 h in a granary which had been closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered temporary respiratory distress; 24 h later, the woman developed nonoliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis which healed in 24 days. Toxic substances were not found, but a strain of A. ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  10. Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Hongpu; Lv, Xiaolan; Wang, Min; Jiang, Xizhi; Jiang, Yifei; Wang, Heye; Zhao, Yongfu; Xia, Liru

    2018-03-01

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg -1 , respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81-86% for deoxynivalenol, 89-117% for zearalenone, 79-86% for T-2 toxin, and 78-83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods. Graphical abstract Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone.

  11. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  12. Distribution of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in 200 Fusarium genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus of fungi that causes disease on most crop plants and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To determine the potential SM diversity within Fusarium as well as the distribution and ev...

  13. A Concise History of Mycotoxin Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, John I; Miller, J David

    2017-08-23

    Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals. In the historical context, ergotism from Claviceps purpurea in rye has been known probably for more than 2000 years and caused the deaths of many thousands of people in Europe in the last millennium. Known in Japan since the 17th century, acute cardiac beriberi associated with the consumption of moldy rice was found to be due to citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum. This toxin was believed to be only of historic importance until its reemergence in Brazil a few years ago. Other Penicillium toxins, including ochratoxin A, once considered to be a possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy, are treated in a historical context. The role of Fusarium toxins in human and animal health, especially T-2 toxin in alimentary toxic aleukia in Russia in the 1940s and fumonisins in equine leucoencephalomalasia, is set out in some detail. Finally, this paper documents the story of the research that led to our current understanding of the formation of aflatoxins in grains and nuts, due to the growth of Aspergillus flavus and its role, in synergy with the hepatitis B virus, in human liver cancer. During a period of climate change and greatly reduced crop diversity on a global basis, researchers tasked with monitoring the food system need to be aware of fungal toxins that might have been rare in their working careers that can reappear.

  14. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  15. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension produces pathologic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Kelley L; Cripe, Patrick J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3(+) T cells over a core of CD45RA(+) B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1(+) high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule-positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue-directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension.

  16. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-05

    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium . These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives.

  17. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  18. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  19. Mycotoxin determination using RIA and ELISA methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukal, L; Sova, Z

    1985-12-01

    Experience is summed up of various authors with the determination of some mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, rubratoxin, zearalenon, sterigmatocystine) using radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. For RIA purposes, tritium or sometimes iodine 125 is frequently used for labelling mycotoxins. Mycotoxins do not show immunogenic properties and must thus be conjugated with a high-molecular compound (serum albumin, polylysine) prior to immunozation. Factors are discussed making mycotoxin determination in foods difficult. Specificity of the obtained antisera is total between the individual mycotoxin groups while cross reactions are always recorded within the groups. RIA makes it possible to determine down to 200 pg (labelled with /sup 3/H) or 5 pg (labelled with /sup 125/I) of mycotoxins in a standard solution. In addition to high sensitivity and specificity, immunoassays of mycotoxins minimize the quantities of samples and solvents needed for extraction. Large series of samples can be processed using automatic analyzers. ELISA generally is more advantageous than RIA.

  20. Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Evelyn Flores-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL. This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out.

  1. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  2. Anatomopathological Changes Induced by Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi or mycetes represents the biggest group of microorganisms from the entire biologic system (nearly 250.000 species, very widespread in nature. They are inferior vegetal organisms, heterotrophic, lacking chlorophyll or other trophic pigments, which grow up on live organic substrates or on decaying substrates. The intensive researches from the last two decades had proved that only 30 – 40% from the total number of fungi species is capable to synthesize some toxic metabolites, and, among this species, only 60 species had proved to be dangerous for human or animals. Researches about mycotoxins action upon factors that interfere with the natural or acquired immunity are relatively recent and most of them refer to aflatoxins. The immune-suppression phenomena rely on morphological and histological modifications of lymphoid organs, changes of blood parameters, changes of functional capacity of humoral and some cellular factors. The presence of mycotoxins in feed causes major economic losses, either by their direct action (defined by disease state or indirectly, by affecting the specific and nonspecific resistance of the organism. In the present study we studied the effect of aflatoxins upon the main organs involved in immune response, pathological changes induced by mycotoxins. To determine the influence of mycotoxins on food conversion, weighings were made at the beginning and the end of the experimental period.

  3. Effects of gas produced by degradation of Mg–Zn–Zr Alloy on cancellous bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo; Jiang, Hongfeng [Tianjin Hospital, 300211 Tianjin (China); Bi, Yanze; Sun, Jin e; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, 300384 Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-01

    Mg–Zn–Zr alloy cylinders were implanted into the femoral condyles of Japanese big-ear white rabbits. X-ray showed that by 12 weeks following implantation the implant became obscure, around which the low-density area appeared and enlarged. By 24 weeks, the implant was more obscure and the density of the surrounding cancellous bone increased. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed bone tissue on the surface of the alloy attached by living fibers at 12 weeks. Micro-CT confirmed that new bone tissue on the surface of the residual alloy implant increased from 12 weeks to 24 weeks. By 12 weeks, many cavities in the cancellous bone tissue around the implant were noted with a CT value, similar to gas value, and increasing by 24 weeks (P < 0.01). Histological examination of hard tissue slices showed that bone tissue was visibly attached to the alloy in the femoral condyle at 12 weeks. The trabecular bone tissues became more intact and dense, and the cavities were filled with soft tissue at 24 weeks. In general, gas produced by the degradation of the Mg–Zn–Zr alloy can cause cavitation within cancellous bone, which does not affect osteogenesis of Mg alloy. - Highlights: • The degradation of Mg alloy in cancellous bone causes cavitation around the alloy. • At first, the CT value of the cavities is similar to the gas value. • The area of the cavities enlarges gradually by 12 weeks. • The cavities are filled with bone tissue and soft tissue gradually.

  4. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  5. Quantification of Fungal Colonization, Sporogenesis, and Production of Mycotoxins Using Kernel Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Shawn; Borrego, Eli; Shim, Won-Bo; Isakeit, Tom; Kolomiets, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The rotting of grains by seed-infecting fungi poses one of the greatest economic challenges to cereal production worldwide, not to mention serious risks to human and animal health. Among cereal production, maize is arguably the most affected crop, due to pathogen-induced losses in grain integrity and mycotoxin seed contamination. The two most prevalent and problematic mycotoxins for maize growers and food and feed processors are aflatoxin and fumonisin, produced by Aspergillus flavus and Fusa...

  6. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, G.S.; Berthiller, F.; Burdaspal, P.; Crews, C.; Jonker, M.A.; Krska, R.; MacDonald, S.; Malone, B.; Maragos, C.; Sabino, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Egmond, van H.P.; Whitaker, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins

  7. Biological control strategies of mycotoxigenic fungi and associated mycotoxins in Mediterranean basin crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios I. TSITSIGIANNIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungi that belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium pose serious phytopathological and mycotoxicological risks at pre-harvest and post-harvest stages, as well as in processed food products because they can produce several mycotoxins. Mycotoxins pose a serious problem for animal and human health and have a significant economic impact worldwide. The Mediterranean basin is a large geographical region with a temperate climate supporting the cultivation of a wealth of field and greenhouse crops with a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. The most important mycotoxins that occur in the Mediterranean basin are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 in dried fruits and nuts, ochratoxin A in grapes and raisins as well as trichothecenes and fumonisins in cereals. A variety of chemical, biological and physical strategies have been developed to control the mycotoxigenic pathogens; to minimize mycotoxin production at pre- or post-harvest level; to contribute to decontamination and/or detoxification of mycotoxins from contaminated foods and feeds; or to inhibit mycotoxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Biological control using microbial antagonists either alone or as part of an integrated control strategy to reduce pesticide inputs, has emerged as a promising approach for control of mycotoxins in crops, both pre- and post-harvest. Several organisms including atoxigenic Aspergilli, yeasts, bacteria and fungi have been tested for their ability to reduce both fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination. For instance, atoxigenic fungal strains are being used widely to prevent pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of crops such as peanuts, pistachios, maize, and cottonseed in several parts of the world including the Mediterranean area. Recent advancements in the use of biocontrol strategies have led to registration of commercial products with increased practical applications for the benefit of growers in several countries.

  8. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  9. Application of nanotechnology in detection of mycotoxins and in agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Sertova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of nanotechnology application in detection of mycotoxins and in agriculture sector was presented. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Their toxicity is the reason for implementation of various screening methods to detect them. During the last years, the highlight was put on nanoscale materials included in biosensors, which were some of the smart devices used for determination of mycotoxins, and in agriculture sector. Over the next decade, the progress of nanotechnology will demonstrated a way to improve detection of contaminated feed and food. To achieve this purpose the innovations of nanomaterials reported every year would be applied. In the paper, some of the applications developed by nanotechnology that would contribute to the implementation of new tools for analysis of mycotoxins and agricultural products were discussed.

  10. Influence of agricultural practices on fusarium infection of cereals and subsequent contamination of grain by trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Simon G

    2004-10-10

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot in maize are significant diseases across the world. Infection can not only result in reduced yield as a result of shrunken grains but also result in reduced milling and malting quality and the contamination of grains with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are hazardous to animal and human health. Therefore, guidelines and legislation are in place, or under consideration, in most countries to protect consumers and animal welfare. As fusarium mycotoxins are produced within the growing crop, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect mycotoxin contamination of grain. Such information could then be used to determine guidelines on "Good Agricultural Practice" (GAP) to minimise the mycotoxin contamination of cereal products. Evidence is provided to show the importance of choice of cultivar, crop rotation, soil cultivation, fertiliser and the chemical and biological control of insects, weeds and fungi.

  11. Bioanalytics of mycotoxins and development of dedicated analyte-selective molecularly imprinted materials for solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodlbauer, H.J.

    2001-09-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species, growing on agricultural products during cultivation, harvest, transport or storage. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of great natural abundance and can be found in various plant products. Due to its frequent occurrence and toxic properties many countries have set up tolerance levels for OTA. Thus, the need for sensitive analytical and in particular selective sample preparation methods for analyte enrichment and removal of interfering matrix compounds is obvious. Molecular imprinting generates polymeric matrices that can selectively recognize and bind target molecules. It was previously demonstrated that molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed in sample preparation. MIPs capable of recognizing OTA have been prepared using an analyte mimic approach. Crucial to the success was the introduction of a novel class of quinuclidine-derived functional monomers which utilize ionic binding increments and hydrophobic interactions for selective recognition of the target analyte and its mimics. Since optimization of SPE procedures demonstrated the convenient use of several solvent systems, the developed MIPs represents an enrichment for the field of mycotoxin analysis. Zeranol has been widely adopted as a growth stimulant for cattle and other animals due to its anabolic and estrogenic properties. Application of zeranol has been banned in the European Union since 1985. Researchers, however, found that the illegal administration of this anabolic agent may not be the only source of zeranol residues in biologically relevant matrices. Previously, it was demonstrated that zeranol was also formed in vivo from the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZON) and α-zearalenol that are carried over from mycotoxin contaminated feed into the animal body. A fast, robust and sensitive LC-MS method for the determination for these compounds in urine and tissue samples has been developed. Crucial for the achievement of low

  12. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  13. Production of Naphthoquinone Mycotoxins and Taxonomy of Penicillium viridicatum

    OpenAIRE

    Ciegler, A.; Lee, L. S.; Dunn, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Groups I and II of Penicillium viridicatum were further differentiated on the basis of synthesis of two mycotoxins, xanthomegnin and viomellein. Strains previously classified as group II produced these pigments, whereas those in group I did not. These napthoquinone pigments were quantitated by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. A new mobile phase of toluene and acetic acid effected a baseline separation of the two components. It is proposed that such biochemica...

  14. Mycotoxins and phycotoxins. A collection of invited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, P S; Vleggaar, R [eds.

    1986-01-01

    Mycotoxins and phycotoxins are toxins produced by fungi and algae, respectively. These hazardous substances play an important role in foodborne diseases of humans and animals. Research on these toxins is multidisciplinary in nature and this monograph exemplifies this broad spectrum of interests. Contributions are presented on the various aspects related to toxin research, viz. microbiology and genetics, biosynthesis, structural chemistry and mechanism of action and the role of toxins in human and animal health. refs.; figs.; tabs.

  15. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  16. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed

  17. Implantable oxygen microelectrode suitable for medium-term investigations of post-surgical tissue hypoxia and changes in tumor tissue oxygenation produced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T.R.; Johnson, R.J.; Krishnamsetty, C.B.; Sako, K.; Karakousis, C.; Wojtas, F.

    1980-01-01

    Teflon-covered platinum oxygen probes were used to monitor tissue oxygen levels in post-surgical cancer patients and those treated with radiotherapy. Progressive wound healing was usually accompanied by a decrease in tissue pO2. Radiotherapy produced a slight increase in pO2 while hyperthermia effected a significant increase in the oxygen level during 100% oxygen breathing

  18. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraei, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  19. Augmentation of limb perfusion and reversal of tissue ischemia produced by ultrasound-mediated microbubble cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcik, J Todd; Mott, Brian H; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow, in part, through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation and sought to characterize the biological mediators. Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in nonischemic mice after unilateral 10-minute exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index, 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×10(8) IV). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (Pultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3- and 10-fold higher than control for mechanical index 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; Pultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (Pultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40%-50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (mechanical index, 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control nonischemic limb. Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Mycotoxins in ethanol co-products: modeling economic impacts on the livestock industry and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Munkvold, Gary P

    2008-06-11

    The rapidly expanding U.S. ethanol industry is generating a growing supply of co-products, mostly in the form of dried distillers' grain and solubles (DDGS) or wet distillers' grains (WDG). In the United States, 90% of the co-products of maize-based ethanol are fed to livestock. An unintended consequence is that animals are likely to be fed higher levels of mycotoxins, which are concentrated up to three times in DDGS compared to grain. The model developed in this study estimates current losses to the swine industry from weight gain reduction due to fumonisins in added DDGS at $9 million ($2-18 million) annually. If there is complete market penetration of DDGS in swine feed with 20% DDGS inclusion in swine feed and fumonisins are not controlled, losses may increase to $147 million ($29-293 million) annually. These values represent only those losses attributable to one mycotoxin on one adverse outcome on one species. The total loss due to mycotoxins in DDGS could be significantly higher due to additive or multiplicative effects of multiple mycotoxins on animal health. If mycotoxin surveillance is implemented by ethanol producers, losses are shifted among multiple stakeholders. Solutions to this problem include methods to reduce mycotoxin contamination in both pre- and postharvest maize.

  1. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zaghini; A. Altafini; M. Simioli; L. Rizzi

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN) apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol...

  2. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-02

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins.

  3. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to coccidiosis when fed subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins – special emphasis on the immunological response and the mycotoxin interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these ...

  4. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA, alternariol (AOH, alternariol methyl ether (AME being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina. Fifty Alternaria isolates (5 A. alternata, 5 A. arborescens and 40 A. tenuissima were analyzed for the produc- tion of mycotoxins (TA, AOH and AME in autoclaved rice media by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. All isolates were found to be producers of mycotoxins; the 100% was producer of TA (0.016–21.031 mg/kg, 98% produced AOH (0.003–0.057 mg/kg and 36% produced AME (0.001–0.133 mg/kg. Thirty-three isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. In this study, it was demonstrated a high toxigenic potential of Alternaria isolates. Although Alternaria growth on grapes has been amply demonstrated, there are few studies about the incidence their more characteristic mycotoxin sand their toxicogenic capac- ity determination in grapes, wines and derivatives. In addition, mycotoxins studied in this work are not regulated in oenology. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to assess the health risk due to the presence of Alternaria toxins in grapes, wine, grape juice and raisins.

  5. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone, Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid, Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin, Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  6. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-12

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  7. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  8. Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide contamination of feeds and foods with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Mycotoxins pose huge health threat to animals and humans. As well, mycotoxins bring enormous economic losses in food industry and animal husbandry annually. Thus, strategies to eliminate or inactivate mycotoxins in food and feed are urgently needed. Traditional physical and chemical methods have some limitations such as limited efficacy, safety issues, losses in the nutritional value and the palatability of feeds, as well as the expensive equipment required to implement these techniques. Biological degradation of mycotoxins has shown promise because it works under mild, environmentally friendly conditions. Aflatoxin (AF, zearalenone (ZEA and deoxynivalenol (DON are considered the most economically important mycotoxins in terms of their high prevalence and significant negative effects on animal performance. Therefore, this review will comprehensively describe the biological degradation of AF, ZEA and DON by microorganisms (including fungi and bacteria and specific enzymes isolated from microbial systems that can convert mycotoxins with varied efficiency to non- or less toxic products. Finally, some strategies and advices on existing difficulties of biodegradation research are also briefly proposed in this paper.

  9. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  10. Cytogenetic Studies on Sativa Rebounded Produced by Tissue Culture and Affected by GAMMA Rays and Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a plant which produces a variety of high-potency, low-calorie sweetener in its leaf tissue (Jarma et al ., 2006). The leaves of this plant contain sweet diterpene glucosides; rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, stevioside and dulcoside. Stevioside is about 110 to 270 times sweeter than sucrose, while rebaudioside A is 150 to 320 times sweeter than sucrose (Yao et al., 1999). The leaves also produce biologically active substances, e.g. flavonoids, coumarins, cinnamic acids and essential oil (Dzyuba, 1998). (Lobov and Yurtaeva, 2002) showed that diterpenoid glycosides from leaves of S. rebaudiana were the most promising non-sugar sweeteners of plant origin for food and pharmaceutical industries to overcome the problem of human diseases related to disorders of carbon metabolism. The sweetener from leaves has a good taste and is suitable for use in food products as chocolates, marmalades, biscuits, ice-cream, sweets, juices, beverages and candy. The dried leaves could be mixed within the tea packages to reduce the consumption of sugar. The stevioside does not induce tooth decay could safely by used by diabetic patients and could be used in the low caloric diets to reduce human body weight without side effects for these reasons many countries are now using this plant to produce a larger portion of their sugar consumption (El-Zifzafi, 2003). Stevia, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small herbaceous plant (2 n = 22). It is a member of compositae family (Yao et al., 1999). Estimates of total number of species in this genus ranges from 150 to 300 . Stevia rebaudiana is one of the species of the genus stevia, which includes S.eupatoria, S.purpurea and S .serrata (Lisitsin and kovalev, 2000).

  11. Fusarium diseases of maize associated with mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products intended to be used for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Höppner, Frank; Ellner, Frank; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. may occur throughout the cultivation period. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tissues, which could pose a significant risk on human and animal health when entering the food and feed chain. Most important fungal species infecting European maize belong to the Fusarium sections Discolour and Liseola, the first being more prevalent in cooler and humid climate regions than the second predominating in warmer and dryer areas. Coexistence of several Fusarium spp. pathogens in growing maize under field conditions is the usual case and may lead to multi-contamination with mycotoxins like trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins. The pathways how the fungi gain access to the target organs of the plant are extensively described in relation to specific symptoms of typical rot diseases regarding ears, kernels, rudimentary ears, roots, stem, leaves, seed and seedlings. Both Gibberella and Fusarium ear rots are of major importance in affecting the toxinogenic quality of grain or ear-based products as well as forage maize used for human or animal nutrition. Although rudimentary ears may contain high amounts of Fusarium toxins, the contribution to the contamination of forage maize is minor due to their small proportion on the whole plant dry matter yield. The impact of foliar diseases on forage maize contamination is regarded to be low, as Fusarium infections are restricted to some parts on the leaf sheaths and husks. Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. As the probability of a more severe disease progression is increasing with a prolonged cultivation period, maize should be harvested at the appropriate maturity stage to keep Fusarium toxin contamination as

  12. Perivascular Adipose Tissue Harbors Atheroprotective IgM-Producing B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Srikakulapu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue surrounding major arteries (Perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT has long been thought to exist to provide vessel support and insulation. Emerging evidence suggests that PVAT regulates artery physiology and pathology, such as, promoting atherosclerosis development through local production of inflammatory cytokines. Yet the immune subtypes in PVAT that regulate inflammation are poorly characterized. B cells have emerged as important immune cells in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis. B cell-mediated effects on atherosclerosis are subset-dependent with B-1 cells attenuating and B-2 cells aggravating atherosclerosis. While mechanisms whereby B-2 cells aggravate atherosclerosis are less clear, production of immunoglobulin type M (IgM antibodies is thought to be a major mechanism whereby B-1 cells limit atherosclerosis development. B-1 cell-derived IgM to oxidation specific epitopes (OSE on low density lipoproteins (LDL blocks oxidized LDL-induced inflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation. However, whether PVAT contains B-1 cells and whether atheroprotective IgM is produced in PVAT is unknown. Results of the present study provide clear evidence that the majority of B cells in and around the aorta are derived from PVAT. Interestingly, a large proportion of these B cells belong to the B-1 subset with the B-1/B-2 ratio being 10-fold higher in PVAT relative to spleen and bone marrow. Moreover, PVAT contains significantly greater numbers of IgM secreting cells than the aorta. ApoE−/− mice with B cell-specific knockout of the gene encoding the helix-loop-helix factor Id3, known to have attenuated diet-induced atherosclerosis, have increased numbers of B-1b cells and increased IgM secreting cells in PVAT relative to littermate controls. Immunostaining of PVAT on human coronary arteries identified fat associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs harboring high numbers of B cells, and flow

  13. Rapid Multiple Immunoenzyme Assay of Mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Urusov, Alexandr E.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Petrakova, Alina V.; Sadykhov, Elchin G.; Koroleva, Olga V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. ...

  14. Economics of mycotoxins: evaluating costs to society and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The economic impacts of mycotoxins to human society can be thought of in two ways: (i) the direct market costs associated with lost trade or reduced revenues due to contaminated food or feed, and (ii) the human health losses from adverse effects associated with mycotoxin consumption. Losses related to markets occur within systems in which mycotoxins are being monitored in the food and feed supply. Food that has mycotoxin levels above a particular maximum allowable level is either rejected outright for sale or sold at a lower price for a different use. Such transactions can take place at local levels or at the level of trade among countries. Sometimes this can result in heavy economic losses for food producers, but the benefit of such monitoring systems is a lower risk of mycotoxins in the food supply. Losses related to health occur when mycotoxins are present in food at levels that can cause illness. In developed countries, such losses are often measured in terms of cost of illness; around the world, such losses are more frequently measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). It is also useful to assess the economics of interventions to reduce mycotoxins and their attendant health effects; the relative effectiveness of public health interventions can be assessed by estimating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with each intervention. Cost-effectiveness assessment can be conducted to compare the cost of implementing the intervention with the resulting benefits, in terms of either improved markets or improved human health. Aside from cost-effectiveness, however, it is also important to assess the technical feasibility of interventions, particularly in low-income countries, where funds and infrastructures are limited.

  15. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  16. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  17. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  18. Rapid multiple immunoenzyme assay of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Petrakova, Alina V; Sadykhov, Elchin G; Koroleva, Olga V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-01-27

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin-polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  19. Rapid Multiple Immunoenzyme Assay of Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin–polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  20. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973

  1. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  2. Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2017-01-01

    The role of mycotoxins-e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids-has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor) and/or repeated (dietary) mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached milestones that, when linked to findings gained by the international scientific community, make the design and implementation of science-driven governance schemes feasible. Starting from Nigeria as leading African Country, this article (i) overviews available data on mycotoxins exposure in Africa; (ii) discusses new food safety issues, such as the environment-feed-food chain and toxic exposures of food producing animals in risk assessment and management; (iii) identifies milestones for mycotoxins risk management already reached in West Africa; and (iv) points out preliminary operationalization aspects for shielding communities from direct (on health) and indirect (on trade, economies, and livelihoods) effects of mycotoxins. An African science-driven engaging of scientific knowledge by development actors is expected therefore. In particular, One health/One prevention is suggested, as it proved to be a strategic and sustainable development framework.

  3. The fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol can inhibit plant apoptosis-like programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Diamond

    Full Text Available The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate.

  4. Rapid assessment of mycotoxins in wine by on-line SPE-UHPLC-FLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Alina-Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest statistics, grapes are one of the largest fruit crops worldwide. In this regard, it is important to consider all factors influencing quality of grapes and wine. In the last years, scientist focused on the study of mycotoxins that can influence the quality of wine. It is considered that toxins produced by moulds, causing significant economic losses, affect approximately one quarter of the world grape production. If the selective sorting of infected grapes is not done adequately, wine will present a major risk to consumers, mycotoxins being considered by the “International Agency for Cancer Research” a carcinogenic compound. The main mycotoxins monitored in this study come from Aspergillus sp., and are represented by aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A. This study purpose is to develop a faster method for the analysis of mycotoxins, in order to increase rapidity and efficiency for the evaluation of the degree of infestation in wine. The purposed method is using an on-line large volume injection coupled to pre-concentration of sample (SPE which is directly transfer to the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC column for separation and the detection by means of the fluorescence detector (FLD. As the maximum tolerated level for mycotoxins in wines is 2 ppm, this method is able to detect under this limits of quantification with RSD below 2%.

  5. Detoksifikasi Mikotoksin Melalui Optimalisasi Fungsi Rumen dengan Pemberian Ragi (MYCOTOXIN DETOXIFICATION THROUGH OPTIMIZATION THE RUMEN FUNCTION BY YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadik Pantaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungal species commonly found in food and feed,particularly in cereals. In intensive production systems, dairy cattle are commonly fed with cereal-richdiets and, consequently, are more exposed to micotoxins. Besides, such diet is often associated with ahigher risk of rumen acidosis which can also affect the performance and the helath of animal. In addition,the efficacy of microbial detoxification can be reduced during acidosis. For instance, some authors observeda decrease in the number of protozoa that are responsible for the degradation of some mycotoxins. Anotherconsequence of acidosis is the potential modification of ruminal absorption of mycotoxins, which until nowhas received scarce attention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic additives have been shown toreduce the post-feeding drop in rumen pH and to increase the number of ruminal protozoa. This effect canbe positive in reducing the absorption and toxicity of mycotoxins in ruminantia.

  6. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification.

