WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissues concluding remarks

  1. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, H.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides the speech presented by Hideki Nariai on May 2007 at the workshop on transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. It aims to propose concluding remarks concerning nuclear safety and the necessity to be transparent to the general public. (A.L.B.)

  2. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This section contains the concluding remarks of the workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment. Technical issues such as spatial variability of rock properties, rock mass strength, measurement of loads, evaluation of long-term seal performance, and integration of data into design were discussed. Programmatic issues such as development of a coherent and consistent design methodology and implementation of that methodology were also reiterated

  3. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1989-05-01

    The workshop has covered in a very interesting and complete way the basic physics issues to be addressed by the complementary facilities, in Canada and Japan, intended to explore the intensity-frontier of strong-interaction physics. Japan has its new KEK facilities and its future Japanese Hadron Project (JHP): Canada has its present TRIUMF laboratory and its future KAON Factory. Both JHP and KAON appear very near to final construction approval. The possibilities are very great for new joint programs between the two countries which can lead the world in the new strong interaction physics. These concluding remarks describe the general science basis and particularly the models for the internationalization of science needed to make these new collaborations thrive

  4. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  5. Concluding Remarks | Ewing | Rwanda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Concluding Remarks. Helen Ewing. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  6. Development of REI meetings (concluding remarks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is an honour and a pleasure to deliver the concluding remarks of this Fourth International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators. After commenting upon the present meeting, the genesis of REI conferences, their aims and position relative to related meetings in radiation and ion implantation research will be treated, particularly in order to inform new-comers. The development of the last four REI meetings will be discussed on the base of a statistical analysis. Some recommendations and an outlook of future trends will be given. (orig.)

  7. Chemical physics of electroactive materials: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself."It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline". It is thus reassuring to see how the application of rigorous chemical physics is leading to ingenious new solutions for both energy storage and harvesting, via, for example, nanoactuation, electrowetting, ionic materials and nanoplasmonics. In fact, the same language of chemical physics allows seamless transition between applications as diverse as mechano-electric energy generation, active moisture transport and plasmonic shutters - even the origins of life were addressed in the context of electro-autocatalysis!

  8. Single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulst, Niek F

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is all about molecules: control, synthesis, interaction and reaction of molecules. All too easily on a blackboard, one draws molecules, their structures and dynamics, to create an insightful picture. The dream is to see these molecules in reality. This is exactly what "Single Molecule Detection" provides: a look at molecules in action at ambient conditions; a breakthrough technology in chemistry, physics and biology. Within the realms of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussion on "Single Molecule Microscopy and Spectroscopy" was a very appropriate topic for presentation, deliberation and debate. Undoubtedly, the Faraday Discussions have a splendid reputation in stimulating scientific debates along the traditions set by Michael Faraday. Interestingly, back in the 1830's, Faraday himself pursued an experiment that led to the idea that atoms in a compound were joined by an electrical component. He placed two opposite electrodes in a solution of water containing a dissolved compound, and observed that one of the elements of the compound accumulated on one electrode, while the other was deposited on the opposite electrode. Although Faraday was deeply opposed to atomism, he had to recognize that electrical forces were responsible for the joining of atoms. Probably a direct view on the atoms or molecules in his experiment would have convinced him. As such, Michael Faraday might have liked the gathering at Burlington House in September 2015 (). Surely, with the questioning eyes of his bust on the 1st floor corridor, the non-believer Michael Faraday has incited each passer-by to enter into discussion and search for deeper answers at the level of single molecules. In these concluding remarks, highlights of the presented papers and discussions are summarized, complemented by a conclusion on future perspectives.

  9. Concluding Remarks: Experiment from a materials perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Z

    2011-01-01

    The author provides some remarks regarding the current status of experiments in strongly correlated electron systems. By construction, they are biased by the author's perspectives at the time of writing.

  10. Some concluding remarks about cold moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the transcription of remarks made at the conclusion of the Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources held at the Los Angeles National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 5--7, 1990. Areas of interest include the following: scattering functions; cold moderator materials; radiation mixing of chemical composition; comparison of some pulsed moderator spectra; hydrogen mixtures; premoderators and shields; composite reflectors; exotic moderator materials; deuterated methanes; mixed moderator materials; and test facility availabilities. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Anticoagulant rodenticides and wildlife: Concluding remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2018-01-01

    Rodents are known to affect human society globally in various adverse ways, resulting in a widespread demand for their continuous control. Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) have been, and currently remain, the cornerstone of rodent control throughout the world. Although alternative control methods exist, they are generally less effective. ARs work by affecting vitamin K metabolism, thereby preventing the activation of blood clotting factors and eventual coagulopathy. Since ARs are non-selective, their undoubted benefits for rodent control have to be balanced against the environmental risks that these compounds pose. Although they have been used for decades, pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic data are mainly available for laboratory mammals and have concentrated on acute effects. Limited information is available on chronic exposure scenarios and for wildlife species. Important gaps exist in our understanding of the large inter- and intra-species differences in sensitivity to ARs, especially for non-target species, and in our knowledge about the occurrence and importance of sub-lethal effects in wildlife. It is clear that mere presence of AR residues in the body tissues may not indicate the occurrence of effects, although unequivocal assessment of effects under field conditions is difficult. Ante-mortem symptoms, like lethargy, subdued behaviour and unresponsiveness are generally not very specific as is true for more generic post-mortem observations (e.g. pallor of the mucous membranes or occurrence of haemorrhages). It is only by combining ante or post-mortem data with information on exposure that effects in the field may be confirmed. We do know however that a wide variety of non-target species are directly exposed to ARs. Secondary exposure in predators is also widespread although there is limited information on whether this exposure causes actual effects. Exposure is driven by ecological factors and is context specific with respect to spatial habitat configuration

  12. Concluding remarks: Faraday Discussion on chemistry in the urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jose L

    2016-07-18

    This article summarises the Concluding remarks from the Faraday Discussion on Chemistry in the Urban Atmosphere. The following themes are addressed: (a) new results that inform our understanding of the evolving sources and composition of the urban atmosphere ("News"); (b) results that identify gaps in our understanding that necessitate further work ("Gaps"); (c) the emerging instrumentation revolution and some of the challenges that it brings; (d) the structural issues of insufficient support for the analysis of field campaigns; and (e) some important areas that were missing from this Faraday Discussion and that should receive an increasing focus in the future.

  13. A neurologist's reflections on boxing. V. Conclude remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterharnscheidt, F

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and morphological publications have shown convincingly, that participation in boxing leads to a severe permanent brain damage. The extent of the brain damage is correlated to the number of bouts fought, which correspondents in a certain way how many blows against his head a boxer received and to his weight class. The intensity of a boxing blow of a heavyweight is much more severe than those achieved by boxers of lighter weight classes. The permanent brain damage in a boxer, the amateur and the professional boxer, manifests itself in several clinical syndromes in which the pyramidal, the extrapyramidal and the cerebellar systems are involved. A traumatic Parkinsonism, in its complete or abortive form, develops as the result of the numerous boxing blows a boxer sustains in his boxing career. Especially lateral parts of the substantia nigra are affected and reveal at macroscopical and microscopical examination a severe loss of pigmented neurons. Melanin pigment is visible free in the tissue and/or is phagozytosed in macrophages and glial cells. The traumatic Parkinson syndrome, often only in an abortive form, is combined in a boxer with additional clinical and morphological findings due to traumatic lesions in other areas of the brain. It is not as pure as in a patient with a Parkinson syndrome sui generis. The permanent brain damage in a boxer is diffuse, involving all areas of the brain. Especially involved are the large neurons of different layers of the cerebral cortex, the neurons of the Ammons horn formation, the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In place of destroyed and lost neurons, proliferation of glial elements, especially astroglial cells, has occurred. The defects are first replaced by protoplasmatic astroglial elements, and later by fibrillary astroglia. The destroyed neurons are replaced by glial scar tissue, which cannot perform the functions of the lost neurons. It is a process which is called partial necrosis of brain tissue. There is no

  14. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    It is own goal to realize commercial tokamak fusion plants by the middle of this century. In this special issue, the problems that should be solved for the goal, the ITER's role as the way of solution and the development programs that could not be verified in ITER are described. Acquisition of marketability for practical use of fusion plants is not easy. However, it is expected that compactification of plants, realization of high-performance and low cost are proceeded by some new ideas. So we think that there is a good feasibility for the acquisition. In about 2100, the primary energy of maximum 20% will be supplied if the economic rationality is satisfied enough, and thus there is big significance in aiming at this. In addition, the characteristics such as inexpensiveness and stability in long-term use, security, environmental safety are also important elements. In the future, we will have to obtain fruitful results through participation to ITER, and it is essential to carry steadily out the projects to activate domestic research and development. For helping to understand this special issue, the summary of fusion development by tokamaks is attached as an appendix. (T.O.)

  15. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1996-06-01

    This paper reviews the shift in the emphasis of the conference series that began as the International Conference on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure (1963) and evolved to the Particle and Nuclei International Conferences, PANIC, the latest of which was held at CEBAF in 1996. The author reviews the papers presented leading to a better appreciation of the EMC effect,, recent understanding of QCD-based effects and the quark structure of the neutron. The author examines the future roles of HERA and CEBAF in the extension of improved experiments on nuclear structure

  16. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.

    1989-01-01

    There appeared to be unanimity on the proposition that energy and environmental problems are following a course which threatens to overwhelm all nations and all peoples unless we take corrective actions and soon. There also was unanimity on the thesis that many of the global problems require international cooperation and collaboration on a scale never before experienced and that this is a matter of survival. Nuclear energy, in its most horrible form, not only brought an end to a terrible war but has also served to discourage war between the major powers for more than 40 years, the longest such period in all of modern history, which dates back about 350 years. Nuclear arsenals, obnoxious though they are, have helped buy time for the world to put its political establishment on a path which makes global war less and less probable. This must continue but, in addition, we now need to buy time (50-100 years) to develop environmentally benign energy sources that are affordable and that will alleviate the instabilities imposed by islands of affluence in a sea of despair. This conference reinforces belief that nuclear energy can help mightily to solve that problem. In fact, it appears to be one of very few realistic options available to us. But we will fail in making this option available if we do find a way to increase the literacy of the world's people, and especially their leaders, about environmental matters generally and about the nuclear-energy option in particular. We must find ways to provide factual information with impeccable honesty and high credibility. I am hopeful that the information generated by this conference, widely disseminated, will help to do that and also to foster such conferences in the future

  17. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers, all indexed separately, have been taking stock of the overall position as regards the development of fast reactors in Europe, the USSR, the USA and Japan. Good technical progress has been made with the development of this major source of electrical power for the next century. In Europe, there are two large prototypes operating, Phenix and PFR. There is also a 1200 MW e demonstration reactor (Superphenix), which is now continuing with its commissioning programme after the interruption caused by the leak from the fuel storage vessel. The Soviet Union is pressing ahead with its programme; in the USA FFTF has given outstanding reliability and in Japan the construction of Monju is going well and is on schedule for criticality in 1992. There has been general agreement on the basic economic and performance parameters of the fast reactor and its fuel cycle. In particular, after the first of a kind costs have been met, fast reactor and PWR generating costs are likely to be broadly similar, in the absence of large increases in uranium prices. However, the future of fast reactors is uncertain and the reasons for this are discussed. (author)

  18. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    A predominant aim of planetary exploration is to discover as much as possible about the origin of the Solar System. The conference papers and discussion are considered with this in mind. Comparative studies of surface features show that the 'geologies' of the terrestrial planets and the Moon and other large satellites are quite different. This is due in part to the presence or absence of water in various states. Other differences mentioned are the manifestations of tectonism and the chemical composition of these bodies. One paper suggests that interstellar molecules must have entered directly into the formation of the earth. Models for the major planets are proposed and satellites considered. The trend is to show that the formation of a satellite system must be a different process from the formation of a planetary system. Finally the formation of planets in pairs is noted. (U.K.)

  19. Concluding Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budker, G. I. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Department of the USSR Academy Of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1969-01-15

    I feel that the changes which have taken place in science in the last few years open up new possibilities, about which I should like to say a few words. In 1951 we began work on thermonuclear reactions in the confident belief that we would solve the problem with a rush and immediately. I was assigned the task of ensuring that our future thermonuclear reactor would not get too much out of hand. It was like the story of the man who wished to invent a perpetual motion machine and had taken out a patent on a method for keeping it under control. This attitude stemmed from the successes in developing ''explosive thermonuclear reactors'', a task which was achieved within a very short period of time, leaving physicists with the impression that they could do everything - and do it fast. However, experience soon showed that here we had a scientific rather than a technological problem and that it would be necessary to study in detail the physics of plasmas - which we have now been doing for over ten years.

  20. Concluding remarks. International Conference on Nuclear Physics, Berkeley, California, August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.

    1980-10-01

    Not a conference summary, these concluding remarks consider five major themes that were illuminated during the conference and the problems within them that need to be resolved in the future. The five topics considered and the following: new degrees of freedom (single-particle motion, giant resonances, nuclear molecular resonances, nuclear matter, kaon-produced hypernuclei, implications of the bag model and quantum chromodynamics), new forms of matter, new reaction mechanisms (direct vs compound-nucleus reactions, heavy-ion reactions), new aspects of the weak interactions in nuclei (weak neutral currents, P invariance), and new symmetries. 4 figures

  1. Concluding remarks of international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A. M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    This is the concluding remarks in the international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions. The remarks concentrate on the giant quadrupole states. In the framework of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWB), the differential cross section can be deduced. The relevant transition matrix elements are defined, and the quantities which are measured in inelastic hadron (h, h') reactions are shown. These are used to obtain both neutron and proton transition multipole matrix elements. This is equivalent to make the isospin decomposition of the electromagnetic transition matrix elements. The ratios of the transition matrix elements of neutrons and protons of the lowest 2/sup +/ states in even-even single closed shell nuclei are evaluated and compared with experimental results. For each nucleus, the consistency between various measurements is generally good. The effect of the virtual excitation of giant 2/sup +/ states into the ground and first excited states of even-even nuclei is discussed. The accuracy of (h, h') results can be tested.

  2. Concluding remarks and outlook: Europhysics conference on flavor-mixing in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the present knowledge of the mixing matrix of Kobayashi and Maskawa and of the dynamics of nonleptonic decay. Also, remarks are made concerning CP violation. Plans for research from 1984 to 1989 are listed briefly. The history of studies on weak interactions is briefly reviewed, and several unanswered questions are stated, such as where are the truth particles, how may they be discovered, what is the mass-generating mechanism for the gauge bosons, how many Z 0 's and W's are there, do neutrinos have mass, and how long do protons live

  3. Concluding Remarks: The Current Status and Future Prospects for GRB Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We are in a remarkable period of discovery in GRB astronomy. The current satellites including Swift, Fermi. AGILE and INTEGRAL are detecting and observing bursts of all varieties. Increasing capabilities for follow-up observations on the ground and in space are leading to rapid and deep coverage across the electromagnetic spectrum, The future will see continued operation of the current experiments and with future missions like SVOM plus possible rni_Ssions like JANUS and EXIST. An exciting expansion of capabilities is occurring in areas of gravitational waves and neutrinos that could open new windows on the GRB phenomenon. Increased IR capabilities on the ground and with missions like JWST will enable further exploration of high redshift bursts. The future is bright.

  4. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive prolonged exercise training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, L.J.C.; Tipton, K.D.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Meeusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response prolonged

  5. Concluding Remarks%序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunney I.Chan

    1997-01-01

    @@ Thank you for your kind introduction, T.L. I am, of course, honored to have been the Honorary Chairman of ISOC 4, and I thank the Organizing Committee for bestowing this honoron me. As you know, I am not a card- carrying organic chemist, and one might wonder what a physical biochemist could really contribute to this Symposium. But, as Professor Chi - Huey Wong noted during his keynote address, I am over the hill in my own field. Perhaps, my colleagues at CUHK think I might be able to begin a second career as an organic chemist. Lest you question the seriousness of this suggestion, my students and I have recently published in the Journal of Organic Chemistry and Tetrahedron Letters!

  6. Summary and concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1989-11-01

    Although most talks and discussions at the Bad Honnef conference were devoted to the science of the KAON Factory, it is the prospect of the imminent emergence of Canada's KAON Factory that evoked this meeting. Because of the many different kinds of beams provided by KAON, it will offer science opportunities pertinent to many of the current important issues. These include strong interaction physics problems such as hadron spectroscopy, hypernuclei, K + -nucleus scattering, and spin effects in N N scattering; antiproton physics issues; and electroweak physics issues involving tests of the standard model. It is expected that the cost of KAON will be shared among the governments of Canada and other participating countries

  7. Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giovannelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Before I offcially conclude this workshop - far be it from me to attempt to compete with some concluding remarks already delivered at the meeting with various levels of passion by Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Giulio Auriemma and Sergio Colafrancesco - I would like to comment on some of the highlights emerging from our fruitful week of discussions about Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources, without any pretension of completeness.

  8. Concluding remarks to ICAME2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the main aspects of ICAME2011 – tutorial lectures, oral and poster presentations, evening sessions - is presented along with a brief outline of several of the scientific highlights. Among other topics considered are the involvements of young scientists and female scientists, and operation of the oral and poster sessions. Despite the most challenging combinations of circumstances in the lead up to ICAME2011 that resulted in the change of venue at an advanced stage from Tokyo to Kobe, the Committee organised a high quality conference with many positive outcomes for the future. The Mössbauer community acknowledges and appreciates these efforts greatly.

  9. Concluding remarks on future facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Marie, B.

    1989-12-01

    The principles of some of the facilities and projects for the study of hadron spectroscopy are summarized. The work is focalized on e + e - machines, which are classified according to the quark family they can study: U,D,S quark families, C quark and τ studies and B quark family. The analysis leads to the conclusion that high luminosity e + e - machines are needed to progress in the hadron spectroscopy exploration

  10. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs

  11. Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, S. A.; Ilić, R.

    Any reader who has perused the whole of this book with some care will, we believe, be struck by the great breadth and depth of the studies that have been, and are being, carried out on the whole gamut of radon research. These range from geological considerations and investigations that form the essential background to the causes and rates of emission of radon, through economically beneficial applications of the gas such as mineral exploration and search for geothermal energy sources, all the way to indoor and outdoor surveys of radon concentration levels, and critical appraisals of the health hazards of excessive exposure to radon and the measures that can be taken to minimize any deleterious effects - whether to the general public or to those working in mines and caves. And all through the book runs the unifying thread, linking its various parts: the theme-line of Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD). This, as we stated in the Preface, is the technique that is most commonly used today for studying the many and various aspects of radon measurements and applications. Several sections of the book have, therefore, been devoted to giving the reader a broad background to the SSNTD discipline and also providing him or her with detailed descriptions of all the various types of instrumentation and devices (both "passive" and "active") used in applications ranging from simple determination of radon concentration levels in homes to earthquake prediction and volcanic surveillance - not to forget the important subject of calibration and standardization of the detectors…

  12. Concluding remarks for ECRIS '02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, Claude

    2002-01-01

    ECRIS'02 was held in Jyvaeskylae Finland at the edge of Lake Jyvaeskylae, which was beautiful location to meet and discuss the state of Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources. It was the 15th ECR Ion Source Workshop in a series stretching back to the first workshop held November 6, 1978 in Karlsruhe Germany. Overall, the workshop reports could be characterized as showing solid achievements and steady progress without any spectacular breakthroughs or highly controversial new ideas. In this short report, I will mention some of the highlights and surprises of the workshop that I observed during the meeting and reported on at the close of the meeting. As such, it will be relatively brief and not meant to be all encompassing. A short list of items that made this workshop memorable is given

  13. Concluding remarks to ICAME2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. J., E-mail: Stewart.Campbell@adfa.edu.au [University of New South Wales, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    An overview of the main aspects of ICAME2011 - tutorial lectures, oral and poster presentations, evening sessions - is presented along with a brief outline of several of the scientific highlights. Among other topics considered are the involvements of young scientists and female scientists, and operation of the oral and poster sessions. Despite the most challenging combinations of circumstances in the lead up to ICAME2011 that resulted in the change of venue at an advanced stage from Tokyo to Kobe, the Committee organised a high quality conference with many positive outcomes for the future. The Moessbauer community acknowledges and appreciates these efforts greatly.

  14. Concluding talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1984-05-01

    The concluding talk reviews the present state of knowledge of elementary particle physics, based on the research papers presented at the VII Warsaw symposium. Most of the meeting was devoted to testing the standard electroweak theory and QCD, and these topics were discussed in detail. Other research work on hadron-nucleus collisions, solitons, skyrmion, cluster models, diquarks, infra-red divergences, jet calculus and quantised string was considered. Experimental facilities for future exploration studies, at DESY, CERN and the U.S. were mentioned. (U.K.)

  15. Food and chemical toxicology - Concluding remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Konig, A.; Kleter, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical ri...

  16. Concluding Remarks; Zaklyuchitel'noe slovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budker, G. I. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1969-01-15

    I feel that the changes which have taken place in science in the last few years open up new possibilities, about which I should like to say a few words. In 1951 we began work on thermonuclear reactions in the confident belief that we would solve the problem with a rush and immediately. I was assigned the task of ensuring that our future thermonuclear reactor would not get too much out of hand. It was like the story of the man who wished to invent a perpetual motion machine and had taken out a patent on a method for keeping it under control. This attitude stemmed from the successes in developing ''explosive thermonuclear reactors'', a task which was achieved within a very short period of time, leaving physicists with the impression that they could do everything - and do it fast. However, experience soon showed that here we had a scientific rather than a technological problem and that it would be necessary to study in detail the physics of plasmas - which we have now been doing for over ten years. [Russian] Mne kazhetsja, chto za poslednie gody- v nauke proizoshli izmenenija, otkryvshie novye vozmozhnosti, na kotoryh ja hotel by ostanovit'sja. Ja hochu napomnit', chto v 1951 godu my nachali raboty po fizike plazmy i termojadernym reakcijam. U nas byla uverennost', chto my reshim jetu problemu s hodu, srazu. Mne bylo porucheno obespechivat' regulirovanie budushhego termojadernogo reaktora, chtoby tot ne ochen' ''razognalsja'' i ne vyshel iz-pod kontrolja. Sejchas jeto poruchenie napominaet istoriju o tom, kak odin hotel izobresti vechnyj dvigatel' i vzjal patent na to, chtoby tot ne razgonjalsja do beskonechnyh skorostej. . . Bol'shie uspehi v razrabotke ''vzryvchatyh termojadernyh reaktorov'', kotorye byli sozdany za ochen' korotkoe vremja, porodili u fizikov uverennost' v to, chto oni mogut sdelat' vse i sdelat' bystro. Odnako ochen' skoro zhizn' pokazala, chto jetim delom nuzhno zanimat'sja ne kak konstruirovaniem, a kak naukoj, chto nado razvivat' plazmennuju nauku, i my pristupili k rabote po izucheniju fiziki plazmy, kotoraja dlitsja uzhe bolee desjati let.

  17. Conclude Doha : it matters !

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Martin, Will; Mattoo, Aaditya

    2009-01-01

    The Doha Round must be concluded not because it will produce dramatic liberalization but because it will create greater security of market access. Its conclusion would strengthen, symbolically and substantively, the WTO s valuable role in restraining protectionism in the current downturn. What is on the table would constrain the scope for tariff protection in all goods, ban agricultural ex...