  7. Stability of mycotoxins during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia

    2007-10-20

    The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, canning, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize the highest temperatures having greatest effects. In general the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. However, roasting and extrusion processing show promise for lowering mycotoxin concentrations, though very high temperatures are needed to bring about much of a reduction in mycotoxin concentrations. Extrusion processing at temperatures greater than 150 degrees C are needed to give good reduction of zearalenone, moderate reduction of alfatoxins, variable to low reduction of deoxynivalenol and good reduction of fumonisins. The greatest reductions of fumonisins occur at extrusion temperatures of 160 degrees C or higher and in the presence of glucose. Extrusion of fumonisin contaminated corn grits with 10% added glucose resulted in 75-85% reduction in Fumonisin B(1) levels. Some fumonisin degredation products are formed during extrusion, including small amounts of hydrolyzed Fumonisin B(1) and N-(Carboxymethyl) - Fumonisin B(1) and somewhat higher amounts of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisin B(1) in extruded grits containing added glucose. Feeding trial toxicity tests in rats with extruded fumonisin contaminated corn grits show some reduction in toxicity of grits extruded with glucose.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica M.S.; Albuquerque, Ricardo; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Correa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  9. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  10. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  11. Risk analysis of main mycotoxins occurring in food for children: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manyes, Lara; Meca, Giuseppe; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi contaminating the food chain that are toxic to animals and humans. Children up to 12 years old are recognized as a potentially vulnerable subgroup with respect to consumption of these contaminants. Apart from having a higher exposure per kg body weight, they have a different physiology from that of adults. Therefore they may be more sensitive to neurotoxic, endocrine and immunological effects. For these reasons, a specific and up-to-date risk analysis for this category is of great interest. In this review, an accurate analysis of the main mycotoxins occurring in food intended for children (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins) is presented. In particular, known mechanisms of toxicity and levels of exposure and bioaccessibility in children are shown. In addition, recent discoveries about the strategies of mycotoxins managing are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical effects on soft tissue produced by a 405-nm violet diode laser in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, H.; Kato, J.; Kawai, S.; Hatayama, H.; Uchida, K.; Otsuki, M.; Tagami, J.; Yokoo, S.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser in vivo, using living rat liver tissue. Tissue was incised by irradiation with the laser at low output power ranging from 1 W (722 W/cm2) to 3 W (2165 W/cm2) on a manual control at a rate of 1 mm/s. As a control, incisions using a stainless scalpel were compared. Immediately after operation, the surface of the incisions was macroscopically observed and histopathologically evaluated by microscopy. Laser-ablated liver tissue was smooth with observable signs of remnant carbonization and easily acquired hemostasis. The thickness of the denatured layer increased in proportion to the output power; the coagulation layer did not thicken accordingly. Bleeding could not be stopped for tissues incised with the stainless scalpel. The 405-nm diode laser thus proved to be effective for ablating soft tissue with high hemostatic ability at low power.

  13. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on myc...

  14. Porcine oocytes are most vulnerable to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol during formation of the meiotic spindle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoevers, E.J.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Colenbrander, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a secondary metabolite and mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species that occurs with a high prevalence in cereals and grains intended for human and animal consumption. Pigs are considered to be the most sensitive animal species and exposure to DON results in reduced

  15. Reducing production of fumonisin mycotoxins in Fusarium verticillioides by RNA interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin cont...

  16. The effect of Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, Fumonisin, and Moniliformin from contaminated moldy grains on aquaculture fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. are fungi that invade agriculturally important grains such as corn and wheat, where they may produce mycotoxins that are harmful to the productivity and health of food animals such as swine, poultry, and aquacultural fish. Because corn and wheat are used for other industrial purposes ...

  17. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  18. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  19. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of bentonite binders in single or concomitant mycotoxin contamination of chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Tsiplakou, E; Tsitsigiannis, D I; Georgiadou, M; Iliadi, M K; Sotirakoglou, K; Zervas, G

    2016-08-01

    Concomitant presence of mycotoxins is more likely to appear than a single mycotoxicosis since many mycotoxigenic fungi grow and produce their toxic metabolites under similar conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 4 mycotoxin binders to protect meat-type chickens against single and concomitant administration in the feed of two mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) both at concentration of 0.1 mg/kg. A total of 440 as hatched, d-old, Ross 308 broilers were reared for 42 d. There were 11 dietary treatments. Chickens were fed on either an uncontaminated basal diet, basal diet and AFB1, basal with concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA, basal diet and three binders A, B and C (1%) with or without AFB1 or basal diet and binder D (0.5%) with or without concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA. Performance, carcass yield and several biochemical parameters were examined. Mycotoxin concentration in liver and breast muscle samples was determined. Broiler performance under concomitant mycotoxin contamination was poorer than that under single mycotoxicosis. Mycotoxin presence increased relative heart weight compared to that of broilers fed on uncontaminated diets. Only OTA and not AFB1 was detected and only in the liver. OTA concentration was four-fold lower in broilers fed on a diet with binder compared to those fed on contaminated diets without binder. In conclusion, the study revealed that binder composition and presence or not of multiple toxins may be important factors for optimum broiler performance under mycotoxicosis.

  1. The influence of different nitrogen and carbon sources on mycotoxin production in Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata at 28°C using a semi-synthetic medium (modified Czapek-Dox broth) supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. Additionally the effect of shaken and static cultivation on mycotoxin production was tested. Initial experiments showed a clear dependency between nitrogen depletion and mycotoxin production. To assess whether nitrogen limitation in general or the type of nitrogen source triggers the production, various nitrogen sources including several ammonium/nitrate salts and amino acids were tested. In static culture the production of AOH/AME can be enhanced greatly with phenylalanine whereas some nitrogen sources seem to inhibit the AOH/AME production completely. TA was not significantly affected by the choice of nitrogen source. In shaken culture the overall production of all mycotoxins was lower compared to static cultivation. Furthermore tests with a wide variety of carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, complex saccharides such as starch as well as glycerol and acetate were performed. In shaken culture AOH was produced when glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetate or mixtures of glucose/sucrose and glucose/acetate were used as carbon sources. AME production was not detected. The use of sodium acetate resulted in the highest AOH production. In static culture AOH production was also stimulated by acetate and the amount is comparable to shaken conditions. Under static conditions production of AOH was lower except when cultivated with acetate. In static cultivation 9 of 14 tested carbon sources induced mycotoxin production compared to 4 in shaken culture. This is the first study which analyses the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in a semi-synthetic medium and assesses the effects of culture conditions on

  2. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  4. Interleukin-22-producing innate immune cells: new players in mucosal immunity and tissue repair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivier, Eric; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal tissues, lying at the interface with the external environment, are constantly challenged by microbial, physical and chemical assaults. To provide the necessary immune defence to such challenges, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches are formed in utero in response to inductive signals from

  5. The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ciobotaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features as A.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with β cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.

  6. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  7. Approaches to mycotoxin detection using biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of toxins of concern has continued to rise as emerging toxins have taken on new significance and as interest has increased in detecting metabolites of established toxins (including masked mycotoxins). Of course while the desire exists to monitor for more compounds, resources for such moni...

  8. Multiplexed biosensors for detection of mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    As analytical methods have improved it has become apparent that mycotoxins exist in many forms within a commodity or food. For the established toxins there has been increased interest in the presence of metabolites that might also harbor toxicity. These include biosynthetic precursors as well as pro...

  9. The TMAO-Producing Enzyme Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Regulates Obesity and the Beiging of White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Schugar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. Further, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown or genetic deletion of the TMAO-producing enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 conferred protection against obesity in mice. Complimentary mouse and human studies indicate a negative regulatory role for FMO3 in the beiging of white adipose tissue. Collectively, our studies reveal a link between the TMAO-producing enzyme FMO3 and obesity and the beiging of white adipose tissue.

  10. Toxigenic Fusarium spp. as determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2006-12-01

    Trichothecenes are immunosuppressive mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium spp. and often are detected as natural contaminants of grain and other agricultural products. Exposure to trichothecenes through inhalation during grain work may represent possible health risks for grain farmers. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the level of Fusarium spp. and trichothecenes in settled grain dust collected during work on 92 Norwegian farms. Mycotoxins were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas the Fusarium spp. were identified and quantified both by species-specific semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by cultivation. All potential trichothecene-producing molds in the grain dust were quantified using a PCR assay specific for tri5, the gene coding for trichodiene synthase that catalyzes the first step in the trichothecene biosynthesis. We performed correlation analysis between mold-DNA and mycotoxins to assess whether the PCR-detected DNA could be used as indicators of the mycotoxins. The methodological problem of detecting small amounts of airborne mycotoxins during grain work may then be avoided. Whereas the trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in grain dust could not be identified or quantified to a sufficient extent by cultivation, all investigated Fusarium spp. could be specifically detected by PCR and quantified from the DNA agarose gel band intensities. Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between the trichothecenes HT-2 toxin (HT-2) or T-2 toxin (T-2) and DNA specific for tri5 (r = 0.68 for HT-2 and r = 0.50 for T-2; p grain dust during work, but the use of Fusarium-DNA as indicators for trichothecenes should be used cautiously.

  11. Mycological survey of Korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by Fusarium isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, U S; Jang, H S; Tanaka, T; Toyasaki, N; Sugiura, Y; Oh, Y J; Cho, C M; Ueno, Y

    1986-01-01

    The fungal species isolated from Korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Drechslera spp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., etc. The number of Fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce Fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. Nivalenol (NIV) was produced by Fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), Fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and Fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). Of 1...

  12. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  13. Mycotoxins: Risks, regulations and European co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Egmond Hans P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and mycotoxicises have been problems of the past and the present, but scientific attention for mycotoxins did not start until the early 1960’s. Nowa­days, many mycotoxins are known, and their occurrence in food and animal feed may cause various adverse effects on human and animal health, including carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, neurotoxic, oestrogenic and teratogenic effects. Some important mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, the fumonisins and the trichothecenes, and their significance is briefly described. To protect human and animal health, many countries have enacted specific regulations for mycotoxins in food and animal feed. Risk assessment is a major factor for scientific underpinning of regulations, but other factors such as availability of adequate sampling and analysis procedures also play an important a role in the establishment of mycotoxin regulations. In addition, socio-economic factors such as cost-benefit considerations, trade issues and sufficiency of food supply are equally important in the decision-taking process to come to meaningful regulations. Nowadays, more than 100 countries have formal mycotoxin regulations for food and feed. The mycotoxin regulations are the most stringent in the EU, where various organizations and pan-European networks contribute to combat the mycotoxin problem. It is to be expected that mycotoxins will stay with us in the future and climate change might have a negative influence in this respect. Several possibilities exist to mitigate the problems caused by mycotoxins. In particular prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin formation is key to the control of mycotoxins.

  14. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  15. Relationship of Mycotoxins Accumulation and Bioactive Components Variation in Ginger after Fungal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. The results showed that consecutive incubation of ginger with A. flavus and A. carbonarius within 20 days resulted in the production and accumulation of aflatoxins (especially AFB1 and ochratoxin A, as well as the constant content reduction of four bioactive components, which were confirmed through the scanning electron microscope images. Significantly negative correlation was expressed between the mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger, which might influence the quality and safety of it. Furthermore, a new compound was detected after inoculation for 6 days, which was found in our study for the first time.

  16. Relationship between mycoparasites lifestyles and biocontrol behaviors against Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Hwa; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Global food security research is seeking eco-friendly solutions to control mycotoxins in grain infected by fungi (molds). In particular, mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. outbreak is a chronic threat for cereal grain production, human, and animal health. In this review paper, we discuss up-to-date biological control strategies in applying mycoparasites as biological control agents (BCA) to prevent plant diseases in crops and mycotoxins in grain, food, and feed. The aim is to increase food safety and to minimize economic losses due to the reduced grain yield and quality. However, recent papers indicate that the study of the BCA specialists with biotrophic lifestyle lags behind our understanding of the BCA generalists with necrotrophic lifestyle. We examine critical behavioral traits of the two BCA groups of mycoparasites. The goal is to highlight their major characteristics in the context of future research towards an efficient biocontrol strategy against mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The emphasis is put on biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, and F. culmorum causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals and their mycotoxins.

  17. Microflora and mycotoxin contamination in poultry feed mixtures from western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Szablewski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of feeds with pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins constitutes a serious threat both for animals and humans. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of risk of the occurrence of microscopic fungi, selected bacteria and mycotoxins from the trichothecene group in poultry feeds in western Poland. In feed mixtures, the concentration of ergosterol (ERG), being a specific quantitative biomarker for the content of microscopic fungi, was determined. Grower and finisher feeds were characterized by a higher count of bacteria and fungi in comparison to starter feeds. A considerable variation was found in the amount of ergosterol in analyzed feeds. Mean ergosterol content in feeds amounted to 19.34 mg/kg. The most common genera of fungi detected in the tested feeds included Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor. Irrespective of the type of feed, the proportion of trichothecenes group B was five times higher than that of trichothecenes group A in relation to the total content of these mycotoxins in samples. In terms of the analyzed mycotoxins, feeds contained the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). A statistically significant correlation was shown between DON and ERG and between total trichothecenes and ERG. Recorded results indicate that the level of microbiological contamination in feeds for broiler chickens produced in western Poland is within the requirements of the binding standards.

  18. Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of mycotoxins—e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids—has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor and/or repeated (dietary mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached milestones that, when linked to findings gained by the international scientific community, make the design and implementation of science-driven governance schemes feasible. Starting from Nigeria as leading African Country, this article (i overviews available data on mycotoxins exposure in Africa; (ii discusses new food safety issues, such as the environment–feed–food chain and toxic exposures of food producing animals in risk assessment and management; (iii identifies milestones for mycotoxins risk management already reached in West Africa; and (iv points out preliminary operationalization aspects for shielding communities from direct (on health and indirect (on trade, economies, and livelihoods effects of mycotoxins. An African science-driven engaging of scientific knowledge by development actors is expected therefore. In particular, One health/One prevention is suggested, as it proved to be a strategic and sustainable development framework.

  19. Efficacy and safety testing of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents in broilers following the European Food Safety Authority guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, A; Devreese, M; Watteyn, A; Vandenbroucke, V; Goossens, J; Hautekiet, V; Eeckhout, M; De Saeger, S; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2012-08-01

    Contamination of feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem and mycotoxin-detoxifying agents are used to decrease their negative effect. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated guidelines and end-points for the efficacy testing of detoxifiers. Our study revealed that plasma concentrations of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol were too low to assess efficacy of 2 commercially available mycotoxin-detoxifying agents against deoxynivalenol after 3 wk of continuous feeding of this mycotoxin at concentrations of 2.44±0.70 mg/kg of feed and 7.54±2.20 mg/kg of feed in broilers. This correlates with the poor absorption of deoxynivalenol in poultry. A safety study with 2 commercially available detoxifying agents and veterinary drugs showed innovative results with regard to the pharmacokinetics of 2 antibiotics after oral dosing in the drinking water. The plasma and kidney tissue concentrations of oxytetracycline were significantly higher in broilers receiving a biotransforming agent in the feed compared with control birds. For amoxicillin, the plasma concentrations were significantly higher for broilers receiving an adsorbing agent in comparison to birds receiving the biotransforming agent, but not to the control group. Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents can thus interact with the oral bioavailability of antibiotics depending on the antibiotic and detoxifying agent, with possible adverse effects on the health of animals and humans.

  20. Cytogenetic studies on stevia rebaudiana produced by tissue culture and affected by gamma rays and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, A.S.A

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was under taken to carry out in the laboratories of the Natural Products Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy authority, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of gamma radiation doses, osmostress and the combined effects between them on tissue culture, some biochemical analysis and molecular genetic marker in stevia rebaudiana bertoni. The results obtained were: Tissue culture 1- micropropagation media: stevia rebaudiana plantlets cultured on MS medium hormones free for micropropagation.Hormones such as BAP and NAA with different concentrations induced callus formation and give slight growth.Study the effect of gamma radiation, osmostress and the combined effects between them : 1)The effect of gamma radiation on buds survival: Gamma radiation doses (10, 20 and 30 Gy) induced decreasing in bud survival percentage with increasing radiation dose in stevia rebaudiana. The dose 30 Gy was induced 60% mortality.2) Study the effect of gamma radiation on some biochemical analysis: Gamma radiation doses induced increase in the total carbohydrate with doses (20 and 30 Gy) but decreased with dose 10 Gy. Proline contents increased in plantlets with increasing doses . The total protein was increased with doses (10 and 20 Gy), but the dose 30 Gy induced decrease in total protein. Gamma radiation doses induced decreasing in total DNA while, the nucleic acid RNA increased.3) The effect of osmostress on buds survival: The concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) from sucrose or sorbitol decreased the bud survival and shoot length in stevia plantlets with increasing sucrose or sorbitol levels. 4) The effect of osmostress on some biochemical analysis: Sucrose and sorbitol concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) caused decrease in total carbohydrate.

  1. Functional properties of the recombinant kringle-2 domain of tissue plasminogen activator produced in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, O.G.; Jaskunas, S.R.; Vlahos, C.J.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    The kringle-2 domain (residues 176-262) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant peptide, which concentrated in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, was isolated, solubilized, chemically refolded, and purified by affinity chromatography on lysine-Sepharose to apparent homogeneity. [35S]Cysteine-methionine-labeled polypeptide was used to study the interactions of kringle-2 with lysine, fibrin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The kringle-2 domain bound to lysine-Sepharose and to preformed fibrin with a Kd = 104 +/- 6.2 microM (0.86 +/- 0.012 binding site) and a Kd = 4.2 +/- 1.05 microM (0.80 +/- 0.081 binding site), respectively. Competition experiments and direct binding studies showed that the kringle-2 domain is required for the formation of the ternary t-PA-plasminogen-intact fibrin complex and that the association between the t-PA kringle-2 domain and fibrin does not require plasmin degradation of fibrin and exposure of new COOH-terminal lysine residues. We also observed that kringle-2 forms a complex with highly purified guanidine-activated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, dissociable by 0.2 M epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The kringle-2 polypeptide significantly inhibited tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 interaction. The kringle-2 domain bound to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in a specific and saturable manner with a Kd = 0.51 +/- 0.055 microM (0.35 +/- 0.026 binding site). Therefore, the t-PA kringle-2 domain is important for the interaction of t-PA not only with fibrin, but also with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thus represents a key structure in the regulation of fibrinolysis

  2. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaghini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol persist in liver and muscle (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987 and may be transmitted to egg yolk (Dailey et al., 1990. Various treatments and dietary strategies have been tried to reduce mycotoxin levels in contaminated commodities...

  3. Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure. PMID:26529017

  4. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  5. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  6. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Review of the Mycotoxin Enniatin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prosperini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B is a secondary metabolism product by Fusarium fungi. It is a well-known antibacterial, antihelmintic, antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal compound. It has been found as a contaminant in several food commodities, particularly in cereal grains, co-occurring also with other mycotoxins. The primary mechanism of action of ENN B is mainly due to its ionophoric characteristics, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the last two decades, it has been a topic of great interest since its potent mammalian cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in several mammalian cell lines. Moreover, the co-exposure in vitro with other mycotoxins enhances its toxic potential through synergic effects, depending on the concentrations tested. Despite its clear cytotoxic effect, European Food Safety Authority stated that acute exposure to ENNs, such as ENN B, does not indicate concern for human health, but a concern might be the chronic exposure. However, given the lack of relevant toxicity data, no firm conclusion could be drawn and a risk assessment was not possible. In fact, very few studies have been carried out in vivo and, in these studies, no adverse effects were observed. So, research on toxicological effects induced by ENN B is still on-going. Recently, some studies are dealing with new advances regarding ENN B. This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of ENN B, focusing on toxicological aspects and on the latest advances in research on ENN B.

  8. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  9. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  10. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Caru, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  12. Influence of Mycotoxins and a Mycotoxin Adsorbing Agent on the Oral Bioavailability of Commonly Used Antibiotics in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Croubels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in animals, including altered gastrointestinal barrier function. It is the aim of the present study to determine whether mycotoxin-contaminated diets can alter the oral bioavailability of the antibiotics doxycycline and paromomycin in pigs, and whether a mycotoxin adsorbing agent included into diets interacts with those antibiotics. Experiments were conducted with pigs utilizing diets that contained blank feed, mycotoxin-contaminated feed (T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol, mycotoxin-contaminated feed supplemented with a glucomannan mycotoxin binder, or blank feed supplemented with mycotoxin binder. Diets with T-2 toxin and binder or deoxynivalenol and binder induced increased plasma concentrations of doxycycline administered as single bolus in pigs compared to diets containing blank feed. These results suggest that complex interactions may occur between mycotoxins, mycotoxin binders, and antibiotics which could alter antibiotic bioavailability. This could have consequences for animal toxicity, withdrawal time for oral antibiotics, or public health.

  13. Development of a UPLC-FLD Method for Detection of Aflatoxin B1 and M1 in Animal Tissue to Study the Effect of Curcumin on Mycotoxin Clearance Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Cui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and its metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 are well-known carcinogens for humans and animals health. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography linked with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD method was optimized and validated. In addition, we investigated for the first time, the influence of curcumin on residue depletion of AFB1 and AFM1 in liver, kidney, and muscle tissues of broiler chickens and estimated a necessary clearance time required for AFB1 and AFM1 residues. The results showed that the average recoveries of AFB1 varied in liver, kidney, and muscles between 82.32–85.56, 85.34–88.45, and 84.88–89.73% respectively, while the average recoveries of AFM1 in liver, kidney, and muscles varied between 92.17–95.03, 94.12–97.21, and 95.32–98.51%, respectively. The detection limit of aflatoxin B1 was 0.008 ng/ml, while for aflatoxin M1 was 0.003 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ for AFB1 and AFM1 was 0.02 and 0.01 ng/ml, respectively. Clearance time for AFB1 and AFM1 residues were analyzed in two experimental groups of broilers. One group fed with dietary AFB1 (5.0 mg/kg feed and other with curcumin+AFB1 diet (curcumin; 300 mg/kg feed, AFB1; 5.0 mg/kg feed. AFB1 and AFM1 residues clearance time was calculated based on LOQ using withdrawal time calculation software (WT1.4. Clearance time analyzed for AFB1 ranged from 11 to 19 days and for AFM1 ranged from 10 to 12 days at 95% confidence level. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation in the diet reduced the clearance time of AFM1 in liver and kidney but not in muscle tissues. Conclusively, the developed method can be appropriately used for the quality control testing of commercial broiler-meat processing companies, food manufacturers, and quality control laboratories.

  14. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS system with timed and highly selective reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.

  15. In vitro generation of functional insulin-producing cells from lipoaspirated human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Buang, Mohamad Lizan; Seng, Heng Kien; Chung, Lee Han; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategy has been considered as an alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus due to lack of permanent pharmaceutical treatment and islet donors for transplantation. Various cell lines have been used to generate functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) including progenitor pancreatic cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCB-SCs), adult bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Human ADSCs from lipoaspirated abdominal fat tissue was differentiated into IPCs following a two-step induction protocol based on a combination of alternating high and low glucose, nicotinamide, activin A and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for a duration of 3 weeks. During differentiation, histomorphological changes of the stem cells towards pancreatic β-islet characteristics were observed via light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Dithizone (DTZ) staining, which is selective towards IPCs, was used to stain the new islet-like cells. Production of insulin hormone by the cells was analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas its hormonal regulation was tested via a glucose challenge test. Histomorphological changes of the differentiated cells were noted to resemble pancreatic β-cells, whereas DTZ staining positively stained the cells. The differentiated cells significantly produced human insulin as compared to the undifferentiated ADSCs, and its production was increased with an increase of glucose concentration in the culture medium. These initial data indicate that human lipoaspirated ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional IPCs, and could be used as a therapy to treat diabetes mellitus in the future. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus irregulare, controls the mycotoxin production of Fusarium sambucinum in the pathogenesis of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are an important family of mycotoxins produced by several species of the genus Fusarium. These fungi cause serious disease on infected plants and postharvest storage of crops and the toxins can cause health problems for humans and animals. Unfortunately, there are few methods for cont...

  17. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  18. Recent Advances in Mycotoxin Determination for Food Monitoring via Microchip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Man

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are one of the main factors impacting food safety. Mycotoxin contamination has threatened the health of humans and animals. Conventional methods for the detection of mycotoxins are gas chromatography (GC or liquid chromatography (LC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. However, all these methods are time-consuming, require large-scale instruments and skilled technicians, and consume large amounts of hazardous regents and solvents. Interestingly, a microchip requires less sample consumption and short analysis time, and can realize the integration, miniaturization, and high-throughput detection of the samples. Hence, the application of a microchip for the detection of mycotoxins can make up for the deficiency of the conventional detection methods. This review focuses on the application of a microchip to detect mycotoxins in foods. The toxicities of mycotoxins and the materials of the microchip are firstly summarized in turn. Then the application of a microchip that integrates various kinds of detection methods (optical, electrochemical, photo-electrochemical, and label-free detection to detect mycotoxins is reviewed in detail. Finally, challenges and future research directions in the development of a microchip to detect mycotoxins are previewed.

  19. Biosensors for Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity and prevalence of mycotoxins in commodities and foods has necessitated the development of rapid methods in order to ensure the protection of human food and animal feed supplies. Testing for mycotoxins can be accomplished by many techniques that range from determinative tests in which t...

  20. Factors likely to enhance mycotoxin introduction into the human diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, several incidences of acute food poisoning due to mycotoxins ... Chronic exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to liver cancer, hepatitis infections, impaired immunity and stunted growth in children. ... These include eating habits, existing marketing problems which encourage ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeroen; van Dam, Ruud; van Doorn, Ronald; Katerere, David; Berthiller, Franz; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2017-01-01

    Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G). The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G) contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83%) with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3-69 μg/L). Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1-1.2 μg/L). The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at) the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential problem.

  2. Proximal sensing of within-field mycotoxin variation - a case study in Northeast Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Marina; Koszinski, Sylvia; Bangs, Donovan E.; Wehrhan, Marc; Ullrich, Andreas; Verch, Gernot; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Fusarium head blight is a global problem in agriculture that results in yield losses and, more seriously, produces harmful toxins that enter the food chain. This study (Müller et al. 2016) builds on previous research identifying within-field humidity as an important factor in infection processes by Fusarium fungi and its mycotoxin production. Environmental variables describing topographic control of humidity (topographic wetness index TWI), soil texture and related moisture by electrical conductivity (ECa), and canopy humidity by density (normalized difference vegetation index NDVI) were explored in their relationship to the fungal infection rates and mycotoxin accumulation. Field studies at four sites in NE German Lowlands were performed in 2009 and 2011. Sites differed slightly in soil textural properties and, more pronounced, mean annual precipitation. Sampling positions were selected by usage of NDVI values range from remote sensing data base. Environmental data included elevation and its derivatives like topographic wetness index (TWI) from a DEM25, electrical conductivity distribution maps (5 x 5 m) based on EM38DD survey and, orthorectified RapidEye imagery (5 x 5 m2) with resulting NDVI distributions across the field sites. Grain yield, fungal infection rate, microbiological characteristics and mycotoxin accumulation were determined at 223 field positions. Statistical analysis incorporated Spearman rank order correlations and three regression methods (censored regression models, linear mixed-effects models and spatial linear mixed-effects models). Kriging was used to visualize the spatial patterns and trends. All analyses were performed by R software. In 2011, a more wet year than 2009, high Fusarium infection rates and a high concentration of mycotoxins were stated, the latter once exceeding EU threshold values. For both years associations between NDVI and microbiological variables were found, but being more pronounced and more often significant for 2011

  3. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Peters

    Full Text Available Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA, zearalenone (ZEN, fumonisins (FBs, T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2 and deoxynivalenol (DON using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G. The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83% with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3-69 μg/L. Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1-1.2 μg/L. The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI. Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential

  4. Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cai Liao

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed.

  5. Symposium on mycotoxins in foodstuff

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR Industrial Research Development Division

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available the poul try haemorrhagic syndrome is enz ootic (FORGACS et al. , 1958). Recently WILSON & WILSON (1964 ) pointed out that Aspergillus f l avus could produce, under certain conditions, several other t oxic metaboli tes i n addition t o aflatoxin . A... after 2 to 3 weeks i ncubation at 26°C. The mould-infested meals were thereafter placed in shallow l ayers on trays and dri ed in an ai r - ci rculating oven at 60°C. The product was reground to fine particle s i ze i n a gr ain mill. A composite...