  18. Concluding remarks: Reflections on the forty year's history of TNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The History of NATO's TNF policy is much wider than it may first appear, for NATO TNF policy has been the heart of the whole nuclear question since shortly after it was first so dramatically posed in 1945. Admittedly the ultimate foundation of deterrence has been the overarching balance of strategic nuclear weapons between the two Superpowers. These have provided the strategic open-quotes monitorclose quotes of ultimately unacceptable damage that inspires cautious behavior at lower levels of conflict. But if the strategic weapons inculcate the caution, it has been with TNF that the opposing blocs have chiefly tried to harness nuclear weapons to particular situations and manipulate them to their advantage. The key characteristic of nuclear weapons that distinguishes them from all others is their virtually unlimited destructive potential. Powers disposing of large strategic nuclear forces cannot readily, perhaps ever, be deprived of an ultimate capacity to do outrageous harm. If they are to be defeated, it must therefore be by outmaneuvering them so that they yield the essential prizes without recourse to their worst possibilities. If nuclear weapons are to be used in this process, whether actually or by latent influence on particular issues, it must be in some limited form. NATO's TNF policy constitutes the best example of this so far in nuclear history

  19. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 883-890 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * variable stars * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Concluding remarks: a progress report on our understanding of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perola, G.C.; Ferrari, A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors comment on the talks given at the Torino Workshop on astrophysical jets. The observations presented have not revealed a clear picture of nuclear jets. Concerning large scale jets, people begin to find systematic patterns in the variety of parameters and morphologies. So, this kind of jets is paid most attention to during the Workshop. The authors discuss the general consensus in the basic parameters of jets arisen from the preliminary data. Propagation and confinement of jets, the role of magnetic fields, and some observational tests are briefly reviewed. A final paragraph deals with the origin and termination of jets. (G.J.P.)

  1. Concluding remarks: The scientist that lived three times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    2014-01-01

    The highlights of the conference: The Legacy of Bruno Pontecorvo: the Man and the Scientist, held in Roma, Universita' 'La Sapienza', 11-12 September, 2013, are summarized and illustrated.

  2. Concluding remarks: Where do we go from here?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farland, W.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Where do we go from here in terms of access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure? We will need to look at new applications of relevant information available to programs at the federal, regional, and state levels and try to develop additional hands-on tools that will allow all of us to do our jobs. The application of available information to program decision-making and to risk management is one of the most important things that confronts us.

  3. Remarkable soft tissue uptake during bone scintigraphy in patients with ovarial cancer: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.; Koreuber, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of patients with an ovarial cancer are described. Bone scintigraphy was able to diagnose previously unknown soft tissue metastases with important consequences for the patients' diagnosis and therapy. (orig.) [de

  4. Chairperson's concluding statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Chairperson, on behalf of organizers and sponsors of this conference, expressed his gratitude for the many specialists from many countries, who compiled the expert reports that form the basis of the conclusions and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum. The expert reports were prepared in a remarkably short time frame. Obviously those involved made considerable effort to complete their work in a timely fashion. They addressed the most important issues related to the accident and the recovery process, and they produced the most complete and useful compilation of information and results available at present. Their clarity and objective presentation have enabled not only scientists but also government representatives and politicians to accept the conclusions. The Chernobyl Forum will be judged successful in large part from the good work of the expert groups. The Chernobyl Forum will also be judged successful from the participation all along of government representative of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Their good will and understanding have ensured that there will be wide acceptance of the Forum's recommendations and effective measures will be taken with the encouragement of international organizations. We all have great expectations for progress and continued alleviation of the consequences of the accident, for the economic development of the whole region, and for the improvement in public health that we all aspire and strive for. He also extended his thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency for organizing the Chernobyl Forum. Personal words of thanks went to Mr. ElBaradei for the original initiative that he proposed to bring agreement from disputes, to bring concerted and coordinated efforts to measures still needed to improve public health and to bring consensus as the basis for future actions. He also thanks the many other international organizations that have joined with IAEA in sponsoring the Chernobyl Forum. The World Health

  5. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. David R. Kyd briefly described the IAEA mission. Then he outlined main aim of the seminar which is bring together journalists, educators, officials and other specialists to let them hear and put questions to experts on various aspects of nuclear energy and techniques. Further he analyzed problems and prospects of energy development in Asia and particularly in China, including environmental considerations. The final part of the remarks was devoted comparative evaluation of different energy production technologies

  6. Welcome remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong

    1993-01-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. Zhao Hong stressed the importance of nuclear power for further economic development. He noticed that one of the main factors to obstruct the progress of nuclear energy is nuclear dread in public psychology and that enhancement of the public acceptance of nuclear power is an important task to promote the development of nuclear power. Than he described activities in China in public relation work in the field of nuclear energy. Importance of international cooperation on peaceful use of nuclear energy and supporting non-proliferation regime was stressed

  7. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwood, Richard

    1987-01-01

    General opening remarks to a conference on the effects of low-level radiation on man, exploring particularly areas where disagreements have most frequently been voiced. The author comments on two approaches: a) the study, stepwise of putative cause and effect chains, using models which are tested by comparing calculated and observed effects. b) the epidemiological approach by extensive correlative study of cause, correlations and effect. Attention is drawn to the confidence to be accorded to any quantitative theory supported by both approaches, and the need for further analysis if the approaches give different indications. (U.K.)

  8. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    2007-01-01

    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  9. Concluding Remarks on the International Symposium on Exotic Nuclear Systems ENS'05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habs, D.

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear physics within Europe we observe a strong concentration onto a few large-scale facilities like FAIR, ALICE and EURISOL, which at the same time results in a strong focus of all resources towards these facilities. My personal belief is, that we need in Europe in addition a broad network of smaller institutes with local nuclear physics for a healthy structure of our science. I propose two fields of nuclear science onto which these smaller institutes may focus: (i) Fundamental Physics, studying physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision measurements at low energies and (ii) joining Advanced Photon Science, where new high energy photon and particle beams become available in compact devices at low cost. While such networks are planned or exist already among different universities in Germany for these two subjects, I propose to extend these towards a European networks within the 7th framework. A first starting point could be associations with the German networks, funded by the German Science Foundation DFG

  10. Concluding remarks presented at the Symposium on heavy ion reaction dynamics on the tandem energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the divisions between different heavy ion reaction processes. Fusion, deep inelastic, quasi-elastic and elastic interactions are discussed in terms of coupled channel calculations. 20 refs., 8 figs

  11. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  12. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  13. Concluding Remarks: A View of the Past through the Lens of the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on the upsurge of interest among historians of chemistry in the material, artisanal, and commercial aspects of early modern chemistry, this essay argues that they are attracting attention because of a number of similarities between the style of chemistry cultivated in this period and the new cultures of chemistry being developed today. The close interactions between knowing and making, academic knowledge and practical applications, the social value and prestige attached to chemistry, the public engagement in chemical culture, the concern with recycling, and even a specific relational ontology instantiated in the term "rapport" are characteristic features of the current technoscientific culture. However, these analogies between early modern chemistry and the technoscientific paradigm may turn into obstacles if they end up in hasty rapprochements and whiggish interpretations of the past. In keeping with the attempts displayed in many articles in this volume to identify and understand the meaning of the actors' categories, this essay emphasizes the contrast between the visions of the past and the future developed by eighteenth-century chemists and the concept of time that prevails nowadays. The concept of "regime of historicity" provides a useful conceptual tool to take a view of chemistry as embedded in a culture and integral part of the horizon of expectation of an epoch. On the basis of this contrast between the regimes of historicity, the essay recommends the pluralism of concepts of time (polychronism) as an antidote to anachronisms.

  14. Concluding remarks of the International symposium on structure and reactions of unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of unstable beams is given, followed by a short description of the experimental facilities. The structure and reaction of unstable nuclei is discussed, and the neutron-halo nuclei are studied. Some considerations are given related to exotic-beam facilities. (K.A.) 14 refs., 2 figs

  15. Creative Proactive-Concluding Theory of Motivating

    OpenAIRE

    Blašková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with necessity to change the understanding of human resource philosophy to the new philosophy: philosophy of human potential. In these intentions, it is very important to motivate human potential in the organisations. But, in the area of motivating, situation within the organisations isn't sufficient. Thereto the article gives an introductive presentation of a new theory of motivating: creative proactive-concluding theory of motivating. The theory leads the managers to utili...

  16. Theories of superconductivity (a few remarks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The early history in the development of superconductivity. Idea of pairing, Schafroth and BCS types of theories. Some remarks on present state of the microscopical theory of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC). Mean field macroscopic theory of superconductivity and its specific features in HTSC. About generalized macroscopic theory applicable in critical region. Concluding remarks. (orig.)

  17. Bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF/Pangolin is remarkably flexible and contributes to transcriptional responsiveness and tissue specificity of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary C Archbold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The T-cell factor (TCF family of transcription factors are major mediators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in metazoans. All TCFs contain a High Mobility Group (HMG domain that possesses specific DNA binding activity. In addition, many TCFs contain a second DNA binding domain, the C-clamp, which binds to DNA motifs referred to as Helper sites. While HMG and Helper sites are both important for the activation of several Wnt dependent cis-regulatory modules (W-CRMs, the rules of what constitutes a functional HMG-Helper site pair are unknown. In this report, we employed a combination of in vitro binding, reporter gene analysis and bioinformatics to address this question, using the Drosophila family member TCF/Pangolin (TCF/Pan as a model. We found that while there were constraints for the orientation and spacing of HMG-Helper pairs, the presence of a Helper site near a HMG site in any orientation increased binding and transcriptional response, with some orientations displaying tissue-specific patterns. We found that altering an HMG-Helper site pair from a sub-optimal to optimal orientation/spacing dramatically increased the responsiveness of a W-CRM in several fly tissues. In addition, we used the knowledge gained to bioinformatically identify two novel W-CRMs, one that was activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the prothoracic gland, a tissue not previously connected to this pathway. In sum, this work extends the importance of Helper sites in fly W-CRMs and suggests that the type of HMG-Helper pair is a major factor in setting the threshold for Wnt activation and tissue-responsiveness.

  18. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narceda, Ronald Jefferson A.; Montojo, Ulysses M.; Cayme, Mirriam F.; Borja, Valeriano M.

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  19. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    classifying removed materials that do not warrant special radiation protection measures as ''radioactive waste''; - Japan is advised to consider explaining to the public the importance of focusing on radiation doses that may actually be received by people rather than on data indicating contamination levels; and - Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts. In doing so, Japan is encouraged to take into account the advice provided by the Mission. The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it considers new and appropriate criteria for such activities. The authorities and local residents in Japan fully assisted the IAEA international team in its endeavor to conclude its mission successfully. ''The team also appreciates the openness with which our discussions were conducted and the high level of cooperation and access we were granted by Japan,'' says Mr. Lentijo. ''This was an invaluable opportunity for us to learn from this important decontamination initiative. We would like to continue our support to Japan in this very challenging task. We look forward to sharing our findings with the international community.'' The final report of the mission will be presented to the Government of Japan in the next month. Background. The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA organized an International Fact Finding Expert Mission of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Following The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which took place between 24 May and 2 June 2011. The mission concluded today is a follow-up to the fact-finding mission held earlier in the year and an essential component of the IAEA's Nuclear Safety Action Plan, approved by the IAEA Board of Governors on 13 September and endorsed by all 151 Member States at the recent IAEA General Conference in

  20. NRC closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.

    1994-01-01

    This section contains the edited transcript of the NRC closing remarks made by Mr. Franklin Coffman (Chief, Human Factors Branch, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research) and Dr. Cecil Thomas (Deputy Director, Division of Reactor Controls and Human Factors, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation). This editing consisted of minimal editing to correct grammar and remove extraneous references to microphone volume, etc

  1. Conference summary: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Closing remarks and notes from the concluding session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Turner; Alejandro Castellanos

    2013-01-01

    During the first week of May 2012, the Third Conference on Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago brought together more than 300 people with an interest in this region. It included scientists, land managers, activists, and land owners from both sides of the international border. After three and a half days of presentations, the participants gathered for...

  2. IAEA Director General's concluding remarks. Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Vienna, 26 April 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety is considered as a part of the overall nuclear safety regime. That regime has many components, but they all have one single objective - to make sure that safety is at as high a level as possible. The Convention is a living process, a process which should eventually lead to increasingly greater safety. The Meting has focused on a number of issues that are also priorities for the Agency; one such issue is safety culture. The effectiveness and transparency are key issues. A second issue which is highlighted is management of nuclear knowledge. Other high priority issues which were identified include: planned life extension; the need during life extension to look into the ageing of equipment and structures; deregulation and its impact on safety; and the question of periodic safety reviews. The question of co-operation between regulatory bodies is one that was given emphasis to over the last few years. It is very important that there be exchange of experience and exchange of expertise between regulatory bodies, and between the manufacturers of power reactors and the countries where the reactors are operated. Also of importance in terms of international co-operation is the development of adequate emergency response everywhere. A major point that which is left to the participating countries is that although safety is a national responsibility - there is absolutely no question about that -many issues need international co-operation

  3. Concluding remarks: what's in a name? "Negritos" in the context of the human prehistory of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" hypothesis posits that various indigenous groups throughout Island and Mainland Southeast Asia have a shared phenotype due to common descent from a putative ancestral population, representing a pre-agricultural substrate of humanity in the region. This has been examined and tested many times in the past, with no clear resolution. With many new resources to hand, the articles in this volume reexamine this hypothesis in a range of different ways. The evidence presented in this double issue of Human Biology speaks more against the category of "negrito" than for it. While populations with the negrito phenotype form a small proportion of all contemporary populations in this region, they have remained a persistent presence. And without a fascination about their origins, there would not be such a depth of knowledge about the human biology of this region more broadly as there is now. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  4. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Before to conclude officially this workshop — far from me the idea to attempt some concluding remarks already dealt at the meeting with various burning by Joseph Patterson, Mariko Kato, Dmitry Bisikalo, and Rene Hudec —, I would like to comment few highlights coming out from our fruitful week of discussions about The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II, without any pretension of completeness.

  5. Remarks of Joseph Marrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author's remarks are directed primarily at proposals that have been made that would substantially tort law with respect to radiation claims in order to ease the ability of claimants to recovery damages from defendants. The change would be based upon what had been assumed to be a ''scientific'' means of measuring the ''probability'' that exposure to ionizing radiation was the case of a cancer in a particular claimant. The remarks are divided into three parts: a summary description of the nuclear insurance pools, including the tort radiation claims filed against the pools; and a brief description of claims against the Federal Government and its contractors; an examination of the elementary principles of tort law, and an outline of the threat that has developed that would transform it into a hybrid social benefits program; and comment on the danger to the integrity of science when it is injected into the legislative process

  6. Remarks on stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the following, a few simple remarks on the evolution and properties of stellar clusters will be collected. In particular, globular clusters will be considered. Though details of such clusters are often not known, a few questions can be clarified with the help of primitive arguments. These are:- why are spherical clusters spherical, why do they have high densities, why do they consist of approximately a million stars, how may a black hole of great mass form within them, may they be the origin of gamma-ray bursts, may their invisible remnants account for the missing mass of our galaxy. The available data do not warrant a detailed evaluation. However, it is remarkable that exceedingly simple models can shed some light on the questions enumerated above. (author)

  7. Remarks on superconductive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Lopez, A.R.N.; Simonin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some remarks on the determination of the normal-superconductor phase boundary in random superconductive networks are made. A recently reported work by Soukoulis, Grest and Li which introduces weak links between nodes as these are removed in the site percolation problem is discussed. By the analysis of two simple geometries, it is shown that this procedure introduces spurious effects which mask the physical properties of the system. These affect in particular the field slope critical index and the sharpness of the normal-superconductor boundary. (Author)

  8. Seven remarkable days

    CERN Document Server

    This has been a truly remarkable seven days for CERN. Things have moved so fast that it has sometimes been hard to separate fact from fiction – all the more so since facts have often seemed too good to be true. It’s been a week of many firsts. Monday was the first time we’ve had two captured beams in the LHC. It’s the first time the LHC has functioned as a particle accelerator, boosting particles to the highest beam energy so far achieved at CERN. And it’s been a week in which we’ve seen the highest energy proton-proton collisions ever produced at CERN: our last hadron collider, the SPS was a proton-antiproton collider, a technically simpler machine than the LHC. This week’s successes are all the more remarkable precisely because of the complexity of the LHC. Unlike the SPS collider, it is two accelerators not one, making the job of commissioning nearly twice as difficult. I’d like to express my heartfelt thanks and congra...

  9. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  10. Remarks on the elaboration of an English–Spanish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spanish word-combination dictionary examined here, some concluding remarks are made with regard to the educational implications of this kind of dictionary primarily aimed at intermediate- to advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners.

  11. Domestic implications of concluding observations of the committee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concluding observations of the Committee, which are checklist of compliance with conventional obligations, can be considered as soft obligations on the government of Ethiopia. Though concluding observations cannot sufficiently reach domestic law-making process and the law making organs, propelling role of the ...

  12. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  13. 19 CFR 210.51 - Period for concluding investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period for concluding investigation. 210.51 Section 210.51 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Determinations and Actions Taken § 210.51 Period for...

  14. Post Danmark II, Now Concluded by the ECJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Björn

    2016-01-01

    the competition law doctrine for rebates unchanged and, more specifically, made it obvious that the ECJ does not support a general exclusive as-efficient-competitor test in the rebate abuse arena. However, the article continues and concludes that by clinging on to the competition law doctrine regarding rebate...

  15. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Pakistan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An international team of senior nuclear safety experts today concluded a nine-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States of America (USA). The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission was a follow-up to the IRRS mission to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that was conducted in 2010, with the key additional aim of reviewing whether the response of the US regulatory regime to the implications of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Plant had been timely and effective. The mission team concluded that the recommendations and suggestions made by the 2010 IRRS mission have been taken into account systematically under the NRC's subsequent action plan, with significant progress in many areas and many improvements carried out. One of two recommendations and 19 out of 20 suggestions made by the 2010 IRRS mission have been effectively addressed and can therefore be considered closed. The outstanding recommendation relates to the NRC's review of its Management System, which is in the process of being finalised. The IRRS team also found that the NRC acted promptly and effectively after the Fukushima accident in the interests of public health and safety, and that the report of its Near-Term Task Force represents a sound and ample basis for taking into account the lessons learned from the accident

  16. IAEA Expert Team Concludes Mission to Onagawa NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA team of international experts today delivered its initial report at the end of a two-week mission to gather information about the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station (NPS), saying the plant was 'remarkably undamaged'. Findings from the visual investigation will be added to an IAEA data base being compiled by its International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) to provide knowledge for Member States about the impact of external hazards on nuclear power plants. The ISSC data bank makes an important contribution to the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was unanimously endorsed by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Onagawa, facing the Pacific Ocean on Japan's north-east coast, was the nuclear power plant closest to the epicentre of the 11 March 2011 magnitude 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan and resulted in a devastating tsunami. The plant experienced very high levels of ground shaking - among the strongest of any plant affected by the earthquake - and some flooding from the tsunami that followed, but was able to shut down safely. In its draft report the team said that 'the structural elements of the NPS were remarkably undamaged given the magnitude of ground motion experienced and the duration and size of this great earthquake'. The mission's objective was to observe how structures, systems and components with significance to the safety of the plant responded to the earthquake and heavy shaking. At the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPS, nearly 120 km south of Onagawa NPS, the effects of the earthquake, tsunami and hydrogen explosions make it impossible to single out the impact of external hazards on safety-related parts of the power station. The Government of Japan and the IAEA therefore agreed to deploy a mission to the three-unit Onagawa NPS. The team's 19 members from six countries, including IAEA staff, held discussions with the operators of the

  17. Team of experts concludes review of safety issues at Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: At the request of the Czech Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of national experts from Bulgaria, France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with an observer from Austria, to review safety issues at the Temelin power plant that were identified in 1996 as relevant to reactors of the generic Temelin design (WWER-1000/320 type). Following a detailed on-site review from 18 to 23 November 2001, the experts concluded that most identified issues had been addressed and resolved. Work is continuing on the few remaining issues. These issues, however, are not judged by them to be significant and would not from the experts' standpoint preclude the safe operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The final report of the team of experts will be available to the Czech Government in one month's time. (author)

  18. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  19. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Slovenia's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an eight-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety at the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). The team reviewed measures taken to address the recommendations and suggestions made during an earlier Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission conducted in 2011. The IRRS team said in its preliminary findings that Slovenia had made significant progress since the review in 2011. The team identified a good practice in the country's nuclear regulatory system additional to those identified in 2011 and made new recommendations and suggestions to SNSA and the Government to strengthen the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''By hosting a follow-up mission, Slovenia demonstrated its commitment to enhance its regulatory programmes, including by implementing the recommendations of the 2011 mission,'' said Petr Krs, mission leader and Vice Chairman of the Czech Republic's State Office for Nuclear Safety. SNSA's Director, Andrej Stritar, welcomed the progress noted by the team, while also emphasizing that the mission highlighted important future nuclear safety challenges for Slovenia. The five-member review team, comprising experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, France and Romania, as well as four IAEA staff members, conducted the mission at the request of the Slovenian Government from 9 to 16 September 2014. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included the following: SNSA has made significant progress in addressing the findings of the 2011 IRRS mission and has demonstrated commitment to effective implementation of the IRRS programme; The economic situation in Slovenia might in the short and long term affect SNSA's ability to maintain its capacity and competence; and A radioactive waste disposal project is stalled and the licensing

  20. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Jordan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Jordan. The mission team said in its preliminary findings that Jordan's nuclear regulator, the Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission (EMRC), faces challenges because it is a relatively new body that handles a high workload while also working to recruit, train and keep competent staff. The team also noted that a recent merger provided the regulator with more of the resources it needs to perform its duty. The team made recommendations and suggestions to the regulatory body and the Government to help them strengthen the effectiveness of Jordan's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. The main observations of the IRRS Review team comprised the following: The regulatory body, founded in 2007 and merged with other regulators in April 2014 to form EMRC, faces large challenges in terms of its regulatory workload, management system building and staff recruitment and training; The new EMRC structure and revision of the radiation and nuclear safety law represents an important opportunity to strengthen Jordan's radiation and nuclear safety infrastructure; The Government has shown commitment to radiation and nuclear safety through measures including becoming party to international conventions. It could further demonstrate its commitment by adopting a formal national policy and strategy for safety that defines the role of the Minister of Energy in relation to EMRC and protects the independence of regulatory decision-making

  1. International IAEA Emergency Response Workshop in Fukushima Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA workshop aimed at further strengthening nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response capabilities concluded today in Fukushima, Japan. More than 40 participants from 18 countries took part in the four-day Response and Assistance Network (RANET) workshop, which included a field exercise in areas affected following the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. During the exercise, participants conducted radiation monitoring and environmental sampling and analysis. They measured the contamination level of the ground surface and conducted gamma spectrum analysis and vehicle-based monitoring - activities that are conducted following any nuclear or radiological incident or emergency. Results were then compared amongst participants. RANET is a network currently comprising 22 countries through which the IAEA can facilitate the provision of expert support and equipment on request under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Pat Kenny, IAEA RANET Officer, said the workshop provided an opportunity to practice cooperation between international teams that would be deployed through RANET following an emergency. 'By bringing together so many experts from different countries in one place, the workshop helped us learn how international teams can work together to provide assistance in a nuclear or radiological emergency situation,' he said. 'It also enabled us to improve the coordination of such assistance, and it gave participants the opportunity to learn from each other.' The workshop was the first activity conducted from the IAEA RANET Capacity Building Centre, a new training centre based in the city of Fukushima that was designated earlier this week with the support of the Japanese Foreign Ministry and Fukushima Prefecture. The Centre will host RANET and other training courses, workshops and exercises aimed at enhancing nuclear emergency preparedness and response

  2. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    Further details are provided of a soon-to-be published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence

  3. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Further details are provided of a recently published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence. (author)

  4. Remarks on High Energy Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We make several remarks on the B-JIMWLK hierarchy. First, we present a simple and instructive derivation of this equation by considering an arbitrary projectile wave function with small number of valence gluons. We also generalize the equation by including corrections which incorporate effects of high density in the projectile wave function. Second, we systematically derive the dipole model approximation to the hierarchy. We show that in the dipole approximation the hierarchy has a simplifyin...