  6. Ecological Networks in Stored Grain: Key Postharvest Nodes for Emerging Pests, Pathogens, and Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Nopsa, John F; Daglish, Gregory J; Hagstrum, David W; Leslie, John F; Phillips, Thomas W; Scoglio, Caterina; Thomas-Sharma, Sara; Walter, Gimme H; Garrett, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. We evaluated the structure of rail networks for grain transport in the United States and Eastern Australia to identify the shortest paths for the anthropogenic dispersal of pests and mycotoxins, as well as the major sources, sinks, and bridges for movement. We found important differences in the risk profile in these two countries and identified priority control points for sampling, detection, and management. An understanding of these key locations and roles within the network is a new type of basic research result in postharvest science and will provide insights for the integrated pest management of high-risk subpopulations, such as pesticide-resistant insect pests.

  7. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  8. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.; Živanov Nenad M.; Živković Jasmina Z.; Milojević Miloš J.; Teodosin Jovan M.; Pećanac Savka L.; Milić Dragan V.; Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Đekić Jovo P.

    2005-01-01

    Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with m...

  9. Stachybotrys mycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Andersen, Birgitte; Phippen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Stachybotrys metabolites, of which four could be quantified based on authentic standards and a further six estimated based on similarity to authentic standards. Samples collected from walls contaminated by S. chartarum in a water-damaged building showed that the two known chemotypes, S and A, coexisted. More...... importantly, a link between mycotoxin concentrations found on contaminated surfaces and in settled dust was made. One dust sample, collected from a water-damaged room, contained 10 pg/cm2 macrocyclic trichothecenes (roridin E). For the first time, more than one spirocyclic drimane was detected in dust...

  10. Positive and negative aspects of green coffee consumption - antioxidant activity versus mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Stanisz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    The quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage. The antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g -1 . Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g -1 , and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated. Steaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of 5-hydroxytryptamine-producing cells by detection of fluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaneko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT produced by enterochromaffin (EC cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of autofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of autofluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between autofluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands. Autofluorescence+ EC cells were detected in the colon of mice and rats. Autofluorescence+ cells were also observed in 5-HT+ β cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in pregnant mice, while non-pregnant mouse pancreatic islet cells showed no 5-HT immunoreactivity or autofluorescence. These results suggest that autofluorescence+ cells are identical to 5-HT+ cells, and the source of autofluorescence may be 5-HT itself or molecules related to its synthesis or degradation. This autofluorescence signal detection method may be applicable for monitoring of inflammatory status of inflammatory bowel diseases in both the experimental and clinical settings.

  13. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Reda, Asmaa M; Ali, Sameh S; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; Ismail, Hossam El-Din A; El-Badri, Nagwa; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs), for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs), was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion . BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  14. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs, for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs, was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  15. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bryła

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice, triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006 was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN, DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05 any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B, enniatin B1 (Enn-B1, enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1, 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A, 70

  16. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  17. Aspergillus Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds. The notable consequence of their presence is contamination of foods and feeds by mycotoxins, among which the most important are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and, at a less extent, fumonisins. Aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 are the most toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, due to their extreme hepatocarcinogenicity; ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin, it is also carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic in rats and possibly in humans; fumonisins are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic with potential carcinogenic effects on rat and mice. In this chapter we summarize the main aspects of morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and toxigenicity of Aspergillus foodborne pathogens which belong to sections Flavi, Circumdati, and Nigri, occurring in several agricultural products and responsible of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins contamination of food and feed.

  18. Analysis of Canadian and Irish forage, oats and commercially available equine concentrate feed for pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory infections, recurrent airway obstruction (RAO and exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH are major causes of poor performance in horses. Fungi and mycotoxins are now recognised as a major cause of these conditions. The most notable fungi are Aspergillus and Fusarium. Fungal spores can originate from forage, bedding and feed and, in turn, these fungal spores can produce a series of mycotoxins as secondary metabolites. This study set out to ascertain the degree of fungal and mycotoxin contamination in feed and fodder used in Irish racing yards over a one-year period. Weather conditions in forage producing areas were sampled by Met Eireann and the Canadian Meteorological Service. Fifty per cent of Irish hay, 37% of haylage and 13% of Canadian hay contained pathogenic fungi. Of the mycotoxins, T2 and zearalenone were most prominent. Twenty-one per cent of Irish hay and 16% of pelleted feed contained zearalenone. Forty per cent of oats and 54% of pelleted feed contained T2 toxins.

  19. Analysis of Canadian and Irish forage, oats and commercially available equine concentrate feed for pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas; Creighton, Alan; Fogarty, Ursula

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory infections, recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) are major causes of poor performance in horses. Fungi and mycotoxins are now recognised as a major cause of these conditions. The most notable fungi are Aspergillus and Fusarium. Fungal spores can originate from forage, bedding and feed and, in turn, these fungal spores can produce a series of mycotoxins as secondary metabolites.This study set out to ascertain the degree of fungal and mycotoxin contamination in feed and fodder used in Irish racing yards over a one-year period. Weather conditions in forage producing areas were sampled by Met Eireann and the Canadian Meteorological Service.Fifty per cent of Irish hay, 37% of haylage and 13% of Canadian hay contained pathogenic fungi. Of the mycotoxins, T2 and zearalenone were most prominent. Twenty-one per cent of Irish hay and 16% of pelleted feed contained zearalenone. Forty per cent of oats and 54% of pelleted feed contained T2 toxins.

  20. Role of adipose tissue derived stem cells differentiated into insulin producing cells in the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Embaby, Azza S; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Marwa G

    2018-05-15

    Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas. ADSCs were harvested, cultured and identified by testing their phenotypes through flow cytometry. They were further subjected to differentiation into IPCs using differentiation medium. mRNA expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pdx1), insulin and glucose transporter-2 genes by real time PCR was done to detect the cellular differentiation and confirmed by stimulated insulin secretion. The pancreatic tissues from all groups were examined 2 months after IPC transplantation and were subjected to histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric study. The differentiated IPCs showed significant expression of pancreatic β cell markers and insulin secretion in glucose dependent manner. Treatment with IPCs induced apparent regeneration, diffused proliferated islet cells and significant increase in C-peptide immune reaction. We concluded that transplantation of differentiated IPCs improved function and morphology of Islet cells in diabetic rats. Consequently, this therapy option may be a promising therapeutic approach to patient with type 1 DM if proven to be effective and safe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3 μg g -1 ), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16 μg g -1 ) and gills (0.27-2.74 μg g -1 ). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals.

  2. Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Zhu, Jiang; Nie, Yao; Hu, Rui; Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yunhuang

    2018-04-29

    Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae. They are found to be expressed easily in prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems, more robust in extreme conditions, and facile to be used as surrogates for artificial antigens. These properties make them the promising and environmentally friendly immunoreagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments in the area of nanobodies used in mycotoxin detection. Moreover, by integrating the introduction of the principle of nanobodies production and the critical assessment of their performance, this paper also proposes the prospect of nanobodies in the field of food safety in the foreseeable future.

  3. MICOTOXINAS DO FUSARIUM spp NA AVICULTURA COMERCIAL MYCOTOXIN OF FUSARIUM spp IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santin

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas por essas micotoxinas, dificilmente ocorrerão devido a uma substância isolada, de forma que se faz necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito interativo dessas toxinas.Mycotoxins are fungi toxic metabolites, heterogeneous in their nature and with varied pharmacological actions. They can cause injuries to animals, resulting in decreased performance and serious pathologic lesion. In the last years, the mycotoxicosis has received special attention worldwide due to losses in poultry industry. Fusarium fungi are reported as producers of diverse mycotoxin. Therefore, intoxication caused by Fusarium mycotoxins will hardly be due to one separate substance and more information is needed about the interaction effect of these.

  4. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegazy Eman M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Methods Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 μg and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Results Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2 and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases. No significant differences were found in the activity of colon β-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Conclusion Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora.

  5. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  6. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Cereal Grains Collected from South Korea by LC/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS. The levels of 13 mycotoxins in 5 types of commercial grains (brown rice, maize, millet, sorghum, and mixed cereal from South Korea were determined in a total of 507 cereal grains. Mycotoxins produced from Fusarium sp. (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were more frequently (more than 5% and concurrently detected in all cereal grains along with higher mean levels (4.3–161.0 ng/g in positive samples than other toxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (less than 9% and below 5.2 ng/g in positive samples from other fungal species.

  8. Framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert C; Ford, Randall M; Helander, Mary E; Marecki, Janusz; Natarajan, Ramesh; Ray, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food processing industry. Mycotoxin contamination is a well-known threat to public health that has economic significance for the food processing industry; it is imperative to address mycotoxin risks holistically, at all points in the procurement, processing, and distribution pipeline, by tracking the relevant data, adopting best practices, and providing suitable adaptive controls. The proposed framework includes (i) an information and data repository, (ii) a collaborative infrastructure with analysis and simulation tools, (iii) standardized testing and acceptance sampling procedures, and (iv) processes that link the risk assessments and testing results to the sourcing, production, and product release steps. The implementation of suitable acceptance sampling protocols for mycotoxin testing is considered in some detail.

  9. Open Access Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Mycotoxins were detected from pawpaw samples inoculated with Rhizopus, Aspergillus and. Fusarium, before and after ... purification and storage under refrigeration .... detected in the urine of the Philippine woman that consumed ...

  10. Kenya dairy farmer perception of moulds and mycotoxins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... effects was generally low, but awareness that eating mouldy food is harmful was high. ... age, thus reducing exposure to mycotoxins but also the nutritional benefits of milk.

  11. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  12. Micotoxinas e Micotoxicoses na Avicultura Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicosis in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Santurio

    2000-04-01

    .e. when the animals are fed AFL-contaminated food during the first 21 days of life. The level of stress has also been shown to enhance the toxic effects of AFLs, by reducing the toxic threshold and leading to a reduction in growth and egg production. The main mycotoxins belonging to the trichothecenes group are toxin T-2, deoxynivalenol (DON and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, produced by several fungi species of the genera Fusarium. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus also produce zearalenona and fumonisin. Among the Fusarium mycotoxins, only toxin T-2 is a severe pathogen for poultry, causing oral lesions and immunodepression. The fumonisins can affect the growth performance of broilers at doses as low as 75ppm. In contrast, no toxic effects of zearalenona and DON have been demonstrated for poultry. The method of choice to prevent food contamination with mycotoxins is to avoid fungal growth, narrowing the quality control of the grains in the farm or during storage/transportation. Alternative methods such as antifungic drugs or adsorbents may also be used with success. Monitoring grains before or as they enter the food industry is the key point in a mycotoxin control program. This can be accomplished through a systematic and consistent mycotoxicologic analysis of grain samples already received at the plant or to be purchased.

  13. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  14. Effect of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood and intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revajová, Viera; Levkut, Mikuláš; Levkutová, Mária; Bořutová, Radka; Grešaková, Lubomíra; Košiková, Božena; Leng, Lubomír

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on peripheral blood leukocytes and duodenal immunocompetent cells in broiler chickens. From day 1 after hatching, all chickens were fed an identical control diet for two weeks. Then chickens of Group 1 continued to be fed the control diet, whereas Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with lignin at 0.5% level. Simultaneously, Group 3 started to receive a diet contaminated with DON (2.95 mg kg-1) and ZEA (1.59 mg kg-1), while Group 4 received an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin for further two weeks. Samples of blood and duodenal tissue were collected from 6 birds of each group at 4 weeks of age. Neither counts of white blood cells nor phagocytic function in the peripheral blood were significantly affected in the mycotoxin- and/or lignin-treated birds. As compared to the control, increased numbers of IgM-bearing cells were found in the peripheral blood in Group 3 fed the contaminated diet (P mycotoxin-induced reduction in the number of duodenal CD4+ cells. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lignin as an indigestible compound to poultry feed may increase the density of some intestinal immunocompetent cells without exerting effects on that in the peripheral blood. However, when added to a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, lignin did not prevent the mycotoxin-induced changes in the numbers of blood and intestinal immunocompetent cells.

  15. Sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This book contains only the abstracts of seminars that were delivered on the sixth international symposium on mycotoxins and phycotoxins on 22-25 July 1985 in Pretoria under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Subject-coverage includes biosynthesis, metabolism, structure and chemical properties, analysis, biochemical mechanisms, toxicity, and pathology of mycotoxins and phycotoxins

  16. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  17. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  18. Mesoderm Lineage 3D Tissue Constructs Are Produced at Large-Scale in a 3D Stem Cell Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Min; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Yurim; Bang, Oh Young; Bae, Hojae

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages can be successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. A 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is developed. ESCs are cultured using our previously established 3D-bioprocess platform which is amenable to mass-production of 3D ESC-based tissue constructs. Hepatocarcinoma cell line conditioned medium is introduced to the large-scale 3D culture to provide a specific biomolecular microenvironment to mimic in vivo mesoderm formation process. After 5 days of spontaneous differentiation period, the resulting 3D tissue constructs are composed of multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells verified by gene and molecular expression profiles. Subsequently the optimal time points to trigger terminal differentiation towards cardiomyogenesis or osteogenesis from the mesodermal tissue constructs is found. A simple and affordable 3D ESC-bioprocess that can reach the scalable production of mesoderm origin tissues with significantly improved correspondent tissue properties is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria

    2009-01-01

    (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger......) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call...

  20. Technical Note A note on the occuffence of mycotoxins in cereals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from food companies, co-operatives, insurance compa- nies, millers, hospitals, rural ..... culture for the detection of mycotoxins. Letts. Appl. Microbiol. ... Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins, Mexico City,. Mexico. TAKITANI, S.

  1. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, M. de L. M. de; SULYOK, M.; SILVA, O. F.; COSTA, S. S.; BRABET, C.; MACHINSKI JUNIOR, M.; SEKIYAMA, B. L.; VARGAS, E. A.; KRSKA, R.; SCHUHMACHER, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, ...

  2. Impact of sowing time, hybrid and environmental conditions on the contamination of maize by emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites represent the most insidious safety risks to cereal food and the feed chain. Optimising agronomic practices is one of the main strategies adopted to minimise the contents of these undesirable substances in grain-based commodities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of sowing times and hybrids on the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in maize. Field experiments were carried out in 2 sowing times (early vs late and 3 maize hybrids were compared in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Overall, 37 fungal metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species were detected. Apart from fumonisins type B (FBs, other metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, such as fumonisins type A, fusaric acid, bikaverin and fusaproliferin, were also detected in all of the samples. Fusarin C was found in 61% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, culmorin and zearalenone, all of which are produced prevalently by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, were found in all the samples. Their contents were clearly affected by the meteorological trend: the highest contamination was detected in the 2014 growing season, which was characterised by abundant rainfall and lower temperatures from flowering to maize ripening. Among the mycotoxins produced by other Fusarium species, aurofusarin was found to clearly be associated with DON, while moniliformin and beauvericin followed the same behaviour as the FBs. A late sowing time significantly increased the FBs and fumonisin- associated mycotoxins in both growing seasons. The increase in contamination with the delay of sowing was more pronounced in the 2015 growing season, as the environmental conditions were less favourable to the infection of other Fusarium species. The effect of sowing time on DON and DON-associated mycotoxins produced conflicting results for the two growing

  3. Application of new mycotoxin adsorbent-bentonite clay “Askangel” in poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    A. Chkuaseli; M. Khutsishvili-Maisuradze; A. Chagelishvili; K. Natsvaladze; T. Lashkarashvili; G. Chagelishvili; N. Maisuradze

    2016-01-01

    In order to mitigate the negative effect of mycotoxins the major researches have been conducted to obtain the mycotoxins adsorbent in recent years. As for the adsorbents, they are substances of a firm or liquid form, on which surface the mycotoxins are absorbed and prevent transition of mycotoxins from the intestines walls in to blood system. The bentonite clay obtained in western region of Georgia (Guria, Ozurgeti) is characterized with a broad range of ion exchange, high colloidal, enriched...

  4. MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION ON CORN USED BY FEED MILLS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins which are secondary metabolites of fungi contaminate agricultural products such as corn and have deleterious effects on human and animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycotoxin contamination on local and imported corn samples collected from different feed mills in Indonesia. Three hundred fifty six of corn samples (0.50 kg each were sent by several feed mills to the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production during 2005-2006. The background information accompanied with each sample was country/province of origins, harvesting seasons, postharvest drying methods, moisture levels, grades, and varieties. The samples were analyzed for various mycotoxins, i.e aflatoxin (AFL, ochratoxin (OCRA, zearalenone (ZEN, fumonisin (FUM, deoxynivalenol (DON, and T2 toxin using commercial kits, except for AFL which was analysed using a kit developed by the Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science. The results showed that average AFL level in the contaminated corn originated from Indonesia was 59 µg kg-1, almost 7 times higher than that imported from the USA or Argentina. Among the types of mycotoxins detected, FUM was the highest with an average of 1193 µg kg-1, followed by DON, ZEN and OCRA at level of 324, 22 and 2 µg kg-1, respectively. Mycotoxin levels in the contaminated local corn samples varied depending on the province of origins as well as harvesting seasons, postharvest drying methods, and moisture contents. The least mycotoxin contaminations were found on corn originated from NorthSumatra and Lampung with the AFL levels were < 20 and < 50 µg kg-1, respectively, lower than those from East Java, Central Java and South Sulawesi (64-87 µg kg-1. Mycotoxin levels, however, were less affected by grading made by feed mills and corn varieties. It is indicated that AFL was the most important mycotoxin as far as for animal feeding concerned, as it contaminated almost 50% of local corn with the level of

  5. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of mycotoxins on protein and amino acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T K

    1982-09-01

    The interrelationships between mycotoxins and the utilization of dietary protein are reviewed. Acute aflatoxicosis is characterized by reduced growth and fatty infiltration of the liver. Studies with poultry, swine, and monkeys have shown that supplements of dietary protein beyond normal requirements can overcome these conditions. High-protein diets, however, have been shown to promote hepatoma characteristic of chronic aflatoxicosis in rats. Aflatoxin interferes with utilization of dietary protein by inhibiting synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. High-protein diets promote the metabolism of aflatoxin by the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system. The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone increases membrane permeability and promotes uterine synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Supplements of dietary protein overcome growth reduction due to zearalenone and reduce the metabolic half-life of the toxin by promoting urinary excretion of free, unmetabolized zearalenone in the rat. The trichothecene mycotoxins disrupt normal protein metabolism by inactivating the ribosomal cycle. Protein supplements appear to have little effect on trichothecene mycotoxicoses. Most mycotoxins impair utilization of dietary protein. The effectiveness of protein supplements in overcoming mycotoxicoses will depend on the mycotoxin in question.

  7. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  8. High Prevalence of Male infertility in Africa: Are Mycotoxins to Blame?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences, Queen's University ... Mycotoxins are pharmacologically active ... of mycotoxins could be agonistic, additive or .... Mycotoxins in the food chain: human health implications. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical. Nutrition.

  9. Regional differences in the composition of Fusarium Head Blight pathogens and mycotoxins associated with wheat in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Bustamante, Minely; Ward, Todd J; Kelly, Amy; Vaughan, Martha M; McCormick, Susan P; Cowger, Christina; Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Villaseñor-Mir, Héctor E; Ayala-Escobar, Victoria; Nava-Díaz, Cristian

    2018-05-20

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals and a major food safety concern. Epidemics result in substantial yield losses, reduction in crop quality, and contamination of grains with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. A number of different fusaria can cause FHB, and there are significant regional differences in the occurrence and prevalence of FHB pathogen species and their associated mycotoxins. Information on FHB pathogen and mycotoxin diversity in Mexico has been extremely limited, but is needed to improve disease and mycotoxin control efforts. To address this, we used a combination of DNA sequence-based methods and in-vitro toxin analyses to characterize FHB isolates collected from symptomatic wheat in Mexico during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Among 116 Fusarium isolates, we identified five species complexes including nine named Fusarium species and 30 isolates representing unnamed or potentially novel species. Significant regional differences (P 90% of isolates from the Mixteca region in southern Mexico, whereas F. avenaceum and related members of the F. tricinctum species complex (FTSC) accounted for nearly 75% of isolates from the Highlands region in Central Mexico. F. graminearum, which is the dominant FHB pathogen in other parts of North America, was not present among the isolates from Mexico. F. boothii isolates had the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxin type, and some of the minor FHB species produced trichothecenes, such as nivalenol, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. None of the FTSC isolates tested was able to produce trichothecenes, but many produced chlamydosporol and enniatin B. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Nano-Aptasensing in Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Updates and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Rhouati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an overwhelming integration of nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. Nanomaterials have been incorporated with the objective to achieve better analytical figures of merit in terms of limit of detection, linear range, assays stability, low production cost, etc. Nanomaterials can act as immobilization support, signal amplifier, mediator and artificial enzyme label in the construction of aptasensors. We aim in this work to review the recent progress in mycotoxin analysis. This review emphasizes on the function of the different nanomaterials in aptasensors architecture. We subsequently relate their features to the analytical performance of the given aptasensor towards mycotoxins monitoring. In the same context, a critically analysis and level of success for each nano-aptasensing design will be discussed. Finally, current challenges in nano-aptasensing design for mycotoxin analysis will be highlighted.

  11. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  12. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques.

  13. Analysis of selected phytotoxins and mycotoxins in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Schenzel, Judith; Strobel, Bjarne W; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Natural toxins such as phytotoxins and mycotoxins have been studied in food and feed for decades, but little attention has yet been paid to their occurrence in the environment. Because of increasing awareness of the presence and potential relevance of micropollutants in the environment, phytotoxins and mycotoxins should be considered and investigated as part of the chemical cocktail in natural samples. Here, we compile chemical analytical methods to determine important phytotoxins (i.e. phenolic acids, quinones, benzoxazinones, terpenoids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, flavonoids, coumestans, lignans, and chalcones) and mycotoxins (i.e. resorcyclic acid lactones, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and aflatoxins) in environmentally relevant matrices such as surface water, waste water-treatment plant influent and effluent, soil, sediment, manure, and sewage sludge. The main problems encountered in many of the reviewed methods were the frequent unavailability of suitable internal standards (especially isotope-labelled analogues) and often absent or fragmentary method optimization and validation.

  14. Overview of mycotoxin methods, present status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews current requirements for the analysis for mycotoxins in foods and identifies legislative as well as other factors that are driving development and validation of new methods. New regulatory limits for mycotoxins and analytical quality assurance requirements for laboratories to only use validated methods are seen as major factors driving developments. Three major classes of methods are identified which serve different purposes and can be categorized as screening, official and research. In each case the present status and future needs are assessed. In addition to an overview of trends in analytical methods, some other areas of analytical quality assurance such as participation in proficiency testing and reference materials are identified.

  15. Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bavrins, Konstantins; Kuckovska, Galina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2017-03-01

    A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

  16. Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners Produce Tissue- and Gene-Specific Effects on Thyroid Hormone Signaling during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Stefanie; Bansal, Ruby; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa M.; Taub, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are industrial chemicals linked to developmental deficits that may be caused in part by disrupting thyroid hormone (TH) action by either reducing serum TH or interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). Individual PCB congeners can activate the TR in vitro when the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is induced, suggesting that specific PCB metabolites act as TR agonists. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we compared two combinations of PCB congeners that either activate the TR (PCB 105 and 118) or not (PCB 138 and 153) in the presence or absence of a PCB congener (PCB 126) that induces CYP1A1 in vitro. Aroclor 1254 was used as a positive control, and a group treated with propylthiouracil was included to characterize the effects of low serum TH. We monitored the effects on TH signaling in several peripheral tissues by measuring the mRNA expression of well-known TH-response genes in these tissues. Aroclor 1254 and its component PCB 105/118/126 reduced total T4 to the same extent as that of propylthiouracil but increased the expression of some TH target genes in liver. This effect was strongly correlated with CYP1A1 expression supporting the hypothesis that metabolism is necessary. Effects were gene and tissue specific, indicating that tissue-specific metabolism is an important component of PCB disruption of TH action and that PCB metabolites interact in complex ways with the TR. These are essential mechanisms to consider when evaluating the health risks of contaminant exposures, for both PCB and other polycyclic compounds known to interact with nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:21540284

  17. Incidence of mycoflora and mycotoxins in some edible fruits and seeds of forest origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Khan, S; Harsh, N; Pandey, R

    2001-06-01

    Twelve fungi namelyAlternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A niger, A ochraceus, Actinomucor repens, Capnodoium spp., Curvularia lunata, Fusarium pallidoroseum, F solani, F verticillioides, Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus stolonifer were recorded from samples ofAegle marmelos, Aesculus indica, Buchanania lanzan andPinus gerardiana. In case ofPrunus amygdalus only Rstolonifer was recorded. A significant variation in pattern of mycoflora incidence was observed in terms of source and season. Fungal infestation in most of the substrates was found to be highest during monsoon. Aflatoxins were the most common mycotoxins elaborated by different isolates ofA flavus obtained fromA marmelos, B lanzan andP gerardiana. The amount of aflatoxins produced by the toxigenic isolates ofA flavus was in the range of traces to 0.9-26.0 μg/ml inA marmelos, 0.8-17.5 μg/ml inP gerardiana and 0.65-13.2 μg/ml inB lanzan. The percentage toxigenicity was comparatively lower in the isolates of other mycotoxigenic fungi. Aflatoxins were detected almost in all the samples analyzed for mycotoxin contamination. However, traces of zearalenone were detected inA marmelos. The concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in the range of 0.13-0.75 μg/g inA marmelos, 0.09-0.60 μg/g inP gerardiana and 0.01-0.20 ug/g inB lanzan. Mycotoxins were not detected inAesculus indica andPrunus amygdalus.

  18. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumasa Hitoshi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. Results Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. Conclusion Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross

  19. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  20. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  1. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Czembor

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated. Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  2. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  3. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  4. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  5. Influence of water activity, temperature and time on mycotoxins production on barley rootlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J M M; Cavaglieri, L R; Fraga, M E; Direito, G M; Dalcero, A M; Rosa, C A R

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ochratoxin (OT) and aflatoxin (AF) production by three strains of Aspergillus spp. under different water activities, temperature and incubation time on barley rootlets (BR). Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus flavus were able to produce mycotoxins on BR. Aspergillus ochraceus produced ochratoxin A (OTA) at 0.80 water activity (a(w)), at 25 and 30 degrees C as optimal environmental conditions. The OTA production varies at different incubation days depending on a(w). Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) accumulation was obtained at 25 degrees C, at 0.80 and 0.95 a(w), after 14 and 21 incubation days respectively. Temperature was a critical factor influencing OTA and AFB(1) production. This study demonstrates that BR support OTA and AFB(1) production at relatively low water activity (0.80 a(w)) and high temperatures (25-30 degrees C). The study of ecophysiological parameters and their interactions would determine the prevailing environmental factors, which enhance the mycotoxin production on BR used as animal feed.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  7. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Status and Future Prospects for Aptamer-Based Mycotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscito, Annamaria; Smith, McKenzie; Goudreau, Daniel N; DeRosa, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with the ability to bind tightly and selectively to a target analyte. High-affinity and specific aptamers for a variety of mycotoxins have been reported over the past decade. Increasingly, these molecular recognition elements are finding applications in biosensors and assays for the detection of mycotoxins in a variety of complex matrixes. This review article highlights the mycotoxin aptamers that are available for mycotoxin detection and the array of biosensing platforms into which they have been incorporated. Key advantages that aptamers have over analogous technology, and areas in which these advantages may be applied for the benefit of practical mycotoxin detection, are also discussed.