  5. IAEA Concludes Safety Review at Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA-led international team of nuclear safety experts noted a series of good practices and made recommendations to reinforce some safety measures during a review of operational safety at France's Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that concluded today. The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) was assembled at the French Government's request. The in-depth review, which began 12 November 2012, focused on aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP. The team was composed of experts from Bulgaria, China, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine and the IAEA. The review covered the areas of management, organization and administration; training and qualification; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience; radiation protection; chemistry; emergency planning and preparedness; and severe accident management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their possible use elsewhere. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant uses a staff-skills mapping process that significantly enhances knowledge of the facility's collective and individual skills and provides proactive management to address the loss of such skills; - As a measure to reduce the risk of workers' radiation exposure, the Power Plant uses a system to ensure that dose rate measurements are carried out at a precise distance from the source of radiation; and - Flood protection of the Power Plant is supported by special technical guidance documents and associated arrangements. The team identified a number of proposals for improvements to operational safety at Gravelines NPP. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant should reinforce its measures to prevent foreign objects from entering plant systems; - The Power Plant should ensure the 24-hour presence of an operator

  6. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of UK's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a ten-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in the United Kingdom (UK). The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team said in its preliminary findings that the UK had made considerable progress since reviews in 2006 and 2009. It also identified good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system. In addition to following up previous missions, a key objective was to review the effectiveness of the role of the Office of Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK's nuclear regulator, in ensuring the safety of radioactive waste management and decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, and public and environmental exposures, including emergency planning and response. The mission also considered the response of the UK's regulatory regime to the implications of the Fukushima Daichi accident had been timely and effective. Recommendations and suggestions were made to the ONR and the Government aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards, the control of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring. 'The staff of ONR is clearly dedicated to their mission to secure the protection of people and society from the hazards of the nuclear industry. I am confident that ONR will use the results of this mission to further enhance their regulatory programs', said Bill Borchardt, mission leader and former Executive Director of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 'The staff were open and cooperative in their discussions; they provided the fullest practicable assistance, and accepted advice from the Team for continuous improvement in their regulatory work'. ONR's Chief Executive, John Jenkins, said that the full report of the IRRS mission will enhance regulatory effectiveness in the UK

  7. Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

    2004-07-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Concluding Remarks: Connecting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Neutron Star Mergers by the Equation of State of Dense Hadron- and Quark Matter as signalled by Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.

  9. Editorial - a remark you made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ”A remark you made” is the title of a wonderful tune by the famous jazz-rock group “Weather Report”, issued on the influential “Heavy weather” LP some 30 years ago. In an age where planning and rationalizing is the main issue in most contexts, whether it’s a matter of studying, teaching, doing research or using a diet, “A remark you made” is a symbol of attending to the unplanned, unforeseen and often, unwanted. In most accounts on cognitive development one is overtly focused on the manageable, on the predictable and expected, and not so attentive to the opposite. “A remark you made” makes us think again and reconsider what might be of value, in what we otherwise might neglect. A remark made by Terry Anderson at a conference last year (2006 was rather telling. Anderson is the renown distance educator from Athabasca University, Alberta Canada, and editor of our fellow e-journal “The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning”. I recite it here totally from my own memory, and I have never approached him to have it verified, falsified or commented. That doesn’t matter in this context. Standing on the podium, he lowered his voice and asked if any Danes were present in the room. There weren’t! Then he explained that his argument might be presented differently with Danes present: “You see – Danes seem to think that learning alone is no longer possible!” That remark caused quite a good laugh, not the least because any comment – good or bad – about fellow Scandinavians generally is considered to be a good joke. But it was also a comment on how not only distance education, or open and flexible learning, but learning theory in general is driven by the sociocultural learning theory, - and according to Anderson, particularly so in Denmark! Our first contribution in this issue is about the theory of media theory developed by one of our editors: Lars Qvortrup. Lars is now the rector of the Danish

  10. Enlarging the bounds of moral philosophy: Why did Isaac Newton conclude the Opticks the way he did?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the remarkable closing words of Isaac Newton's Optice (1706) and subsequent editions of the Opticks (1718, 1721), and tries to suggest why Newton chose to conclude his book with a puzzling allusion to his own unpublished conclusions about the history of religion. Newton suggests in this concluding passage that the bounds of moral philosophy will be enlarged as natural philosophy is ‘perfected’. Asking what Newton might have had in mind, the paper first considers the idea that he was foreshadowing the ‘moral Newtonianism’ developed later in the eighteenth century; then it considers the idea that he was perhaps pointing to developments in natural theology. Finally, the paper suggests that Newton wanted to at least signal the importance of attempting to recover the true original religion, and perhaps was hinting at his intention to publish his own extensive research on the history of the Church.

  11. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Remarks on the thermopreferendum of palearctic bats in their natural habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaisler, Jiří

    1970-01-01

    This contribution comprises two remarks of ecological rather than physiological character. Contrary to Herter (1952), Herreid (1967), and Harmata (1969), I did not examine the temperature preference, or thermopreferendum, of bats under experimental conditions but concluded on it only on grounds of

  13. Escaping the flybottle: solipsism and method in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônadas Techio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper supports a dialectical interpretation of Wittgenstein's method focusing on the analysis of the conditions of experience presented in his Philosophical Remarks. By means of a close reading of some key passages dealing with solipsism I will try to lay bare their self-subverting character: the fact that they amount to miniature dialectical exercises offering specific directions to pass from particular pieces of disguised nonsense to corresponding pieces of patent nonsense. Yet, in order to follow those directions one needs to allow oneself to become simultaneously tempted by and suspicious of their all-too-evident "metaphysical tone" - a tone which, as we shall see, is particularly manifest in those claims purporting to state what can or cannot be the case, and, still more particularly, those purporting to state what can or cannot be done in language or thought, thus leading to the view that there are some (determinate things which are ineffable or unthinkable. I conclude by suggesting that in writing those remarks Wittgenstein was still moved by an ethical project, which gets conspicuously displayed in these reiterations of his attempts to cure the readers (and himself from some of the temptations expressed by solipsism.

  14. Some remarks on word formation in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzsche, Hans

    Abstract for the 25th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics Some remarks on wordformation in Danish Some Danish word formation phenomena pose a problem for the linguist, being a predicament for analysis. In Danish a train leaves the station when it afgår ‘leaves’, while a minister may gå af......, there are some patterns for these Danish compounds concerning their internal semantics, in that the same lexical items may be used for different purposes depending on whether they are formed as a straightforward linear sequence (a word formation) or a reversed sequence (a phrase). The problem is (i) how the two...

  15. Some Remarks on Stability of Generalized Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Henrion, R.; Kruger, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2013), s. 681-697 ISSN 0022-3239 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parameterized generalized equation * Regular and limiting coderivative * Constant rank CQ * Mathematical program with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/outrata-some remarks on stability of generalized equations.pdf

  16. Economic and legal consequences of concluded apparent legal on national interests in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Draginja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concluding contracts on long-term leases of state-owned properties, beaches and bathing grounds should bring about positive economic effects through the payment of lease fees and the construction of tourist complexes, which in turn should be reflected on the development of tourism, and therefore on a better quality of life of citizens. In order to have legal effect, a contract as a legal transaction must be concluded in accordance with positive legal regulations. The respect for the institution of public order is the only condition limiting the fundamental principle of the law of obligations - the freedom of contract (autonomy of will. Through a detailed legal analysis, we want to draw attention to the examples of contracts on long-term leases that are unlawful. It is a particular type of apparent legal transactions (simulated contracts, because in concluding contracts on long-term leases of state-owned property, leases are simulated in public, while the contracts actually contain elements of sales. It is particularly interesting that the lessor in the concluded contracts is a relevant state authority (a ministry, on whose behalf the contract is signed by an authorized representative who had also led the negotiations with foreign investors. The consequences of such contracts negatively influence the economic development, tourism industry, and therefore also the standard of living of citizens.

  17. States strengthen nuclear cooperation for new millennium. IAEA General Conference concludes in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document gives information about the concluding session of the 43rd regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (27 September - 1 October 1999, Austria Center, Vienna), as well as about the most important steps taken during the week of conference

  18. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  19. The Social Interplay of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity. Some Introductory Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Hedtke

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Science Education as a subject field in schools is an intrinsic pluridisciplinary feature, whatever disciplines are included, however it may be organised and wherever it may be institutionalised. Civic education, economic education, social education and historical education each comprise several academic disciplines even if they are thought to be completely independent subjects. From the start on, disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity are on the agenda for any subject related to social science education and are one of its main problems. For these introductory remarks interdisciplinarity can be simply defined as relating two or more academic disciplines or school subjects to each other if this is done in a purposeful, systematic, explicit and reflective way. The overarching goal is to improve education that is to enhance students' understandings of the worlds and their abilities to act within and towards them. A relationship between disciplines or subjects which misses one or more of the four characteristics can be called pluridisciplinary or multidisciplinary (cf. Audigier 2006. In the following I first want to discuss some aspects of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity at schools and at universities and the weakness of interdisciplinarity. I sketch some social science based ideas on the interrelationship between the subject structure of the academic world and the world of schools (3. and of some tendency to commonalities or even unification of social sciences and related competencies (4.. I conclude with some remarks on different kinds of knowledge (5.. Last but not least, I'll give an overview on the papers in this issue of the Journal of Social Science Education (6..

  20. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  1. The end of a remarkable era

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    An important era in particle physics is coming to an end: the US Department of Energy announced on Monday that it will not fund an extension to Tevatron running beyond 2011. It is a poignant moment for particle physics as we prepare to bid farewell to a machine that has changed our view of the Universe, and played a significant role in paving the way for the new era that is opening up with the LHC.   The Tevatron has been at the high-energy frontier of particle physics for over a quarter of a century. That’s a remarkable achievement by any account, and the physics results are there to prove it. As well as bringing us the discovery of the top quark in 1995, the Tevatron’s experiments have provided vitally important precision measurements covering the full spectrum of Standard Model physics, not to mention hints of what may lie beyond. With several months of running still to come, it would be a foolish gambler who bet against further new physics emerging before the Teva...

  2. Remarks on theoretical hot-atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, Mitio

    1993-01-01

    The publication of the 'Handbook of Hot Atom Chemistry', following the earlier volume 'Recent Trend and Application', was a major milestone in physical chemistry. Theoretical treatments of hot atom chemistry must address two classes of problems. The first class concerns the individual collisions of hot atoms with other atoms or molecules. The second class concerns the description of the consequences of the many collisions of hot atoms and their chemical environment. Most of the remarks pertain to the problems of the first class. The central issue is the adiabaticity of nuclear motions versus electronic motions. To be precise, any atomic core motion should be mentioned rather than pure nuclear motion, because tightly bound core electrons are largely irrelevant to the chemistry. When nuclear motions are sufficiently slow, or for other reasons that can be regarded as adiabatic, the collision problem is basically straightforward, therefore, interatomic and intermolecular forces can be assumed, and their consequences for nuclear motions are calculable in principle. In the case of non-adiabaticity being important, much more difficult problems arise, and it is briefly discussed, and the work by Phelps is cited. (K.I.)

  3. IAEA concludes follow-up mission to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA follow-up fact-finding mission to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Japan has concluded from the examination of the plant's key safety areas that there was no significant damage to safety equipment from a strong earthquake last year. 'The first objective of the team has been to confirm that there appears to be no significant damage to the integrity of the plant,' said Phillipe Jamet, whose team was able to view key internal components in the plant inaccessible during their first visit in August last year. The IAEA team's site visit followed three days of open and constructive discussions with Japanese regulatory officials, the plant's operators, and other experts. The mission concluded that significant data about the earthquake has been gathered and efforts to obtain remaining information are underway. Overall interpretation of all the data will still be necessary to reach a full understanding of the 16 July 2007 earthquake and to assess the possibility of future ones. The team recommended an international cooperative effort which could expand on-going Japanese studies and make a contribution to the evolution of international safety standards. Last year's earthquake significantly exceeded the level of seismic activity for which the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant, in the coastal prefecture of Niigata, north-west of Tokyo, was designed. The Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed ElBaradei, said today that an international response to the earthquake is appropriate because of its relevance to other nuclear plants worldwide. He welcomed Japan's continued cooperation with the effort. The earthquake also caused fractures on the surface of the site. Before the reactors at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) owned plant started up, between 1985 and 1997, it was acknowledged that geological faults ran deep beneath the site but were considered stable, the team said. Geologists are investigating if surface fractures caused by the earthquake

  4. HM Sagittae - a most remarkable star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The author summarises recent observations of HM Sagittae, a symbiotic star that displays activity in every spectral band from X-ray to radio. He concludes that it is best described as a binary system consisting of a late M giant and a hot compact object which is similar to central stars of planetary nebulae. The presence of a wind from the M giant implies that Roche-lobe overflow is not a necessary condition for mass transfer. The complex structure of the circumstellar nebula is possibly the result of wind interactions. The ongoing spectral evolution of HM Sge after its recent outburst makes it an ideal candidate to test models of the symbiotic phenomenon. (Auth.)

  5. Statement on current progress of the EPR project. Basic Design phase concluded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, F.

    1997-01-01

    Against the background of expected increasing demand for electric power worldwide it is obvious that any existing technology for electricity generation will be required in the future to meet the demand, just as well as technology improvements. Nuclear industry's answer to this challenge are activities for further evolution of the PWR concept as a joint venture of France and Germany for development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The project participants are reactor manufacturers and operators of both countries as well as organisations responsible for reactor safety. The Basic Design phase which started in 1995, after prior definition of the common safety philosophy, has recently been concluded. The results have been presented at a meeting in October 1997 in Cologne, organised by KTG and SFEN, the countries' respective nuclear societies. The broad statement is that project work was successful in achieving two major objectives: A well-balanced safety concept, and a competitive design. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in estimates of selection that were more variable than the true values. We reanalyze their dataset using techniques that account for the necessary effect of sampling error to inflate apparent levels of variation and show that directional selection is remarkably constant over time, both in magnitude and direction. Thus we cannot claim that the available data support the existence of substantial temporal heterogeneity in selection. Nonetheless, we conject that temporal variation in selection could be important, but that there are good reasons why it may not appear in the available data. These new analyses highlight the importance of applying techniques that estimate parameters of the distribution of selection, rather than parameters of the distribution of estimated selection (which will reflect both sampling error and "real" variation in selection); indeed, despite availability of methods for the former, focus on the latter has been common in synthetic reviews of the aspects of selection in nature, and can lead to serious misinterpretations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Concluding comments: maximizing good patient care and minimizing potential liability when considering complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joan; Harrison, Christine; Vohra, Sunita

    2011-11-01

    Our goal for this supplemental issue of Pediatrics was to consider what practitioners, parents, patients, institutions, and policy-makers need to take into account to make good decisions about using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat children and to develop guidelines for appropriate use. We began by explaining underlying concepts and principles in ethical, legal, and clinical reasoning and then used case scenarios to explore how they apply and identify gaps that remain in practice and policy. In this concluding article, we review our major findings, summarize our recommendations, and suggest further research. We focus on several key areas: practitioner and patient/parent relationships; decision-making; dispute resolution; standards of practice; hospital/health facility policies; patient safety; education; and research. Ethical principles, standards, and rules applicable when making decisions about conventional care for children apply to decision-making about CAM as well. The same is true of legal reasoning. Although CAM use has seldom led to litigation, general legal principles relied on in cases involving conventional medical care provide the starting point for analysis. Similarly, with respect to clinical decision-making, clinicians are guided by clinical judgment and the best interests of their patient. Whether a therapy is CAM or conventional, clinicians must weigh the relative risks and benefits of therapeutic options and take into account their patient's values, beliefs, and preferences. Consequently, many of our observations apply to conventional and CAM care and to both adult and pediatric patients.

  8. Clear progress in nuclear safety worldwide: Convention on nuclear safety concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    It has been concluded that a significant progress has been observed in a number of key areas, such as strengthened legislation, regulatory independence, the availability of financial resources, enhanced emergency preparedness and safety improvements at nuclear power plants built to earlier standards. The objective of the Convention is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. During the two week Review Meeting, parties engaged in a 'peer review' process in which the National Reports from individual States were collectively examined and discussed, with written replies provided to all the questions raised. Clear improvement was noted in the quality of the National Reports, the number of questions and the openness and quality of discussion and answers. The Contracting Parties praised the IAEA's various safety review missions and services, which they use widely to help enhance the effectiveness of their national safety arrangements. Forty-six contracting parties participated at the Review Meeting with over 400 delegates attending, including many heads and senior officers from regulatory bodies and experts from industry. To date, the Convention has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, representing 428 of the 448 nuclear power reactors worldwide

  9. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR Concluding Experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover as wide as possible working range and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special, channels cooled by reactor inlet carbon dioxide and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or Campbelling mode with unusually low filling pressures and fitted with special trilaminax mineral insulated cables. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. The paper describes the specification against which this system was built, the design process for the detectors, and commissioning experiments together with some of the problems which were encountered. (U.K.)

  10. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365

  11. Nanoparticles and self-organisation: the emergence of hierarchical properties from the nanoparticle soup (i.e., the small is getting bigger). Concluding remarks for Faraday Discussion: Nanoparticle Synthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, David J

    2015-01-01

    Some four years ago, one of the participants in this Discussion (Prof. Nicholas Kotov) predicted that: "within five years we shall see multiple examples of electronic, sensor, optical and other devices utilizing self-assembled superstructures" (N. A. Kotov, J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 16673-16674). Although this prediction came partially to fruition, we have witnessed an unprecedented interest in the properties of materials at the nanoscale. The point highlighted by Kotov, however, was the importance of self-assembly of structures from well characterised building blocks to yield hierarchical structures, hopefully with predictable properties, a concept that is an everyday pursuit of synthetic chemists. This Discussion has brought together researchers from a wide range of disciplines, i.e., colloid science, modelling, nanoparticle synthesis and organisation, magnetic and optical materials, and new imaging methods, within the excellent traditional Faraday Discussion format, to discuss advances in areas relevant to the main theme of the meeting.

  12. Legislation and patients' rights: some necessary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic-Zornic, Hajrija

    2007-12-01

    The essence of a patient's rights and legislation framework requires an answer to the question on how legislation can work towards better defining, respecting, protecting and effectiveness of these rights. First, it is necessary to give a short introduction to patients' rights, their definition and different classifications. In the long list of human rights, patients' rights obviously take one of the very important places. Human life and health are the values, which, in comparison with all other human values, are considered as values of the highest rank. Patients' rights represent a legal expression of something, which every person basically and naturally expects from a doctor, medical staff, and from a health care system in general. The subject of the second part of this paper presents the intention, scope and conception of necessary legislation. How should it be considered - in a wider sense or as a special law? Some theoretical and practical questions regarding interaction between medical ethics regulation, confidentiality, and legislation are discussed as well. In the European context there are numerous examples of laws with the specific purpose of protecting patients' rights. Special attention and critical review will be paid to the situation of patients' rights in Serbia. The paper concludes with the point that the role of legislation is evidently important, but the traditional view should be replaced with a new one, due to the reason that modem health law puts the protection of patients' rights on a higher level. De lege lata, the whole system of health law in its diversity (civil, penal and administrative) is characterized by better understanding of rights, duties and legal relations, either through regulation or the protection of patients' rights.

  13. THE CONSUMER’S RIGHT OF WITHDRAWAL FROM CONTRACTS CONCLUDED BY ELECTRONIC MEANS IN ROMANIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA GIURANIUC (TUDORACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legislation, doctrinal opinions and relevant case law regarding the consumer's right of withdrawal from contracts concluded by electronic means (e-contracts.The objectives pursued by the author are:- establishing the juridical nature of consumer's right of withdrawal from e-contracts;- identification of problems that could arise from law’s interpretation,- issuing of the de lege ferenda proposals.Governmental Ordinance no. 130/2000 introduces a new exception to the principle of irrevocability of contracts in Romanian law: the consumer's right of withdrawal from distance contracts. The same Ordinance sets the scope and conditions for the applicability of this right.Consumer's right of withdrawal from e-contracts, as a type of distance contracts, can be exercised without the need to give any specific reason and without penalties, within 10 working days from the date of receiving the goods or from the another moment depending on the specifics set out in GO no. 130/2000. If consumer cancels the distance contract on the basis that he does not like the goods, the withdrawal from the contract is valid, even if the withdrawal solely depended on the will of the consumer, this sets out a legal exception from the provisions of art. 1010 of Civil Code which stipulate the nullity of the obligations undertook by the liable person under the condition “if I want”.Sales of goods by electronic means, as a particular case of a distance contracts, is, therefore, a new form of selling, governed by its own specific legal regime.

  14. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Viet Nam's Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 10-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review how Viet Nam's regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety has incorporated recommendations and suggestions from an earlier review, conducted in 2009. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) follow-up mission, requested by the Viet Nam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS), also reviewed the development of the regulatory safety infrastructure to support Viet Nam's nuclear power programme. The eight-member team comprised senior regulatory experts from Canada, France, Pakistan, Slovenia, United Arab Emirates and the United States of America, as well as three IAEA staff members. The IRRS team said in its preliminary assessment that Viet Nam had made progress since 2009, but that some key recommendations still needed to be addressed. Particular strengths identified by the team included: The commitment of VARANS staff to develop legislation and regulations in the field of nuclear and radiation safety; VARANS' efforts to implement practices that are in line with IAEA Safety Standards and internationally recognized good practices; A willingness to receive feedback regarding the efforts to establish and implement a regulation programme; and Progress made in developing the regulatory framework to support the introduction of nuclear power. The team identified the following areas as high-priority steps to further strengthen radiation and nuclear safety in Viet Nam: The effective independence of the regulatory decision-making process needs to be urgently addressed; Additional resources are needed to regulate existing radiation facilities and activities, as well as the country's research reactor; Efforts to increase the capacity of VARANS to regulate the developing nuclear power programme should continue; The draft Master Plan for the Development of Nuclear Power Infrastructure should be finalized

  15. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR concluding experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover a working range as wide as possible and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special channels cooled by reactor inlet CO 2 and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or ''Campbelling'' mode. Their neutron to gamma sensitivity ratio was optimised by the use of unusually low filling pressures and they were fitted with special ''trilaminax'' mineral insulated cables to minimise the effects of electrical interference at the 100 kHz channel centre frequency. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. All were processed and tested for operation at 350 deg. C and their fissile coatings (430 μg cm - 1 of natural uranium) were matched to give individual neutron sensitivities with a population spread better than +- 6% about the mean. The mean absolute sensitivities were determined to about +- 5% against manganese foils in the NESTOR reactor at AEE Winfrith. The detectors were complemented by special signal processing channels which provided current fluctuation sensitivity and appropriate output signals to the experiment data acquisition system. These channels also permitted dc measurement of chamber current for more precise flux determination near reactor full power

  16. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Korea's Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety experts concluded today a two-week mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in the Republic of Korea. The team identified good practices and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of Korea, while the final report will be submitted by the end of summer 2011. At the request of the Korean Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 16 senior regulatory experts from 14 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Korean Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (MEST) and the Korean Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS). The mission is a peer-review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. ''This was the first IRRS mission organized after Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident and it included a review of the regulatory implications of that event,' explains Denis Flory, IAEA Deputy Director General and Head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. William Borchardt, Executive Director of Operations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Team Leader of this mission commended the Korean authorities for their openness and commitment to sharing their experience with the world's nuclear safety community. ''IRRS missions such as the one that was just concluded here in the Republic of Korea are crucial to the enhancement of nuclear safety worldwide,'' he said. The IRRS team reviewed Korea's current regulatory framework while acknowledging the fact that the country's Government has already decided to establish, as of October 2011, a new independent regulatory body to be called Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). As a consequence, KINS role will be as a regulatory expert organization reporting to the NSC, while MEST's role will be restricted to promoting the utilization of nuclear energy. The IRRS team identified particular strengths in the Korean regulatory system

  17. IAEA Concludes Safety Review at Chooz Nuclear Power Plant in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA-led international team of nuclear safety experts noted good practices and made recommendations to reinforce safety measures during a review of operational safety at France's Chooz Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that concluded today. The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) was assembled at the French Government's request. The in-depth review, which began 17 June, focused on aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP. The team comprised experts from Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, China, India, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Canada, Hungary and the IAEA. The review covered the areas of management, organization and administration; training and qualification of personnel; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience; radiation protection; chemistry; emergency planning and preparedness; and severe accident management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards. The OSART team identified good plant practices that will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration. Examples include: The plant has a professional development programme as part of a joint employment effort shared by the plant and its contractors. This enables trainees to develop professional capability, understand practices and gain experience from other nuclear power plants in terms of work planning and coordination; The plant has built a strong relationship between the on-shift response team of the plant and the local fire brigade to improve firefighting and rescue operations; Self-assessment groups discuss and resolve specific issues within operations, empowering operations personnel to take ownership of improvement programmes; and The plant has improved warnings at entrances to all o range zones , areas of elevated dose rates to which only authorized staff have access. The team identified a number of improvements to operational safety at Chooz NPP. Examples include: The plant should review its process for the

  18. Nuclear Power Remains Important Energy Option for Many Countries, IAEA Ministerial Conference Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power remains an important option for many countries to improve energy security, provide energy for development and fight climate change, the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century concluded today. Participants also emphasised the importance of nuclear safety in the future growth of nuclear power, noting that nuclear safety has been strengthened worldwide following the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Conference was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and hosted by the Government of the Russian Federation through the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM. Sergei Kirienko, Director General of the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM, said: ''The Conference has achieved its main goal: to confirm that nuclear energy is an important part of the world's energy-mix. The innovative character of this type of energy provides us with sustainable development in the future. The closed nuclear fuel cycle and fusion may open for humanity absolutely new horizons. The Conference underlined the leading role of the IAEA in promoting the peaceful use of nuclear power and provision of the non-proliferation regime. Russia as a co-founder of the IAEA will always support its efforts to develop and expand safety and security standards all over the world.'' ''I believe we can look ahead with confidence and optimism to the future of nuclear power in the 21st century,'' said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, ''effective steps have been taken to make nuclear power plants safer everywhere,'' he stressed. ''Nuclear power will make a significant and growing contribution to sustainable development in the coming decades. The IAEA is committed to ensuring that the

  19. Concluding Statement to IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety, 24 June 2011, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    must be translated into action - and it will be. This will require hard work from all Member States, and from the IAEA, in the years ahead. This week's deliberations will give me valuable guidance as I prepare the Action Plan on the way ahead, which will be submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors and General Conference in September. Important meetings on nuclear safety are already planned in the next 18 months. The primary goal is to make nuclear power plants as safe as humanly possible, as quickly as possible. But it is also important to rebuild long-term public confidence in the safety of nuclear power. For that, tangible outcomes are needed, and we must maintain our sense of urgency. We must also be fully transparent. I have been in touch with the Commission on Safety Standards to suggest that it begin reviewing IAEA standards on the basis of the views expressed by Member States this week. Likewise, I am inviting the INES Advisory Committee to consider ways of making the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale more effective as a communication and information tool. We will also press ahead with detailed proposals in other areas for which we have direct responsibility, such as implementing an expanded programme of expert peer reviews. I would like to conclude by thanking you once again for making this Ministerial Conference a success, for your support for the work of the IAEA and for your guidance. I am confident that, as a result of your work here this week, measurable and lasting improvements will be made in the safety of all nuclear power plants throughout the world. Thank you. (IAEA)

  20. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Poland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: International safety experts last week concluded a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Poland. In its preliminary report, the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team found that Poland's nuclear regulator, Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki (PAA), has a clear commitment to safety, a high level of transparency, competent staff and leadership, and a good recognition of challenges ahead related to Poland's efforts to develop nuclear power. ''Poland's regulatory framework and the work of PAA give high confidence of strong radiation protection for the Polish people. Further, there has been significant progress in the development of Poland's regulatory framework in preparation for the challenge of regulating nuclear power,'' said team leader Robert Lewis, a senior executive in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government of Poland from 15-25 April. The team was made up of 11 regulatory experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, the Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as five IAEA staff members. The IRRS review team was very thorough in its review, and we welcome its advice on how to continue to improve our programmes to protect people and the environment , said Janusz Wlodarski, President of PAA. The team interviewed members of PAA and officials from various ministries, as well as key players in the Polish safety framework. Such IRRS missions are peer reviews based on IAEA Safety Standards, not inspections or audits. Among its main observations the IRRS review team identified the following good practices: Applying the considerable experience of PAA's senior management to regulatory issues; The introduction of changes to Poland's laws and regulations following broad public consultation at an early stage in

  1. IAEA Team Concludes Peer Review of Sweden's Nuclear Regulatory Framework, 17 February 2012, Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 12-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Sweden. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, which was conducted at the request of Sweden, noted good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system and also made recommendations and suggestions for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and the government. These are aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''Throughout the mission, the IRRS team received full cooperation from SSM staff in its review of Sweden's regulatory, technical and policy issues,'' said Georg Schwarz, mission leader and Deputy Director General of the Swiss nuclear regulator (ENSI). 'The staff were open and candid in their discussions and provided the fullest practicable assistance', he commented. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included the following: SSM operates as an independent regulator in an open and transparent manner with well-organized regulatory processes; SSM is receptive to feedback and strives to maintain a culture of continuous learning; and Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident, SSM responded promptly to public demand for information and communicated effectively with the national government, the public and other interested parties. Good practices identified by the IRRS team included, though they are not limited to, the following: The consolidation of the two previous national regulatory authorities into SSM was successful; Overall, SSM's management system is comprehensive and contributes to staff efficiency and effectiveness; The nuclear power plant refurbishment programme as required by SSM enhanced safety; and Sweden's regulatory framework for high-level waste disposal is comprehensive and technically sound. The IRRS Review team identified

  2. IAEA Team Concludes Peer Review of Greece's Regulatory Framework for Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts yesterday concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Greece. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, which was conducted at the request of the Government of the Hellenic Republic, noted good practices in the country's nuclear regulatory system and also identified issues for improvement for the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and the Greek competent authorities. These are aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the country's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. ''The IRRS team enjoyed excellent cooperation from the GAEC throughout its mission,'' said Tom Ryan, mission leader and Director of Regulations and Information Management at the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. ''The GAEC staff were very open and candid in their discussions and provided the fullest practicable assistance.'' The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: While the Greek Government's commitment to safety is being demonstrated through its actions, the development of a comprehensive national policy and strategy expressed in a consolidated statement would provide a valuable framework and guidance for future actions in terms of safety; and GAEC has effective independence. The Greek government has ensured that GAEC is effectively independent in its safety-related decision-making and that it has functional separation from entities having responsibility or interests that could unduly influence its decision making. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team included: Greece actively participates in the global safety regime including all relevant safety conventions; The nation's radiation monitoring system for the detection of illicit trafficking contributes significantly to identifying potential radiation emergencies due to events within or outside the country

  3. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Finland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: International safety experts today concluded a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Finland. In its preliminary report, the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team found that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) is a competent and highly credible regulator that is open and transparent and derives great strength from the technical competence of its staff. ''Finland's comprehensive regulatory framework allows STUK to operate in practice as an independent regulatory body,'' said team leader Philippe Jamet, a commissioner of the French regulatory body ASN. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government of Finland from 15-26 October. The team interviewed members of STUK and officials from various ministries, as well as key players in the Finnish safety framework. Such IRRS missions are peer reviews based on IAEA Safety Standards, not inspections or audits. The team was made up of 18 members from Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Romania, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as six IAEA staff members. 'The IRRS mission and preparation for it was a unique occasion that involved the whole organization, provided motivation for improvement of the safety framework in Finland and assists STUK review its mission', said Tero Varjoranta, Director General of STUK. The IRRS team identified a number of good practices and achievements, including: - STUK's excellence in its safety assessment of nuclear power plants and waste repositories, in particular its demonstration that long-term political commitment is a necessity to sustain the creation of a waste repository as well as its regulatory oversight of medical applications of radiation sources; and - STUK's excellent record in

  4. International Nuclear and Radiation Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Slovenia's Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety experts today concluded a 10-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. The team identified good practices and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of Slovenia and a final report will be submitted by the end of 2011. At the request of the Slovenian Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 10 senior regulatory experts from nine nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Andrej Stritar, Director of Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, stressed ''how important it is for a small country like Slovenia to tightly follow international standards in the area of nuclear safety.'' He also expressed his gratitude to the IAEA, and the countries from which team members came, for their support and for their intensive work during the last ten days. Mission Team Leader Colin Patchett, Deputy Chief Inspector from the UK's Office for Nuclear Regulation commended ''the Slovenian authorities for their commitment to nuclear and radiation safety regulation and for sharing their experience.'' The IRRS team reviewed Slovenia's current regulatory framework and all SNSA-regulated facilities and activities, as well as the regulatory implications of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident. The IRRS team identified particular strengths in the Slovenian regulatory system, including: Through its legal framework, the Slovenian government has appointed SNSA to regulate its nuclear safety program and SNSA has in place an effective process for carrying out this responsibility; and Slovenia's response to the accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi power plant has been prompt and effective. Communications with the public, development of actions for improvement

  5. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Slovakia's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Slovakia. At the request of the Slovak Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 12 senior regulatory experts from 12 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR). The international experts also met officials from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) regarding the regulation of occupational radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic, declared that ''The IRRS mission has a great value for the future development and orientation of the UJD SR.'' ''Slovakia has established a regulatory framework for nuclear safety which is in line with international standards and practice,'' said Mission Team Leader Andrej Stritar, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: UJD SR operates with independence and transparency; UJD SR has developed and implemented a systematic training approach to meet its competence needs; and in response to the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, UJD SR has reacted and communicated to interested parties, including the public. The good practices identified by the IRRS Review Team include: UJD SR has a comprehensive and well-formalized strategic approach to informing and consulting interested parties; UJD SR has developed and implemented a structured approach to training and developing its staff; and Detailed legal requirements provide a solid basis for on-site and off-site response in nuclear emergencies coordinated with local authorities. The IRRS Review team identified areas for further improvement and believes

  6. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Bulgaria's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 12-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Bulgaria. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, conducted at the request of the Government of Bulgaria, identified a series of good practices and made recommendations to help enhance the overall performance of the regulatory system. IRRS missions, which were initiated in 2006, are peer reviews based on the IAEA Safety Standards; they are not inspections or audits. ''Bulgaria has a clear national policy and strategy for safety, which are well in line with international standards and practices and contribute to a high level of nuclear safety,'' said Mission Team Leader Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The mission team, which conducted the review from 8 to 19 April, was made up of 16 senior regulatory experts from 16 nations, and six IAEA staff. ''The results of the IRRS mission will be valuable for the future development and reinforcement of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Agency (BNRA). The use of international standards and good practices helps to improve global harmonization in all areas of nuclear safety and radiation protection,'' said Sergey Tzotchev, Chairman of the BNRA. Among the main observations in its preliminary report, the IRRS mission team found that BNRA operates as an independent regulatory body and conducts its regulatory processes in an open and transparent manner. In line with the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the mission reviewed the regulatory implications for Bulgaria of the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. It found that the BNRA's response to the lessons learned from that accident was both prompt and effective. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team include the following: A no-blame policy is enshrined in law for

  7. 29 CFR 37.99 - If the Director concludes that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, what actions must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If the Director concludes that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, what actions must he or she take? 37.99 Section 37.99 Labor Office of the... INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998 (WIA) Compliance Procedures § 37.99 If the Director concludes that compliance cannot...

  8. Concluding Talk : QCD 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2006-01-01

    This is neither a summary talk (too much for too short a talk) nor a conclusion (a gigantic work is in progress and we are not at the end of a particular phase), rather an overview of the field as reflected at this Conference.

  9. Some remarks on the statistical model of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution is an attempt to assess what can be learned from the remarkable success of this statistical model in describing ratios of particle abundances in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

  10. Some remarks on a scenario of supersymmetry in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannussis, A.; Tsohantzis, I; Vavougios, D.

    1990-01-01

    Some remarks are given on a recent paper of Lahiri, Kumar Roy and Bagchi who have constructed a scenario of supersymmetry in quantum mechanics by imposing a structure on the raising and lowering operators

  11. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  12. 2011 Asia Pacific Few-Body Conference Summary Remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    These remarks represent the author’s personal perspective regarding ideas presented at this fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics. They are not intended as a comprehensive summary of what we witnessed during this week of stimulating presentations and intense discussions. However, these remarks do characterize some of the physics we heard and some of the key questions raised. The ideas presented will hopefully outlive the rapporteurs who brought their work and that of others to our attention here in the International Hall of the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Republic of Korea. (author)

  13. A Remarkable Recent Transition in the Solar Dynamo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Duhau, S.; Livingston, W.C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Potgieter, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the major aspects of the remarkable, fairly long lasting period(∼ 2005 to ∼ 2010) of low solar activity, that we will call the Transition. It is the transitionalstage between the Grand Maximum of the 20th century and a forthcoming (most probablyRegular) episode of solar activity. The

  14. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, Toivo

    1975-01-01

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr

  15. Collisionless shocks and upstream waves and particles: Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss more aspects of collisionless shock theory that might be pertinent to the problem of upstream waves and particles. It is hoped that our qualititive remarks may be a useful guide for the general reader as he goes through the detailed papers to come

  16. Some remarks on electron scattering in a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1988-01-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field is reconsidered. Some remarks are made on the validity of the Kroll-Watson scattering formula and on the close connection of this formula with the classical transition rate of scattering in a radiation field. (17 refs.)

  17. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  18. Discussant Remarks on Session: Statistical Aspects of Measuring the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    1999-04-02

    These remarks will briefly summarize what we learn from the talks in this session, and add some more areas in Internet Measurement that may provide challenges for statisticians. It will also point out some reasons why statisticians may be interested in working in this area.

  19. The European Public Prosecutor's Office (EPPO): Introductory Remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2018-01-01

    These introductory remarks deal with the reasons why the EPPO is perceived by some as a controversial body. These reasons are mirrored with the problem identification and the causes thereof. The size of EU fraud and related corruption and money laundering, both at the income and expenditure side, is

  20. Remarks concerning two sympatric seedeaters Poliospiza spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D.A., Finch, B.F, & Hunter, N.D. Remarks concerning the all-black coastal boubous. (Laniarius ... Currently, however, there is little evidence to support such a theory, and it is .... twigs with its beak in order to increase the size of the hole.

  1. Some remarks on the Bonnor-Swaminarayan solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezdivin, R.; Herrera, L.

    1976-01-01

    The letter re-examines the Bonnor-Swaminarayan solution with the aim to try a clarification of its physical interpretation. The radiative nature of the solution as suggested by Bicak is questioned and some remarks on this topic are given

  2. Accountability for the human right to health through treaty monitoring: Human rights treaty bodies and the influence of concluding observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; De Milliano, Marlous; Chakrabarti, Averi; Kim, Yuna

    2017-11-04

    Employing novel coding methods to evaluate human rights monitoring, this article examines the influence of United Nations (UN) treaty bodies on national implementation of the human right to health. The advancement of the right to health in the UN human rights system has shifted over the past 20 years from the development of norms under international law to the implementation of those norms through national policy. Facilitating accountability for this rights-based policy implementation under the right to health, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) monitors state implementation by reviewing periodic reports from state parties, engaging in formal sessions of 'constructive dialogue' with state representatives, and issuing concluding observations for state response. These concluding observations recognise the positive steps taken by states and highlight the principal areas of CESCR concern, providing recommendations for implementing human rights and detailing issues to be addressed in the next state report. Through analytic coding of the normative indicators of the right to health in both state reports and concluding observations, this article provides an empirical basis to understand the policy effects of the CESCR monitoring process on state implementation of the right to health.

  3. Remarkable recoveries: research and practice from a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Marc Ian

    2008-08-01

    Mind-body therapies are often portrayed in the literature as self-palliative, adjunctive, and complementary, but rarely as contributive to cure. Many physicians continue to view them as acceptable indulgences so long as they are harmless and the patient remains fully compliant with a standard treatment regimen. The possibility that such modalities might help drive the healing process itself is infrequently acknowledged. This article addresses the topic of such therapies, examining remarkable recoveries in cancer, and suggesting the need for a "Remarkable Recovery Registry" to expand the literature on these cases. The author discusses the importance of complementary alternative medicine, and emotional and pyschologic support in the treatment regimen, and the need for health care providers and patients to work together to provide the best emotional environment for the healing process.

  4. Adiabatic analysis of collisions. III. Remarks on the spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of a spin-rotation model illustrates how transitions between adiabatic channel states stem from the second, rather than from the first, rate of change of these states, provided that appropriate identification of channels and scaling of the independent variable are used. These remarks, like the earlier development of a post-adiabatic approach, aim at elucidating the surprising success of approximate separation of variables in the treatment of complex mechanical systems

  5. A remark on the energy conditions for Hawking's area theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Hawking's area theorem is a fundamental result in black hole theory that is universally associated with the null energy condition. That this condition can be weakened is illustrated by the formulation of a strengthened version of the theorem based on an energy condition that allows for violations of the null energy condition. With the semi-classical context in mind, some brief remarks pertaining to the suitability of the area theorem and its energy condition are made.

  6. Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed last summer on its Web site the draft text of the 2005 ICRP recommendations for consultation. As it was done for the previous drafts, the French Society for Radiation Protection, has sent his comments to the ICRP, through a specific working group. The text sent to the ICRP is presented here to the readers of the SFRP's Journal. (author)

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a remarkable histopathological picture of one asymptomatic animal reported from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier,S.C.; Chiarelli,I.M.; Lima,W.G.; Gonçalves,R.; Tafuri,W.L.

    2006-01-01

    A remarkable histopathological picture of one asymptomatic dog naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) has been presented. Intracellular parasites were ease found in macrophages of all exanimated organs, especially in skin. Embedded paraffin tissues of liver, spleen, axillary and popliteal lymph nodes, and skin (ear, muzzle and abdomen) were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and by immunocytochemical reaction (streptoavidin-peroxidase method) to detect parasites. All organs ...

  8. REMARKS ON NEUROCONTROL OF THE HAND AND SIGNIFICANCE OF AFFERENT INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines some remarks on our understanding of motor control of the hand. It begins with current knowledge about motor behavior of prehension movements. It further highlights the distributed nature of the control system that integrates sensory information from the periphery, existing motor memory from subcortical centers, and information from diverse primary and secondary motor as well as sensory areas. It further explains the sequential nature of the processes like decision, planning, computing, and execution involved in neurocontrol of a purposeful hand motor task. In the successive part it stresses the importance of sensory input, in particular proprioceptive, for movement setting and guidance. It concludes by pointing out research concepts used to study roles of sensory information for modulating states of neurobiological systems. Finally, a novel method of whole hand electrical stimulation, which seems promising as a tool for studying sensory-motor integration mechanisms in human’s hand, is explained and recent experimental data are provided.

  9. Remarks on search methods for stable, massive, elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, Martin L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented at the 69th birthday celebration of Professor Eugene Commins, honoring his research achievements. These remarks are about the experimental techniques used in the search for new stable, massive particles, particles at least as massive as the electron. A variety of experimental methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for halo particles in the galaxy and searches for exotic particles in bulk matter are described. A summary is presented of the measured limits on the existence of new stable, massive particle

  10. Remarks on the 'Grenelle Environnement' portfolio of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Boston Consulting Group has presented its remarks on the economic impact of the portfolio of measures issued from the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' workshop that was held in France and involved people with a variety of backgrounds (government representatives, politicians, companies, professional syndicates, NGOs, scientists and university professors, etc.). These measures (covering sectors such as agriculture, biodiversity, wastes, renewable energies, transport, buildings, risk prevention, etc.) are said to potentially generate 450 billions Euros of economic activities and 600,000 jobs during 12 years. Their direct impacts on the environment would be a 14 percent reduction in greenhouse gases between 2010 and 2020. Concerning renewable energies, investment focusing is suggested

  11. Remarks on Hamiltonian structures in G2-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyunjoo; Salur, Sema; Todd, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we treat G 2 -geometry as a special case of multisymplectic geometry and make a number of remarks regarding Hamiltonian multivector fields and Hamiltonian differential forms on manifolds with an integrable G 2 -structure; in particular, we discuss existence and make a number of identifications of the spaces of Hamiltonian structures associated to the two multisymplectic structures associated to an integrable G 2 -structure. Along the way, we prove some results in multisymplectic geometry that are generalizations of results from symplectic geometry

  12. Unbound color, prefaced by remarks on baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    Theoretical and experimental issues related to the possibility that color is unbound are surveyed. This implies that quarks, gluons and other particles carrying color can exist as isolated objects. It is surprisingly difficult to distinguish models with unbound color from those in which color is permanently confined. None-the-less, the present situation seems discouraging for unbound color because there is no unambiguous support for it and because the crucial prediction of formation of a colored gluon in e + e - collisions has been ruled out wherever sufficient data exists. The above survey is prefaced by remarks on the symmetric quark model for baryon spectroscopy

  13. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  14. Some Remarks on Stochastic Versions of the Ramsey Growth Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 139-152 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Economic dynamics * Ramsey growth model with disturbance * stochastic dynamic programming * multistage stochastic programs Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/sladky-some remarks on stochastic versions of the ramsey growth model.pdf

  15. Remarkable Computing - the Challenge of Designing for the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2004-01-01

    The vision of ubiquitous computing is floating into the domain of the household, despite arguments that lessons from design of workplace artefacts cannot be blindly transferred into the domain of the household. This paper discusses why the ideal of unremarkable or ubiquitous computing is too narrow...... with respect to the household. It points out how understanding technology use, is a matter of looking into the process of use and on how the specific context of the home, in several ways, call for technology to be remarkable rather than unremarkable....

  16. Some remarks about large p/sub perpendicular/ spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the ingredients necessary to make predictions concerning single and double spin measurements in large p/sub perpendicular to/ inclusive processes is presented. Remarks are made as to what might be expected and what might be learned from such measurements. Various models for the production of large p/sub perpendicular to/ mesons have quite different spin structure and hence can be expected to give differing predictions. However, it is not possible at this time to make quantitative calculations, and it is possible (not probable) that the interesting spin observables will be negligibly small

  17. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305), 28S rRNA (2...... analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from...

  18. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Remarks on Hawking radiation as tunneling from a uniformly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the Hamilton–Jacobi method of Angheben et al, we investigate the Hawking tunneling radiation from a uniformly accelerating rectilinear black hole for which the horizons and entropy are functions of θ. After several coordinate transforma- tions, we conclude that when the self-gravitational interaction ...

  20. Measuring technology using holography and interferometry. HOLOMETEC. Pamphlet for the concluding presentation; Holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik. HOLOMETEC. Broschuere zur Abschlusspraesentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) provided funds to the focal item of research, `Laser science and laser technology`, for the development of measuring and testing methods based on holography and interferometry, for applications such as quality assurance and experimental stress analysis. The main objective of research activities with collaborators from science and industry was to develop the holographic and interferometric techniques to a contactless measuring technology fit for applications in industry. The BMBF contributed for the R and D programme financial support amounting to DM 6.6 million, in a total budget of DM 9.6 million. The concluding presentation was intended to summarize and demonstrate the work performed and results achieved. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie foerderte im Foerderschwerpunkt ``Laserforschung und Lasertechnik`` die Erarbeitung von Verfahrensgrundlagen zur holografisch-interferometrischen Messtechnik fuer die Qualitaetssicherung und experimentelle Spannungsanalyse. Wesentliches Ziel der Forschungsarbeiten, an denen sich Partner aus Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft beteiligten, war es, die holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik als beruehrungsloses Mess- und Pruefverfahren fuer die industrielle Anwendung tauglich zu machen. Das BMBF unterstuetzte die F und E-Arbeiten mit insgesamt 6.6 Mio DM bei einem Gesamtaufwand von 9.6 Mio DM. Mit der Abschlusspraesentation sollen der Fachoeffentlichkeit die nun vorliegenden Ergebnisse der Forschungsarbeiten vorgestellt werden. (orig./MM)

  1. Remarks before the Beijing meeting of the pacific basin conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    A substantial amount of new generating capacity must be added in the United States before the turn of the century. Noting that the Light Water Reactor (LWR) has enjoyed a remarkably good safety record, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is working actively to restore public and investor confidence in nuclear power. DOE is working with U.S. industry to encourage licensing reform, simplification and standardization of large plant designs, and resolution of the waste managment issues. We also are pursuing new, more tolerant, lower cost designs and are prepared to share our technology advances with other nations under mutually acceptable conditions and are determined to be a reliable supplier of equipment and enrichment services. (author)

  2. Allotropes of Phosphorus with Remarkable Stability and Intrinsic Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqing; He, Chaoyu; Ouyang, Tao; Zhang, Chunxiao; Tang, Chao; Römer, Rudolf A.; Zhong, Jianxin

    2018-04-01

    We construct a class of two-dimensional (2D) phosphorus allotropes by assembling a previously proposed ultrathin metastable phosphorus nanotube into planar structures in different stacking orientations. Based on first-principles methods, the structures, stabilities, and fundamental electronic properties of these allotropes are systematically investigated. Our results show that these 2D van der Waals phosphorene allotropes possess remarkable stabilities due to the strong intertube van der Waals interactions, which cause an energy release of about 30 - 70 meV /atom , depending on their stacking details. Most of them are confirmed to be energetically more favorable than the experimentally viable α -P and β -P . Three of them, showing a relatively higher probability of being synthesized in the future, are further confirmed to be dynamically stable semiconductors with strain-tunable band gaps and intrinsic piezoelectricity, which may have potential applications in nanosized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic nanodevices.