  9. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of mycotoxins in human small intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Sørensen, Izel Fourie; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is of significant concern due to their adverse effects on pig productivity and on animal and human health. Development of scientifically sound in vitro systems for toxicological screening for mycotoxins is important for improvement of food safety...... with mycotoxins for 72 h, and viability was measured by AlamarBlue reduction. For apoptosis studies, cells were treated with mycotoxins for 24 h, and apoptosis was measured by caspase 3/7 activation. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of mycotoxins was calculated from sigmoidal dose-response plots...

  10. Preliminary studies on fragmentation in tissue-equivalent material produced by 55 MeV/u 40Ar17+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Duan Limin; Zhang Baoguo; Li Songlin; Yin Xu; Zhu Yongtai; Li Wenjian; Li Qiang; Yuan Shibin

    2002-01-01

    By using a 55 MeV/u 40 Ar 17+ beam produced by HIRFL, the distribution of fragments in 1.5 mm lucite on three different directions were measured at the radiobiology terminal. Feasibilities of the phoswich detector composed of fast plastic scintillator and CsI(Tl) detectors for determination of angular distribution of fragments in tissue-equivalent materials were investigated. The results obtained were satisfactory

  11. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  12. A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

    2010-07-15

    Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High seeding density of human chondrocytes in agarose produces tissue-engineered cartilage approaching native mechanical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigan, Alexander D; Roach, Brendan L; Nims, Robert J; Tan, Andrea R; Albro, Michael B; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-06-14

    Animal cells have served as highly controllable model systems for furthering cartilage tissue engineering practices in pursuit of treating osteoarthritis. Although successful strategies for animal cells must ultimately be adapted to human cells to be clinically relevant, human chondrocytes are rarely employed in such studies. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of culture techniques established for juvenile bovine and adult canine chondrocytes to human chondrocytes obtained from fresh or expired osteochondral allografts. Human chondrocytes were expanded and encapsulated in 2% agarose scaffolds measuring ∅3-4mm×2.3mm, with cell seeding densities ranging from 15 to 90×10(6)cells/mL. Subsets of constructs were subjected to transient or sustained TGF-β treatment, or provided channels to enhance nutrient transport. Human cartilaginous constructs physically resembled native human cartilage, and reached compressive Young's moduli of up to ~250kPa (corresponding to the low end of ranges reported for native knee cartilage), dynamic moduli of ~950kPa (0.01Hz), and contained 5.7% wet weight (%/ww) of glycosaminoglycans (≥ native levels) and 1.5%/ww collagen. We found that the initial seeding density had pronounced effects on tissue outcomes, with high cell seeding densities significantly increasing nearly all measured properties. Transient TGF-β treatment was ineffective for adult human cells, and tissue construct properties plateaued or declined beyond 28 days of culture. Finally, nutrient channels improved construct mechanical properties, presumably due to enhanced rates of mass transport. These results demonstrate that our previously established culture system can be successfully translated to human chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal contamination of crude herbal remedies as a possible source of mycotoxin exposure in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OGOyero; AOBOyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The documented evidence of toxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites on medicinal plants,coupled with the ability of these toxins to resist decomposition and temperature treatments necessitated this study,with a view of surveying for a possible carry over into the final medicinal products.As such popular indigenous crude herbal prepa-rations widely consumed for various ailments in south-western Nigeria,were screened for fungal contamination,my-coflora enumeration,flora mycotoxin productibility,detection and quantification of a potent human carcinogen (afla-toxin).Methods:Fungal contamination was assessed on acidified potato dextrose agar using the plate count method, while mycotoxin detection,extraction and quantification were achieved by the thin -layer chromatography and chem-ical confirmation techniques.Mycoflora were characterized by standard procedures.Results:The total plate count ranged from 1.80 ×104 CFU /ML to 1.10 ×105 CFU /ML and 2.00 ×103 CFU /ML to 1.38 ×105 CFU /ML for water and dry gin extracted preparations respectively.The mycoflora consisted of six genera (Aspergillus,Penicillium,Fu-sarium,Mucor,Alternaria and Rhizopus).Thirty-four percent (34 %)of the potential toxigenic species (Aspergil-lus,Penicillium and Fusarium)produced mycotoxins in culture,while further characterization indicated production of aflatoxin B1 (42 %),ochratoxin A (50 %)and penicillic acid (8 %)by the mycotoxigenic strains respectively. The aflatoxin content of the herbal medicines ranged between 0.004 μg/kg and 0.345 μg/kg.Conclusion:The study confirmed the carry over of the fungal contaminants and their toxic metabolites into the final herbal medicines in quantities that exceeded some of the available limits.The implication of this is that the chronic exposure to mycotox-ins particularly aflatoxins as a result of long term consumption of these preparations,could lead to impaired growth, nutritional interference,immunologic suppression and hepatocellular

  16. Identification of mycotoxins by UHPLC–QTOF MS in airborne fungi and fungi isolated from industrial paper and antique documents from the Archive of Bogotá

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Nancy I.; Ibáñez, María; Beltrán, Eduardo; Rivera-Monroy, Jhon; Ochoa, Juan Camilo; Páez-Castillo, Mónica; Posada-Buitrago, Martha L.; Sulyok, Michael; Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Mold deterioration of historical documents in archives and libraries is a frequent and complex phenomenon that may have important economic and cultural consequences. In addition, exposure to toxic fungal metabolites might produce health problems. In this work, samples of broths of fungal species isolated from the documentary material and from indoor environmental samples of the Archive of Bogotá have been analyzed to investigate the presence of mycotoxins. High resolution mass spectrometry made possible to search for a large number of mycotoxins, even without reference standards available at the laboratory. For this purpose, a screening strategy based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–QTOF MS) under MS E mode was applied. A customized home-made database containing elemental composition for around 600 mycotoxins was compiled. The presence of the (de)protonated molecule measured at its accurate mass was evaluated in the samples. When a peak was detected, collision induced dissociation fragments and characteristic isotopic ions were also evaluated and used for tentative identification, based on structure compatibility and comparison with literature data (if existing). Up to 44 mycotoxins were tentatively identified by UHPLC–QTOF MS. 34 of these tentative compounds were confirmed by subsequent analysis using a targeted LC–MS/MS method, supporting the strong potential of QTOF MS for identification/elucidation purposes. The presence of mycotoxins in these samples might help to reinforce safety measures for researchers and staff who work on reception, restoration and conservation of archival material, not only at the Archive of Bogotá but worldwide. - Highlights: • Mold deterioration of historical documents is a frequent and complex phenomenon. • Samples of broths of fungal species isolated from Archive of Bogotá analyzed. • UHPLC–QTOF MS (MS E ) applied for mycotoxins screening

  17. Identification of mycotoxins by UHPLC–QTOF MS in airborne fungi and fungi isolated from industrial paper and antique documents from the Archive of Bogotá

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Nancy I. [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá D.C. 111821 (Colombia); Ibáñez, María; Beltrán, Eduardo [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Rivera-Monroy, Jhon; Ochoa, Juan Camilo; Páez-Castillo, Mónica [Laboratorio de Química, Física y Biología, Archivo de Bogotá, Bogotá D.C. 111711 (Colombia); Posada-Buitrago, Martha L. [Laboratorio de Biofísica, Centro Internacional de Física – CIF, Bogotá D.C. 111321 (Colombia); Sulyok, Michael [Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Tulln 3430 (Austria); Hernández, Félix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Mold deterioration of historical documents in archives and libraries is a frequent and complex phenomenon that may have important economic and cultural consequences. In addition, exposure to toxic fungal metabolites might produce health problems. In this work, samples of broths of fungal species isolated from the documentary material and from indoor environmental samples of the Archive of Bogotá have been analyzed to investigate the presence of mycotoxins. High resolution mass spectrometry made possible to search for a large number of mycotoxins, even without reference standards available at the laboratory. For this purpose, a screening strategy based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–QTOF MS) under MS{sup E} mode was applied. A customized home-made database containing elemental composition for around 600 mycotoxins was compiled. The presence of the (de)protonated molecule measured at its accurate mass was evaluated in the samples. When a peak was detected, collision induced dissociation fragments and characteristic isotopic ions were also evaluated and used for tentative identification, based on structure compatibility and comparison with literature data (if existing). Up to 44 mycotoxins were tentatively identified by UHPLC–QTOF MS. 34 of these tentative compounds were confirmed by subsequent analysis using a targeted LC–MS/MS method, supporting the strong potential of QTOF MS for identification/elucidation purposes. The presence of mycotoxins in these samples might help to reinforce safety measures for researchers and staff who work on reception, restoration and conservation of archival material, not only at the Archive of Bogotá but worldwide. - Highlights: • Mold deterioration of historical documents is a frequent and complex phenomenon. • Samples of broths of fungal species isolated from Archive of Bogotá analyzed. • UHPLC–QTOF MS (MS{sup E}) applied for mycotoxins

  18. Inhibition of growth and mycotoxins formation in moulds by marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extracts (chloroform, hexane and methanol) had no activity on the microbial growth. Mycotoxins formation in Aspergillus flavus was inhibited by the ethanolic extracts at the concentration of 5%. Key Words: Algae, antimicrobial, minimal inhibitory concentration, moulds. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 71-75 ...

  19. Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Dekkers, S.; Kandhai, M.C.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Booij, C.J.H.; Heer, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but

  20. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  1. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg-1 and 8 μg kg-1, respectively.

  2. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  3. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  4. Manuals of food quality control 10. training in mycotoxins analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This manual is designed to cover a course of about three weeks to train food analysts in developing countries. Mycotoxins are described and analytical methods for detecting their presence in food and animal feeds are presented, with especial emphasis on immunoassay and thin-layer chromatographic procedures. 40 figs, 10 tabs

  5. Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, De M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Boon, P.E.; Heyndrickx, E.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Lopez, P.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed

  6. Laboratory competence evaluation through proficiency testing - mycotoxins in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory for analysis of mycotoxins in food at the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Serbia participated in 15 proficiency testing schemes in period 2012-2016, comprising 22 determinations of regulated mycotoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin, in different food commodities: wheat, corn, barley, breakfast cereals, infant food, milk, wine and fruit juice. Analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (patulin, deoxynivalenol or fluorescence detection (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone using o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization (fumonisins or UV postcolumn derivatization (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, following clean-up on immunoaffinity columns with specific antibodies, except in case of patulin when solvent extraction and solid-phase C-18 clean-up were used. Laboratory performance assessed in terms of z scores showed all satisfactory results. In depth evaluation revealed following distribution of z scores (absolute values: 59.1% up to 0.5, 36.4% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 4.5% above 1.0. Analysis of trends performed for multiple determinations of individual mycotoxins showed several changes of z score to better or worse rank. Overall assessment of the performance in proficiency testing demonstrated laboratory competence for analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  7. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds | Mngadi | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for contaminating ...

  8. The incorporation of specific tissue/nuclide attenuation data into the Anderson method for producing brachytherapy volume-dose histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loft, S.M.; Dale, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Anderson (1986) has proposed an analytical method for deriving volume-dose histograms relating to three-dimensional brachytherapy distributions. Because the mathematical transformation allows the otherwise dominant effects of the inverse-square fall-off about individual sources to be effectively suppressed, resulting histograms provide the potential for visually and numerically assessing overall quality of a brachytherapy treatment. In this paper the Anderson equations have been combined with the radial-dose polynomials of Dale, which are applicable to a number of tissue/nuclide combinations, and the predictions of the combined formalism used to further investigate the physical aspects of brachytherapy dosimetry. The problems associated with the dosimetry of low-energy γ-emitters such as 125 I are once again highlighted, as are potential advantages of using a radionuclide with an intermediate γ-ray energy. (author)

  9. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  10. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseud...... by direct injection mass spectrometry and cluster analysis. Separate groupings were seen for all the six species even though only one isolate was included in this study for the two species A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis.......The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N....... pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl- sulochrin, TR-2...

  11. Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mendes de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74, poultry feed (36, and feed factory residue (9. Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840 μg/kg, 239 μg/kg, and 23,676 μg/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  12. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lourdes Mendes de Souza, Maria; Sulyok, Michael; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Costa, Sônia Soares; Brabet, Catherine; Machinski Junior, Miguel; Sekiyama, Beatriz Leiko; Vargas, Eugenia Azevedo; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840  μ g/kg, 239  μ g/kg, and 23,676  μ g/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Morcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. The fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. In this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene have been evaluated against three species of mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae responsible for Fusarium Head Blight in small-grain cereals. The natural products concentrations effective for reducing or inhibiting the in vitro fungal growth were determined for each fungal species and the following scale of potency was found: cinnamaldehyde > cuminaldehyde > citral > citronellal > bergamot oil > limonene > lemon oil. Moreover, the in vitro mycotoxin productions of the three Fusaria strains exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the seven products was evaluated. The three fungal species showed variability in response to the treatments, both in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth and in terms of modulation of mycotoxin production that can be enhanced by sub-lethal concentrations of some natural products. This last finding must be taken into account in the frame of an open field application of some plant-derived fungicides.

  14. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins.

  15. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis...... that both species are able to produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and some additional compounds....

  16. Analysis of the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with southeastern U.S. winegrapes reveals a large population of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates producing high levels of fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious challenge to a consistently safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is only expected to worsen with our changing climate. Species of Fusarium produce one or more of several mycotoxins, including tricothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins, which have been associated wi...

  17. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: An update (2009-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas W; Bramhmbhatt, Heli; Szabo-Vezse, Monika; Poma, Alessandro; Coker, Raymond; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2015-12-11

    Mycotoxins are a problematic and toxic group of small organic molecules that are produced as secondary metabolites by several fungal species that colonise crops. They lead to contamination at both the field and postharvest stages of food production with a considerable range of foodstuffs affected, from coffee and cereals, to dried fruit and spices. With wide ranging structural diversity of mycotoxins, severe toxic effects caused by these molecules and their high chemical stability the requirement for robust and effective detection methods is clear. This paper builds on our previous review and summarises the most recent advances in this field, in the years 2009-2014 inclusive. This review summarises traditional methods such as chromatographic and immunochemical techniques, as well as newer approaches such as biosensors, and optical techniques which are becoming more prevalent. A section on sampling and sample treatment has been prepared to highlight the importance of this step in the analytical methods. We close with a look at emerging technologies that will bring effective and rapid analysis out of the laboratory and into the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  19. FEM modeling of the reinforcement mechanism of Hydroxyapatite in PLLA scaffolds produced by supercritical drying, for Tissue Engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, L; Naddeo, F; Cardea, S; Naddeo, A; Reverchon, E

    2015-11-01

    Scaffolds have been produced by supercritical CO2 drying of Poly-L-Lactid Acid (PLLA) gels loaded with micrometric fructose particles used as porogens. These structures show a microporous architecture generated by the voids left in the solid material by porogen leaching, while they maintain the nanostructure of the gel, consisting of a network of nanofilaments. These scaffolds have also been loaded with Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, from 10 to 50% w/w with respect to the polymer, to improve the mechanical properties of the PLLA structure. Based on miscroscopic and mechanical considerations, we propose a parametric Finite Element Method (FEM) model of PLLA-HA composites that describes the microporous structure as a close-packing of equal spheres and the nanoscale structure as a space frame of isotropic curved fibers. The effect of HA on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds has been modeled on the basis of SEM images and by taking into consideration the formation of concentric cylinders of HA nanoparticles around PLLA nanofibers. Modeling analysis confirms that mechanical properties of these scaffolds depend on nanofibrous network connections and that bending is the major factor causing deformation of the network. The FEM model also takes into account the formation of HA multi-layer coating on some areas in the nanofiber network and its increase in thickness with HA percentage. The Young modulus tends to a plateau for HA percentages larger than 30% w/w and when the coverage of the nanofibers produced by HA nanoparticles reaches a loaded surface index of 0.14 in the FEM model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  1. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  2. A Method for Multiple Mycotoxin Analysis in Wines by Solid Phase Extraction and Multifunctional Cartridge Purification, and Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Ayumi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method using two solid phase extractions and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 mycotoxins (patulin, deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, fumonisins B1, B2, B3, and ochratoxin A) in domestic and imported wines. Mycotoxins were purified with an Oasis HLB cartridge, followed by a MultiSepTM #229 Ochra. As a result, sufficient removal of the pigments and highly polar matrices from the red wines was achieved. UHPLC conditions were optimized, and 14 mycotoxins were separated in a total of 13 min. Determinations performed using this method produced high correlation coefficients for the 14 mycotoxins (R > 0.990) and recovery rates ranging from 76 to 105% with good repeatability (relative standard deviation RSD < 12%). Twenty-seven samples of domestic and imported wines were analyzed using this method. Although ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins (FMs) were detected in several samples, the FM levels were less than limits of quantification (LOQs) (1 μg/L), and even the largest of the OTA levels was below the EU regulatory level (2 μg/L). These results suggest that the health risk posed to consumers from the wines available in Japan is relatively low. PMID:22822458

  3. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  4. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  5. The sesquiterpene botrydial produced by Botrytis cinerea induces the hypersensitive response on plant tissues and its action is modulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franco Rubén; Gárriz, Andrés; Marina, María; Romero, Fernando Matías; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Collado, Isidro González; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis

    2011-08-01

    Botrytis cinerea, as a necrotrophic fungus, kills host tissues and feeds on the remains. This fungus is able to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) on its hosts, thus taking advantage on the host's defense machinery for generating necrotic tissues. However, the identity of HR effectors produced by B. cinerea is not clear. The aim of this work was to determine whether botrydial, a phytotoxic sesquiterpene produced by B. cinerea, is able to induce the HR on plant hosts, using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model. Botrydial induced the expression of the HR marker HSR3, callose deposition, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and phenolic compounds. Botrydial also induced the expression of PR1 and PDF1.2, two pathogenesis-related proteins involved in defense responses regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), respectively. A. thaliana and tobacco plants defective in SA signaling were more resistant to botrydial than wild-type plants, as opposed to A. thaliana plants defective in JA signaling, which were more sensitive. It can be concluded that botrydial induces the HR on its hosts and its effects are modulated by host signaling pathways mediated by SA and JA.

  6. Detection of GAD65 autoantibodies of type-1 diabetes using anti-GAD65-abs reagent produced from bovine brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko W. Soeatmadji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, type 1 diabetes may presents as type 2 diabetes which sometimes not easily differentiated. Perhaps only autoimmune markers of β-cells destruction could differentiate those two clinical conditions. Due to extremely high cost ( $ 150/test, examination of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 auto-antibodies (anti-GAD65Abs may not be routinely performed in most, if not all, clinical laboratories in Indonesia. Hence, the production of anti-GAD65 Abs reagent in Indonesia may reduce the cost and improve the quality of diabetes care in Indonesia. We produce reagent to detect anti-GAD65-Abs using bovine brain tissue as source of GAD enzyme in 3 steps. Step 1, isolation, purification of GAD65 from bovine brain tissue and used it as a primary antigen to stimulate the generation of anti-GAD65 antibodies in Wistar rat. Step 2, the purified GAD65 antibodies were than used as a secondary antibody to induce the production of anti-anti-GAD65-antibodies in Wistar rat and rabbit. Step 3. Labeling  anti-anti GAD65-antibodies with alkaline phoshpatase and peroxidase, and detecting anti-GAD65Abs previously detected using commercial kit. The anti-anti-GAD65- antibodies reagent produced in our laboratories  successfully identify anti-GAD65-Abs of type 1 diabetic patients previously detected  with commercial reagent. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 197-203Keywords: GAD, type-1 Diabetes

  7. Cryogenic 3D printing for producing hierarchical porous and rhBMP-2-loaded Ca-P/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zhao, Qilong; Wang, Min

    2017-06-07

    The performance of bone tissue engineering scaffolds can be assessed through cell responses to scaffolds, including cell attachment, infiltration, morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, etc, which are determined or heavily influenced by the composition, structure, mechanical properties, and biological properties (e.g. osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity) of scaffolds. Although some promising 3D printing techniques such as fused deposition modeling and selective laser sintering could be employed to produce biodegradable bone tissue engineering scaffolds with customized shapes and tailored interconnected pores, effective methods for fabricating scaffolds with well-designed hierarchical porous structure (both interconnected macropores and surface micropores) and tunable osteoconductivity/osteoinductivity still need to be developed. In this investigation, a novel cryogenic 3D printing technique was investigated and developed for producing hierarchical porous and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded calcium phosphate (Ca-P) nanoparticle/poly(L-lactic acid) nanocomposite scaffolds, in which the Ca-P nanoparticle-incorporated scaffold layer and rhBMP-2-encapsulated scaffold layer were deposited alternatingly using different types of emulsions as printing inks. The mechanical properties of the as-printed scaffolds were comparable to those of human cancellous bone. Sustained releases of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 were achieved and the biological activity of rhBMP-2 was well-preserved. Scaffolds with a desirable hierarchical porous structure and dual delivery of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 exhibited superior performance in directing the behaviors of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and caused improved cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation, which has suggested their great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Effect of three different anti-mycotoxin additives on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin B1

    OpenAIRE

    AA Oliveira; KM Keller; MV Deveza; LAM Keller; EO Dias; BJ Martini-Santos; DFGM Leitao; LR Cavaglieri; CAR Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The growth of filamentous fungi on food often causes, aside from its deterioration, the mycotoxin production which determines economic losses in poultry industry, such as decreased productivity and injuries on poultry's carcass. Adsorbents based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contain esterified glucomannan, are an alternative to reduce the mycotoxins bioavailability. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo the performance of new three anti-mycotoxin ...

  9. CD11b⁺, Ly6G⁺ cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Fischer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is containment of a pathogen at the site of infection prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. However, effector mechanisms must be kept in check to combat the pathogen while simultaneously limiting undesirable destruction of tissue resulting from these actions. Here we demonstrate that innate immune effector cells contain a peripheral poxvirus infection, preventing systemic spread of the virus. These innate immune effector cells are comprised primarily of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁻ monocytes that accumulate initially at the site of infection, and are then supplemented and eventually replaced by CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells. The phenotype of the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells resembles neutrophils, but the infiltration of neutrophils typically occurs prior to, rather than following, accumulation of monocytes. Indeed, it appears that the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrated the site of VACV infection in the ear are phenotypically distinct from the classical description of both neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. We found that CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells produce Type I interferons and large quantities of reactive oxygen species. We also observed that depletion of Ly6G⁺ cells results in a dramatic increase in tissue damage at the site of infection. Tissue damage is also increased in the absence of reactive oxygen species, although reactive oxygen species are typically thought to be damaging to tissue rather than protective. These data indicate the existence of a specialized population of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrates a site of virus infection late and protects the infected tissue from immune-mediated damage via production of reactive oxygen species. Regulation of the action of this population of cells may provide an intervention to prevent innate immune-mediated tissue destruction.

  10. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  11. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  12. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins-Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-07-27

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  13. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  14. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Grenier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FB are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen. At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency, and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In

  15. Meta-analytical study of productive and nutritional interactions of mycotoxins in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Hauschild, L; Vale, M M; Lovatto, P A

    2011-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with performance, productive indices, and organ weights in broilers. Ninety-eight papers published between 1980 and 2009 were used, totaling 1,401 diets and 37,371 animals. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The mycotoxin presence in diets reduced (P mycotoxins with the greatest effect on feed intake and bird growth, reducing (P mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination for equations to estimate mycotoxin effect on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in young poultry. The residual analysis revealed that 65% of the variation in weight gain was explained by feed intake. The variation in weight gain of challenged broilers in relation to nonchallenged broilers was also influenced by ingestion of nutrients such as protein and methionine. Mortality was 8.8 and 2.8 times greater (P Mycotoxins also increased (P Mycotoxins influenced broiler performance, productive indices, and organ weights. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with type and concentration of mycotoxin, animal age, and nutritional factors.

  16. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S G

    2009-04-01

    Each year (2001-2005), 300 samples of wheat from fields of known agronomy were analysed for ten trichothecenes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, fusarenone X, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and T-2 triol and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of the eleven mycotoxins analysed from 1624 harvest samples of wheat, only eight were detected, and of these only five-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol, HT-2 and zearalenone-were detected above 100 microg kg(-1). DON was the most frequently detected Fusarium mycotoxin, present above the limit of quantification (10 microg kg(-1)) in 86% of samples, and was usually present at the highest concentration. The percentage of samples that would have exceeded the recently introduced legal limits varied between 0.4% and 11.3% over the five-year period. There was a good correlation between DON and zearalenone concentrations, although the relative concentration of DON and zearalenone fluctuated between years. Year and region had a significant effect on all mycotoxins analysed. There was no significant difference in the DON concentration of organic and conventional samples. There was also no significant difference in the concentration of zearalenone between organic and conventional samples, however organic samples did have a significantly lower concentration of HT2 and T2. Overall, the risk of UK wheat exceeding the newly introduced legal limits for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals intended for human consumption is low, but the percentage of samples above these limits will fluctuate between years.

  17. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  18. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range, higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well.

  19. Multiplexed detection of mycotoxins in foods with a regenerable array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngundi, Miriam M; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Moore, Martin H; Ligler, Frances S; Taitt, Chris R

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence of different mycotoxins in cereal products calls for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection method that is capable of analyzing samples for multiple toxins simultaneously. In this study, we report the development and application of a multiplexed competitive assay for the simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in spiked barley, cornmeal, and wheat, as well as in naturally contaminated maize samples. Fluoroimmunoassays were performed with the Naval Research Laboratory array biosensor, by both a manual and an automated version of the system. This system employs evanescent-wave fluorescence excitation to probe binding events as they occur on the surface of a waveguide. Methanolic extracts of the samples were diluted threefold with buffer containing a mixture of fluorescent antibodies and were then passed over the arrays of mycotoxins immobilized on a waveguide. Fluorescent signals of the surface-bound antibody-antigen complexes decreased with increasing concentrations of free mycotoxins in the extract. After sample analysis was completed, surfaces were regenerated with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in 50 mM glycine, pH 2.0. The limits of detection determined by the manual biosensor system were as follows: 1, 180, and 65 ng/g for DON and 1, 60, and 85 ng/g for OTA in cornmeal, wheat, and barley, respectively. The limits of detection in cornmeal determined with the automated array biosensor were 15 and 150 ng/g for OTA and DON, respectively.

  20. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  1. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  2. T-helper 17 and interleukin-17-producing lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells make different contributions to colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yuichi; Kanai, Takanori; Sujino, Tomohisa; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Yasumasa; Mikami, Yohei; Hayashi, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Ogata, Haruhiko; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-11-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells that express the retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt contribute to the development of colitis in mice, yet are found in normal and inflamed intestine. We investigated their development and functions in intestines of mice. We analyzed intestinal Th17 cells in healthy and inflamed intestinal tissues of mice. We analyzed expression of lymphotoxin (LT)α by Th17 cells and lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells. LTα(-/-) and RORγt(-/-) mice had significantly lower percentages of naturally occurring Th17 cells in the small intestine than wild-type mice. Numbers of CD3(-)CD4(+/-)interleukin-7Rα(+)c-kit(+)CCR6(+)NKp46(-) lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells that produce interleukin-17A were increased in LTα(-/-) and LTα(-/-) × recombination activating gene (RAG)-2(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, but were absent from RORγt(-/-) mice. Parabiosis of wild-type and LTα(-/-) mice and bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that LTα-dependent gut-associated lymphoid tissue structures are required for generation of naturally occurring Th17 cells. However, when wild-type or LTα(-/-) CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells were transferred to RAG-2(-/-) or LTα(-/-)×RAG-2(-/-) mice, all groups, irrespective of the presence or absence of LTα on the donor or recipient cells, developed colitis and generated Th1, Th17, and Th17/Th1 cells. RAG-2(-/-) mice that received a second round of transplantation, with colitogenic but not naturally occurring Th17 cells, developed intestinal inflammation. The presence of naturally occurring Th17 cells in the colons of mice inhibited development of colitis after transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells and increased the numbers of Foxp3(+) cells derived from CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue structures are required to generate naturally occurring Th17 cells that have regulatory activities in normal intestines of mice, but not for colitogenic Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells during inflammation

  3. Molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrakis, Anastasios A; Markoglou, Anastasios N; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Doukas, Eleftherios G; Kalampokis, John F; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2013-04-01

    Penicillium expansum field-strains resistant to benzimidazole fungicides were isolated in high frequency from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of Imathia, N. Greece. In vitro fungitoxicity tests resulted in the identification of two different resistant phenotypes: highly (BEN-HR) and moderately (BEN-MR) carbendazim-resistant. Thirty seven percent of the isolated P. expansum strains belonged to the BEN-HR phenotype, carried no apparent fitness penalties and exhibited resistance levels higher than 60 based on EC50 values. Cross resistance studies with other benzimidazole fungicides showed that all BEN-HR and BEN-MR isolates were also less sensitive to benomyl and thiabendazole. Fungitoxicity tests on the response of BEN-HR isolates to fungicides belonging to other chemical classes revealed no cross-resistance relationships between benzimidazoles and the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil, the dicarboximide iprodione, the anilinopyrimidine cyprodinil, the QoI pyraclostrobin, the imidazole imazalil and the triazole tebuconazole, indicating that a target-site modification is probably responsible for the BEN-HR phenotype observed. Contrary to the above, some BEN-MR isolates exhibited an increased sensitivity to cyprodinil compared to benzimidazole-sensitive ones. BEN-MR isolates had fitness parameters similar to the benzimidazole-sensitive isolates except for conidia production which appeared significantly decreased. Analysis of mycotoxin production (patulin and citrinin) showed that all benzimidazole-resistant isolates produced mycotoxins at concentrations significantly higher than sensitive isolates both on culture medium and on artificially inoculated apple fruit. Comparison of the β-tubulin gene DNA sequence between resistant and sensitive isolates revealed a point mutation resulting from the E198A substitution of the corresponding protein in most but not all HR isolates tested. Molecular analysis of the

  4. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2...

  5. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  6. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pinotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge.

  7. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell’Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. PMID:26891326

  8. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-14

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  9. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  10. The protective effect of follicular fluid against the emerging mycotoxins alternariol and beauvericin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R. R.; Schoevers, E. J.; Wu, X.; Roelen, B. A. J.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine granulosa cells were cultured in the absence or presence of 10% porcine follicular fluid (FF) at different concentrations (0-20 mu M) of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and beauvericin (BEA). The analyses were performed after exposure to these mycotoxins in a medium supplemented or not with

  11. A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, R.C.; Wit-Bos, de L.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Alewijn, M.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    A mycotoxin-dedicated total diet study (mTDS) allowing assessment of occurrence and dietary exposure to these substances was developed and carried out in the Netherlands in 2013. First, literature was searched to establish the occurrence profile of mycotoxins. Next, foods as consumed according to

  12. Exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains and their polymers elicit different responses on immune cells from blood and gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Miljkovic, Marija; Kojic, Milan; Margolles, Abelardo; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, and the EPS derived thereof, on the modulation of immune response was evaluated. Cells isolated from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve rats were used. The proliferation and cytokine production of these immune cells in the presence of the three isogenic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains (A1, A1dOx and A1dOxR), as well as their purified polymers, were in vitro analysed. The cytokine pattern produced by immune cells isolated from GALT showed that most levels remained stable in the presence of the three strains or their corresponding polymers. However, in PBMC the UV-inactivated bacteria induced higher levels of the ratios IFNγ/IL-17, TNFα/IL-10 and TNFα/TGFβ, and no variation in the ratio IFNγ/IL-4. Thus, B. animalis subsp. lactis strains were able to activate blood monocytes as well as T lymphocytes towards a mild inflammatory Th1 response. Furthermore, only the EPS-A1dOxR was able to stimulate a response in a similar way than its EPS-producing bacterium. Our work supports the notion that some bifidobacterial EPS could play a role in mediating the dialog of these microorganisms with the immune system. In addition, this study emphasizes the effect that the origin of the immune cells has in results obtained; this could explain the great amount of contradiction found in literature about the immunomodulation capability of EPS from probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates of laying hens and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of laying hens. Thirty-six 32-wk-old laying hens were fed diets formulated with 1) uncontaminated grains, 2) contaminated grains, or 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent for a period of 4 wk. Hepatic FSR were measured in vivo by the flooding-dose method. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased hepatic FSR in laying hens compared with controls after 4 wk. The hepatic FSR of birds fed contaminated grains and contaminated grains + glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent were not different. It was concluded that the in vivo hepatic FSR of laying hens was inhibited by the feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and that this may explain some of the adverse effects seen when contaminated grains were fed to laying hens.

  14. The effect of radiation on the conservation of Alep pine and mycotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chokri, Monjia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of irradiation on pinus halepensis quality (microbiological quality, physico-chemical and rheological characteristics), on the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A and on its conservation. The pinus halepensis of three origins (Kef, Kasserine and Thibar) are treated with different doses (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5 kGy) and microbiological, physico-chemical and rheological analyses are done in order to show the effect of this treatement and to have the dose of decimal reduction (DDR) of total aeorobics flora mesophyl of pinus halepensis of every origin. When the DDR was determined, the pinus halepensis of every origin are irradieted with 0 Kgy and with 3 Kgy, and the pinus halepensis of Kasserine is irradieted with 2 Kgy and the pinus halepensis of Kef and Thibar are treated with 1 Kgy. We are steady some parameter of caracterisation of pinus halepensis in its storage at 20 0 Cand 37 0 Cduring 4 months. The results obtained show that the irradiation is very performant on reducing the number of bacteria. In fact the dose of 1 Kgy permits the complete elimination of the germs of fecal contamination and yeasts and the moulds. Thus, the increase of the dose of the dose of irradition causes modification in physico-chemical properties of pinus halepensis. For mycotoxins, irradiation has showed good results. In fact 2 Kgy permit the destruction of 90 % d'OTA present in the pinus halepensis of Kef, 30 % d'OTA present in the pinus halepensis of Kasserine and 16 % d'OTA present in the pinus halepensis of Thibar, or the dose of 3 KGy permit the complete elimination of OTAof the samples of pinus halepensis and one dose of 5 Kgy eliminate complitely the OTA produced by the Aspergillus ochraceus. (Author)

  15. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P Mycotoxins also altered (P effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers.

  16. Current development of microfluidic immunosensing approaches for mycotoxin detection via capillary electromigration and lateral flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Li, Ran

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in the food chain has caused serious health issues in humans and animals. Thus, a rapid on-site and lab-independent detection method for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins (AFTs), is desirable. Microfluidic chip based immunosensor technology is one of the most promising methods for fast mycotoxin assays. In this review, we cover the major microfluidic immunosensors used for mycotoxin analysis, via flow-through (capillary electromigration) and lateral flow technology. Sample preparation from different matrices of agricultural products and foodstuffs is summarized. The choice of materials, fabrication strategies, and detection methods for microfluidic immunosensors are further discussed in detail. The sensors application in mycotoxin determination is also outlined. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mould and mycotoxin contamination of pig and poultry feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Radmila V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During ten-year period (1995-2004, a total of 756 analyses of pig and poultry feed was performed. Standard methods were used for microbiological determination. Qualitative and quantitative analyze of mycotoxins was performed by TLC technique. Feed for young categories contained from 100 to 3,400,000 CFU/g of feed. In 35.71% of all samples the detected amount was above acceptable levels. Feed for adult categories contained from 800 to 8,000,000 CFU/g of feed. In only 7.54% of samples this amount was over the tolerable level. Species determination revealed great heterogeneity, with the most common findings of Penicillium spp. (28.38%, Aspregillus spp. (26.37% Mucor spp. (24.67%, Fusarium spp. (11.33% and Rhizopus spp. (9.22%. The amount and type of mycotoxin varied depending on the feed category as well as on year of detection, implicating a strong influence of climatic factors and average humidity of the specified year. In a total of 320 analyzed feeds for pigs and poultry the characteristic finding was a combined contamination with two or three mycotoxins. In 161 samples of feed for young animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 36, 161 and 161 samples respectively, while in 33, 83 and 71 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels. In 159 samples of feed for adult animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 32, 159 and 159 samples, respectively while in 31, 65 and 99 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels.

  18. Mycotoxins and mycoflora in animal feedstuffs in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, D; Mills, J T; Boycott, B R

    1983-01-01

    Feed samples associated with 51 cases of suspected or potential mycotoxicoses of farm animals in western Canada were examined during a three year study. Ochratoxin A was detected in four cases, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in one, and sterigmatocystin in one. Samples examined for microflora associated with production of these mycotoxins contained Penicillium spp., Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium spp. and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group. Samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol only if Fusarium spp. were present. The first known incidence of suspected sterigmatocystin poisoning of poultry through feed ingestion has been encountered. PMID:6831303

  19. Real-time PCR detection of toxigenic Fusarium in airborne and settled grain dust and associations with trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner

    2006-12-01

    Inhalation of immunomodulating mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that are commonly found in grain dust may imply health risks for grain farmers. Airborne Fusarium and mycotoxin exposure levels are mainly unknown due to difficulties in identifying Fusarium and mycotoxins in personal aerosol samples. We used a novel real-time PCR method to quantify the fungal trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) and DNA specific to F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum in airborne and settled grain dust, determined the personal inhalant exposure level to toxigenic Fusarium during various activities, and evaluated whether quantitative measurements of Fusarium-DNA could predict trichothecene levels in grain dust. Airborne Fusarium-DNA was detected in personal samples even from short tasks (10-60 min). The median Fusarium-DNA level was significantly higher in settled than in airborne grain dust (p dust (r(s) = 0.20, p = 0.003). Both F. langsethiae-DNA and tri5-DNA were associated with HT-2 and T-2 toxins (r(s) = 0.24-0.71, p dust, and could thus be suitable as indicators for HT-2 and T-2. The median personal inhalant exposure to specific toxigenic Fusarium spp. was less than 1 genome m(-3), but the exposure ranged from 0-10(5) genomes m(-3). This study is the first to apply real-time PCR on personal samples of inhalable grain dust for the quantification of tri5 and species-specific Fusarium-DNA, which may have potential for risk assessments of inhaled trichothecenes.

  20. Novel methods for determination of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, V.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid method for analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) was developed using high pressure liquid chromatography with reductive electrochemical detection (LCECD). Deoxynivalenol produced by Fusarium roseum growing on solid cornmeal and rice substrates and from naturally contaminated wheat was extracted and quantitated. Two deoxynivalenol producing isolates of Fusarium roseum (ATCC number28114, NCPRL-A) were incubated in stationary liquid culture in the presence of [1- 14 C] sodium acetate to biosynthetically produce a radiolabeled toxin suitable for use in tissue distribution studies. Specific activities of 139 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on corn media), 67.5 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on rice media) and 21.5 uCi/mmol (ATCC number28114 on rice media) were obtained in this study and represent the first reported incorporation of 14 C into deoxynivalenol. A minicolumn method for DON determination was also investigated

  1. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  2. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  3. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β......Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been...... reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov...

  4. Alternaria Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Escrivá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is one of the major mycotoxigenic fungal genera with more than 70 reported metabolites. Alternaria mycotoxins showed notably toxicity, such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, induction of DNA strand break, sphingolipid metabolism disruption, or inhibition of enzymes activity and photophosphorylation. This review reports on the toxicity, stability, metabolism, current analytical methods, and prevalence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food and feed through the most recent published research. Half of the publications were focused on fruits, vegetables, and derived products—mainly tomato and apples—while cereals and cereal by-products represented 38%. The most studied compounds were alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tentoxin, and tenuazonic acid, but altenuene, altertoxins (I, II, and III, and macrosporin have been gaining importance in recent years. Solid-liquid extraction (50% with acetonitrile or ethyl acetate was the most common extraction methodology, followed by QuEChERS and dilution-direct injection (both 14%. High- and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was the predominant determination technique (80%. The highest levels of alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were found in lentils, oilseeds, tomatoes, carrots, juices, wines, and cereals. Tenuazonic acid highest levels were detected in cereals followed by beer, while alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, tenuazonic acid, and tentoxin were found in legumes, nuts, and oilseeds.

  5. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas W; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-26

    Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  6. Fumonisins and co-occurring mycotoxins in north Serbian corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fumonisin has not been regulated in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia. Therefore, the data on contamination of cereals, especially corn, which is highly susceptible to contamination by this toxin, are not sufficient. This paper presents the results of testing the corn samples collected in the autumn 2009 on the territory of Bačka. Samples were analyzed for the contents of fumonisins and it was determined whether there is a correlation between the moisture content, total number and class of fungi, as well as the content of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone. Using enzymatic immunoaffinity method it was discovered that the highest percentage of samples were contaminated with fumonisins, which was probably due to the presence of Fusarium molds as the most abundant ones. The positive samples contained fumonisin in the concentrations from 0.030 to 1.52 mg kg−1. The influence of the climate and moisture content of grain on fungal contamination and mycotoxin production was analyzed in order to investigate the predictability of the presence of mycotoxins.

  7. Mycoflora and naturally occurring mycotoxins in poultry feeds in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcero, A; Magnoli, C; Luna, M; Ancasi, G; Reynoso, M M; Chiacchiera, S; Miazzo, R; Palacio, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the mycoflora and mycotoxins natural incidence in poultry feeds from 2 factories in Río Cuarto, Córdoba. One hundred and thirty samples were taken from May/1996 to May/1997. The most dominant species isolated of poultry feed samples belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp 85% and Fusarium spp 70%. From Aspergillus genus eleven species were identified and A. flavus was the most frequent. Nine species were identified from the Fusarium genus and the predominant was F. moniliforme. Penicillium ranked third in the number of isolated cases. From this genus twelve species were collected of which P. brevicompactum (15%), P. restrictum (14%) and P. purpurogenum (12%) were the most common. The most significant mycotoxin from poultry feeds was aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) found in 48% of the samples, with levels ranging from 10 to 123 ng/g. For zearalenone (ZEA) the levels were 327 to 5, 850 ng/g and DON was not detected from the samples. Due to the fact that in Argentina there is little information about this topic, these data on poultry feeds in our region would be of worldwide interest.

  8. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans. PMID:26404373

  9. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njobeh, Patrick; Obadina, Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain. PMID:29117141

  11. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian James Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration.

  12. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunology of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Woodward, B

    2005-12-01

    Feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins has been shown to alter metabolism and performance of laying hens. The objectives of the current experiment were to examine the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunological indices and functions of laying hens and the possible protective effect of feeding a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). One hundred forty-four laying hens were fed for 12 wk with diets formulated with (1) uncontaminated grains, (2) contaminated grains, or (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON, 12 mg/kg), 15-acetyl-DON (0.5 mg/kg), and zearalenone (0.6 mg/kg) were identified in the contaminated diets arising from contaminated grains grown in Ontario, Canada. The concentrations of DON arising from naturally contaminated grains in this study were similar to purified mycotoxin fed to experimental mice. The chronic feeding of Fusarium mycotoxins induced small decreases in hematocrit values, total numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes including both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and biliary IgA concentration. Supplementation of diets containing feedborne mycotoxins with GMA prevented the reduction in total number of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the reduction in biliary IgA concentration. In addition, the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to dinitrochlorobenzene was increased by feed-borne mycotoxins, whereas IgG and IgM antibody titers to sheep red blood cells were not affected by diet. We concluded that chronic consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins at levels likely to be encountered in practice were not systemically immunosuppressive or hematotoxic; however, mucosal immunocompetence needs to be explored further.

  13. Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including

  14. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed.

  15. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Matejova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40 were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed; experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed. Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05. In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05, and ammonia (P<0.01 was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss to deoxynivalenol.

  16. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation.

  17. A comparison of mycotoxin adsorbents and their effects on some selected parameters of boar semen

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    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of two mycotoxin adsorbents with different mechanisms of action were followed in 180 purebred and terminal combination boars reared in artificial insemination stations. The following parameters of boar sperm quality were investigated: volume in millilitres, concentration and motility, and numbers of pathological spermatozoa. When processing the boar semen, the dilution ration and numbers of AI doses were recorded. Compared were two preparations: in case of Preparation 1 the number of evaluated ejaculates was 1,037 while in case of Preparation 2 altogether 1,109 ejaculates were evaluated. Boars receiving diets with Preparation 1 produced more voluminous ejaculates (by 4.1 ml and their concentration of spermatozoa was also higher (by 39 thous./ml; P ≤ 0.001. Dilution parameters were better as well and numbers produced of AI doses were also higher. In case of Preparation 2 the motility of spermatozoa was a higher while the numbers of sperms were lower. The obtained results demonstrated that a suitable adsorbent can show a positive effect on both quantitative and qualitative parameters of boar sperm.

  18. Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effects of Isothiocyanates Produced from Brassicaceae Shoot Tissues on the Pea Root Rot Pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Bergkvist, G.; Berglund, K.; Glinwood, R.; Kabouw, P.; Martensson, A.; Persson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) hydrolyzed from glucosinolates (GSLs) in Brassicaceae tissue are toxic to soil organisms. In this study, the effect of aliphatic and aromatic ITCs from hydrated dry Brassicaceae shoot tissues on the mycelium and oospores of the pea root rot pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was

  19. Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Langseth, Wenche; Kristensen, Petter; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesise that inhalant exposure to mycotoxins causes developmental outcomes and certain hormone-related cancers that are associated with grain farming in an epidemiological study. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate determinants of measured trichothecene mycotoxins in grain dust as work environmental trichothecene exposure indicators. Settled grain dust was collected in 92 Norwegian farms during seasons of 1999 and 2000. Production characteristics and climatic data were studied as determinants of trichothecenes in settled dust samples obtained during the production of barley (N = 59), oats (N = 32), and spring wheat (N = 13). Median concentrations of trichothecenes in grain dust were grain dust in this study. Differences in cereal species, production properties and districts contributed less to explain mycotoxin concentrations. Fungal forecasts are validated as indicators of mycotoxin exposure of grain farmers and their use in epidemiological studies may be warranted.

  20. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  1. Widespread Occurrence of the Mycotoxin Fumonisin B-2 in Wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins because they are suspected to cause human and animal toxicoses by the consumption of contaminated corn-based food and feeds. However, with the discovery of fumonisin production in grapes by Aspergillus niger, wine may also be a fumonisin-containing commodity....... In the present study, we have developed a simple and quantitative cation-exchange-based purification method for the subsequent isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of fumonisins in wine. A comparative study of seven different solid-phase extraction (SPE......) columns showed that polymeric mixed-mode reversed-phase (RP) cation-exchange columns were superior to classic silica-based cation and mixed-mode cation-exchange columns. A total of 77 wine samples from 13 countries were subsequently tested, and surprisingly, 18 (23%) were found to contain fumonisin B-2...

  2. Toxicological Studies of Mycotoxins Using Enzymatic and Histochemical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Mihaela, E-mail: badeamihaela@yahoo.com; Taus, Nicoleta [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania); Potrovita, Monica [Sanitary-Veterinary and Food Safety Direction of Brasov (Romania); Moarcas, Monica [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania)

    2009-08-15

    Studies concerning mycotoxins involve activities of relevant potential for furthering knowledge in the fields of toxicology and environmental analysis. Using bioanalytical methods (biosensors, histochemistry), the conducted research aims at contributing to raising the awareness of local, national, and international media in relation to the safety of obtaining and processing vegetal and animal foods, by analyzing the possible effects of aflatoxins and ochratoxins, promoting animal health, food hygiene, in view of ensuring animal and human health. The study using laboratory animals (mice) while being part of one of the current national research directions, also holds international priority, by its contribution to a better understanding of several fundamental mechanisms of life at molecular level and to the characterization of certain biological processes that appear in mycotoxicosis.

  3. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Breastfeeding Mothers with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Valitutti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in celiac disease (CD breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. Study design: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorometric detection. Results: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was detected in 37% of CD group samples (mean ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.011 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.340 ng/mL. The control group showed lower mean AFM1 concentration levels in 24% of the analyzed samples (0.009 ± 0.007 ng/mL; range = 0.003–0.067 ng/mL, ANOVA on ranks, p-value < 0.01. Ochratoxin A and zearalenone did not differ in both groups. Conclusion: Breast milk AFM1 contamination for both groups is lower than the European safety threshold. However, the estimated exposures of infants from CD mothers and control mothers was much higher (≃15 times and ≃11 times, respectively than the threshold set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. Since incongruities exist between JECFA and the European Union standard, a novel regulatory review of the available data on this topic is desirable. Protecting babies from a neglected risk of high AFM1 exposure requires prompt regulatory and food-control policies.

  4. Fusarium mycotoxin content of UK organic and conventional oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S G

    2009-07-01

    Every year between 2002 and 2005 approximately 100 samples of oats from fields of known agronomy were analysed by GC/MS for 10 trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetylDON, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X, T-2 toxin (T2), HT-2 toxin (HT2), diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and T-2 triol. Samples were also analysed for moniliformin and zearalenone by HPLC. Of the 10 trichothecenes analysed from 458 harvest samples of oat only three, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X and diacetoxyscirpenol, were not detected. Moniliformin and zearalenone were absent or rarely detected, respectively. HT2 and T2 were the most frequently detected fusarium mycotoxins, present above the limit of quantification (10 microg kg(-1)) in 92 and 84% of samples, respectively, and were usually present at the highest concentrations. The combined mean and median for HT2 and T2 (HT2 + T2) was 570 and 213 microg kg(-1), respectively. There were good correlations between concentrations of HT2 and all other type A trichothecenes detected (T2, T2 triol and neosolaniol). Year and region had a significant effect on HT2 + T2 concentration. There was also a highly significant difference between HT2 + T2 content in organic and conventional samples, with the predicted mean for organic samples five times lower than that of conventional samples. This is the largest difference reported for any mycotoxin level in organic and conventional cereals. No samples exceeded the legal limits for DON or zearalenone in oats intended for human consumption. Legislative limits for HT2 and T2 are currently under consideration by the European Commission. Depending on the limits set for unprocessed oats intended for human consumption, the levels detected here could have serious consequences for the UK oat-processing industry.

  5. Frequent Occupational Exposure to Fusarium Mycotoxins of Workers in the Swiss Grain Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Niculita-Hirzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, nivalenol (NIV and zearalenone (ZEN are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers. Aerosols were collected during the threshing of 78 winter wheat fields and grain unloading of 59 grain lots in six grain terminals in the Vaud region (Switzerland. The samples represented the diversity of the winter wheat cultivar and of the farming system (88 treated with fungicides, 46 untreated. Using a HPLC MS/MS method developed to quantify mycotoxins in aerosols, we report that the mycotoxin content of aerosols was not affected by the wheat cultivars or farming system, but that the incidence of the mycotoxins differed between activities. While wheat harvesting generated on average 28, 20 and 1 ng·m−3 of DON, NIV and ZEN, respectively, grain unloading generated 53, 46 and 4 ng·m−3. Personal sampling revealed that working in a cab was an efficient protective measure. However, it was not sufficient to avoid chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins. The most exposed activity was the cleaning, exposing workers to DON, NIV and ZEN at concentrations as high as 65, 59 and 3 ng·m−3. These data provide valuable information for future studies of mycotoxin toxicity at relevant concentrations on respiratory health.

  6. Mycotoxins: diffuse and point source contributions of natural contaminants of emerging concern to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Schenzel, Judith; Meyer, Michael T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mycotoxins in streams, 116 water samples from 32 streams and three wastewater treatment plant effluents were collected in 2010 providing the broadest investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of mycotoxins in streams conducted in the United States to date. Out of the 33 target mycotoxins measured, nine were detected at least once during this study. The detections of mycotoxins were nearly ubiquitous during this study even though the basin size spanned four orders of magnitude. At least one mycotoxin was detected in 94% of the 116 samples collected. Deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (77%), followed by nivalenol (59%), beauvericin (43%), zearalenone (26%), β-zearalenol (20%), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (16%), α-zearalenol (10%), diacetoxyscirpenol (5%), and verrucarin A (1%). In addition, one or more of the three known estrogenic compounds (i.e. zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were detected in 43% of the samples, with maximum concentrations substantially higher than observed in previous research. While concentrations were generally low (i.e. < 50 ng/L) during this study, concentrations exceeding 1000 ng/L were measured during spring snowmelt conditions in agricultural settings and in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results of this study suggest that both diffuse (e.g. release from infected plants and manure applications from exposed livestock) and point (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants) sources are important environmental pathways for mycotoxin transport to streams. The ecotoxicological impacts from the long-term, low-level exposures to mycotoxins alone or in combination with complex chemical mixtures are unknown

  7. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F; Miller, J David; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Battilani, Paola; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; De Saeger, Sarah; Li, Peiwu; Perrone, Giancarlo; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S; Shephard, Gordon S; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao; Leslie, John F

    2018-04-04

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  8. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Logrieco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  9. Presence of Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuffs and cow milk sampled from Croatian farms during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Pleadin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins may contaminate food of animal origin due to the carry-over effect and represent a potential risk to human health. The problem of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination becomes an issue especially during rainy years characterised by substantial temperature changes. The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN, deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FUM in maize silage (n=21, concentrated dairy cattle feeds (n=56 and cow milk samples (n=105, taken during 2015 from households located in four Croatian regions. The presence of mycotoxins was determined using validated ELISA methods. A high level of feedstuffs’ contamination was evidenced, especially with ZEN, with values higher than recommended observed in 9.5 % of maize silage samples. Fourteen point three percent (14.3 % of milk samples were DON positive, with the toxin concentrations ranging from 5.4 to 67.3 μg/L. ZEN was determined in 94.3 % of milk samples, ranging from 0.3 to 88.6 μg/L. FUM were not detected in any of the analysed milk samples. Given the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs defined for these mycotoxins, human health risks arising from the consumption of cow milk can generally be considered low, even in times characterised by weather conditions that facilitate the production of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals subsequently used as dairy cattle feed. The exception represents particular milk samples in which high ZEN concentrations were found.