  3. Some remarks on the design of HIF current multiplication rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of heavy ion fusion drivers has now reached a state, where the overall approach has become fairly clear. One design features an RF linac plus current and beam multiplication rings. The present remarks concern the assignment of multiturn injection, beam storage and bunching to an optimized number of rings and transport lines, as well as some criteria for their designs. The main parameter constraints are discussed, showing how they can be met, although there is little flexibility at the present stage of understanding and technology. A shortened version of this report is scheduled for presentation at the ''INS International Symposium on Heavy Ion Accelerators and Their Application to Inertial Fusion'' Tokyo, January 23-27 1984. (author)

  4. Remarks on the Colonized Libido: Trying to Think beyond Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilan Bensusan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In these remarks I attempt to think through some of the consequences of the way we conceive and live our desires. I try to contrast those desires with both our idea of freedom and the way we usually understand nature. This takes me quickly to issues such as pornography, male identity and then to how we gain and preserve our self-esteem. This, in turn, takes me to issues that are somehow linked to the institutional and emotional structures of patriarchy under a regime of heterosexuality as a norm. I try to consider these issues from the point of view of someone who was trained within the practices and thoughts of masculinity and is bothered by the consequences of such training. I endeavour to find a way to rethink the colonization of our desires so that we can find paths to an exercise of our capacities of desire that could be somehow freer.

  5. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-06-01

    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  6. In situ FTIR assessment of desiccation-tolerant tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, W.F.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    This essay shows how Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be applied to study thermodynamic parameters and conformation of endogenous biomolecules in desiccation-tolerant biological tissues. Desiccation tolerance is the remarkable ability of some organisms to survive complete

  7. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  8. Spectroscopic and asteroseismic analysis of the remarkable main-sequence A star KIC 11145123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon J.; Takata, Masao; Saio, Hideyuki; Sekii, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    A spectroscopic analysis was carried out to clarify the properties of KIC 11145123 - the first main-sequence star with a directly measured core-to-surface rotation profile - based on spectra observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) of the Subaru telescope. The atmospheric parameters (Teff = 7600 K, log g = 4.2, ξ = 3.1 km s-1 and [Fe/H] = -0.71 dex), the radial and rotation velocities, and elemental abundances were obtained by analysing line strengths and fitting line profiles, which were calculated with a 1D LTE model atmosphere. The main properties of KIC 11145123 are: (1) a low [Fe/H] = -0.71 ± 0.11 dex and a high radial velocity of -135.4 ± 0.2 km s-1. These are remarkable among late-A stars. Our best asteroseismic models with this low [Fe/H] have slightly high helium abundance and low masses of 1.4 M⊙. All of these results strongly suggest that KIC 11145123 is a Population II blue straggler; (2) the projected rotation velocity confirms the asteroseismically predicted slow rotation of the star; (3) comparisons of abundance patterns between KIC 11145123 and Am, Ap, and blue stragglers show that KIC 11145123 is neither an Am star nor an Ap star, but has abundances consistent with a blue straggler. We conclude that the remarkably long 100-d rotation period of this star is a consequence of it being a blue straggler, but both pathways for the formation of blue stragglers - merger and mass loss in a binary system - pose difficulties for our understanding of the exceedingly slow rotation. In particular, we show that there is no evidence of any secondary companion star, and we put stringent limits on the possible mass of any such purported companion through the phase modulation technique.

  9. Closing remarks at the symposium in honour of Daniel Bellus. Pharmacenter, University of Basel, February 6, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Camille

    2010-01-01

    In the Closing Remarks at the Symposium on 'Frontiers in Bioorganic Chemistry' (Friday, February 6, 2009, Pharmacenter, University of Basel) in honour of Daniel Bellus, his arrival in Zürich in fall 1967 and especially his postdoctoral work at the Laboratorium für Organische Chemie at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zürich throughout the year 1967/68 were mentioned. In his most remarkable paper (published in 1969 in Helv. Chim. Acta), the photochemistry of the alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclohexenones O-acetyl-testosterone and 10-methy-delta1,9-octalon-(2) is described in detail. Change of solvent leads to lowering or increasing of the n,pi*- and (pi,pi*)-triplet energies, resulting in a crossing of the two energy levels. Personal remarks on Daniel Bellus and warmest thanks to him, to Profs. Beat Ernst and Bernd Giese (the organizers of the symposium) and to all the speakers concluded this most special event.

  10. The remarkably high excitation planetary nebula GC 6537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Hung, S; Feibelman, W A

    1999-05-11

    NGC 6537 is an unusually high excitation point symmetric planetary nebula with a rich spectrum. Its kinematical structures are of special interest. We are here primarily concerned with the high resolution spectrum as revealed by the Hamilton echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory (resolution approximately 0.2 A) and supplemented by UV and near-UV data. These extensive data permit a determination of interstellar extinction, plasma diagnostics, and ionic concentrations. The photoionization models that have been used successfully for many planetary nebulae are not entirely satisfactory here. The plasma electron temperature of a photoionization model cannot much exceed 20,000 K, but plasma diagnostics show that regions emitting radiation of highly ionized atoms such as [NeIV] and [NeV] are much hotter, showing that shock excitation must be important, as suggested by the remarkable kinematics of this object. Hence, instead of employing a strict photoionization model, we are guided by the nebular diagnostics, which reveal how electron temperature varies with ionization potential and accommodates density effects. The predictions of the photoionization model may be useful in estimating ionization correction factor. In effect, we have estimated the chemical composition by using both photoionization and shock considerations.

  11. Remarkable reduction of thermal conductivity in phosphorene phononic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorene has received much attention due to its interesting physical and chemical properties, and its potential applications such as thermoelectricity. In thermoelectric applications, low thermal conductivity is essential for achieving a high figure of merit. In this work, we propose to reduce the thermal conductivity of phosphorene by adopting the phononic crystal structure, phosphorene nanomesh. With equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the thermal conductivity is remarkably reduced in the phononic crystal. Our analysis shows that the reduction is due to the depressed phonon group velocities induced by Brillouin zone folding, and the reduced phonon lifetimes in the phononic crystal. Interestingly, it is found that the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity could be tuned by the ‘non-square’ pores in the phononic crystal, as the phonon group velocities in the direction with larger projection of pores is more severely suppressed, leading to greater reduction of thermal conductivity in this direction. Our work provides deep insight into thermal transport in phononic crystals and proposes a new strategy to reduce the thermal conductivity of monolayer phosphorene. (paper)

  12. Teletandem between French and Brazilian students: Some preliminary remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In its French-Brazilian version, the Teletandem Brazil project enables students from the University of Lille 3 (France and from the State University of São Paulo (Unesp, Brazil, to take part in online exchanges, based on the principles of autonomy and reciprocity. In this work, we will present some preliminary remarks on the construction of cultural identity representations by the students who took part in the project, from 2006 to 2012, the specificity of the exchanges we analyze being that most of the French students involved in them are third generation Portuguese. We will examine the consequences of the introduction of a third culture within exchanges which, linguistically speaking, are bilateral. The French students are often experiencing conflicting feelings toward Brazil and, similarly, the Brazilian students may have conflicting feelings towards Portugal and France. Our preliminary results show that the most successful linguistic exchanges occur when students face their own cultural identity with no feeling of superiority or inferiority.

  13. Remark on state vector construction when flavor mixing exists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Shimomura, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of quantum field theory, we consider the way to construct the one-particle state (with definite 3-momentum) when particle mixing exists, such as in the case of flavor-neutrino mixing. In the preceding report (Prog. Theor. Phys. 112, 901 (2004)), we have examined the structure of expectation values of the flavor neutrino charges (at time t) with respect to a neutrino-source state prepared at time t' (earlier than t). When there is no mixing, each of various contributions to the expectation value is equal, in its dominant part, to the transition probability corresponding to the respective neutrino-production process. On the basis of the assumption that such an equality holds also in the mixing case, we can find an appropriate form of one-flavor-neutrino state with 3-momentum and helicity. Along the same way, we examine the boson case when flavor mixing exists. We give remarks on the relation and difference between the ordinary and the present approaches to flavor oscillation

  14. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  15. Concluding statement by the President of the Conference [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yizhong

    2009-01-01

    development of the understanding of nuclear technology and the technical options, and facilitating and supporting financing of new nuclear power plants. -International cooperation should be continually strengthened to carry forward research and development of advanced nuclear technologies. While further enhancing the safety, security and proliferation resistance of nuclear power plants, technology developers should pay due attention to the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in accordance with the needs of both developing and developed countries. -The Secretary General of OECD and other participants expressed the view that nuclear energy should have an important role to play in post Kyoto flexibility mechanisms. To conclude, the progress made by the nuclear industry since the 2005 Paris Conference has been significant, as indicated by the number of countries expressing interest in new nuclear plants. The IAEA plays an essential role in assisting States to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The IAEA was encouraged to continue its international cooperation with Member States and international organizations such as the OECD/NEA. In this regard, participants are looking forward to a further conference at the Ministerial level in another four years, which would be a valuable step in the direction of developing the support and assurance by all countries involved in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  16. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  17. Remarkable Women in a Remarkable Age. On the Genesis of the English Public Sphere, 1642-1752

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cappuccilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the era of the English Revolutions and shortly after that, some spaces, albeit limited, of female visibility open up. Thanks to the window of opportunity caused by the collapse of censorship, the participation in the radical sects and in the Civil war, some remarkable women succeed in introducing themselves in the public sphere, shaping it since its very genesis. Moreover, analysing law institutions as jointure and feoffment, the attempt is to reconstruct some fragments of juridical female autonomy, which belie the total pervasiveness of coverture in the XVII century. As in private law, in public law women, in the role of queens, gain centrality: the principle of female authority, while safeguards the holding of the monarchical regime, destabilizes its patriarchal structure. Going through the works of Katherine Chidley, Margaret Cavendish, Damaris Masham and Mary Astell, the essay aims at reconstructing women's public voice, a voice which upsets the consolidated frames and subverts the established positions, questioning the same social hierarchies.

  18. Remarks on flavor-changing neutral currents in walking technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miransky, V.A.; Peris, S.; Raby, S.

    1993-01-01

    We point out that since the running coupling bar α(q 2 ) in walking technicolor (WTC) can be rather strong at the extended technicolor (ETC) scale q 2 ∼Λ ETC 2 , the standard consideration of flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) in WTC based on the lowest order in perturbation theory in α is not fully conclusive. We reanalyze this problem and conclude that FCNCs can indeed be suppressed in WTC if ETC interactions are chosen in an appropriate way. The crucial point is that the factor of enhancement of the masses of pseudo Goldstone bosons in WTC is just that which is sufficient to suppress FCNCs. FCNCs in the so-called strong ETC are also briefly discussed

  19. The remarkable cell: Intelligently designed or by evolutionary process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pretorius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to deal with the challenging theme of the Origin of Life. Science has been arguing the when and how of the beginning of life for centuries. It is a subject which remains perplexing despite all the technological advances made in science. The first part of the article dealt with the idea of a universe and earth divinely created to sustain life. The second part dealt with the premise that the first life forms were the miraculous work of an intelligent designer, which is revealed by the sophisticated and intricate design of these first life forms. The article concluded with an explanation that these life forms are in stark contrast to the idea of a random Darwinian type evolution for life�s origin, frequently referred to as abiogenesis or spontaneous generation.

  20. A remark on fractional differential equation involving I-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti

    2018-02-01

    The present paper deals with the solution of the fractional differential equation using the Laplace transform operator and its corresponding properties in the fractional calculus; we derive an exact solution of a complex fractional differential equation involving a special function known as I-function. The analysis of the some fractional integral with two parameters is presented using the suggested Theorem 1. In addition, some very useful corollaries are established and their proofs presented in detail. Some obtained exact solutions are depicted to see the effect of each fractional order. Owing to the wider applicability of the I-function, we can conclude that, the obtained results in our work generalize numerous well-known results obtained by specializing the parameters.

  1. Among ideal and real towards the urban society some remarks on the "Statute of the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Limonad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to grasp urban space peculiar ways of production in Brazilian cities and the implications of the "Statute of the City" in terms of the Right to the City We understand it is necessary, then, (i first, to situate our analytical perspective in relation to the idealizations on the "Statute of the City" and the search for the ideal city. Thenceforth, (ii it will be necessary to establish some methodological parameters and to make a differentiation between the different agents and social space circuits of production - related to the different moments of the social reproduction; this will allow us. ( iii to lean over the "Statute of the City" and think about the possible consequences of its implementation and what could have been, if there were no vetoes and amendments. And, (iv to conclude we will make some theoretical first remarks, based on the contributions of Lefebvre, which allow us to locate, although in a provisory manner, the "Statute of the City" in relation to use value reconquering possibility and the city appropriation by its inhabitants

  2. Elastin as a biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Hest, J.C.M. van; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Biomaterials based upon elastin and elastin-derived molecules are increasingly investigated for their application in tissue engineering. This interest is fuelled by the remarkable properties of this structural protein, such as elasticity, self-assembly, long-term stability, and biological activity.

  3. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  4. Multiparticle dynamics 1997: Concluding talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    This contribution to the XXVII Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics held in Frascati, Italy, September, 1997 consists of the following subject matter: (1) introductory generalities; (2) brief mention of some of the contributions to the meeting; (3) more extended discussion of a few specialized topics; (4) discussion of the FELIX initiative for a QCD detector at the LHC.

  5. Multiparticle dynamics 1997: Concluding talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    This contribution to the XXVII Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics held in Frascati, Italy, September, 1997 consists of the following subject matter: (1) introductory generalities; (2) brief mention of some of the contributions to the meeting; (3) more extended discussion of a few specialized topics; (4) discussion of the FELIX initiative for a QCD detector at the LHC

  6. The remarkable Red Rectangle: A Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    responsible for the striking red colour of the Rectangle is not yet clear, but it is likely that they are some kind of hydrocarbon formed in the cool outflows from the central star. Another remarkable feature of the Red Rectangle, visible only with the superb resolution of the Hubble telescope, is the dark band passing across the central star. This is the shadow of a dense disc of dust that surrounds the star and obscures it from direct view. The light we see streams out along the axis of the disc, and is scattered towards us by dust particles. Astronomers have found that the central star is actually a close pair of stars orbiting each other with a period of about 10.5 months. Interactions between these stars have probably caused the ejection of the thick dust disc that obscures our view of the binary. The disc then funnels subsequent dust and gas outflows out along its axis, forming the bizarre bi-conical structure we see as the rung of the Red Rectangle. The reasons for these fresh periodic ejections of more gas and dust remain unknown. The Red Rectangle was first discovered during a rocket flight in the early 1970s, in which astronomers were searching for strong sources of infrared radiation. This infrared source lies about 2300 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. Stars surrounded by clouds of dust are often strong infrared sources because the dust is heated by the starlight and then re-radiates long-wavelength red light. Studies of HD 44179 with ground-based telescopes revealed a rectangular shape in the dust surrounding the star at the centre, leading to the name 'Red Rectangle', coined in 1973 by astronomers Martin Cohen and Mike Merrill. This image was made from observations taken on 17-18 March 1999 with Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  7. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  8. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author)

  9. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The concept of abusive clauses/unfair terms in contracts concluded between the undertakings, on the one hand, and the consumers, on the other hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Teodora Stănescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the concept of unfair terms characterized only the contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Currently, the concept is also incident in other types of contracts. This study only concerns the concept of unfair terms applicable to contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Main regulations applicable are represented by Law no. 193/2000 on unfair terms in contracts concluded between professionals and consumers and Directive 93/13 / EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts (interpreted by the ECJ. Scientific work is proposed to set up the concept of unfair terms. In order to do so, several steps are to be followed: 1. determining the scope (contracts on the sale of goods or services concluded between professionals and consumers 2. analysis of unfair terms defining features: (a the absence of negotiation between the contracting parties, (b the presence of a significant imbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties, to the detriment of consumers and (c the breach of good faith 3. the identification of the incident sanctions 4. the highlighting of some procedural features (especially in terms of the effects of court decisions finding the unfairness of a contractual term.

  11. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  12. LYCOPENE EFFICIENCY IN THE MODULATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-TAHAWY, N.A.; NADA, A.S.; REZK, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    defined shape of bronchiole, disappearance of smooth muscle, ruptured columnar epithelium and infiltration of condensed connective tissue. Rats received lycopene supplement before and during irradiation showed remarkable improvement in most of the measured parameters when compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that lycopene by scavenging free radicals may protect liver, lung and spleen tissues against gamma radiation-induced oxidative toxicity

  13. Closing Remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed

    1996-01-01

    About twenty years ago, the leaders of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) decided to start a new branch in the Clinical Oncology Program of the Division of Cancer Treatment. That new entity was named the Clinical Pharmacology Branch (CPB), and its first leader was a brilliant, young, promising investigator named Bruce A. Chabner. Chabner was educated at Yale and Harvard, and appeared to have an extraordinary grasp of novel concepts that were being developed in the emerging area of cancer chemotherapy. What the NCI leaders did not fully appreciate at the time was that they had just given birth to one of the most extraordinary careers in academic medicine. From the early seventies through the early eighties, Bruce Chabner developed a strong laboratory program that was based on scientific discovery and on the development of new talent. The CPB focused on new drug development, elucidation of drug mechanism(s) of action, and the development of new ways to use drugs that were already available. Concurrent with this laboratory effort was active participation in the development of clinical treatment regimens for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and other malignancies. Individuals who trained under Chabner are now cancer center directors, department heads, laboratory chiefs, and hold many other high-profile positions. From 1981 to 1995 Bruce Chabner was Director of the Division of Cancer Treatment (DCT) of the NCI. In that capacity he was Scientific Director of the Intramural Program within DCT, and he had oversight responsibility for the direction of extramural studies that were funded through the NCI, which were focused on the development of new treatments for human malignant disease. The NCI has five divisions for which the NCI Director has ultimate responsibility. While working with one NCI Director from 1981 to 1988, and with another from 1988 to 1995, and during the transition year of 1988, Bruce Chabner provided stability for the DCT while many changes were occurring throughout the five divisions of the NCI. How does one assess the impact of a career on a discipline such as cancer treatment? It's not easy! Each of the articles contributed to this tribute were written by a person who trained directly with Bruce Chabner, or was otherwise directly impacted by Bruce's guidance. As can be seen from the list of contributors to these Proceedings, each individual has made major contributions to the area of cancer treatment in his or her own right. However, Bruce's contribution to cancer treatment goes far beyond the individuals he trained. The many thousands of human lives who have benefited from his efforts cannot be accurately estimated, because his contributions have been so wide-ranging, as indicated below. Being "Scientific Director" is similar in a number of ways to being a football quarterback. One of those ways is that when things go well the quarterback may get a little too much credit, and when things go not-so-well the quarterback may get too much blame. However, it is the quarterback who "calls the plays." With that in mind, a partial list of the accomplishments of the Intramural Program of the DCT while Bruce Chabner was "quarterback" includes the following: * The first human retroviruses, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, were discovered and shown to be directly linked to the development of specific human malignancies. * Adoptive immunotherapy for human cancer was developed, offering exciting new additions to the anticancer armamentarium. * Paclitaxel (Taxol®) was developed, and shown to be the most important new anticancer agent in the past two decades. * The human genes responsible for the development of several specific malignancies were discovered, such as those for kidney cancer. * Development of blood tests to detect HIV-tainted blood. * Treatment strategies for pediatric AIDS were developed. * The AIDS Drug Development Program within the NIH was established. * New drugs for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related conditions were developed. * The only three drugs to date that have been specifically approved for the treatment of AIDS-AZT, DDI, and DDC-were developed under the guidance of the DCT, with Bruce Chabner as Scientific Director. * The first clinical trials conducted with each of these agents-AZT, DDI, and DDC-were performed in the Intramural Program of the DCT. * Concurrently, many of the exciting findings reported by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project over the past 10 years (as well as other cooperative groups) were a direct result of the strong support shown by Bruce Chabner during his tenure as Director of the Division of Cancer Treatment. Further, the list above does not include his personal labortory and clinical accomplishments, some of which are: * Development of the principles of use of important antimetabolites, such as methotrexate. * Elucidation of biochemical pathways affected, and the mechanisms of action, of antifols and other antimetabolites. * The conduct of seminal studies in the clinical staging of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, using laparoscopy as a primary tool. * Important contributions to the development of multiagent regimens in the clinical treatment of lymphomas, and of Hodgkin's disease. * Developed and is editor of the textbook which is considered to be the primary reference source for anticancer chemotherapeutic agents [1]. With all of these accomplishments, his career is long from over. Having just become the Medical Director of the Cancer Center at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Bruce Chabner is uniquely poised to have an even more far-reaching impact on a discipline in which he has played such a strong seminal role. This author was never a postdoctoral fellow in Bruce Chabner's laboratory. However, more than any other single person, he has played a central role in my professional development. I know of many others for whom the same statement would be true. It is a pleasure for me to witness the launching of the second phase of an already tremendous career. From Advances in Cancer Treatment: The Chabner Symposium. Stem Cells 1996;14:64-65.

  14. Introductory Remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yingfu

    The emergence of a large number of natural and artificial functional nucleic acids (FNAs; aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, collectively termed functional nucleic acids in this book) has generated tremendous enthusiasm and new opportunities for molecular scientists from diverse disciplines to devise new concepts and applications. In this volume, we have assembled some leading experts to provide a timely account of recent progress in sensing and other analytical applications that explore functional nucleic acids.

  15. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, Madeleine.

    1980-10-01

    This paper introduces the discussion of the new aspects of nuclear studies with electrons and photons. It is mainly concerned with the short range part of the nuclear force and with the quark and gluon degrees of freedom that we believe are associated with it. The present description of the nucleon-nucleon force in non relativistic quark models and in bag models is reviewed. The assumption of a '6 quark' component in the deuteron and the possible existence of dibaryons are discussed

  16. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the Tau Charm Factory workshop. To establish a firm scientific basis for future Tau Charm Factory plans one has to address the following two questions: (1) To what extent can and will work at other machines cover work that a Tau Charm Factory could do? Conversely (2) What are the required minimum parameters of a Tau Charm Factory which can do unique physics five years hence and beyond? This workshop has been organized to generate some preliminary answers in response to these two questions. Thus this Workshop is neither simply a scientific Workshop on the one hand or a planning session for specific machines on the other; rather it is something in between. During the workshop, specific plans or proposals for a Tau Charm Factory will be presented, but no attempt will be made to arrive at a consensus in response to such plans

  17. Closing remarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-12-12

    Dec 12, 2007 ... dian industry who had been involved in making magnet positioning systems and magnets for the LHC, as well as some ... the three regions went their separate ways. In fact, a large number of .... we are making decisions keeping in mind the cost of physics, we may also want to keep in mind the cost of these ...

  18. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.; Runcorn, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    The search for periodic or quasi-periodic variations in the solar constant through the analysis of climatic and meteorological data has proved elusive. The reason is evident: the atmosphere is a wet gas with much energy stored as latent heat and is in complex interaction dynamically and thermally with the oceans and land areas. The instabilities, what we call the weather, cause not only day-to-day but also year-to-year variations so great that small changes due to fluctuations of the energy input from the Sun may be masked. Yet, as the seasonal changes of solar energy falling on each hemisphere result in such obvious effects, it should not be impossible to detect in the climatic records much smaller changes in the total global input of heat energy into the atmosphere, especially if these are cyclical, by integrating out short-term fluctuations. Terrestrial phenomena which might be associated with solar behaviour such as tree-ring growth, drought, heavy rains, air temperature are of great interest. There is evidence from these sources of longer cycles of solar activity which may have a period of between 100 and 200 years but with the data available this is difficult to prove. The issue is complicated by variations in geomagnetic activity. A new source of information on solar activity is the spectrum of 14 C variations from during the past millenia from tree rings and this has prompted further studies of variations in the sun and climate to be undertaken. (author)

  19. Closing Remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, S.

    2001-01-01

    Firstly I would like to start by thanking you all, the speakers for their excellent thought-provoking talks, the session chairmen for organizing and animating their sessions and keeping things both under control and reasonably on time. However, most importantly, I would to thank you all, the participants. Without your input, ideas and discussion, this workshop would not have been the success it has. (author)

  20. Closing Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, S

    2001-07-01

    Firstly I would like to start by thanking you all, the speakers for their excellent thought-provoking talks, the session chairmen for organizing and animating their sessions and keeping things both under control and reasonably on time. However, most importantly, I would to thank you all, the participants. Without your input, ideas and discussion, this workshop would not have been the success it has. (author)

  1. Introductory Remarks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Anna; Jelínek, František; Pokorný, Jiří; Šrobár, Fedor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2009), s. 333-335 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Biophysics * Cancer * Electromagnetic fields Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2009

  2. Final remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document refers to the achievement and maintenance of a high level in the Brazilian nuclear installations, the establishment and maintenance of effective defenses against potential radiological hazards, the ability to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and preparedness for mitigating the consequences of such accidents should they occur

  3. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Where are the gaps in our current knowledge and what research is needed? One of my concerns was whether those of us in the radiation protection community have been thinking along the same lines as people in the field of toxicology. I think what has been evident that the problems and issues are very similar. Very evident common problems are those of extrapolation of observed toxic effects at high doses to predictions of effects at low doses; of the applicability of information obtained from one animal species to another; the public pressures to define risk (perhaps not pressures to define this goal as much as to define what is safe); the problems of multiple exposures; and the lack of money and resources to do all the things that it seems should be done. These are all problems familiar to us in the radiation protection community

  4. Introductory remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefer, Friedemann; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This introductory section briefly highlights the subsequent chapters in the context of recent findings and open questions in lymphatic vessel biology. It aims to provide a quick overview and orientation in the contents of this monograph collection.

  5. Closing remarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-12-12

    Dec 12, 2007 ... work with students around the world, in logging some cosmic ray data. Our hope is that in the process they will get excited about new frontiers in high ... Like many in the audience, my own personal love affair with the linear .... plea from the γγ community to the GDE and all the rest is to keep this option.

  6. Opening remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B. [Coal Association of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    There has been recent increased interest in the development of and investment in the Canadian coal industry because of rising natural gas prices and increased demand for coking coal. Several new Canadian producers have commenced mining and shipping coal. Premium hard coking coal prices have risen, from $40 US in 2000 to above $100 US per tonne in 2006. The resource sector is challenged by higher energy costs, increasing transportation costs, problems with equipment and parts procurement, and the recruitment and retention of skilled mining employees. Mineral exploration and development has risen seven-fold in British Columbia since 2001, where the province now offers a competitive business and taxation environment as an incentive to resource development. Coal represents 40% of British Columbia's mining revenue.

  7. Summary of remarks and recommendations concerning the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a summary of all the remarks and recommendations that had been received by the International Atomic Energy Agency from Member States and International Organizations on the second draft revision of the IAEA transport regulations

  8. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects:the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder...

  9. The 1928 draft convention for the prevention of double taxation in the special matter of succession duties. The conventions concluded by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. ŞCHIOPU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania has concluded two conventions for the avoidance of double taxation on estate and inheritance tax during the interwar period. Since one of these conventions is still in force and the difficulties caused by the burdens resulting from inheritance tax in cross-border situations are of great importance to the proper functioning of the EU and of the internal market, this short article aims to compare the solutions proposed by the 1928 Draft Convention for the Prevention of Double Taxation in the Special Matter of Succession Duties and the conventions concluded by Romania in 1932 and 1934, considering that at some point our legislator may want to reintroduce an inheritance tax.

  10. Remarkable long-range-systematic in the binding energies of α-nuclei. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter I present further data that show the remarkable evidence for the existence of an α-cluster structure in the ground states of even-even N=Z nuclei. Such a remarkable systematic was observed 20 years ago Gross and Nemes [Phys. Lett. B 130 (1983) 131] for these nuclei at A≤72 and is extended here up to A=100

  11. PREFACE: Introductory remarks Introductory remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, D. R.; Alfe, D.

    2010-02-01

    This special issue contains papers related to the 2009 Thomas Young Centre Workshop at University College London 'Accessing large length and time scales with accurate quantum methods', in celebration of Professor Michael Gillan's 65th birthday. Mike Gillan won the 2006 Institute of Physics Dirac Medal and Prize, the citation reading: 'For his contributions to the development of atomic-scale computer simulations, which have greatly extended their power and effectiveness over an immense range of applications'. This rightly highlights Mike's seminal work on materials modelling, but misses out some of the many other areas he has enriched. After taking his PhD at the Department of Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Mike went as a post-doc to Minneapolis. He then joined the Statistical Physics Group in the Theoretical Physics Division, Harwell, where he stayed for over 20 years, with a brief interlude in Saclay. In the late 1980s, Mike made a transition to become Professor of Physics at the University of Keele, where he stayed for a decade until University College London was fortunate in being able to tempt him to join the Condensed Matter and Material Physics Group, where there was already a significant materials modelling initiative. Over the years, Mike has made many important contributions, some with impact on other areas of science, others with significance in technology areas such as nuclear safety. Thus, he developed a form of quantum transition-state theory, generalizing Eyring's well-known classical transition-state theory to the case of quantum particles, such as hydrogen, diffusing in condensed matter. He pioneered quantum methods for calculating defect energetics in solids, and then molecular processes on surfaces. He synthesised these approaches into very general ways to calculate thermodynamic free energies of condensed matter from first principles, drawing on his early experience of statistical physics. These methods led to rapid advances in the study of matter under extreme conditions, as in the Earth's core. A further powerful development has been his input to linear-scaling quantum techniques for the properties of very large complex systems. In recent years, his attention has shifted towards increasing accuracy, touching areas such as quantum Monte Carlo and hierarchical quantum chemical techniques. In this journal issue, we have papers which both reflect topics from the workshop and address a number of areas which are directly in Mike's interests or which have been influenced by his work or assistance. There are papers addressing accuracy in quantum simulations [1-5], methods for applying quantum techniques to large systems [6, 7] and applications of quantum simulations to important problems [8-10]. We also have a viewpoint on magnetism in oxides and carbon [11], prompted by Mike's innovative work on oxides. References [1] Nolan S J, Bygrave P J, Allan N L and Manby F R 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074201 [2] Badinski A, Haynes P D, Trail J R and Needs R J 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074202 [3] Klimeš J, Bowler D R and Michaelides A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074203 [4] Baroni S, Gebauer R, Malcιoğlu O B, Saad Y, Umari P and Xian J 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074204 [5] Toton D, Lorenz C D, Rompotis N, Martsinovich N and Kantorovich L 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074205 [6] Fujiwara T, Hoshi T, Yamamoto S, Sogabe T and Zhang S-L 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074206 [7] Bowler D R and Miyazari T 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074207 [8] Er S, van Setten M J, de Wijs G A and Brocks G 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074208 [9] Pan D, Liu L-M, Tribello G A, Slater B, Michaelides A and Wang E 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074209 [10] Choudhury R, Gattinoni C, Makov G and De Vita A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074210 [11] Stoneham M 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 074211

  12. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  13. Silk fibroin in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoju, Naresh; Bora, Utpal

    2012-07-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary field that aims at the in vitro engineering of tissues and organs by integrating science and technology of cells, materials and biochemical factors. Mimicking the natural extracellular matrix is one of the critical and challenging technological barriers, for which scaffold engineering has become a prime focus of research within the field of TE. Amongst the variety of materials tested, silk fibroin (SF) is increasingly being recognized as a promising material for scaffold fabrication. Ease of processing, excellent biocompatibility, remarkable mechanical properties and tailorable degradability of SF has been explored for fabrication of various articles such as films, porous matrices, hydrogels, nonwoven mats, etc., and has been investigated for use in various TE applications, including bone, tendon, ligament, cartilage, skin, liver, trachea, nerve, cornea, eardrum, dental, bladder, etc. The current review extensively covers the progress made in the SF-based in vitro engineering and regeneration of various human tissues and identifies opportunities for further development of this field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Localization of inorganic ions in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iren, F. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author has been unable to devise a generally applicable technique of ion localization in cells and tissues. He concludes that ion localization in living organisms remains difficult. From this study, a rough outline of how ions are transported into, through, and out of plant roots is drawn. (Auth.)

  15. POINTS OF VIEW ON THE POSSIBILITY OF CONCLUDING A MANDATE AGREEMENT FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE OWNERS’ ASSOCIATIONS AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Law no. 230 of July 6th, 2007 on the set up, organization and operation of the owners' associations, as well as its enforcement guidelines of December 19th, 2007 for the implementation of Law no. 230/2007, although they seem quite broadly regulated, they are not clear enough, not even to this moment of implementation, regarding some issues emerging in practice, generating ambiguities in the application of their provisions especially regarding the assessment of the manner of remuneration of the persons carrying out activities in those associations. Or, even more since the entering into effect of the new Civil Code in October 2011, there is the issue of finding and understanding which the best solutions are for the owners' associations regarding the remuneration received by their members, as well as the consequences of concluding a certain type of agreement over another.

  16. Original article Determinants of personality in the scope of motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chodkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The results of numerous studies indicate strong associations of personality with the occurrence, and also with the treatment, of alcohol dependence. However, there is no agreement regarding the role of particular dimensions of temperament and character in the course of, and for the results of, alcohol rehabilitation therapy. The objective of the present research was to investigate the relationships between the dimensions of temperament and character as they are presented by Robert Cloninger and motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding the therapy. Participants and procedure Eighty-nine male alcohol-dependent individuals, concluding alcohol rehabilitation therapy in an outpatient setting, were studied. The following research tools were applied: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of R. Clo­ninger in the Polish adaptation of E. Hornowska (2003, and the Motivation for Maintaining Abstinence Inventory, the author of which is M. Ziółkowski. Results Two clusters, differing in the aspect of motivation for maintaining abstinence after the conclusion of the treatment, were distinguished: of individuals manifesting weaker motivation (n = 39 and those manifesting stronger motivation (n = 50. The patients with stronger motivation manifested the following major features: a lower level of harm avoidance, a higher level of reward dependence, and a higher level of cooperativeness. Conclusions Personality as it is presented by Cloninger manifests connections with motivation for maintaining abstinence. The research confirms the need for diagnosing addicted patients in the scope of temperament and character traits.

  17. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF...

  18. Remarks on an equation common to Weyl's gauge field, Yang-Mills field and Toda lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this letter a remark is presented on an equation of a gauge-invariant Weyl's gauge field and it is shown that the equation is common to Yang's approach to the self-duality condition for SU 2 gauge field and the simplest Toda lattice

  19. Rotational bands in the nuclear sup(168)Er and some remarks on their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.F.; Dixon, W.R.; Storey, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Further analysis of previously published data on sup(168)Er, together with results of new measurements of selected portions of the neutron capture γ-ray spectrum, has resulted in the construction of an improved level spectrum for this nucleus. Altogether 127 excited levels have now been established and grouped into 36 rotational bands. Some remarks on their interpretation are advanced

  20. Closing remarks at 4th NuFact '02 workshop, London, England, 6 July 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey is given of actual R and D activities around the world. Following that, various conceptual developments significant to factories are reviewed. Then we turn to the costs of a factory. We discuss the present budgetary woes throughout the world and end with some closing remarks

  1. A global first integral for certain dynamical systems and related remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Gascon, F.

    1977-01-01

    A global first integral for certain dynamical systems and the related remarks are presented. In particular, it is shown that for these dynamical systems by introducing the (intrinsic) definition of the divergence of a vector field defined on an orientable differentiable manifold, the first integral, i.e. the (intrinsic) divergence of a vector field is now, automatically, a global first integral. (author)

  2. Remark on the gravitational field produced by an infinite straight string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.; Matsas, G.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results predicted by Newtonian gravity and general relativity are compared regarding the field produced by an infinite gauge string with constant density λ. A simple gedankenexperiment is suggested to stress the remarkable differences between these two theories. The existence of the usual Newtonian limit is discussed in this case

  3. Remarks on the high-energy behavior of string scattering amplitudes in warped spacetimes. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    We study the Regge limit of string amplitudes within the model of Polchinski-Strassler for string scattering in warped spacetimes. We also present some numerical estimations of the Regge slopes and intercepts. It is quite remarkable that the real values of those are inside a range of ours

  4. Teachers' Remarks about Their Salaries in 1800 in the Helvetic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, teachers have complained about their salaries. In the Stapfer inquiry of 1799, some teachers made remarks about financial issues, particularly their low incomes. This inquiry is the main source for the arguments presented here regarding teachers' low salary during this period of the Helvetic Republic. The disparity between the…

  5. Opening remarks; special session 4. Burning issues and smoke screens: heat and light in southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Roussopoulos

    1998-01-01

    In Roussopoulos’ opening remarks he included nine assertions about southern forests: 1) that their characteristics are unique; 2) that they recovered from abusive agricultural practices and exploitive forest extraction in the 19th and early 20th centuries; 3) that they are brand new; 4) that social forces driving change will intensify at all scales; 5) that the...

  6. The Public University in South Africa: Philosophical Remarks on the Notion of "Elitist Knowledge" Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    In my remarks about elitist knowledge production, I firstly try to adjust the perspective from which the university could be analysed; I specifically explore the functions of the university in relation to Habermas's categorisation of knowledge. Secondly, with reference to Derrida's reflections on the university, I reformulate a conception of the…

  7. Exploring the Role of Conventionality in Children's Interpretation of Ironic Remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Irony comprehension in seven- and eight-year-old children with typically developing language skills was explored under the framework of the graded salience hypothesis. Target ironic remarks, either conventional or novel/situation-specific, were presented following brief story contexts. Children's responses to comprehension questions were used to…

  8. A Brief History of the Most Remarkable Numbers "e," "i" and "?" in Mathematical Sciences with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of the most remarkable Euler numbers "e,"?"i"?and?"?" in mathematical sciences. Included are many properties of the constants "e,"?"i"?and?"?" and their applications in algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, ecology, business and industry. Special…

  9. Global checklist of species of Grania (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae with remarks on their geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prantoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of all currently accepted species of Grania Southern, 1913 (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae is presented. The genus is widespread over the world and comprises 81 species described to date. Remarks on their geographical distribution, habitat, synonymies and museum catalogue numbers are provided.

  10. Concluding report by the committee of experts on the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations. Vattenfall to implement the set of measures and all recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassa, R.

    2007-01-01

    The independent Committee of Experts appointed by Vattenfall Europe after the events of June 28, 2007 in the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations concluded its investigations. The Committee had been asked to investigate and evaluate the situation associated with the events, and to elaborate proposals for improvement on this basis. The analysis by the Committee of Experts boils down to the finding that the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations represent a modern standard as far as design concepts and technical safety features are concerned. Besides technical preconditions, also the administrative features are in place for safe plant oepration. No indications were found of any deficits in safety culture which would justify doubt about the reliability of the operator or the staff responsible under the Atomic Energy Act, nor is there any doubt about the level of technical expertise. Vattenfall directly ordered the findings to be implemented by applying, for part of the technical measures, for implementation with the Kiel State Ministry for Social Affairs as the competent regulatory agency. The Vattenfall Group is going to establish a new safety organization and safety controlling for the nuclear power plants operated by the company. These measures are to ensure an optimum safety level and the highest safety standards. With Vattenfall, safety enjoys top priority. (orig.)

  11. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  13. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  15. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...... was found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...... correlated to SFT with the equation lambda = 0.20 . SFT + 4.63. It is concluded that the previously accepted lambda value of 10 is generally too high in perirenal as well as in subcutaneous tissue. Thus, by application of the present regression equations, it is possible to obtain more exact estimates...

  16. Analysis of lung tissue using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.; Barrera, R.; Miranda, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a comparative study is presented of the contents of metals in lung tissue from healthy patients and with lung cancer, by means of two analytical techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The samples of cancerous tissue were taken from 26 autopsies made to individuals died in the National Institute of Respiratory Disease (INER), 22 of cancer and 4 of other non-cancer biopsies. When analyzing the entirety of the samples, in the cancerous tissues, there were increments in the concentrations of S (4%), K (635%), Co (85%) and Cu (13%). Likewise, there were deficiencies in the concentrations of Cl (59%), Ca (6%), Fe (26%) and Zn (7%). Only in the cancerous tissues there were appearances of P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Br and Sr. The tissue samples were classified according to cancer types (adenocarcinomas, epidermoides and of small cell carcinoma), personal habits (smokers and alcoholic), genetic predisposition and residence place. There was a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Ca and a marked increment in the Cu in the epidermoide tissue samples with regard to those of adenocarcinoma or of small cells cancer. Also, decrements were detected in K and increments of Fe, Co and Cu in the sample belonging to people that resided in Mexico City with regard to those that resided in the State of Mexico

  17. FURTHER STUDIES ON UNCERTAINTY, CONFOUNDING, AND VALIDATION OF THE DOSES IN THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM: Concluding Progress Report on the Second Phase of Project 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    This is the concluding Progress Report for Project 1.1 of the U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER). An overwhelming majority of our work this period has been to complete our primary obligation of providing a new version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which we call TRDS-2009D; the D denotes deterministic. This system provides estimates of individual doses to members of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) and post-natal doses to members of the Techa River Offspring Cohort (TROC). The latter doses were calculated with use of the TRDS-2009D. The doses for the members of the ETRC have been made available to the American and Russian epidemiologists in September for their studies in deriving radiogenic risk factors. Doses for members of the TROC are being provided to European and Russian epidemiologists, as partial input for studies of risk in this population. Two of our original goals for the completion of this nine-year phase of Project 1.1 were not completed. These are completion of TRDS-2009MC, which was to be a Monte Carlo version of TRDS-2009 that could be used for more explicit analysis of the impact of uncertainty in doses on uncertainty in radiogenic risk factors. The second incomplete goal was to be the provision of household specific external doses (rather than village average). This task was far along, but had to be delayed due to the lead investigator’s work on consideration of a revised source term.

  18. [Update on soft tissue sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Binh Nguyen; Tabrizi, Reza; Dagada, Corinne; Trufflandier, Nathalie; St ckle, Eberhard; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Important refinements have taken place in the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma with extensive use of immuno-histochemistry. New entities have been described, while malignant histiocytofibroma, the most diagnosed sarcoma type during the last two decades, has been dismembered. As for prognosis, the new UICC classification is effectively more discriminating in the definition of prognostic groups; but the usefullness of new biological or genetic markers remains to be assessed. Several breakthrough have taken place in the last years in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. Isolated limb perfusion with TNF, hyperthermia and melphalan have proven its efficacy, and is now an alternative to preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for limb sparing treatment of the primary tumor site or to amputation. For systemic treatments, novel cytostatic drugs have been shown to be active in sarcomas, including ecteinascidine (ET743) and Glivec (STI571). This last drug has been shown to be remarkably active in c-kit+ stromal sarcoma of the gastro-intestinal tract. It can hopefully regarded as an example for targeted therapies, which may come with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the fundamental, specific genetic alterations shown in sarcoma.

  19. International ministerial conference on nuclear energy in the 21. century, Beijing, China, 20-22 April 2009. Concluding statement by the President of the Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    forward research and development of advanced nuclear technologies; The Secretary General of OECD and other participants expressed the view that nuclear energy should have an important role to play in post Kyoto flexibility mechanisms. To conclude, the progress made by the nuclear industry since the 2005 Paris Conference has been significant, as indicated by the number of countries expressing interest in new nuclear plants. The IAEA plays an essential role in assisting States to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The IAEA was encouraged to continue its international cooperation with Member States and international organizations such as the OECD/NEA. In this regard, participants are looking forward to a further conference at the Ministerial level in another four years, which would be a valuable step in the direction of developing the support and assurance by all countries involved in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  20. International ministerial conference on nuclear energy in the 21. century, Beijing, China, 20-22 April 2009. Concluding statement by the President of the Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    forward research and development of advanced nuclear technologies. The Secretary General of OECD and other participants expressed the view that nuclear energy should have an important role to play in post Kyoto flexibility mechanisms. To conclude, the progress made by the nuclear industry since the 2005 Paris Conference has been significant, as indicated by the number of countries expressing interest in new nuclear plants. The IAEA plays an essential role in assisting States to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The IAEA was encouraged to continue its international cooperation with Member States and international organizations such as the OECD/NEA. In this regard, participants are looking forward to a further conference at the Ministerial level in another four years, which would be a valuable step in the direction of developing the support and assurance by all countries involved in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  1. Terahertz radiation generation by lasers with remarkable efficiency in electron–positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Hitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-mixing of spatial-super-Gaussian lasers and electron–positron plasma are proposed for realizing a large amplitude nonlinear current in order to generate an efficient terahertz radiation. An external magnetic field together with a proper index of the lasers helps achieving controllable current and hence, the focused radiation of tunable frequency and power along with a remarkable efficiency of the scheme as ∼6%. - Highlights: • First proposal of photo-mixing of spatial-super-Gaussian (SSG) lasers in electron–positron (e–p) plasma. • Large amplitude nonlinear current due to the contribution of both the plasma species. • Magnetic field as an additional parameter for tunable THz radiation with a remarkable efficiency of ∼6%.

  2. Electroweak interactions at the SSC: introductory remarks multi W and Z production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-03-01

    This report is a partial summary of the work of the electroweak interaction study group at the Workshop on p anti p Options for the Super Collider, University of Chicago, February 13-17, 1984. Included are general remarks concerning the topics studied and a discussion of multi intermediate vector boson production as a probe of the gauge and scalar sectors of the electroweak theory

  3. The Diamond Light Source and the challenges ahead for structural biology: some informal remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-03-06

    The remarkable advances in structural biology in the past three decades have led to the determination of increasingly complex structures that lie at the heart of many important biological processes. Many of these advances have been made possible by the use of X-ray crystallography using synchrotron radiation. In this short article, some of the challenges and prospects that lie ahead will be summarized. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclodextrin-Scaffolded Alamethicin with Remarkably Efficient Membrane Permeabilizing Properties and Membrane Current Conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørringgaard, Claudia Ulrich; Vad, Brian Stougaard; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to classical antibiotics is a serious medical problem, which continues to grow. Small antimicrobial peptides represent a potential solution and are increasingly being developed as novel therapeutic agents. Many of these peptides owe their antibacterial activity to the formati......-channel current measurements, the α-helices of the templated multimers were demonstrated to insert into lipid bilayers forming highly efficient and remarkably stable ion-channels...