  10. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were evaluated in a group of celiac patients (n = 55 and in a control group of healthy subjects (n = 50 following their habitual diet. Deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZEN, and fumonisin B1 (FB1 were monitored in 105 urinary samples collected from the two groups. Dietary habits were also recorded through compilation of a seven-day weighed dietary diary. Biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were detected in 21 celiac patients and in 15 control subjects, corresponding to about 34% of total participants. In particular, ZEN was the most detected mycotoxin among all the studied subjects with a total of 19 positive cases. Results did not show a statistically significant difference in mycotoxin exposure between the two groups, and the presence of specific mycotoxins was not related to the intake of any particular food category. Our findings suggest little urgency of specific regulation for gluten free products, although the prevalence of exposure observed in free-living diets of both celiac and healthy subjects underlines the need of a constant surveillance on mycotoxins occurrence at large.

  12. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  13. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F.; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; Li, Peiwu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative. PMID:29617309

  14. A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves challenging sample pretreatment procedures and an efficient detection instrument. However, although numerous reviews have been published regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines, few of them provided a detailed summary of related analytical methods for mycotoxin determination. This review focuses on analytical techniques including sampling, extraction, cleanup, and detection for mycotoxin determination in herbal medicines established within the past ten years. Dedicated sections of this article address the significant developments in sample preparation, and highlight the importance of this procedure in the analytical technology. This review also summarizes conventional chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin qualification or quantitation, as well as recent studies regarding the development and application of screening assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow immunoassays, aptamer-based lateral flow assays, and cytometric bead arrays. The present work provides a good insight regarding the advanced research that has been done and closes with an indication of future demand for the emerging technologies. PMID:29393905

  15. Applications of flow cytometry to toxicological mycotoxin effects in cultured mammalian cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, Ana; Manyes, Lara; Ruiz, María-José; Font, Guillermina

    2013-06-01

    This review gives an overview of flow cytometry applications to toxicological studies of several physiological target sites of mycotoxins on different mammalian cell lines. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food, feed, air and water. The increasing presence of mycotoxins in crops, their wide distribution in the food chain, and their potential for toxicity demonstrate the need for further knowledge. Flow cytometry has become a valuable tool in mycotoxin studies in recent years for the rapid analysis of single cells in a mixture. In toxicology, the power of these methods lies in the possibility of determining a wide range of cell parameters, providing valuable information to elucidate cell growth and viability, metabolic activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane integrity mechanisms. There are studies using flow cytometry technique on Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium mycotoxins including information about cell type, assay conditions and functional parameters. Most of the studies collected in the literature are on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxins. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis are the processes more widely investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond, H P

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide enquiry was undertaken in 1986-1987 to obtain up-to-date information about mycotoxin legislation in as many countries of the world as possible. Together with some additional data collected in 1981, information is now available about planned, proposed, existing or absence of legislation in 66 countries. Details about tolerances, legal bases, responsible authorities, prescribed methods of sampling and analysis and disposition of commodities containing inadmissible amounts of mycotoxins, are given. The information concerns aflatoxins in foodstuffs, aflatoxin M1 in dairy products, aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs, and other mycotoxins in food- and feedstuffs. In comparison with the situation in 1981, limits and regulations for mycotoxins have been expanded in 1987 with more countries having legislation (proposed or passed) on the subject, more products, and more mycotoxins covered by this legislation. The differences between tolerances in the various countries are sometimes quite large, which makes harmonization of mycotoxin regulations highly desirable.

  17. An in vitro investigation of endocrine disrupting effects of the mycotoxin alternariol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frizzell, Caroline; Ndossi, Doreen; Kalayou, Shewit; Eriksen, Gunnar S.; Verhaegen, Steven; Sørlie, Morten; Elliott, Christopher T.; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Alternariol (AOH) is a mycotoxin commonly produced by Alternaria alternata on a wide range of foods. Few studies to date have been performed to evaluate the effects of AOH on endocrine activity. The present study makes use of in vitro mammalian cellular based assays and gene expression to investigate the ability of AOH to act as an endocrine disruptor by various modes of action. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), incorporating natural steroid hormone receptors for oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids were used to identify endocrine disruption at the level of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, and the H295R steroidogenesis assay was used to assess endocrine disruption at the level of gene expression and steroid hormone production. AOH exhibited a weak oestrogenic response when tested in the oestrogen responsive RGA and binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of AOH. H295R cells when exposed to 0.1–1000 ng/ml AOH, did not cause a significant change in testosterone and cortisol hormones but exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH resulted in a significant increase in estradiol and progesterone production. In the gene expression study following exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH, only one gene NR0B1 was down-regulated, whereas expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, MC2R, HSD3B2, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B2 and CYP19 was up-regulated. Expression of the other genes investigated did not change significantly. In conclusion AOH is a weak oestrogenic mycotoxin that also has the ability to interfere with the steroidogenesis pathway. - Highlights: • Alternariol was investigated for endocrine disrupting activity. • Reporter gene assays and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been used. • An oestrogenic effect of alternariol was observed. • This can lead to an increase in expression of the progesterone receptor. • Alternariol is capable of modulating hormone production and gene expression

  18. An in vitro investigation of endocrine disrupting effects of the mycotoxin alternariol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, Caroline [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ndossi, Doreen [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kalayou, Shewit [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle (Ethiopia); Eriksen, Gunnar S. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway); Verhaegen, Steven [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sørlie, Morten [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ropstad, Erik [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Alternariol (AOH) is a mycotoxin commonly produced by Alternaria alternata on a wide range of foods. Few studies to date have been performed to evaluate the effects of AOH on endocrine activity. The present study makes use of in vitro mammalian cellular based assays and gene expression to investigate the ability of AOH to act as an endocrine disruptor by various modes of action. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), incorporating natural steroid hormone receptors for oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids were used to identify endocrine disruption at the level of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, and the H295R steroidogenesis assay was used to assess endocrine disruption at the level of gene expression and steroid hormone production. AOH exhibited a weak oestrogenic response when tested in the oestrogen responsive RGA and binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of AOH. H295R cells when exposed to 0.1–1000 ng/ml AOH, did not cause a significant change in testosterone and cortisol hormones but exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH resulted in a significant increase in estradiol and progesterone production. In the gene expression study following exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH, only one gene NR0B1 was down-regulated, whereas expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, MC2R, HSD3B2, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B2 and CYP19 was up-regulated. Expression of the other genes investigated did not change significantly. In conclusion AOH is a weak oestrogenic mycotoxin that also has the ability to interfere with the steroidogenesis pathway. - Highlights: • Alternariol was investigated for endocrine disrupting activity. • Reporter gene assays and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been used. • An oestrogenic effect of alternariol was observed. • This can lead to an increase in expression of the progesterone receptor. • Alternariol is capable of modulating hormone production and gene expression.

  19. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  20. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-03-26

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity.

  1. Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Jon; Weber, Jakob; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H. Corby

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show that trichothecene biosynthesis involves a complex developmental process that includes dynamic changes in cell morphology and the biogenesis of novel subcellular structures. Two cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (Tri4p and Tri1p) involved in early and late steps in trichothecene biosynthesis were tagged with fluorescent proteins and shown to co-localize to vesicles we provisionally call “toxisomes.” Toxisomes, the inferred site of trichothecene biosynthesis, dynamically interact with motile vesicles containing a predicted major facilitator superfamily protein (Tri12p) previously implicated in trichothecene export and tolerance. The immediate isoprenoid precursor of trichothecenes is the primary metabolite farnesyl pyrophosphate. Changes occur in the cellular localization of the isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase when cultures non-induced for trichothecene biosynthesis are transferred to trichothecene biosynthesis inducing medium. Initially localized in the cellular endomembrane system, HMG CoA reductase, upon induction of trichothecene biosynthesis, increasingly is targeted to toxisomes. Metabolic pathways of primary and secondary metabolism thus may be coordinated and co-localized under conditions when trichothecene biosynthesis occurs. PMID:23667578

  2. Identification of N-acyl-fumonisin B1 as new cytotoxic metabolites of fumonisin mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Henning; Laviad, Elad L; Humpf, Hans Ulrich; Futerman, Anthony H

    2013-03-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. The predominant derivative, fumonisin B1 (FB1), occurs in food and feed and is of health concern due to its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. However, the role of FB1 metabolites on the mechanism of the toxicity, the inhibition of the ceramide synthesis, is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify new fumonisin metabolites and to evaluate their cytotoxic potential. MS, molecular biology, and in vitro enzyme assays were used to investigate fumonisin metabolism in mammalian cells overexpressing human ceramide synthase (CerS) genes. N-acyl-FB1 derivatives were detected as new metabolites in cultured cells at levels of up to 10 pmol/mg of protein. The N-acylation of FB1 and hydrolyzed FB1 was analyzed in several cell lines, including cells overexpressing CerS. The acyl-chain length of the N-acyl fumonisins depends on the CerS isoform acylating them. The N-acyl fumonisins are more cytotoxic than the parent fumonisin B1. The identification of N-acyl fumonisins with various acyl chain lengths together with the observed cytotoxicity of these compounds is a new aspect of fumonisin-related toxicity. Therefore, these new metabolites might play an important role in the mode of action of fumonisins. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Toxicity of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 on the insect Sf9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Liyang; Diao, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Chenglan

    2017-04-01

    Fumonisins are a type of mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., mainly F. proliferatum and F. vertieilliodes, and represent a potential hazard to the health of animals and human beings. The toxicity and mechanism of action of fumonisins is ambiguous, and it is unclear whether fumonisins are toxic to insect cells. This study examines the toxicity of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) and its mechanism of action in the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line. We found that FB 1 inhibited Sf9 cellular proliferation and arrested cell growth at the G 2 /M phase. Morphological observation showed that FB 1 induced swelling, vacuole formation, and loss of adhesion in Sf9 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that FB 1 caused depolarization of the cell membrane potential and hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. To uncover potential genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of FB 1 , 41 differentially expressed genes were identified by transcriptome analyses after FB 1 treatment. These genes are putatively involved in detoxification metabolism, insect hormone regulation, cell apoptosis, and other related processes. Finally, six differentially expressed genes were chosen and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Our test could provide a reference for other kinds of insect cells studies on FB 1 stress. At the same time, our studies try to provide a possible for FB 1 as a precursor compounds of biological insecticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of accounting for sex in the search of proteomic signatures of mycotoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, L; Oswald, I P

    2018-04-30

    Mycotoxins are natural food and feed contaminants that are toxic to human and animals. Proteomics is an adequate toolbox to investigate the mode of action and the effects of mycotoxins, as these toxicants often alter protein synthesis and degradation, as well as induce changes of important post-translational modifications. For instance, the contaminant deoxynivalenol induces a severe ribosomal stress that affects protein production, whereas the toxin Fumonisin B1 can alter the phosphorylation of a large number of proteins, and patulin is a potent proteotoxic molecule. The response to most mycotoxins is sex-dependent, males being generally more sensitive than females. In addition, for some toxins, the toxic effects observed were different for each sex. Nevertheless, the importance of accounting for a sex-dependent response is often overlooked in toxicology studies involving mycotoxins. Here we review the information that proteomics has provided in pre-clinical studies of mycotoxin exposure as well as the differential response of males and females to these molecules to highlight the need of including male and female individuals when evaluating the impact of mycotoxins in the cell proteome. The current trend in mycotoxicology is the combination of several -omics techniques in order to understand the mechanism of action and effects of these toxic natural food contaminants. One of the goals of these experiments is to determine "potential biomarkers" of mycotoxicoses. Nevertheless, the strategy followed in biomarker research must take into account as many possible factors as possible in order to find robust biomarkers for differential diagnosis. Among the factors that can have an influence in the response to mycotoxins, one of the most important is sex. Traditionally, males are preferentially used in research, as they are more sensitive to mycotoxins and their response is not dependent on hormonal levels, thus less variable. However the intrinsic and hormonal differences

  5. Early activation of wheat polyamine biosynthesis during Fusarium head blight implicates putrescine as an inducer of trichothecene mycotoxin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Anca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium Head Blight (FHB disease on wheat which can lead to trichothecene mycotoxin (e.g. deoxynivalenol, DON contamination of grain, harmful to mammalian health. DON is produced at low levels under standard culture conditions when compared to plant infection but specific polyamines (e.g. putrescine and agmatine and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine are potent inducers of DON by F. graminearum in axenic culture. Currently, host factors that promote mycotoxin synthesis during FHB are unknown, but plant derived polyamines could contribute to DON induction in infected heads. However, the temporal and spatial accumulation of polyamines and amino acids in relation to that of DON has not been studied. Results Following inoculation of susceptible wheat heads by F. graminearum, DON accumulation was detected at two days after inoculation. The accumulation of putrescine was detected as early as one day following inoculation while arginine and cadaverine were also produced at three and four days post-inoculation. Transcripts of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, two key biosynthetic enzymes for putrescine biosynthesis, were also strongly induced in heads at two days after inoculation. These results indicated that elicitation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is an early response to FHB. Transcripts for genes encoding enzymes acting upstream in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway as well as those of ODC and ADC, and putrescine levels were also induced in the rachis, a flower organ supporting DON production and an important route for pathogen colonisation during FHB. A survey of 24 wheat genotypes with varying responses to FHB showed putrescine induction is a general response to inoculation and no correlation was observed between the accumulation of putrescine and infection or DON accumulation. Conclusions The activation of the polyamine biosynthetic

  6. The influence of gamma radiation and substrate on mycotoxin production by Fusarium culmorum IMI 309344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, K.; Damoglou, A.P.; Patterson, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Mycotoxin production (deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyl deoxynivalenol (A DON) and zearalenone) by Fusarium culmorum inoculated on to maize (heat sterilized, irradiation sterilized and non-sterile) and irradiated to 1 kGy or 3 kGy, or unirradiated, was investigated over a period of time. Lowest mycotoxin production was observed on non-sterile maize which may be due to the presence of a competitive microflora on non-sterile maize. In general, mycotoxin production was higher on heat-sterilized grain as compared to irradiation-sterilized maize. It was suggested that this pattern of mycotoxin production was possibly caused by changes in the grain brought about by autoclaving, which favoured mycotoxin production and possibly induced changes in irradiation-sterilized maize which inhibited mycotoxin production. On sterile maize, there was no significant difference in DON production by unirradiated, 1 kGy and 3 kGy irradiated cultures up to 56 d of incubation; between days 56 and 77 of incubation, DON production increased rapidly with largest increases occurring in irradiated (1 kGy and 3 kGy) cultures. On non-sterile grain, neither DON nor A DON were detected in unirradiated cultures of F. culmorum but were detected in cultures irradiated to 1 kGy and 3 kGy. In practice grain should be stored under conditions of temperature and moisture content which prevent fungal growth. However, in this study, the grain was stored under conditions that were approaching ideal for growth of the test organism. The results highlight that irradiation disinfestation of grain must be combined with good grain handling practices so that excessive mycotoxin production can be prevented during storage. (Author)

  7. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunology of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Woodward, B

    2005-11-01

    Feeding grains naturally-contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins has been shown to alter the metabolism and performance of turkeys. The objectives of the current experiment were to examine the effects of feeding turkeys with grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on their hematology and immunological indices (including functions), and the possible protective effect of feeding a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains with 0.2% GMA. The chronic consumption of Fusarium mycotoxins caused minor and transient changes in hematocrit (0.33 L/L) and hemoglobin (10(6) g/L) concentrations as well as in blood basophil (0.13 x 10(9)/L) and monocyte counts (3.42 x 10(9)/L) compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented these effects on blood cell counts. Biliary IgA concentrations were significantly increased (4.45-fold) when birds were fed contaminated grains compared with controls, but serum IgA concentrations were not affected. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8+ T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was decreased (48%) by feed-borne mycotoxins compared with the control. By contrast, the primary and secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells, a CD4+ T-cell-mediated response, was not affected. It was concluded that chronic consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins exerts only minor adverse effects on the hematology and some immunological indices of turkeys. Consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins may, however, increase the susceptibility of turkeys to infectious agents against which CD8+ T cells play a major role in defense.

  8. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The main features of electrical stimulation of biological tissues by implant electrodes: study from engineering perspective and equipment development to produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Bagnasco, D.; Alvarez Alonso, J.; Suarez Antola, R.

    2004-08-01

    The main features of electrical stimulation of biological tissues by implant electrodes are studied.These electrodes are applied in neural prostheses and cardiac pacing.Threshold phenomena are stressed and some aspects related with implant electrode design are discussed. A fairly through theoretical research about the optimal pulse shape for electrical stimulation of biological tissues is done.The excitation functional is introduced as a criterium to identify threshold pulses of electric current. We obtain the optimal pulse shapes that minimize the energy dissipated in tissues, or the energy taken by the load seen by the pulse generator, amongst other criteria.We show how these pulse shapes can be determined from experimentally measured strength-duration (S-D) curves using rectangular pulses of current. The development of a prototype of a new equipment is described.The equipment may be used to measure S-D curves and with this information it is able to syntetize the abovementioned optimal pulse shapes. The top-down design process is presented, involving both hardware and software.The construction and assembling of the prototype, as well as the implementation of software are described.Some testing and measures with the prototype, including test with biological tissues are described and assessed

  10. Human fetal lymphoid tissue-inducer cells are interleukin 17-producing precursors to RORC(+) CD127(+) natural killer-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupedo, Tom; Crellin, Natasha K.; Papazian, Natalie; Rombouts, Elwin J.; Weijer, Kees; Grogan, Jane L.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Spits, Hergen

    2009-01-01

    The human body contains over 500 individual lymph nodes, yet the biology of their formation is poorly understood. Here we identify human lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi cells) as lineage-negative RORC(+) CD127(+) cells with the functional ability to interact with mesenchymal cells through

  11. Extraction and analysis of fumonisins and compounds indicative of fumonisin exposure in plant and mammalian tissues and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas C; Riley, Ronald T

    2011-01-01

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are common contaminants in many grains, often at very low levels. Maize is -particularly problematic as one of the organisms that commonly produce fumonisins, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, often exists as an endophyte of maize. Fumonisin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme ceramide synthase, and this inhibition results in the accumulation of a variety of upstream compounds, most notably, the sphingoid bases sphingosine, sphinganine, 1-deoxysphinganine and, in plants, phytosphingosine. Fumonisin exposure results in a wide variety of species, sex, and strain-specific responses. This method provides a relatively fast means of extracting fumonisins, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base 1-phosphates from tissues and cells, as well as the subsequent analyses and quantification of these compounds using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

  12. Mycotoxin production in wheat grains by different Aspergilli in relation to different relative humidities and storage periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalla, Mohamed Mabrouk; Hassanein, Naziha Mohamed; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Youssef, Youssef Abdel-ghany

    2003-02-01

    Four different Aspergilli (Aspergillus oryzae, A. parasiticus, A. terreus and A. versicolor) were grown on wheat grains underdifferent degrees of relative humidity 14, 50, 74, 80 and 90%. Samples of wheat grains were taken monthly for a period of six months and examined for mycotoxin production. A. oryzae was found to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxins under elevated degrees of humidity and prolonged periods of storage. A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV, DON and T-2 toxins in high concentrations during a period of not more than three months storage at 14% relative humidity; at an increased level of relative humidity of 74% ochratoxin A, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin were also produced at high levels. The isolate was drastic in toxin production. A. terrus produced toxins at 14% relative humidity (aflatoxin G2 and DON) at levels much higher than any other prevalent degrees of humidity. A. versicolor is highly sensitive to relative humidity and grain moisture content It produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV and DON at a relative humidity of 50% and another toxins (aflatoxin G2, ochratoxins A, B and zearalenone) at 74%. The microorganism can be considered a trichothecene producer under suitable relative humidity.

  13. Molecular identification of fungi trichothecens producing in seeds madder and detection of their nivalenol gene synthesis using PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Alireza Esmailzadeh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madder is one of the most important crops that used for medical and industrial applications and is widely cultivated in Yazd province. During 2012, sampling was done form seeds madder in important areas planted in Yazd province, including Bafq and Ardakan. After culturing and purification of fungal isolates in PDA and CLA media, additional identification was performed by PCR with specific primers for each species. Detection of fungi mycotoxins producing potential such as Nivalenol (NIV using Tri13 primers was done. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to confirm the produce NIV mycotoxins potential in Fusarium species. 249 fungal strains were isolated from madder seed belonging to 6 genera of fungi including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizpous spp., that Fusarium isolates with 71 percent was the most frequency among fungi isolated. Among Fusarium fungi isolated, F. solani (55 isolates and F. oxysporum (41 isolates were the most frequency. F. poae, F. semitectum and F. equiseti ability to produce mycotoxins such as Nivalenol (NIV that are harmful to human health and animals as well as effect on the quantity and quality of madder color production. Tri13 gene involved in production NIV was detected in three Fusarium species that all isolates produce NIV. The results of HPLC showed that all studied Fusarium fungi, have the potential to produce NIV mycotoxins. The results of this study showed that fungi associated with seeds madder are able to produce trichothecene mycotoxins that they can be dangerous for consumers. Given that, this is the first report of fungi mycotoxins producing on seeds madder in Yazd province, thus should be measures to control and reduce fungal agents in these products.

  14. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  15. Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Moretti, Giorgio; Facchiano, Francesco; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Bonfanti, Arianna; Campioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Stefania; Camposeo, Serena; Soricelli, Sabina; Moracci, Gabriele; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Ciceri, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Marabotti, Anna; Brera, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is that the deterioration of the clinical manifestation of autism in children may result from the exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated food. Within a cross-sectional study, a group of autistic children (n = 172) and a group of controls (n = 61) (siblings and non-parental) were recruited in North and South Italy. All children had blood and urine samples taken, for testing some mycotoxins by a LC–MS/MS validated method. Blood samples were also tested for assessing specific IgG against food and fungal antigens and cytokines. The analyses outputs highlighted statistically significant differences comparing mycotoxins levels between (i) children groups both in urine (deoxynivalenol and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0259, respectively) and serum (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, p = 0.0072, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0061, respectively); (ii) a group of selected fungal IgGs, and IgGs against wheat and gluten and (iii) cytokines. These results suggest the need for a deeper examination of the role that mycotoxins may have on the etiology of ASD. PMID:28661468

  16. Oocyte quality in mice is affected by a mycotoxin-contaminated diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Bo; Zheng, Wei-Jiang; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and aflatoxin (AF), are commonly found in many food commodities and may impair the growth and reproductive efficiency of animals and humans. We investigated the effects of a mycotoxin-contaminated diet on mouse oocyte quality. Maize contaminated with DON (3.875 mg/kg), ZEN (1,897 μg/kg), and AF (806 μg/kg) was incorporated into a mouse diet at three different levels (0, 15, and 30% w/w). After 4 weeks, ovarian and germinal vesicle oocyte indices decreased in mycotoxin-fed mice. Oocytes from these mice exhibited low developmental competence with reduced germinal vesicle breakdown and polar body extrusion rates. Embryo developmental competence also showed a similar pattern, and the majority of embryos could not develop to the morula stage. Actin expression was also reduced in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the actin nucleation factors profilin-1 and mDia1. Moreover, a large percentage of oocytes derived from mice that were fed a mycotoxin-contaminated diet exhibited aberrant spindle morphology, a loss of the cortical granule-free domain, and abnormal mitochondrial distributions, which further supported the decreased oocyte quality. Thus, our results demonstrate that mycotoxins are toxic to the mouse reproductive system by affecting oocyte quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mycotoxin contamination in laboratory rat feeds and their implications in animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivá, Laura; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda; Manyes, Lara

    2016-09-01

    Compound feed is particularly vulnerable to multi-mycotoxin contamination. A method for the determination of 12 mycotoxins; enniatins A, A1, B, B1; aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2; OTA; ZEA; T-2 and HT-2 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and applied for the analysis of laboratory rat commercial feeds. The method trueness was checked by recovery assays at three different spiked levels (n = 9). Recoveries ranged from 73% to 112%, and the intra-day and inter-day precision were lower than 9% and 13%, respectively. Limits of quantitation were lower than 15 μg/kg. Twenty-seven laboratory rats feed samples showed multi-contamination by at least three up to six different mycotoxins. ENNs B and B1, followed by ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins. T-2, HT-2, and OTA were not detected. ZEA showed the highest concentration levels reaching 492 μg/kg. The results underline the importance of implementing mycotoxin regular surveillance programs for laboratory animal feeds.

  18. Meta-analysis of individual and combined effects of mycotoxins on growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Andretta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the toxicity of concomitantly occurring mycotoxins in pig diets. This study was conducted to evaluate, through meta-analysis, the individual and the combined effects of mycotoxins on pig performance. The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses (graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance based on a database composed of 85 published papers, 1,012 treatments and 13,196 animals. Contamination of diets with individual mycotoxins reduced (p < 0.05 feed intake by 14 % and weight gain by 17 %, while combined mycotoxins reduced the same responses by 42 % and 45 %, respectively, in comparison with the non-challenged group. The correlation (p < 0.05 between reduction in weight gain (ΔG and reduction in feed intake (ΔFI was 0.67 in individual challenges and 0.93 in combined challenges. The estimated ΔG was –6 % in individual challenges and –7 % in combined challenges when ΔFI was zero, suggesting an increase in the maintenance requirements of challenged animals. Most of ΔG (58 % in individual challenges and 84 % in combined challenges was attributed to the changes in feed efficiency. The association of mycotoxins enhances individual toxic effects and the ΔFI is important in explaining the deleterious effects on the growth of challenged pigs.

  19. Mycotoxins in horse feed: Incidence of deoxynivalenol in oat samples from stud farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Miroslav I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.

  20. Simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins in broiler feeds using a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkapan, Jutamart; Poapolathep, Saranya; Isariyodom, Supaporn; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-02-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that are typically present in grain and feed ingredients used for animal feeds. An analytical method using LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed to quantify nine mycotoxins, consisting of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler feeds. In total, 100 samples of broiler feeds were collected from poultry farms in Central Thailand. The survey found that AFB1 and ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins in the feed samples at percentages of 93% and 63%, respectively. The limit of detections (LODs) of investigated mycotoxins was 0.20-0.78 ng/g. AFB2, DON, AFG1, NIV and T-2 toxin were also detectable at low contamination levels with percentages of 20%, 9%, 7%, 5% and 1%, respectively, whereas OTA and AFG2 were not detected in any of the feed samples. These results suggest that there is a very low level of risk of the exposure to mycotoxins in feeds obtained from broiler farms in Central Thailand.

  1. Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Krempser, P M; Batista, L R; Pereira, M N; Schwan, R F

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Adaku Chilaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136, sorghum (110, millet (87, and ogi (30 were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%, sorghum (18%, and millet (29%, irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins.

  3. Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Moretti, Giorgio; Facchiano, Francesco; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Bonfanti, Arianna; Campioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Stefania; Camposeo, Serena; Soricelli, Sabina; Moracci, Gabriele; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Ciceri, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Marabotti, Anna; Brera, Carlo

    2017-06-29

    Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is that the deterioration of the clinical manifestation of autism in children may result from the exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated food. Within a cross-sectional study, a group of autistic children ( n = 172) and a group of controls ( n = 61) (siblings and non-parental) were recruited in North and South Italy. All children had blood and urine samples taken, for testing some mycotoxins by a LC-MS/MS validated method. Blood samples were also tested for assessing specific IgG against food and fungal antigens and cytokines. The analyses outputs highlighted statistically significant differences comparing mycotoxins levels between (i) children groups both in urine (deoxynivalenol and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0259, respectively) and serum (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, p = 0.0072, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0061, respectively); (ii) a group of selected fungal IgGs, and IgGs against wheat and gluten and (iii) cytokines. These results suggest the need for a deeper examination of the role that mycotoxins may have on the etiology of ASD.

  4. Antioxidant Protection against Pathological Mycotoxins Alterations on Proximal Tubules in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA was one of the mycotoxins and received attention worldwide because of the hazard it posed to human and animal health, where the kidney was the primary target organ for OTA toxicity. In the other hand, dates served as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food.Methods: The study was performed in the department of biology in King Abdulaziz University. Animals were gavage administrated and divided into four groups: first group received (sodium bicarbonate, second group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W. /day, third group received (1mg Ajwa/kg B.W. / day and fourth group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W./day+ 1mg Ajwa /kg B.W. / day. Serum (creatinine - urea levels were measured in each group at the time of tissue collection , some biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for light microscopy processing stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H& E., Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS and Masson´s Trichrome (M.T..Other biopsies were immediately collected into electron microscopy processing. Results: After 28 days, a significant decrease in body weight, kidney weight and relative weight was detected in OTA treated group. Also, Serum (creatinine - urea level were elevated .The normal cyto-architecture of proximal tubules were lost exhibiting damaged bruch border, degenerated, binucleated and karyomegalic cells. The most destructed ultra-structure was the mitochondria which severely swollen with disintegrated membranes. In Ajwa Date extract-group the proximal tubules were normal, whereas in Ajwa date extract + OTA -group the severity of the lesions was significantly reduced. Conclusion: The present results indicated that, Ajwa date have protective effects and ameliorated the lesions of Ochratoxin nepherotoxicity which might lead to kidney failure.

  5. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  6. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Berrada, Houda; Mañes, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusarium spp. and levels of fumonisins in maize produced by subsistence farmers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium spp. produce fumonisins - mycotoxins that are of importance to maize production in South Africa. Fumonisins have been associated with human oesophageal cancer and cause various diseases in animals that are of concern to the animal feed industry. Maize samples, collected from subsistence

  8. Simultaneous and rapid detection of six different mycotoxins using an immunochip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Nan; Ning, Baoan; Liu, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhiyong; Peng, Yuan; Chen, Cuicui; Li, Junwen; Gao, Zhixian

    2012-04-15

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic contaminants in food, animal feed, and commodities. The study has developed an immunochip for quantifying the concentrations of six mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone, which were added to drinking water. The complete antigens (Ags) of the mycotoxins were contact printed and immobilized onto agarose-modified glass slides with 12 physically isolated subarrays, based on the reaction of both diffusion and covalent bond. The optimal concentration of each antigen and antibody (Ab) was obtained using an Ag-Ab immunoassay. Based on the indirect competitive immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of six mycotoxins in one single chip, six standard curves with good logistic correlation (R(2)>0.97) were respectively plotted. The working ranges (0.04-1.69, 0.45-3.90, 20.20-69.23, 35.68-363.18, 0.11-1.81, and 0.08-7.47 ng/mL, respectively) were calculated, as well as the median inhibitory concentrations (0.31±0.04, 1.49±0.21, 34.54±1.30, 134.06±11.75, 0.49±0.05, and 1.54±0.22 ng/mL, respectively), when six mycotoxins were detected simultaneously. Finally, the recovery rates in drinking water generally ranged from 80% to 120% on the same chip, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation lower than 15%. We successfully established an immunochip for simultaneous detection of six mycotoxins within 4h, with advantages of using minimal samples and being visually semiquantitative with our naked eyes. In summary, the method could be developed on one single chip for detecting multiple contaminants in actual samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bismuth oxide nanorods based immunosensor for mycotoxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, Pratima R., E-mail: pratimarsolanki@gmail.com [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, Jay [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Department of Applied Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Rupavali, Bharti [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, Sachchidanand [Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2017-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor based on bismuth oxide nanorods (nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}), electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. This immunosensor was fabricated by immobilization of anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibodies (Ab-AFB1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for aflatoxin B1 detection. The structural and morphological studies of n-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been carried out by XRD, UV–vis spectrophotometer; SEM, AFM and FTIR. It was found that the nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3} provided improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The results of electrochemical response studies of this BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ITO immunosensor revealed good linearity in the range of 1–70 ng dL{sup −1} with low detection limit of 8.715 ng/dL, improved sensitivity of 1.132 μA/(ng/dL cm{sup −2}), regression coefficient R{sup 2} of 0.918 and reproducibility of > 11 times. The association constant for the BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ITO immunosensor was determined as 7.318 ng/dL. - Highlights: • Use of Bismuth oxide nanorods for aflatoxin B1 detection. • It improved the electrochemical properties. • First report on nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3} for mycotoxin detection.

  10. Intersection of mycotoxins from grains to finished baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šottníková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the evaluation of the content of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in samples of winter wheat of the following varieties: Sultan, Cubus, Akteur, Seladon, Mulan, Chevalier, Evina, Hewitt, Bohemia, Baletka. The total amount of 10 samples harvested in 2011 and 2012 was evaluated and included variants both treated and untreated against fungal diseases. The samples were adjusted for mycotoxicological determination and subsequently measured by the ELISA method. The content of deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA was measured in grain, flour and breadrolls in all samples. Out of all samples 43% were found to have positive content of DON and 75% of ZEA. In the treated variants, the average DON content was found to be 115 µg.kg-1 in grain, 77 µg.kg-1 in flour and 97 µg.kg-1 in pastries. In the untreated variants, the average DON content was found to be 208 µg.kg-1 in grain, 103 µg.kg-1 in flour and 128 µg.kg-1 in pastries. Moreover, the average ZEA content in the treated variant was 4.95 µg.kg-1 in grain, 3.38 µg.kg-1 in flour and 4.51 µg.kg-1 in pastries, in the non-treated variant average ZEA content in grain was 3.07 µg.kg-1, 4.97 µg.kg-1 in flour and 2.81 µg.kg-1 in pastries. The maximal acceptable limits given by the valid legislation were not exceeded in any analysed sample. It can be concluded wheat grain grown in the Czech Republic, whether it is treated or untreated by fungicides, is not dangerous for consumers. The content of both mycotoxins is not dependent on each other, and the untreated variant has a slightly higher dependency between DON and ZEA.

  11. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  12. Trisomy 10p and translocation of 10q to 4p associated with selective dysgenesis of IgA-producing cells in lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Tatsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Nobusuke; Ono, Hisako; Hiai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A combined chromosomal abberation trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10 associated with translocation of 10q to chromosome 4p was found in a 14-month-old boy, who died after repeated bouts of pneumonia. The translocation involved the target region 4p16.3 of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and/or Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome. The karyotype was 46,XY,der(4)t(4;10)(p16;q11.2),i(10)(p10),ish der(4)t(4;10)(p16.3;q11.2) (D4S96+,D4Z1+),i(10) (pter ++). In addition to growth retardation and external as well as internal dysmorphism, the patient had abnormalities of the immune system, such as thymic involution, generalized lymph node enlargement, unusual distribution of T cells in lymphoid follicles, and selective IgA deficiency. The IgA-producing cells were rarely found in lymph nodes but normally in intestinal mucosa. In contrast, in the lymph nodes, the paracortical T-lymphocytes were hyperplastic, but they rarely entered the primary follicles. It is assumed that the chromosomal abnormality may lead to the dysfunction of T lymphocytes and, further, to the dysgenesis of IgA-producing cells in lymph nodes but not in intestinal mucosa. This suggests that the thymus may differentially control the subsets of IgA-producing cells in lymph nodes and intestinal mucosa.

  13. Infection Rate and Tissue Localization of Murine IL-12p40-Producing Monocyte-Derived CD103+ Lung Dendritic Cells during Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Taher, Chato; Chuquimia, Olga D.; Mazurek, Jolanta; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Fernández, Carmen; Sköld, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-hematopoietic cells, including lung epithelial cells, influence host immune responses. By co-culturing primary alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes from naïve donor mice, we show that alveolar epithelial cells support monocyte survival and differentiation in vitro, suggesting a role for non-hematopoietic cells in monocyte differentiation during the steady state in vivo. CD103+ dendritic cells (αE-DC) are present at mucosal surfaces. Using a murine primary monocyte adoptive transfer model, we demonstrate that αE-DC in the lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes are monocyte-derived during pulmonary tuberculosis. The tissue localization may influence the functional potential of αE-DC that accumulate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Here, we confirm the localization of αE-DC in uninfected mice beneath the bronchial epithelial cell layer and near the vascular wall, and show that αE-DC have a similar distribution in the lungs during pulmonary tuberculosis and are detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from infected mice. Lung DC can be targeted by M. tuberculosis in vivo and play a role in bacterial dissemination to the draining lymph node. In contrast to other DC subsets, only a fraction of lung αE-DC are infected with the bacterium. We also show that virulent M. tuberculosis does not significantly alter cell surface expression levels of MHC class II on infected cells in vivo and that αE-DC contain the highest frequency of IL-12p40+ cells among the myeloid cell subsets in infected lungs. Our results support a model in which inflammatory monocytes are recruited into the M. tuberculosis-infected lung tissue and, depending on which non-hematopoietic cells they interact with, differentiate along different paths to give rise to multiple monocyte-derived cells, including DC with a distinctive αE-DC phenotype. PMID:23861965

  14. Infection rate and tissue localization of murine IL-12p40-producing monocyte-derived CD103(+) lung dendritic cells during pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Taher, Chato; Chuquimia, Olga D; Mazurek, Jolanta; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Fernández, Carmen; Sköld, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-hematopoietic cells, including lung epithelial cells, influence host immune responses. By co-culturing primary alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes from naïve donor mice, we show that alveolar epithelial cells support monocyte survival and differentiation in vitro, suggesting a role for non-hematopoietic cells in monocyte differentiation during the steady state in vivo. CD103(+) dendritic cells (αE-DC) are present at mucosal surfaces. Using a murine primary monocyte adoptive transfer model, we demonstrate that αE-DC in the lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes are monocyte-derived during pulmonary tuberculosis. The tissue localization may influence the functional potential of αE-DC that accumulate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Here, we confirm the localization of αE-DC in uninfected mice beneath the bronchial epithelial cell layer and near the vascular wall, and show that αE-DC have a similar distribution in the lungs during pulmonary tuberculosis and are detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from infected mice. Lung DC can be targeted by M. tuberculosis in vivo and play a role in bacterial dissemination to the draining lymph node. In contrast to other DC subsets, only a fraction of lung αE-DC are infected with the bacterium. We also show that virulent M. tuberculosis does not significantly alter cell surface expression levels of MHC class II on infected cells in vivo and that αE-DC contain the highest frequency of IL-12p40(+) cells among the myeloid cell subsets in infected lungs. Our results support a model in which inflammatory monocytes are recruited into the M. tuberculosis-infected lung tissue and, depending on which non-hematopoietic cells they interact with, differentiate along different paths to give rise to multiple monocyte-derived cells, including DC with a distinctive αE-DC phenotype.

  15. Toxigenic potentiality of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains isolated from black pepper assessed by an LC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Devlieghere, Frank; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    A liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to determine mycotoxins, produced by fungal isolates grown on malt extract agar (MEA). All twenty metabolites produced by different fungal species were extracted using acetonitrile/1% formic acid. The developed method was applied to assess the toxigenic potentiality of Aspergillus flavus (n = 11) and Aspergillus parasiticus (n = 6) strains isolated from black peppers (Piper nigrum L.) following their growth at 22, 30 and 37 °C. Highest mean radial colony growth rates were observed at 30 °C for A. flavus (5.21 ± 0.68 mm/day) and A. parasiticus (4.97 ± 0.33 mm/day). All of the A. flavus isolates produced aflatoxin B1 and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST) while 91% produced aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and 82% of them produced sterigmatocystin (STERIG) at 30 °C. Except one, all the A. parasiticus isolates produced all the four aflatoxins, STERIG and OMST at 30 °C. Remarkably high AFB1 was produced by some A. flavus isolates at 22 °C (max 16-40 mg/kg). Production of mycotoxins followed a different trend than that of growth rate of both species. Notable correlations were found between different secondary metabolites of both species; R(2) 0.87 between AFB1 and AFB2 production. Occurrence of OMST could be used as a predictor for AFB1 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, Caroline, E-mail: c.prouillac@vetagro-sup.fr [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel [Université Paul Sabatier, SPCMIB-UMR5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et de Physicochimie des Molécules d' Intérêt Biologique, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 TOULOUSE cedex 9 (France); Lecoeur, Sylvaine [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France)

    2012-03-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  17. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouillac, Caroline; Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  18. Molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of Fusarium graminearum laboratory strains resistant to benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastos, A; Markoglou, A; Labrou, N E; Flouri, F; Malandrakis, A

    2016-03-01

    Six benzimidazole (BMZ)-resistant Fusarium graminearum strains were obtained after UV mutagenesis and selection on carbendazim (MBC)-amended medium. In vitro bioassays resulted in the identification of two resistant phenotypes that were highly HR (Rf: 40-170, based on EC50) and moderately MR (Rf: 10-20) resistant to carbendazim. Cross resistance studies with other fungicides showed that all mutant strains tested were also resistant to other BMZs, such as benomyl and thiabendazole, but retained their parental sensitivity to fungicides belonging to other chemical groups. A point mutation at codon 6 (His6Asn) was found in the β2-tubulin gene of MR isolates while another mutation at codon 200 (Phe200Tyr) was present in one MR and one HR isolates. Interestingly, low temperatures suppressed MBC-resistance in all isolates bearing the H6N mutation. The three-dimensional homology model of the wild-type and mutants of β-tubulins were constructed, and the possible carbendazim binding site was analyzed. Studies on fitness parameters showed that the mutation(s) for resistance to BMZs did not affect the mycelial growth rate whereas adverse effects were found in sporulation and conidial germination in most of the resistant mutants. Pathogenicity tests on corn cobs revealed that mutants were less or equally aggressive to the wild-type strain but expressed their BMZ-resistance after inoculation on maize cobs treated with MBC. Analysis of mycotoxin production by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that only two HR strains produced zearalenone (ZEA) at concentrations similar to that of the wild-type strain, while no ZEA levels were detected in the rest of the mutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 μM PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 μM of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 μM PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 μM PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression

  20. Prevalence, Characterization, and Mycotoxin Production Ability of Fusarium Species on Korean Adlay (Coix lacrymal-jobi L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adlay seed samples were collected from three adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Hwasun, and Eumseong region in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. Fusarium species accounted for 45.6% of all species found; and, with phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes (EF-1α and β-tubulin, 10 Fusarium species were characterized namely, F. incarnatum (11.67%, F. kyushuense (10.33%, F. fujikuroi (8.67%, F. concentricum (6.00%, F. asiaticum (5.67%, F. graminearum (1.67%, F. miscanthi (0.67%, F. polyphialidicum (0.33%, F. armeniacum (0.33%, and F. thapsinum (0.33%. The Fusarium species were then examined for their morphological characteristics to confirm their identity. Morphological observations of the species correlated well with and confirmed their molecular identification. The ability of these isolates to produce the mycotoxins fumonisin (FUM and zearalenone (ZEN was tested by the ELISA quantitative analysis method. The result revealed that FUM was produced only by F. fujikuroi and that ZEN was produced by F. asiaticum and F. graminearum.

  1. Development of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Multi-Mycotoxin Determination in Composite Cereal-Based Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Santis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The analytical scenario for determining contaminants in the food and feed sector is constantly prompted by the progress and improvement of knowledge and expertise of researchers and by the technical innovation of the instrumentation available. Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin occurring at all latitudes worldwide and being characterized by acute and chronic effects on human health and animal wellness, depending on the species sensitivity. The major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, the first for its toxicity, and the second for its recurrent occurrence. However, the European legislation sets maximum limits for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone, and indicative limits for T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Due to the actual probability that co-occurring mycotoxins are present in a food or feed product, nowadays, the availability of reliable, sensitive, and versatile multi-mycotoxin methods is assuming a relevant importance. Due to the wide range of matrices susceptible to mycotoxin contamination and the possible co-occurrence, a multi-mycotoxin and multi-matrix method was validated in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with the purpose to overcome specific matrix effects and analyze complex cereal-based samples within the Italian Total Diet Study project.

  2. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  3. Fusariotoxins in Avian Species: Toxicokinetics, Metabolism and Persistence in Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusariotoxins are mycotoxins produced by different species of the genus Fusarium whose occurrence and toxicity vary considerably. Despite the fact avian species are highly exposed to fusariotoxins, the avian species are considered as resistant to their toxic effects, partly because of low absorption and rapid elimination, thereby reducing the risk of persistence of residues in tissues destined for human consumption. This review focuses on the main fusariotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 and B2. The key parameters used in the toxicokinetic studies are presented along with the factors responsible for their variations. Then, each toxin is analyzed separately. Results of studies conducted with radiolabelled toxins are compared with the more recent data obtained with HPLC/MS-MS detection. The metabolic pathways of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone are described, with attention paid to the differences among the avian species. Although no metabolite of fumonisins has been reported in avian species, some differences in toxicokinetics have been observed. All the data reviewed suggest that the toxicokinetics of fusariotoxins in avian species differs from those in mammals, and that variations among the avian species themselves should be assessed.

  4. Data analyses and modelling for risk based monitoring of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ine van der Fels-Klerx, H.J.; Adamse, Paulien; Punt, Ans; Asselt, van Esther D.

    2018-01-01

    Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study

  5. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  6. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  8. An overview of adverse health effects caused by mycotoxins and bioassays for their detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Leusden van FM; MGB

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to moulds and their (toxic) metabolites (mycotoxins) is a menace to human and animal health. A risk analysis can shed light on the actual risk of adverse health effects. In a previously published RIVM report (nr. 257852 002) on hazard identification the genera, Aspergillus, Penicillium,

  9. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges.

  10. Incidence of Mycotoxins in Local and Branded Samples of Chocolates Marketed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present overview was intended to evaluate the degree of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in different samples of bitter, dark, milk, and white chocolates marketed in Pakistan. For that exploration, two hundred (n=200 samples of chocolates, 100 branded and 100 local, were analyzed for mycotoxins profile by HPLC-FLD. The outcomes firmly sustained that the majority of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The incidence of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in branded samples was 83% and 90%, whereas the local samples showed 91% and 97% contamination, respectively. The highest amount of total aflatoxins was found in branded dark chocolates, that is, 2.27 μg/kg, and maximum ochratoxin A level was detected white chocolates (2.06 μg/kg. On average, the local white chocolates and dark chocolates faced the highest level of total aflatoxins (3.35 μg/kg and ochratoxin A (3.48 μg/kg, respectively. The local samples of chocolates were more contaminated with mycotoxins as compared to branded ones accredited to the lack of quality control and quality assurance during the manufacturing as well as packing processes. In recent years, consumption of chocolate is rapidly increasing especially by young generation, so monitoring of mycotoxin occurrence in them is a matter of great concern and more studies are required to comprehend the production of mycotoxins in these products.

  11. Expert Study to Select Indicators of the Occurence of Emerging Mycotoxin Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Booij, C.J.H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the

  12. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1, deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisin B1 (FB1, T-2 toxin (T-2, and zearalenone (ZEA are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB1 toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB1, FB1, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model.

  13. Detection of mycotoxins using imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect mycotoxins. One technology that has been extensively tested is surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In 2003 a multi-toxin method was reported that detected aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 ...

  14. Distribution and evolution of genes responsible for biosynthesis of mycotoxins in Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium secondary metabolites (SMs) include some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, genes directly involved in synthesis of the same SM are typically located adjacent to one another in gene clusters. To better understand the distribution and evolution of mycoto...

  15. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-28

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well.

  16. Aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins in spices marketed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo Valle; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-04-01

    During their processing, spices usually remain close to the ground for drying, a fact that disposes to fungal contamination, as well as moisture transferred from the tropical environment can allow their multiplication and synthesis of mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of potentially toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in spices marketed in Brazil. The fungal contamination was evaluated by direct plating for samples of clove, black and white peppers. Spread plate was used for the samples of rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano. Analyses were performed in triplicate in DG18 media with incubation at 25°C for 7days. The isolation and identification of fungi followed specific recommendations of culture media and incubation period for each genus. The presence of mycotoxins in spices was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence. The frequency of species potentially toxigenic was high in white and black peppers with presence of both aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi. Only rosemary and fennel showed contamination with aflatoxin B1 and there was a positive correlation (ρspices covered by Brazilian regulation of mycotoxins. On the other hand, these contaminants were present in other spices consumed by population and not mentioned in the regulation, which could be considered a cause to concern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Hazardous food-borne fungi and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Kosuke; Aihara, Maki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, various food-related accidents and health scares have dissipated trust in the food industry. Health hazards resulting from food contaminated with fungi is increasing. Food contamination by fungi causes many problems, especially in Japan, which relies on foreign countries for about 60% of its food: the contamination of imported food by fungi and mycotoxins constitutes a serious problem. As the quantity of imported food increases and changes in food distribution have occurred, so too has the number and type of fungi causing food-related damages; osmophilic and thermotolerant fungi, in addition to the mainstream fungi of genera Cladosporium, Pecinillium, and Aspergillus, have become a problem. Although European countries and the U.S. have recently conducted risk assessments for mycotoxins, Japan has not attained an international level in the determination of baseline values. However, in addition to risk management for Aflatoxin M1, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, and Fumonisin, determination of baseline values for mycotoxins is beginning in Japan. In this review, we summarize hazardous food-borne fungi, and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan.

  18. Impact of Mycotoxins Secreted by Aspergillus Molds on the Inflammatory Response of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yélian Marc Bossou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to molds and mycotoxins not only contributes to the onset of respiratory disease, it also affects the ocular surface. Very few published studies concern the evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin exposure on ocular cells. The present study investigates the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and gliotoxin, two mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus molds, on the biological activity of the human corneal epithelial (HCE cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure, cellular viability and inflammatory response were assessed. Both endpoint cell viability colorimetric assays and continuous cell impedance measurements, providing noninvasive real-time assessment of the effect on cells, were performed. Cytokine gene expression and interleukin-8 release were quantified. Gliotoxin appeared more cytotoxic than AFB1 but, at the same time, led to a lower increase of the inflammatory response reflecting its immunosuppressive properties. Real-time cell impedance measurement showed a distinct profile of cytotoxicity for both mycotoxins. HCE cells appeared to be a well-suited in vitro model to study ocular surface reactivity following biological contaminant exposure. Low, but persistent inflammation, caused by environmental factors, such as fungal toxins, leads to irritation and sensitization, and could be responsible for allergic manifestations which, in turn, could lead to mucosal hyper-reactivity.

  19. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease res...

  20. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Su, Yong-Teng; Xie, Wen-Mei; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Dai, Jie-Fan; Wang, Yun; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, De-Sheng; Karrow, Niel Alexander; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2018-03-07

    The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB₁, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB₁, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0-4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3-729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3-10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB₁ over China's regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB₁ during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure.

  1. Comparison of human health risks resulting from exposure to fungicides and mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muri, S.D.; Voet, van der H.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Bruschweiler, B.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in holistic considerations in the area of food safety is increasing. Risk managers may face the problem that reducing the risk of one compound may increase the risk of another compound. An example is the potential increase in mycotoxin levels due to a reduced use of fungicides in crop

  2. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  3. Technical Note: Characteristics and Sorting of White Food Corn Contaminated with Mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of white corn grown in southern Texas were collected for characterization and sorting of kernels containing mycotoxins. Kernels were grouped into one of six symptom categories depending on the degree of visible discoloration and bright green-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) or bright orange fluor...

  4. Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 μg kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 μg kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 μg kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 μg kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 μg kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat

  5. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Ifeoluwa; Obadina, Adewale; Adaku, Cynthia Chilaka; De Boevre, Marthe; Okoth, Sheila; De Saeger, Sarah; Njobeh, Patrick

    2018-04-02

    Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3.66 × 10 5  CFU/mL. Among the mycotoxigenic fungal species recovered, Aspergillus flavus had the highest incidence of 26%. Previously unreported strains such as P. chrysogenum strain AD25, A. sydowii strain AD 22 and A. tritici strain AD 11 were found. Furthermore, mycotoxin quantitative analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry showed that deoxynivalenol was the dominant mycotoxin occurring in 84% of the samples. This was followed by enniatin B that occurred in 75% of samples ranging from 12 to 44 μg/L and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) (incidence of 53% at a maximum level of 182 μg/L). Generally, there was low occurrence aflatoxins, whereas T-2, HT-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol were not detected. All the samples analysed had safe levels of mycotoxins tested but were contaminated by at least two mycotoxins that could pose some additive or synergistic health effects among consumers. On average: a 60 kg adult consuming 1-6 L/day of the beer was exposed to FB 1  + FB 2 at an estimated 2.20-13.20 μg/kg body weight/day. These values were far above the maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bw/day established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The study demonstrates that consumption of umqombothi can significantly enhance dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins among consumers, and therefore accentuates the need for

  6. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Higuchi

    Full Text Available In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture. We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-, A (Membrane/activin+, M (Matrigel/activin-, and M+A (Matrigel/activin+. We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A. Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A. In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian

  7. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on production and metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Cotter, P F; Boermans, H J; Sefton, A E

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The four diets included control (0.14 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, 18 mg/ kg fusaric acid, effect on serum albumin and y-glutamyltransferase activity. Blood hemoglobin and biliary IgA concentrations, however, responded in significant linear and quadratic fashions. Supplementation of E-GM counteracted most of the blood parameter alterations caused by the Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains and reduced breast muscle redness. It was concluded that broiler chickens may be susceptible to Fusarium mycotoxicoses when naturally contaminated grains are fed containing a combination of mycotoxins.