  5. Remarkable biomimetic chemoselective aerobic oxidation of flavano-ellagitannins found in oak-aged wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Emilie; Lefeuvre, Dorothée; Jacquet, Rémi; Pouységu, Laurent; Deffieux, Denis; Quideau, Stéphane

    2013-10-25

    Under the auspices of Bacchus! Acutissimins, natural flavano-ellagitannins, occur in oak-aged wine as a result of a diastereoselective condensation reaction of the flavan-3-ol catechin, a component of grapes, with the C-glucosidic ellagitannin vescalagin, found in oak. The acutissimins are further converted into natural mongolicains and analogues of camelliatannin G in a remarkably chemoselective fashion by simple aerobic oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A REMARKABLE CLADONIACEAE FLORA AT SUBANDEAN REGION IN CHÁMEZA (CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LADY JOHANNA HERRERA VARGAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable Cladoniaceae flora was discovered in the subandean region of Chámeza, ( Casanare, Colombia at 1200 meters above sea level. Four species of the genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Lichenized Fungi are new records for Colombia : Cladonia macilentoides, C. scabriuscula, C. sipmanii and C. subdelicatula. This shows the importance of increasing diversity studies at mid elevations where suitable habitats for species of Cladonia occur.

  7. Some remarks on theological thought of María Zambrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Sánchez-Gey Venegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Zambrano reflects upon some of the problems she has been always interested in: Christianity and Mysticism with especial emphasis on the divine processions, the Incarnation of Christ, the Virgin Mary, the liturgy among other personal experiences. In these letters the pursuit for the Holy Spirit as the foundation of knowledge is remarkably noticeable, so that it could be argued that this experience contributes and gives rise to the rejection both of rationalism and of materialism of the philosophy.

  8. In quest of a relativistic constituent quark model - some constructive remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofsaess, T.; Schierholz, G.

    1978-01-01

    The set-up of a relativistic constituent quark model in four dimensions is one of the outstanding problems in particle physics. For the time being this involves a great deal of model building which, very probably, will not change in the near future. In this paper we shall offer some general remarks which might help putting such models into shape. Most of the earlier attempts are found controversial. In particular, a conventional quark constituent interpretation could not be recovered. (orig.) [de

  9. A short remark on Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concludes that Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct is for a differential-difference. Some generalized variational principles are elucidated with or without Stewart’s discrete treatment.

  10. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  11. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  12. Remarks at reception for Member States, 9 December 2009, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dear friends and colleagues, It is a great pleasure to have this first opportunity to welcome you all since I took up my position as Director General last week. I do not wish to spoil your evening by making a long speech. But I would like to make a few remarks highlighting the areas to which I plan to give special attention in the months and years ahead. Let me say at the outset that my key objective is to address global issues related to nuclear technology, in accordance with the Statute of the IAEA. That means working for nuclear non-proliferation, enhancing nuclear safety and security, assisting Member States in meeting their energy needs, responding to concerns about climate change, helping to ensure food security and clean water and improving health care through the application of nuclear techniques. The Agency's technical cooperation programme, which aims to make the benefits of nuclear science and technology more widely available, is important to all Member States. My intention is to continue to focus on technical cooperation so that we can more effectively meet the needs of Member States, as identified by them. In this regard, the priority is capacity-building to help countries establish their own expertise in nuclear science and technology. I am planning to pay special attention in my first year to cancer control, and, next week, I will make my first official trip as Director General to Nigeria to learn first-hand about its efforts to build an effective cancer control programme, among other issues. In January, I will use my participation in the World Economic Forum in Davos to appeal for focussed global attention on the growing cancer epidemic. In September, cancer control will be the topic of the Scientific Forum. This does not mean, of course, neglecting other areas of our work, which will receive special attention in future years. I now turn to nuclear power, which is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can

  13. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  14. A Remarkable Collection of Rare Scriptures in a Small University Library Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cardin Ellis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hardin-Simmons University was given two remarkable collections of rare Bibles and a Sefer Torah with the expressed desire of the donors for the collections to be shared with students, faculty and other constituencies of the university's Richardson Library. The library has tried to fulfill this request while attempting to preserve these treasures for future generations. As small university, without a trained archivist or preservationist, we have utilized resources outside our library and contiue to pursue sources to assist us in the maintenance of these special collections while still engaging them in the educational process.

  15. Some remarks on the specification of seismic conditions for NPPs, based on the Romanian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, H [INCERC Building Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania)

    1993-07-01

    Some introductory remarks are devoted to the importance of revising the level of earthquake protection of NPPs, given the new knowledge at hand. Some summary data on the seismicity of Romania are given, with emphasis on the implications of instrumental data obtained during the recent strong intermediate depth earthquake of 1986 and 1990. Some problems raised by the new data in connection with the Cernavoda NPP (currently under construction), from the viewpoint of ground and floor design conditions, are discussed. Some proposals are then presented in connection with the future activities related to the verification of NPPs of the region. (author)

  16. Some remarks on the specification of seismic conditions for NPPs, based on the Romanian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandi, H.

    1993-01-01

    Some introductory remarks are devoted to the importance of revising the level of earthquake protection of NPPs, given the new knowledge at hand. Some summary data on the seismicity of Romania are given, with emphasis on the implications of instrumental data obtained during the recent strong intermediate depth earthquake of 1986 and 1990. Some problems raised by the new data in connection with the Cernavoda NPP (currently under construction), from the viewpoint of ground and floor design conditions, are discussed. Some proposals are then presented in connection with the future activities related to the verification of NPPs of the region. (author)

  17. A remarkable new genus of Protosmylinae (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) from late Eocene Florissant, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-05-18

    Pseudosmylidia relicta gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) is described from the late Eocene of Florissant (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to the subfamily Protosmylinae based on the presence of two venational features characteristic of the subfamily: most crossveins in the radial to intramedial spaces of the forewing are arranged in four gradate series, and CuP is short and simple or forked only once in the hind wing. This genus is remarkable by CuP in the forewing bearing few pectinate branches. This is the only genus of extant and Cenozoic fossil Osmylidae in which this plesiomorphic condition is retained.

  18. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  19. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  20. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  1. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  2. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  3. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  4. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  5. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  6. Intrinsic regulation of blood flow in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Nielsen, Steen Levin; Paaske, W

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies on intact human subcutaneous tissue have shown, that blood flow remains constant during minor changes in perfusion pressure. This so-called autoregulatory response has not been demonstrable in isolated preparations of adipose tissue. In the present study on isolated, denervated...... subcutaneous tissue in female rabbits only 2 of 12 expts. revealed an autoregulatory response during reduction in arterial perfusion pressure. Effluent blood flow from the tissue in the control state was 15.5 ml/100 g-min (S.D. 6.4, n = 12) corresponding to slight vasodilatation of the exposed tissue...... vasoconstriction with pronounced flow reduction. These two reactions may be important for local regulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue during orthostatic changes in arterial and venous pressure. It is concluded that the response in adipose tissue to changes in arterial pressure (autoregulation), venous...

  7. The remarkable convergence of skull shape in crocodilians and toothed whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Matthew R; Evans, Alistair R; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Adams, Justin W; Clausen, Philip D; McHenry, Colin R

    2017-03-15

    The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position of skull bones. We examined whether diet, habitat and prey size correlated with skull shape using phylogenetically informed statistical procedures. Crocodilians and toothed whales have a similar range of skull shapes, varying from extremely short and broad to extremely elongate. This spectrum of shapes represented more of the total variation in our dataset than between phylogenetic groups. The most elongate species (river dolphins and gharials) are extremely convergent in skull shape, clustering outside of the range of the other taxa. Our results suggest the remarkable convergence between long-snouted river dolphins and gharials is driven by diet rather than physical factors intrinsic to riverine environments. Despite diverging approximately 288 million years ago, crocodilians and odontocetes have evolved a remarkably similar morphological solution to feeding on similar prey. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Comprehension of direct and indirect sarcastic remarks in children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Helena; Shah, Shivani; Stern, Jeremy S; Crawford, Sarah; Channon, Shelley

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has reported that aspects of social cognition such as nonliteral language comprehension are impaired in adults with Tourette's syndrome (TS), but little is known about social cognition in children and adolescents with TS. The present study aims to evaluate a measure of sarcasm comprehension suitable for use with children and adolescents (Experiment 1), and to examine sarcasm comprehension in children and adolescents with TS-alone or TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the measure of sarcasm comprehension was found to be sensitive to differences in nonliteral language comprehension for typically-developing children aged 10 to 11 years old compared to children aged 8 to 9 years old; the older group performed significantly better on the comprehension of scenarios ending with either direct or indirect sarcastic remarks, whereas the two age groups did not differ on the comprehension of scenarios ending with sincere remarks. In Experiment 2, both the TS-alone and TS+ADHD groups performed below the level of the control participants on the comprehension of indirect sarcasm items but not on the comprehension of direct sarcasm items and sincere items. Those with TS+ADHD also performed below the level of the control participants on measures of interference control and fluency. The findings are discussed with reference to the possible contribution of executive functioning and mentalizing to the patterns of performance.

  9. Local and Community History: Some Cautionary Remarks on an Idea Whose Time Has Returned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes past local history movements and addresses benefits and problems for historical studies and history teaching in the current upsurge of interest in local and community history. Concludes that local history must transcend parochialism in order to see the larger picture. (KC)

  10. Hypoxia and Stem Cell-Based Engineering of Mesenchymal Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Teng; Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the ability for prolonged self-renewal and differentiation into mature cells of various lineages, which makes them important cell sources for tissue engineering applications. Their remarkable ability to replenish and differentiate in vivo is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic cellular mechanisms. The anatomical location where the stem cells reside, known as the “stem cell niche or microenvironment,” provides signals conducive to the maintenance of definitive stem cell p...

  11. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  12. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  13. An economic survey of the emerging tissue engineering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, M J; Nguy, N A; Sullivan, K

    1998-01-01

    The contemporary scope of worldwide tissue engineering research and development was estimated by totaling the relevant annual spending and other economic parameters of firms involved the field. Operating expenses allocated to tissue engineering in 1997 exceed $450 million and fund the activities of nearly 2,500 scientists and support personnel. Growth rate is 22.5% per annum. Most activity is centered in the United States. Government spending in this field represents investment and valuation represents a remarkable act of faith in the future of a technology yet to produce its first significant revenue-generating product.

  14. Monitoring soft tissue coagulation by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, A.; Lihacova, I.; Heinrichs, H.; Spigulis, J.; Trebst, T.; Wehner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser tissue welding (LTW) or laser tissue soldering (LTS) is investigated since many years for treatment of incisions, wound closure and anastomosis of vessels [1, 2]. Depending on the process, a certain temperature in the range between 65 °C to 85 °C must be reached and held for a few seconds. Care has to be taken not to overheat the tissue, otherwise necrosis or tissue carbonization may occur and will impair wound healing. Usually the temperature is monitored during the process to control the laser power [3]. This requires either bulky equipment or expensive and fragile infrared fibers to feed the temperature signal to an infrared detector. Alternatively, changes in tissue morphology can be directly observed by analysis of spectral reflectance. We investigate spectral changes in the range between 400 nm to 900 nm wavelength. Characteristic spectral changes occur when the temperature of tissue samples increase above 70 °C which is a typical setpoint value for temperature control of coagulation. We conclude that simple spectroscopy in the visible range can provide valuable information during LTS and LTW and probably replace the delicate measurement of temperature. A major advantage is that optical measurements can be performed using standard optical fibers and can be easily integrated into a surgical tool.

  15. Functional Attachment of Soft Tissues to Bone: Development, Healing, and Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissues such as tendons or ligaments attach to bone across a multitissue interface with spatial gradients in composition, structure, and mechanical properties. These gradients minimize stress concentrations and mediate load transfer between the soft and hard tissues. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries and the lack of integrative solutions for their repair, interface regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge. This review begins with a description of the developmental processes and the resultant structure-function relationships that translate into the functional grading necessary for stress transfer between soft tissue and bone. It then discusses the interface healing response, with a focus on the influence of mechanical loading and the role of cell-cell interactions. The review continues with a description of current efforts in interface tissue engineering, highlighting key strategies for the regeneration of the soft tissue–to-bone interface, and concludes with a summary of challenges and future directions. PMID:23642244

  16. To Conclude: India can aim big

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Transmission and Distribution Losses. If 100 million middle class homes deploy 1 kW on rooftops. 100 GW peak power capacity added at homes alone; 40% of current peak power installed in India today. India must aim by 2030. To have 50% of its electric power from SOLAR; To have 50% of vehicles as Electric Vehicles ...

  17. Main building fire drill safely concluded

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Last week, a simulated fire in the stairwell of the Main Building put CERN’s emergency response procedures to the test.   Firefighters descend the stairwell in the Main Building as the simulated fire rises.   At 2 p.m. on 22 September, alarms sounded around CERN’s Main Building as an evacuation exercise got underway. A simulated fire in the  stairwell, complete with very realistic smoke, led to the evacuation of one of the busiest places at CERN. The Main Building complex includes the Carlson Wagonlit travel agency, the post office, UBS, Uniqa, the Users Office, the Staff Association and the Novae restaurant as well as the Main Auditorium, the Council Chamber and the Charpak meeting room. It was impressive to see how quickly the smoke propagated in the staircase as well as into the corridors, and equally impressive to see how smoothly, quickly and efficiently the evacuation proceeded. The...

  18. Professor of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch (Concluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for a large, if not for the major portion of his food supply and it was their skins and ... palatability is an obvious one, but which might be purely incidental, the ... In order to carve out a niche for himself, man had no choice but to modify and destroy.

  19. Dielectric and FT-Raman spectroscopic approach to molecular identification of breast tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hakam, Rasha; Khalil, Safaa; Mahani, Ragab

    2015-01-01

    FT-Raman spectra and dielectric properties of benign and malignant women breast tissues in vitro were investigated. FT-Raman spectra for the malignant tissues showed a remarkably decrease in the lipid/protein ratio. Dielectric properties of women breast tissues measured in the low frequency range (42-10(6)Hz) were interpreted in spite of electrode polarization effect. Experimental results showed a contrast between the dielectric properties of malignant (Grade II) and benign tissues within the frequency range studied. The permittivity of malignant to normal breast tissue was found to be 160:1 while it could be 1.3:1 for fibrocystic breast tissues. These findings could contribute to distinguish between two breast tissues. The differences in spectral features between benign and malignant tissues may lead to breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  1. The remarkable robustness of the first-offer effect: across culture, power, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Swaab, Roderick I; Sivanathan, Niro; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    The first-offer effect demonstrates that negotiators achieve better outcomes when making the first offer than when receiving it. The evidence, however, primarily derives from studies of Westerners without systematic power differences negotiating over one issue-contexts that may amplify the first-offer effect. Thus, the present research explored the effect across cultures, among negotiators varying in power, and in negotiations involving single and multiple issues. The first two studies showed that the first-offer effect remains remarkably robust across cultures and multi-issue negotiations. The final two studies demonstrated that low-power negotiators benefit from making the first offer across single- and multi-issue negotiations. The second and fourth studies used multi-issue negotiations with distributive, integrative, and compatible issues, allowing us to show that first offers operate through the distributive, not the integrative or compatible issues. Overall, these results reveal that moving first can benefit negotiators across many organizational and personal situations.

  2. On the Motivation and Foundation of Natural Time Analysis: Useful Remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Panayiotis A.; Sarlis, Nicholas V.; Skordas, Efthimios S.

    2016-08-01

    Since its introduction in 2001, natural time analysis has been applied to diverse fields with remarkable results. Its validity has not been doubted by any publication to date. Here, we indicate that frequently asked questions on the motivation and the foundation of natural time analysis are directly answered if one takes into account the following two key points that we have considered as widely accepted when natural time analysis was proposed: first, the aspects on the energy of a system forwarded by Max Planck in his Treatise on Thermodynamics; second, the theorem on the characteristic functions of probability distributions which Gauss called Ein Schönes Theorem der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung (beautiful theorem of probability calculus). The case of the time series of earthquakes and of the precursory Seismic Electric Signals are discussed as typical examples.

  3. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  4. Remarks on ''Neutrino masses and mixing angles in a predictive theory of fermion masses''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoura, L.; Silva, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the extension of the Dimopoulos-Hall-Raby model of the fermion mass matrices to the neutrino sector, there is an entry in the up-quark and neutrino Dirac mass matrices which can be assumed to arise from the Yukawa coupling of a 120, instead of a 10 or a 126, of SO(10). Although this assumption leads to an extra undetermined complex parameter in the model, the resulting lepton mixing matrix exhibits the remarkable feature that the ν τ does not mix with the other two neutrinos. Making a reasonable assumption about the extra parameter, we are able to fit the large-mixing-angle MSW solution of the solar-neutrino problem, and we obtain m ντ ∼10 eV, the right mass range to close the Universe. Other possibilities for explaining the solar-neutrino deficit are also discussed

  5. Some remarks on the derivability of linear nonconservative systems from a Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, L.Y.; Kwatny, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the linearization of the equations governing the behavior of large-scale interconnected electric power systems is carried out. It is shown that the perturbed equations of motion represent a linear, nonconservative dynamical system with arbitrary parameter matrices. Simplified conditions for the derivability of such systems from a Lagrangian are given. First integrals are derived when a certain commutativity relation is satisfied. It is shown that previously obtained results can be recovered as special cases of the present development. An example in which independent energy-like integrals are obtained by utilizing the results of this paper is given. Finally, a remark contained in a previous paper by the authors is clarified

  6. On the remarkable spectrum of a non-Hermitian random matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, D E; Orland, H; Zee, A

    2003-01-01

    A non-Hermitian random matrix model proposed a few years ago has a remarkably intricate spectrum. Various attempts have been made to understand the spectrum, but even its dimension is not known. Using the Dyson-Schmidt equation, we show that the spectrum consists of a non-denumerable set of lines in the complex plane. Each line is the support of the spectrum of a periodic Hamiltonian, obtained by the infinite repetition of any finite sequence of the disorder variables. Our approach is based on the 'theory of words'. We make a complete study of all four-letter words. The spectrum is complicated because our matrix contains everything that will ever be written in the history of the universe, including this particular paper

  7. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon nanocages: a new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Tan, Zhe Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Jian Nong

    2014-03-24

    Low durability is the major challenge hindering the large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, and corrosion of carbon support materials of current catalysts is the main cause. Here, we describe the finding of remarkably high durability with the use of a novel support material. This material is based on hollow carbon nanocages developed with a high degree of graphitization and concurrent nitrogen doping for oxidation resistance enhancement, uniform deposition of fine Pt particles, and strong Pt-support interaction. Accelerated degradation testing shows that such designed catalyst possesses a superior electrochemical activity and long-term stability for both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction relative to industry benchmarks of current catalysts. Further testing under conditions of practical fuel cell operation reveals almost no degradation over long-term cycling. Such a catalyst of high activity, particularly, high durability, opens the door for the next-generation PEMFC for "real world" application.

  9. Self-study program on HTML browser--application to Clinical Nursing General Remarks Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, N; Sota, Y; Ezumi, H

    1997-01-01

    We created a self-study program using HTML browser on the Clinical Nursing General Remarks Course, Eighty-three students each selected a published book on a personal history (written personal reflections from individuals who had undergone medical treatment and hospitalization), read it and submitted reports of their impressions of the histories. Their reports were arranged from a nursing perspective and entered on the home page of our college using HTML browser. We intended that the students would become more interested in reading of the personal histories, and that they would acquire new self-study skills and increase their interest in Internet through use of our program. In addition, we hoped that this program would encourage positive communication and mutual sharing of information. The students were able to easily refer to a personal history according to their interest from a nursing perspective. Therefore this program realized the mutual learning among students and other users.

  10. Remarkable identities related to the (quantum) elliptic Calogero-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    We present remarkable functional identities related to the elliptic Calogero-Sutherland (eCS) system. We derive them from a second quantization of the eCS model within a quantum field theory model of anyons on a circle and at finite temperature. The identities involve two eCS Hamiltonians with arbitrary and, in general, different particle numbers N and M, and a particular function of N+M variables arising as anyon correlation function of N particles and M antiparticles. In addition to identities obtained from anyons with the same statistics parameter λ, we also obtain 'dual' relations involving 'mixed' correlation functions of anyons with two different statistics parameters λ and 1/λ. We also give alternative, elementary proofs of these identities by direct computations

  11. A remarkable representation of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.; Sezgin, E.

    1990-01-01

    We construct a minimal representation of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra algebra which is based on the spin-zero singleton (the Rac) representation of SO(3,2). The representation is minimal in the sense that the central charge k of the SO(3,2) Kac-Moody algebra is chosen to take the special value of 5/2 which allows the imposition of maximum number of reducibility conditions. For the Rac, this is the unique choice for the remarkable property of maximum reducibility which is consistent with unitarity. To ensure unitarity, we furthermore impose invariance condition under the maximal compact subalgebra SO(3) x SO(2). (author). 19 refs, 1 fig

  12. Mechanism of injury and instability of cervical cord injuries without remarkable Xp evidence of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Takayoshi; Shiba, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Masaaki; Shirasawa, Kenzo; Murao, Tetsu; Mori, Eiji; Yoshimura, Toyoaki; Ishibashi, Yuichi; Ryu, Seiman

    1989-01-01

    In 27 patients with no radiographic evidence of injury, spinal cord injury was depicted as low signal intensity on MRI. In 4 patients who had spontaneous reduction of the anterior dislocation, remarkable instability was observed. Among the other 23 patients, two patients had each two injured sites, and the remaining patients had only one injuried site. Injured sites were not correlated with the development of spondylosis or the antero-posterior diameter of the spinal canal, but well correlated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Many of the patients had surgical evidence of horizontal rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament and intervertebral disk. In these cases, although the spinal cord was instable at the level of extension, it was stable at the level of midline flection. Excessively extended injury with no associated anterior longitudinal ligament was considered attributable to the strictured spinal canal. (Namekawa, K)

  13. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  14. Bildung In A New Context In Danish University Teaching With Some Remarkable Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    abandoned and even abolished. This, however, has had many bad consequences such as higher rates of failure. In particular, these bad consequences have been seen very clearly at the Department og Economics. A reorganization of the teaching of mathematics at this department began in 2007 where some elemnts...... of Bildung in an new modern context were included in the lectures. This had a remarkable impact. The students became more interested and more studious. How this was practically done will be the main item of this paper and it will be shown thar Bildung is very central if we want to develop university teaching...... to such a level that the enlightenment of the academic world can continiue. Furthermore it will be shown how the new teaching practice has improved the exam results substantiously....

  15. Remarkable separability of circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    Arctic sea ice loss may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation. The extent to which climate change can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by this loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. A novel sea ice nudging methodology in a fully coupled climate model reveals that the separate effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated Arctic sea ice loss are remarkably additive and insensitive to the mean climate state. This separability is evident in several fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. The separability of the responses might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  16. Introduction to Metagenomics at DOE JGI (Opening Remarks for the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos [DOE JGI

    2011-10-12

    After a quick introduction by DOE JGI Director Eddy Rubin, DOE JGI's Nikos Kyrpides delivers the opening remarks at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  17. The PAXgene(® tissue system preserves phosphoproteins in human tissue specimens and enables comprehensive protein biomarker research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gündisch

    Full Text Available Precise quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical tissue specimens is a prerequisite for accurate and effective diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized medicine. Although progress is being made, protein analysis from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is still challenging. In previous reports, we showed that the novel formalin-free tissue preservation technology, the PAXgene Tissue System, allows the extraction of intact and immunoreactive proteins from PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded (PFPE tissues. In the current study, we focused on the analysis of phosphoproteins and the applicability of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to the analysis of a variety of malignant and non-malignant human tissues. Using western blot analysis, we found that phosphoproteins are quantitatively preserved in PFPE tissues, and signal intensities are comparable to that in paired, frozen tissues. Furthermore, proteins extracted from PFPE samples are suitable for 2D-PAGE and can be quantified by ELISA specific for denatured proteins. In summary, the PAXgene Tissue System reliably preserves phosphoproteins in human tissue samples, even after prolonged fixation or stabilization times, and is compatible with methods for protein analysis such as 2D-PAGE and ELISA. We conclude that the PAXgene Tissue System has the potential to serve as a versatile tissue fixative for modern pathology.