  8. Molds and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from farms of potential mycotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shareef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty five finished poultry feed samples, collected from different broilers, broiler breeders and layers farms were divided into two parts, for mycological and mycotoxins examination. In counting of molds, dilute plate technique was used, whereas feed parts were used for mycotoxin estimation, they were subjected to four standard kits of Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisins. Mold counts were around 105 cfu.g-1 sample. Fourteen mold genera were recovered. From the systematic point of view, 2 genera belonged to Zygomycetes (i.e. Mucor, Rhizopus,, 1 genus belong to Ascomycetes (i.e. Eurotium; the majority, within so-called mitotic fungi (formerly Deuteromycetes, encompassed 11 genera (i.e. Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis,, Trichothecium, Ulocladium and Aerobasidium. The most frequent fungi were those from the genus Aspergillus. The concentrations of the four analyzed mycotoxins in the poultry finished feeds, and the percentages of the recovered mycotoxins, revealed that aflatoxins was recovered in 91.1% of the examined samples, with a mean value of 179.1µg/kg. The same percentage was found with Ochratoxins, but with lower mean concentration of 159.4µg/kg. In the third order were Fumonisins mycotoxins were in the third order, and they were recovered in 51.1% of the tested samples with a mean value of 127µg/kg. In the fourth order was T-2 toxin, with a percentage of 2.2% and a value of 50.0µg/kg.

  9. Bromatological and mycotoxin analysis on soybean meal before and after the industrial process of micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone take part of the most studied mycotoxin groups due to their toxic effects on animal and human health. This research evaluated samples of soybeans meal used in animal food industry. A hundred and twenty one soybean meal samples were analyzed, so that 66 were analyzed before the industrial processing of micronization and 55 after it. The bromatological average of samples before micronization showed the following answers: 12.4% moisture; 46.4% protein; 79.5% protein solubility; 5.9% ash content; 2.2% fat; 4.3% fiber and 0.02 (ΔpH of urease activity. The samples of micronization soybean meal showed 7.0% average values for moisture and 48.6% for crude protein. The mycotoxin levels were low in natura soybean meal; therefore, average values were 0.5μg kg-1, 29.6μg kg-1 and 56.8μg kg-1 for aflatoxin, zearelenone and fumonisin, respectively. After micronization, the average values for the studied samples were 1.3μg kg-1, 67.5μg kg-1 and 89.1μg kg-1, respectively for the same mycotoxins. The results for bromatological and mycotoxin analyses indicate similarity with the established patterns according to the Brazilian Compendium for Animal feed and reference literature. However, at least one of the three studied mycotoxin was detected in all of the analyzed samples and there was greater contamination of soybeans meal after the micronization process.

  10. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T., E-mail: veronica.lattanzio@ispa.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Nivarlet, Noan [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe [Centre d' Economie Rurale (CER Groupe), Rue du Point du Jour no 8, B-6900 Marloie (Belgium); Granier, Benoit [UNISENSOR S.A., Zoning industriel du Dossay, Rue du Dossay no 3, B-4020 Liege (Belgium); Visconti, Angelo [National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin-BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73-109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC-MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins

  11. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in Iowa streams: An examination of underinvestigated compounds in agricultural basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Hoerger, Corinne C.; Meyer, Michael T.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the first broad-scale investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in streams in the United States. Fifteen stream sites across Iowa were sampled five times throughout the 2008 growing season to capture a range of climatic and crop-growth conditions. Basin size upstream from sampling sites ranged from 7 km2 to >836,000 km2 Atrazine (herbicide) also was measured in all samples as a frame-of-reference agriculturally derived contaminant. Target compounds were frequently detected in stream samples: atrazine (100%), formononetin (80%), equol (45%), deoxynivalenol (43%), daidzein (32%), biochanin A (23%), zearalenone (13%), and genistein (11%). The nearly ubiquitous detection of formononetin (isoflavone) suggests a widespread agricultural source, as one would expect with the intense row crop and livestock production present across Iowa. Conversely, the less spatially widespread detections of deoxynivalenol (mycotoxin) suggest a more variable source due to the required combination of proper host and proper temperature and moisture conditions necessary to promote Fusarium spp. infections. Although atrazine concentrations commonly exceeded 100 ng L-1 (42/75 measurements), only deoxynivalenol (6/56 measurements) had concentrations that occasionally exceeded this level. Temporal patterns in concentrations varied substantially between atrazine, formononetin, and deoxynivalenol, as one would expect for contaminants with different source inputs and processes of formation and degradation. The greatest phytoestrogen and mycotoxin concentrations were observed during spring snowmelt conditions. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins were detected at all sampling sites regardless of basin size. The ecotoxicological effects from long-term, low-level exposures to phytoestrogens and mycotoxins or complex chemicals mixtures including these compounds that commonly take place in surface water are poorly understood and have yet to be

  12. UFLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of multiple mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-05-01

    A robust, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu, based on one-step extraction without any further clean-up. Separation and quantification were performed in both positive and negative modes under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a single run with zearalanone (ZAN) as internal standard. The chromatographic conditions and MS/MS parameters were carefully optimized. Matrix-matched calibration was recommended to reduce matrix effects and improve accuracy, showing good linearity within wide concentration ranges. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were lower than 50 μg kg(-1), while limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.1-20 μg kg(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was validated for recoveries, ranging from 85% to 115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤14.87% at low level, from 75% to 119% with RSD ≤ 14.43% at medium level and from 61% to 120% with RSD ≤ 13.18% at high level, respectively. Finally, the developed multi-mycotoxin method was applied for screening of these mycotoxins in 24 commercial samples. Only aflatoxin B2 and zearalenone were found in 2 samples. This is the first report on the application of UFLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS for multi-class mycotoxins in A. catechu. The developed method with many advantages of simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity is a proposed candidate for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  14. Dietary Fructo-Oligosaccharides Attenuate Early Activation of CD4+ T Cells Which Produce both Th1 and Th2 Cytokines in the Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues of a Murine Food Allergy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Masato; Arakawa, Haruka; Ishii, Narumi; Ubukata, Chihiro; Michimori, Mana; Noda, Masanari; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation. Single-cell suspensions were prepared from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues for cellular analysis. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Activation markers and intracellular cytokines in CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Activated CD4+ T cells were purified to examine cytokine production. Dietary intake of FOS provided moderate protection from the intestinal inflammation induced by the OVA-containing diet. FOS significantly reduced food allergy-induced Th2 cytokine responses in intestinal tissues but not in systemic tissues. FOS decreased OVA diet-induced IFN-γ+IL-4+ double-positive CD4+ T cells and early-activated CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we confirmed that these CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells are able to produce high levels of IFN-γ and moderate level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. Dietary intake of FOS during the development of food allergy attenuates the induction of intestinal Th2 cytokine responses by regulating early activation of naïve CD4+ T cells, which produce both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Our results suggest FOS might be a potential food agent for the prevention of food allergy by modulating oral sensitization to food antigens. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Aphid Infestation Increases Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Mycotoxins in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulic, Jassy; Ajigboye, Olubukola; Swarup, Ranjan; Bruce, Toby

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in northern Europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. The species produces the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, which are highly toxic. It was hypothesized that grain aphids, Sitobion avenae, may transmit F. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses was performed to test this. Manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to uninfected hosts resulted in pathogen DNA accumulation in hosts. However, the free movement of wingless aphids from infected to healthy plants did not. The addition of winged aphids reared on F. langsethiae-inoculated wheat seedlings to wheat plants also did not achieve successful pathogen transfer. While our data suggested that aphid transmission of the pathogen was not very efficient, we observed an increase in disease when aphids were present. After seedling inoculation, an increase in pathogen DNA accumulation in seedling leaves was observed upon treatment with aphids. Furthermore, the presence of aphids on wheat plants with F. langsethiae-inoculated ears not only led to a rise in the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in infected grain but also to an increase in the concentrations of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, with more than 3-fold higher toxin levels than diseased plants without aphids. This work highlights that aphids increase the susceptibility of wheat host plants to F. langsethiae and that aphid infestation is a risk factor for accumulating increased levels of T-2 and HT-2 in wheat products. IMPORTANCE Fusarium langsethiae is shown here to cause increased contamination levels of grain with toxins produced by fungus when aphids share the host plant. This effect has also recently been demonstrated with Fusarium graminearum, yet the two fungal species show stark differences in their effect on aphid populations. In both cases, aphids improve the ability of the pathogens to

  16. A Survey of occurrence of toxogenic fungi and mycotoxins in pig feed samples-Use in evaluation of risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milicevic

    Full Text Available In order to assess of risk assessment, the aim of this paper was to provide good and detailed insight into the level of contamination of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine from mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins (n=18. Isolation and quantitative enumeration of fungal propagules were done on solid media using the standard microbiological procedure. These plates were incubated the number of colonies was determined and thent on the basis of characteristic colonies and microscopic analysis was performed to identify genera and species of moulds. Isolates identified as Aspergillus and Penicillium species were subjected to molecular characterization of the presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of OTA (polyketide synthase gene-PKS. Total fungal counts (CFU/g ranged from 0,5x105 do 4x106. From a total samples analysed, seven samples had fungal counts higher than the limit established by Serbian regulations (3x105. During a mycological analysis of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine, a total of six genera and 14 species of moulds were identified of which the most frequent one was of the genus Penicillium (94,4% while the moulds from Fusarium genere isolated in 55,5% and Paecilomyces in 44,4% of the samples from investigated localities. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus (22%, Mycor (11,1% and Alternaria (5,5% were represented in a less amount. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a set of 18 isolates of the DNA belonging to families Penicillium and Aspergillus. The sequences of PCR reaction products in three samples were compared with nucleotide sequences of genes for poliketid synthase (PKS from Penicillium species and found that the samples possess PKS sequence. The traditional methods for identification of ochratoxin-producing fungi are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Rapid and specific detection of ochratoxinproducing fungi is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of feed and food

  17. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with any of the tested E. coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with Salmonella. Results indicated that the response of the nonpathogenic E. coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  18. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chulze, S.N.; Palazzini, J.M.; Torres, A.M.; Barros, G.; Ponsone, M.L.; Geisen, R.; Schmidt-Heydt, M.; Köhl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A).

  20. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2003-09-01

    The feeding of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains adversely affects the performance of swine and poultry. Very little information is available, however, on adverse effects associated with feeding these mycotoxin-contaminated grains on the performance of horses. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses. A polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) was also tested for efficacy in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Nine mature, nonexercising, light, mixed-breed mares were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d. The horses were randomly reassigned and the experiment was subsequently replicated in time following a 14-d washout interval. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 2.8 kg of concentrates and 5 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay. The concentrates fed included the following: 1) control, 2) blend of contaminated grains (36% contaminated wheat and 53% contaminated corn), and 3) blend of contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer. Diets containing contaminated grains averaged 15.0 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.8 ppm of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 9.7 ppm of fusaric acid, and 2.0 ppm of zearalenone. Feed intake by all horses fed contaminated grains was reduced (P mycotoxins caused a decrease in feed intake and altered serum gamma glutamyltransferase activities. The supplementation of GM polymer prevented these mycotoxin-induced adverse effects.

  1. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  2. Molecular Modeling and Simulation Tools in the Development of Peptide-Based Biosensors for Mycotoxin Detection: Example of Ochratoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aby A. Thyparambil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is now ubiquitous. Exposures to mycotoxin via contact or ingestion can potentially induce adverse health outcomes. Affordable mycotoxin-monitoring systems are highly desired but are limited by (a the reliance on technically challenging and costly molecular recognition by immuno-capture technologies; and (b the lack of predictive tools for directing the optimization of alternative molecular recognition modalities. Our group has been exploring the development of ochratoxin detection and monitoring systems using the peptide NFO4 as the molecular recognition receptor in fluorescence, electrochemical and multimodal biosensors. Using ochratoxin as the model mycotoxin, we share our perspective on addressing the technical challenges involved in biosensor fabrication, namely: (a peptide receptor design; and (b performance evaluation. Subsequently, the scope and utility of molecular modeling and simulation (MMS approaches to address the above challenges are described. Informed and enabled by phage display, the subsequent application of MMS approaches can rationally guide subsequent biomolecular engineering of peptide receptors, including bioconjugation and bioimmobilization approaches to be used in the fabrication of peptide biosensors. MMS approaches thus have the potential to reduce biosensor development cost, extend product life cycle, and facilitate multi-analyte detection of mycotoxins, each of which positively contributes to the overall affordability of mycotoxin biosensor monitoring systems.

  3. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β-tubulin and RPB1, which confirm its unique nature. Talaromyces atroroseus resembles T. purpurogenus and T. albobiverticillius in producing red diffusible pigments, but differs from the latter two species by the production of glauconic acid, purpuride and ZG-1494α and by the dull to dark green, thick walled ellipsoidal conidia produced. The type strain of Talaromyces atroroseus is CBS 133442.

  4. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L -1 air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB 1 and AFG 1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB 1 .

  5. Evaluation of yeast cell wall on the performance of broiles fed diets with or without mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Santin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the interactions between aflatoxin (500 or 250 ppb and ochratoxin (500 or 250 ppb, and the possible benefits of adding yeast cell wall to prevent the effects of these mycotoxins in broiler chickens. Relative organ weight gain and live performance were evaluated at 21 and 42 days of age. Results indicated that at the levels of mycotoxins included in the experimental diets, ochratoxin reduced feed intake and body weight gain, and aflatoxin only affect feed intake of 21-day-old birds. No interaction was observed between aflatoxin and ochratoxin at the levels used in experimental study. Yeast cell wall did not significantly reduced the deleterious effects of ochratoxins. No significant differences were observed in relative organ weight gain. Yeast cell wall improved feed conversion ratio when birds were fed either contaminated or non-contaminated feeds.

  6. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  7. Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations. One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.3% followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.3%, aflatoxin G1 (10.7%, aflatoxin G2 (1.5%, zearalenone (39.3%, ochratoxin A (37.5% and deoxynivalenol (2.9% with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g, nivalenol (285ng/g and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.6%samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g. For zearalenone, forty-four (32.5% samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g. In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.8 % followed by AFB1 (25% with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

  8. Ultra-sensitive, stable isotope assisted quantification of multiple urinary mycotoxin exposure biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarkanj, Bojan; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Abia, Wilfred A; Rychlik, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt

    2018-08-17

    There is a critical need to better understand the patterns, levels and combinatory effects of exposures we are facing through our diet and environment. Mycotoxin mixtures are of particular concern due to chronic low dose exposures caused by naturally contaminated food. To facilitate new insights into their role in chronic disease, mycotoxins and their metabolites are quantified in bio-fluids as biomarkers of exposure. Here, we describe a highly sensitive urinary assay based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS) and 13 C-labelled or deuterated internal standards covering the most relevant regulated and emerging mycotoxins. Utilizing enzymatic pre-treatment, solid phase extraction and UHPLC separation, the sensitivity of the method was significantly higher (10-160x lower LODs) than in a previously described method used for comparison purpose, and stable isotopes provided compensation for challenging matrix effects. This method was in-house validated and applied to re-assess mycotoxin exposure in urine samples obtained from Nigerian children, adolescent and adults, naturally exposed through their regular diet. Owing to the methods high sensitivity, biomarkers were detected in all samples. The mycoestrogen zearalenone was the most frequently detected contaminant (82%) but also ochratoxin A (76%), aflatoxin M 1 (73%) and fumonisin B 1 (71%) were quantified in a large share of urines. Overall, 57% of 120 urines were contaminated with both, aflatoxin M 1 and fumonisin B 1 , and other co-exposures were frequent. These results clearly demonstrate the advanced performance of the method to assess lowest background exposures (pg mL -1 range) using a single, highly robust assay that will allow for the systematic investigation of low dose effects on human health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplex dipstick immunoassay for semi-quantitative determination of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M.T.; Nivarlet, Noan; Lippolis, Vincenzo; Gatta, Stefania Della; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe; Granier, Benoit; Visconti, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a rapid method based on a multiplex dipstick immunoassay. ► The assay allowed the determination of major Fusarium toxins in wheat, oats, maize. ► We obtained cut off levels close to EU regulatory levels. - Abstract: A multiplex dipstick immunoassay based method for the simultaneous determination of major Fusarium toxins, namely zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in wheat, oats and maize has been developed. The dipstick format was based on an indirect competitive approach. Four test lines (mycotoxin–BSA conjugates) and one control line were located on the strip membrane. Labelled antibodies were freeze-dried within the microwell. Two matrix-related sample preparation protocols have been developed for wheat/oats (not containing fumonisins) and maize (containing fumonisins) respectively. The use of a methanol/water mixture for sample preparation allowed recoveries in the range 73–109% for all mycotoxins in all tested cereals, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The optimized immunoassay was able to detect target mycotoxins at cut off levels equal to 80% of EU maximum permitted levels, i.e. 280, 400, 1400 and 3200 μg kg −1 , respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in maize, and 80, 400 and 1400 μg kg −1 , respectively, for zearalenone, T-2/HT-2 toxins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and oats. Analysis of naturally contaminated samples resulted in a good agreement between multiplex dipstick and validated confirmatory LC–MS/MS. The percentage of false positive results was less than or equal to 13%, whereas no false negative results were obtained. Data on the presence/absence of 6 mycotoxins at levels close to EU regulatory levels were obtained within 30 min. The proposed immunoassay protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use and fit for purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in cereals.

  10. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) a...

  11. Engaging One Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Africa: Perspective for Mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Carina Ladeira; Carina Ladeira; Chiara Frazzoli; Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2017-01-01

    The role of mycotoxins—e.g., aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids—has been recognized in the etiology of a number of diseases. In many African countries, the public health impact of chronic (indoor) and/or repeated (dietary) mycotoxin exposure is largely ignored hitherto, with impact on human health, food security, and export of African agricultural food products. Notwithstanding, African scientific research reached mileston...

  12. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

    2016-12-08

    Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

  13. Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. (Ine van der Fels-Klerx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products; all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials.

  14. A Greener, Quick and Comprehensive Extraction Approach for LC-MS of Multiple Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breidbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In food/feed control, mycotoxin analysis is often still performed “one analyte at a time”. Here a method is presented which aims at making mycotoxin analysis environmentally friendlier through replacing acetonitrile by ethyl acetate and reducing chemical waste production by analyzing four mycotoxins together, forgoing sample extract clean-up, and minimizing solvent consumption. For this, 2 g of test material were suspended in 8 mL water and 16 mL ethyl acetate were added. Extraction was accelerated through sonication for 30 min and subsequent addition of 8 g sodium sulfate. After centrifugation, 500 µL supernatant were spiked with isotopologues, dried down, reconstituted in mobile phase, and measured with LC-MS. The method was validated in-house and through a collaborative study and the performance was fit-for-purpose. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDs between 16% at low and 4% at higher contaminations were obtained. The reproducibility RSDs were mostly between 12% and 32%. The trueness of results for T-2 toxin and Zearalenone were not different from 100%, for Deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin they were larger than 89%. The extraction was also adapted to a quick screening of Aflatoxin B1 in maize by flow-injection–mass spectrometry. Semi-quantitative results were obtained through standard addition and scan-based ion ratio calculations. The method proved to be a viable greener and quicker alternative to existing methods.

  15. Multi-mycotoxin stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for Fusarium toxins in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Gotthardt, Marina; Schüler, Jan; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method was developed for 12 different Fusarium toxins including modified mycotoxins in beer (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, T2-toxin, enniatin B, B1, A1, A, beauvericin and zearalenone). As sample preparation and purification of beer a combined solid phase extraction for trichothecenes, enniatins, beauvericin and zearalenone was firstly developed. The validation of the new method gave satisfying results: intra-day and inter-day precision and recoveries were 1-5%, 2-8% and 72-117%, respectively. In total, 61 different organic and conventional beer samples from Germany and all over the world were analyzed by using the newly developed multi-mycotoxin method. In summary, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivaleneol and enniatin B were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beer samples. None of the other monitored Fusarium toxins like 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT2- and T2-toxin, zearalenone, enniatin B1, A1, A or beauvericin were detectable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-05

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  17. Expert study to select indicators of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhai, M C; Booij, C J H; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the most important indicators for different chain stages (growth, transport and storage, and processing) and their relative importance. After three e-mailing rounds, the experts reached consensus on the most important indicators for each of the three stages: wheat growth, transport and storage, and processing. For wheat growth, these indicators include: relative humidity/rainfall, crop rotation, temperature, tillage practice, water activity of the kernels, and crop variety/cultivar. For the transport and storage stage, they include water activity in the kernels, relative humidity, ventilation, temperature, storage capacity, and logistics. For wheat processing, indicators include quality data, fraction of the cereal used, water activity in the kernels, quality management and traceability systems, and carryover of contamination. The indicators selected in this study can be used in an identification system for the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards in wheat supply chains. Such a system can be used by risk managers within governmental (related) organizations and/or the food and feed industry in order to react proactively to the occurrence of these emerging mycotoxins. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC, <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18. The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr 25.0%, followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4% and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%. The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4% and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%. All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb, 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb, 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb. Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  19. Explaining combinatorial effects of mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in mice with urinary metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Blaženović, Ivana; Cui, Fangchao; Gholami, Morteza; Sun, Jiadi; Habimana, Jean; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2018-02-28

    Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to data matrix processing along with respective pathway analysis by MetaMapp and CytoScape. The results showed that the combined DON and ZEN administration resulted in lower significant changes, compared to the individual mycotoxin treated groups verified by heatmap. Metabolic pathways network mapping indicated that the combined mycotoxins treated groups showed a little effect on the metabolites in most pathways, especially in glucose metabolism and its downstream amino acid metabolism. In glucose metabolism, the content of galactose, mannitol, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, tagatose was drastically down-regulated. Furthermore, the organic acids, pyruvate, and amino acids metabolism displayed the same phenomenon. In conclusion, the combined DON/ZEN administration might lead to an "antagonistic effect" in mice metabolism.

  20. Fusarium and mycotoxin spectra in Swiss barley are affected by various cropping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, Torsten; Martin, Charlotte; Wettstein, Felix E; Bucheli, Thomas D; Mascher, Fabio; Bertossa, Mario; Musa, Tomke; Keller, Beat; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important cereal diseases worldwide. Cereals differ in terms of the main occurring Fusarium species and the infection is influenced by various factors, such as weather and cropping measures. Little is known about Fusarium species in barley in Switzerland, hence harvest samples from growers were collected in 2013 and 2014, along with information on respective cropping factors. The incidence of different Fusarium species was obtained by using a seed health test and mycotoxins were quantified by LC-MS/MS. With these techniques, the most dominant species, F. graminearum, and the most prominent mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), were identified. Between the three main Swiss cropping systems, Organic, Extenso and Proof of ecological performance, we observed differences with the lowest incidence and toxin accumulation in organically cultivated barley. Hence, we hypothesise that this finding was based on an array of growing techniques within a given cropping system. We observed that barley samples from fields with maize as previous crop had a substantially higher F. graminearum incidence and elevated DON accumulation compared with other previous crops. Furthermore, the use of reduced tillage led to a higher disease incidence and toxin content compared with samples from ploughed fields. Further factors increasing Fusarium infection were high nitrogen fertilisation as well as the application of fungicides and growth regulators. Results from the current study can be used to develop optimised cropping systems that reduce the risks of mycotoxin contamination.

  1. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Netro, Hilda M; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins can reduce fertility and development in livestock, notably in pigs and poultry, although the effect of most mycotoxins on reproductive function in cattle has not been established. One major mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), not only targets immune cells and activates the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) involving MAPK activation, but also inhibits oocyte maturation in pigs. In this study, we determined the effect of DON on bovine granulosa cell function using a serum-free culture system. Addition of DON inhibited estradiol and progesterone secretion, and reduced levels of mRNA encoding estrogenic (CYP19A1) but not progestogenic (CYP11A1 and STAR) proteins. Cell apoptosis was increased by DON, which also increased FASLG mRNA levels. The mechanism of action of DON was assessed by western blotting and PCR experiments. Addition of DON rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, and resulted in a more prolonged phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) and MAPK8 (JNK). Activation of these pathways by DON resulted in time- and dose-dependent increases in abundance of mRNA encoding the transcription factors FOS, FOSL1, EGR1, and EGR3. We conclude that DON is deleterious to granulosa cell function and acts through a RSR pathway. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  3. Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine); Adamse, Paulien; Punt, Ans; van Asselt, Esther D.

    2018-01-01

    Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products) and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products); all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials. PMID:29373559

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  5. Mycotoxins in organic and conventional cereals and cereal products grown and marketed in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Zadravec, Manuela; Jaki, Vesna; Krupić, Igor; Vahčić, Nada

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed. Mycotoxin contamination of organic cereals and organic cereal-based products was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Given that the exposure assessment resulted in a small fraction of the TDI (maximum: DON, 12% of TDI), the levels of the investigated mycotoxins in both types of cereals and cereal-based products from the 2015 harvest did not pose a human health hazard.

  6. Advantages and drawbacks of immunoaffinity columns in analysis of mycotoxins in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castegnaro, Marcel; Tozlovanu, Marianna; Wild, Christopher; Molinié, Anne; Sylla, Abdoulay; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2006-05-01

    A number of countries are setting legislations on mycotoxins. In order to reduce dispute between importing and exporting countries, the analytical data should be as comparable as possible, especially when levels are close to the regulatory limits. The present trend in the analysis of mycotoxins is to use immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a clean-up and enrichment technique, and Association of Official Analytical Chemists and European Union have validated methods which address a few food commodities. This study describes our experience using both conventional and IAC approaches in the analysis of three mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs): Aflatoxin G1 has been detected by liquid-liquid partitioning methods with HPLC detection as false-positive in some maize. On IACs, this compound behaves as an AF, lowering the amount of the AFs trapped. The problem was solved using either TLC or HPLC with detection in the Kobra cell. Depending on the additives to food during the processing and cooking, the AFs might appear as an opened ring not recognised by the antibody. Fumonisins (FB): Compounds interfering with the FB's antibodies were also observed while analysing breakfast cereals leading to underestimation of FB. Ochratoxin A (OTA): Depending on the food composition and extraction techniques, OTA is underestimated with IAC in some breakfast cereals and coffee. These data strengthen the necessity to validate methods using IAC for each complex matrix.

  7. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize flour and grits during extrusion cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, Keith A; Guy, Robin C E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan J

    2008-11-01

    Extrusion technology is used widely in the manufacture of a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. To minimise consumer exposure to mycotoxins, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals/cereal products and fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1) and FB(2)) in maize are controlled by European Union legislation. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the loss of Fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The behaviour of FB(1), FB(2) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)), DON and ZON during extrusion of naturally contaminated maize flour and maize grits is examined using pilot-scale equipment. DON and ZON are relatively stable during extrusion cooking but the fumonisins are lost to varying degrees. There is some loss of ZON when present in low concentrations and extruded at higher moisture contents. The presence of additives, such as reducing sugars and sodium chloride, can also affect mycotoxin levels. Moisture content of the cereal feed during extrusion is important and has a greater effect than temperature, particularly on the loss of fumonisins at the lower moistures. The effects are complex and not easy to explain, although more energy input to the extruder is required for drier materials. However, on the basis of these studies, the relationship between the concentration of Fusarium toxins in the raw and finished product is toxin- and process-dependent.

  8. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Lametsch, Rene; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2009-01-01

    Background Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus found in the environment, on foods and feeds and is used as host for production of organic acids, enzymes and proteins. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 was recently found to be produced by A. niger and hence very little is known about production...... and regulation of this metabolite. Proteome analysis was used with the purpose to reveal how fumonisin B2 production by A. niger is influenced by starch and lactate in the medium. Results Fumonisin B2 production by A. niger was significantly increased when lactate and starch were combined in the medium....... Production