  18. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  19. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  20. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  1. An Osteobiography of a Remarkable Protohistoric Chamorro Man from Taga, Tinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    premolar positions (Figure 6), are adjacent and nearly confluent. Each was affected by bone destruction from chronic periodontal tissue inflammation...of chronic periodontal disease complicates interpretation, enough remodeled alveolar structure remains at the PM1 site to suggest that an acute...musculoskeletal strength and proposed chronic motor activity patterns of Taotao Tagga’ and some of his compatriots, preceding these discussions with

  2. Fibronectin distribution in epithelial and associated tissues of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T; Thom, D

    1979-01-01

    Specific antiserum was used to investigate the distribution of the extracellular glycoprotein, fibronectin, in rat skin and tongue tissue by light and electron microscopy with immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. We conclude that fibronectin is absent from stable, differentiated...... parts of tissues, such as the sebaceous glands or the matrix, medulla, cortex, and cuticles of the hair and the inner and outer root sheaths, or even in tissues in which there is some cell movement, such as the epidermis. It is, however, characteristic of sites at which cell division is occurring...... in contact with an extracellular scaffolding, such as basement membrane or loose connective tissue. Conspicuous examples were in the glassy membrane and connective tissue sheath associated with the follicular epithelium, the basement membrane underlying vascular endothelial cells, the connective tissues...

  3. Co-cultures and cell sheet engineering as relevant tools to improve the outcome of bone tissue engineering strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complex biology of bone tissue it is quite clear that the understanding of the cellular interactions that regulate the homeostasis and regeneration of this remarkable tissue is essential for a successful Tissue Engineering strategy. The in vitro study of these cellular interactions relies on co-culture systems, a tremendously useful methodology where two or more cell types are cultured at the same time. Such strategy increases the complexity of typ...

  4. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage

  5. Closing Remarks of the Workshop OnGlobal University System & E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAIZCI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Workshop on Global University System & E-Learning was held on the 19th of October, 2006 at TOBB Economics & Technology University. The workshop attracted around 40 people from the Ministry of Education, Turkish Satellite Corporation (TURKSAT, Anadolu University, and various academic staff from different universities in Ankara. All together, there were 8 presentations each followed by a discussion. Main contributors, their brief CV’s, and the workshop program are included in the preceding part of this document.Here, I would try to put together various important points and remarks made by the speakers according to the order in the program.The first talk was presented by Professor Tapio Varis, Acting President of GUS, about the Global University System (GUS. He started his talk by reviewing the trends of the 21st Century in terms of education and technology. He emphasized the need to humanize the globalization process by adding “solidarity”, “sprit of caring for”, and “sharing with others”. It was stated that, content development, especially for educational purposes, is a difficult issue in achieving this process. Professor Varis, declared “digital literacy” as being a right for all. He mentioned “phonetic alphabet” as a tool to alleviate the problems associated with the communication among different nationalities. He mentioned the need to exchange ideas, opinions and experience to create a successful working environment and stressed the importance of cultural issues such as quality assurance, translation and assessment. He also talked about open courseware, “education for all”, offered by MIT and UNESCO. Finally, Professor Varis summarized the mission of GUS as to offer a global quality education (described as a renaissance education program for developing countries and/or regions by taking into account cultural sensitivities.The second talk was presented by Professor Takeshi Utsumi about the Global Collaborative

  6. Can tissues be owned?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-17

    Jun 17, 2013 ... Regulations Regarding Rendering of Clinical Forensic Medicine ... 1 Special Interest Research Group on Biotechnology and Medical Law of the College of Law, University of ... persons for the following medical and dental purposes: ... tissue to the international market were taking tissue without consent.

  7. Neural tissue-spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Johansen, Mathias; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2007-01-01

    By combining new and established protocols we have developed a procedure for isolation and propagation of neural precursor cells from the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of newborn rats. Small tissue blocks of the SVZ were dissected and propagated en bloc as free-floating neural tissue...... content, thus allowing experimental studies of neural precursor cells and their niche...

  8. [Inflammatory granulomas in the pathology of the nervous system. General remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The "gliogenic" participation in the edification of granulomas may produce peculiar morphological features especially in the central nervous system, and perhaps more than elsewhere, pseudotumoral features. Moreover, the concept of "granuloma" is perhaps not as well defined as in the other tissues. There are also some still unsolved problems concerning the histogenesis of the cells of the "granuloma". Some examples taken among the different etiologies illustrate these notions.

  9. MicroRNAs in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard

    2015-07-01

    35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian clocks are resounding in peripheral tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are prevalent in most organisms. Even the smallest disturbances in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues can result in functional asynchrony, at the organism level, and may to contribute to a wide range of physiologic disorders. It has been reported that as many as 5%-10% of transcribed genes in peripheral tissues follow a circadian expression pattern. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian gene expression on a large dataset representing three different peripheral tissues. The data have been produced in a large-scale microarray experiment covering replicate daily cycles in murine white and brown adipose tissues as well as in liver. We have applied three alternative algorithmic approaches to identify circadian oscillation in time series expression profiles. Analyses of our own data indicate that the expression of at least 7% to 21% of active genes in mouse liver, and in white and brown adipose tissues follow a daily oscillatory pattern. Indeed, analysis of data from other laboratories suggests that the percentage of genes with an oscillatory pattern may approach 50% in the liver. For the rest of the genes, oscillation appears to be obscured by stochastic noise. Our phase classification and computer simulation studies based on multiple datasets indicate no detectable boundary between oscillating and non-oscillating fractions of genes. We conclude that greater attention should be given to the potential influence of circadian mechanisms on any biological pathway related to metabolism and obesity.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Griekspoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s. Methods: The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores. Results: Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes. Conclusion: The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds.

  12. Remarkably Enhanced Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensing of SnO₂ Nanoflowers via Vacuum Annealing Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Zihui; Yang, Shulin; Fu, Xingxing; Huang, Rui; Li, Xiaokang; Xiong, Juan; Hu, Yongming; Gu, Haoshuang

    2018-03-23

    In this work, SnO₂ nanoflowers synthesized by a hydrothermal method were employed as hydrogen sensing materials. The as-synthesized SnO₂ nanoflowers consisted of cuboid-like SnO₂ nanorods with tetragonal structures. A great increase in the relative content of surface-adsorbed oxygen was observed after the vacuum annealing treatment, and this increase could have been due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies serving as preferential adsorption sites for oxygen species. Annealing treatment resulted in an 8% increase in the specific surface area of the samples. Moreover, the conductivity of the sensors decreased after the annealing treatment, which should be attributed to the increase in electron scattering around the defects and the compensated donor behavior of the oxygen vacancies due to the surface oxygen adsorption. The hydrogen sensors of the annealed samples, compared to those of the unannealed samples, exhibited a much higher sensitivity and faster response rate. The sensor response factor and response rate increased from 27.1% to 80.2% and 0.34%/s to 1.15%/s, respectively. This remarkable enhancement in sensing performance induced by the annealing treatment could be attributed to the larger specific surface areas and higher amount of surface-adsorbed oxygen, which provides a greater reaction space for hydrogen. Moreover, the sensors with annealed SnO₂ nanoflowers also exhibited high selectivity towards hydrogen against CH₄, CO, and ethanol.

  13. Exercise is medicine: some cautionary remarks in principle as well as in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Ross D

    2013-08-01

    On the basis of extensive research on the relationship between physical activity, exercise and health, as well as strong support from policymakers and practitioners, the "Exercise is Medicine" initiative has become something of a linchpin in the agenda for modern healthcare reform and reflects a broader acceptance that the philosophy of health politics must shift from social engineering to performativity. However, in spite of the avowed commitment to encouraging individuals to take on a more reflexive relation to their health, it remains unclear as to whether an initiative such as this is, unambiguously, a good thing. In this paper, a number of cautionary remarks are made with respect to "Exercise is Medicine" in principle as well as in practice. Firstly, it is argued that equating exercise with medicine is to equate it with a definition of and relation to the body to which it is not entirely akin. And secondly, it is argued that any proposed alignment of the fitness and healthcare industries needs further critical examination, a realigning of interests, and a thorough reconsideration of their suitability of fit.

  14. Remarks on Correlations and Implications of the Mandibular Structure and Diet in Some Seals (Mammalia, Phocidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsky I.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remarks on Correlations and Implications of the Mandibular Structure and Diet in Some Seals (Mammalia, Phocidae. Koretsky, I. A., Rahmat, S. J., Peters, N. — The diverse representatives of Recent seals within the three extant subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Phocinae, Monachinae of the family Phocidae exhibit dietary variations among species, feeding on invertebrates and a diversity of prey depending on the season and availability. To explain this variability, an introductory morphological examination of the mandibular structure of Recent seals from each subfamily was performed, focusing on: heights of the mandibular ramus and condyloid process; measurements of the masseteric fossa; and attachments of muscles of mastication. After measuring the condyloid angles (the inclination of the condyloid process in relation to the axis of the alveolar row among the examined species, a correlation between the size ofthe angle, function, and diet was recognized. Seals with a tall mandibular ramus and greater condyloid angle (Cystophorinae feed on larger-sized prey, while seals with a shorter ramus and lesser condyloid angle feed on small (Monachinae to medium-sized (Phocinae prey, regardless of the overall size of the seal. This study focused on the mandibular morphology of some living and fossil representatives of Phocidae, providing an association between functional and ecological interpretations of modern seals in general and extrapolating this knowledge for fossil dietary preference.

  15. The remarkable environmental rebound effect of electric cars: a microeconomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Freire-González, Jaume; Kemp, René; van der Voet, Ester

    2014-10-21

    This article presents a stepwise, refined, and practical analytical framework to model the microeconomic environmental rebound effect (ERE) stemming from cost differences of electric cars in terms of changes in multiple life cycle environmental indicators. The analytical framework is based on marginal consumption analysis and hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA). The article makes a novel contribution through a reinterpretation of the traditional rebound effect and methodological refinements. It also provides novel empirical results about the ERE for plug-in hybrid electric (PHE), full-battery electric (FBE), and hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) cars for Europe. The ERE is found to have a remarkable impact on product-level environmental scores. For the PHE car, the ERE causes a marginal increase in demand and environmental pressures due to a small decrease in the cost of using this technology. For FBE and HFC cars, the high capital costs cause a noteworthy decrease in environmental pressures for some indicators (negative rebound effect). The results corroborate the concern over the high influence of cost differences for environmental assessment, and they prompt sustainable consumption policies to consider markets and prices as tools rather than as an immutable background.

  16. Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  17. Diversity in viral anti-PKR mechanisms: a remarkable case of evolutionary convergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Domingo-Gil

    Full Text Available Most viruses express during infection products that prevent or neutralize the effect of the host dsRNA activated protein kinase (PKR. Translation of Sindbis virus (SINV mRNA escapes to PKR activation and eIF2 phosphorylation in infected cells by a mechanism that requires a stem loop structure in viral 26S mRNA termed DLP to initiate translation in the absence of functional eIF2. Unlike the rest of viruses tested, we found that Alphavirus infection allowed a strong PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation in vitro and in infected animals so that the presence of DLP structure in mRNA was critical for translation and replication of SINV. Interestingly, infection of MEFs with some viruses that express PKR inhibitors prevented eIF2α phosphorylation after superinfection with SINV, suggesting that viral anti-PKR mechanisms could be exchangeable. Thus, translation of SINV mutant lacking the DLP structure (ΔDLP in 26S mRNA was partially rescued in cells expressing vaccinia virus (VV E3 protein, a known inhibitor of PKR. This case of heterotypic complementation among evolutionary distant viruses confirmed experimentally a remarkable case of convergent evolution in viral anti-PKR mechanisms. Our data reinforce the critical role of PKR in regulating virus-host interaction and reveal the versatility of viruses to find different solutions to solve the same conflict.

  18. Interpreting the Bible in the 'new' South Africa: Remarks on some problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Human

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Bible in the 'new' South Africa DJ Human Department of Biblical Studies (Sec B University of Pretoria The Bible plays an important role in South African society. The interpretation of this book within or outside the Christian community has become an increaslingly major source of debate. It has been used and misused in several spheres of society. This article does not intend providing an extensive and composite picture of the problems and character of biblical hermeneutics. Nor will it attempt to elaborate on or explain the origins, development and influences of all the different her-meneutical approaches. Rather, it poses to be an introduction to a few of the problem(s encountered in the attempt to understand the Bible, especially in terms of the 'new' South Africa. Within the framework of this scope, remarks will be made regarding the challenges involved in interpreting the Bible, the role of the interpreter in the interpretation process, the varied forms of literature to be found in Scripture, and in the last instance, to take cognisance of a few methodological approaches to the text analysis of the Bible.

  19. Late brain metastases from breast cancer: clinical remarks on 11 patients and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, Manolo; Sassun, Tanya Enny; Brogna, Christian; Giangaspero, Felice; Salvati, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Late brain metastases from breast cancer are a rare event. Only a few cases have been reported in the English literature. The authors describe the clinical and pathological remarks, together with treatment modalities, removal extent and overall survival, of 11 patients in whom brain metastases were detected more than 10 years from the primary tumor. Between January 1997 and April 2001, we hospitalized 11 patients, all females, with a histologically proven diagnosis of brain metastasis from breast invasive ductal carcinoma. We defined 'late metastasis' as those metastases that appeared at least 10 years after the breast cancer diagnosis. The median age at the moment of brain metastasis diagnosis was 59 years (range, 47-70), with a median latency time from breast cancer diagnosis of 16 years (range, 11-30). Ten patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (whole brain radiotherapy). Two of them received, after whole brain radiotherapy, stereotaxic radio surgery treatment. One patient had stereotaxic brain biopsy, performed by neuronavigator, followed by palliative corticosteroid therapy. Median survival after brain metastasis diagnosis was 28 months (range, 3 months-4 years). Although late brain metastases are a rare event, specific neurologic symptoms and neuroradiological evidence of a cerebral neoplasm should be correlated to the presence of a cerebral metastasis, in a patient with a previous history of breast cancer. The longer latency time from breast cancer to brain metastasis could be explained by the "clonal dominance" theory and by different genetic alterations of the metastatic cell, which could influence the clinical history of the disease.

  20. Discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in PSR B0818-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, Y.; Gil, J.; Sendyk, M.

    2007-05-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in the relatively less-studied wide profile pulsar B0818-41 using high-sensitivity Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. We find simultaneous occurrences of three drift regions with two different drift rates: an inner region with steeper apparent drift rate flanked on each side by a region of slower apparent drift rate. Furthermore, these closely spaced drift bands always maintain a constant phase relationship. Though these drift regions have significantly different values for the measured P2, the measured P3 value is the same and equal to 18.3P1. We interpret the unique drift pattern of this pulsar as being created by the intersection of our line of sight (LOS) with two conal rings on the polar cap of a fairly aligned rotator (inclination angle α ~ 11°), with an `inner' LOS geometry (impact angle ). We argue that both rings have the same values for the carousel rotation periodicity P4 and the number of sparks Nsp. We find that Nsp is 19-21 and show that it is very likely that P4 is the same as the measured P3, making it a truly unique pulsar. We present results from simulations of the radiation pattern using the inferred parameters, which support our interpretations and reproduce the average profile as well as the observed features in the drift pattern quite well.

  1. Discovery of remarkable subpulse drifting pattern in PSR B0818-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, Y.; Gil, J.; Sendyk, M.

    The study of pulsars showing systematic subpulse drift patterns provides important clues for understanding of pulsar emission mechanism. Pulsars with wide profiles provide extra insights because of the presence of multiple drift bands (e.g PSR B0826-34). We report the discovery of a remarkable subpulse drift pattern in a relatively less studied wide profile pulsar, PSR B0818-41, using the GMRT. We find simultaneous occurrence of three drift regions with two drift rates, an inner region with steeper apparent drift rate flanked on each side by a region of slower apparent drift rate. Furthermore, the two closely spaced drift regions always maintain a constant phase relationship. These unique drift properties seen for this pulsar is very rare. We interpret that the observed drift pattern is created by intersection of our line of sight (LOS) with two conal rings in a inner LOS (negative beta) geometry. We argue that the carousel rotation periodicity (P_4) and the number of sparks (N_sp) are the same for the rings and claim that P_4 is close to the measured P_3. Based on our analysis results and interpretations, we simulate the radiation from B0818-41. The simulations support our interpretations and reproduce the average profile and the observed drift pattern. The results of our study show that PSR B0818-41 is a powerful system to explore the pulsar radio emission mechanism, the implications of which are also discussed in our work.

  2. Remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhiyuan; Fu, Mengqi; Wu, Gongtao; Qiu, Chenguang; Shu, Jiapei; Guo, Yao; Wei, Xianlong; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-01

    We for the first time quantitatively investigate experimentally the remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with a changeable channel length fabricated in situ inside a scanning electron microscope, compare the experimental results with the theoretical predictions calculated from the measured geometric and mechanical parameters of the same SWCNT, and find the following novel points. We demonstrate experimentally that as the slack s is increased from about zero to 1.8%, the detected vibration transforms from single-mode to multimode vibration, and the gate-tuning ability gradually attenuates for all the vibration modes. The quadratic tuning coefficient α decreases linearly with when the gate voltage Vdcg is small and the nanotube resonator operates in the beam regime. The linear tuning coefficient γ decreases linearly with when Vdcg has an intermediate value and the nanotube resonator operates in the catenary regime. The calculated α and γ fit the experimental values of the even in-plane mode reasonably well. As the slack is increased, the quality factor Q of the resonator linearly goes up, but the increase is far less steep than that predicted by the previous theoretical study. Our results are important to understand and design resonators based on CNT and other nanomaterials.

  3. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-09-10

    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  4. New URJC-1 Material with Remarkable Stability and Acid-Base Catalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging new metal-organic structures with tunable physicochemical properties is an exciting research field for diverse applications. In this work, a novel metal-organic framework Cu(HIT(DMF0.5, named URJC-1, with a three-dimensional non-interpenetrated utp topological network, has been synthesized. This material exhibits a microporous structure with unsaturated copper centers and imidazole–tetrazole linkages that provide accessible Lewis acid/base sites. These features make URJC-1 an exceptional candidate for catalytic application in acid and base reactions of interest in fine chemistry. The URJC-1 material also displays a noteworthy thermal and chemical stability in different organic solvents of different polarity and boiling water. Its catalytic activity was evaluated in acid-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation of anisole with acetyl chloride and base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with malononitrile. In both cases, URJC-1 material showed very good performance, better than other metal organic frameworks and conventional catalysts. In addition, a remarkable structural stability was proven after several consecutive reaction cycles.

  5. Real-time deep-tissue thermal sensing with sub-degree resolution by thermally improved Nd{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} multifunctional nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Uéslen, E-mail: ueslen.silva@fis.ufal.br [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Jacinto, Carlos; Kumar, Kagola Upendra [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); López, Fernando J.; Bravo, David; Solé, José García [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Jaque, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jaque@uam.es [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Departamento de Física de Materiales C-04, Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034 (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Nd{sup 3+} ion doped LaF{sub 3} dielectric nanoparticles have recently emerged as very attractive multifunctional nanoparticles capable of simultaneous sub-tissue heating and thermal sensing. Although they have been already used for selective photothermal treatment of cancer tumors in animal models, their real application as self-monitored photothermal agents require further optimization and development. Dynamic adjustment of the therapy parameters is mandatory for non-selective damage minimization. It would require real-time (sub-second) thermal sensing with a sub-degree thermal resolution. In this work we demonstrate that meeting this challenge is, indeed, possible by performing controlled thermal treatment on as-synthesized Nd{sup 3+} doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles. Temperature induced lattice ordering and defect re-combination have been concluded to induce, simultaneously, a line fluorescence narrowing, fluorescence brightness enhancement and a remarkable increment in thermal sensitivity. Ex-vivo experiments have demonstrated that, thanks to this multi-parameter optimization, Neodymium doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles are capable of real time sub-tissue thermal reading with a temperature resolution as low as 0.7 °C.

  6. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-01-01

    The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known...... CTD, has been extensively studied. We have reviewed the epidemiologic literature regarding an association between cosmetic breast implants and CTDs, with particular emphasis on results drawn from the most recent investigations, many of which are large cohort studies with long-term follow-up, as well...... as on those studies that address some of the misinformation and historically widespread claims regarding an association between breast implants and CTDs. These claims have been unequivocally refuted by the remarkably consistent evidence from published studies, as well as numerous independent meta...

  7. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  8. Overview on Techniques to Construct Tissue Arrays with Special Emphasis on Tissue Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of new histopathological staining techniques (histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization) and the discovery of thousands of new genes, mRNA, and proteins by molecular biology, the need grew for a technique to compare many different cells or tissues on one slide in a cost effective manner and with the possibility to easily track the identity of each specimen: the tissue array (TA). Basically, a TA consists of at least two different specimens per slide. TAs differ in the kind of specimens, the number of specimens installed, the dimension of the specimens, the arrangement of the specimens, the embedding medium, the technique to prepare the specimens to be installed, and the technique to construct the TA itself. A TA can be constructed by arranging the tissue specimens in a mold and subsequently pouring the mold with the embedding medium of choice. In contrast, preformed so-called recipient blocks consisting of the embedding medium of choice have punched, drilled, or poured holes of different diameters and distances in which the cells or tissue biopsies will be deployed manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. The costs of constructing a TA differ from a few to thousands of Euros depending on the technique/equipment used. Remarkably high quality TAs can be also achieved by low cost techniques. PMID:27600339

  9. A remarkable story! M.C. Vos (1759–1825 in the light of his times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno A. Zuiddam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article established the role of the Rev. M.C. Vos (1759–1825 as an internationally oriented Pietistic minister who encouraged mission work amongst the slaves and non-Europeans in the Cape Colony. It clears up several misunderstandings about Vos’s genealogy and argues that there is no genealogical warrant to treat Vos as something else than a White, European minister and writer. His cultural setting and ancestry was that of a colonial Dutchman, although it may have been Euro-Asian to some small extent. If so, this could have predisposed him naturally to look kindly on the lot of  Bengal and Malayan slaves. The real motivating factor for Vos’s missionary endeavours was not racial, but spiritual. The promotion of the Gospel and knowledge of the Scriptures was foremost in the mind of this Dutch Reformed minister. This article argues that the Bible and divine guidance had a remarkable influence on the life and actions of M.C. Vos, to the extent that even his autobiography is marked by Biblical language. Vos is placed within the historical perspective of his times, which assists a balanced interpretation of this remarkable person and his convictions. ’n Merkwaardige verhaal! Die lewe en historiese omstandighede van M.C.Vos (1759–1825. Hierdie artikel het die historiese rol van Ds. M.C. Vos (1759–1825 vasgestel as ’n internasionale Piëtistiese wat sending bedryf het onder die slawe en nie-Europeërs aan die Kaap. Dit helder misverstande op wat ontstaan het oor die genealogie van Vos en stel dat daar geen genealogiese rede is om Vos te beskou as ’n predikant en skrywer van nie-Europese afkoms nie. Sy kultuur en voorgeslag was dié van ’n Nederlandse kolonis, hoewel daar enige Euro-Asiatiese elemente in sy genealogie mag wees. Indien dit die geval is, dan het dit bygedra tot sy natuurlike simpatie vir die lot van die Bengaalse en Maleise slawe. Hierdie artikel toon egter aan dat die motivering vir die sendingarbeid van Vos nie op

  10. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Treatment of Bulbar Urethral Strictures. A Review, with Personal Critical Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oosterlinck

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article on treatment of bulbar urethral strictures with personal critical remarks on newer developments. As a treatment of first intention there exists 4 options : dilatation, urethrotomy, end to end anastomosis and free graft, open urethroplasty. Success rate of dilatation and visual urethrotomy after 4 years is only 20 en 40 % respectively. Laser urethrotomy could not fulfill expectations. End to end anastomosis obtains a very high success rate but is only applicable for short strictures. Free graft urethroplasty obtains success rates of ± 80 %. There is considerable debate on the best material for grafting. Buccal mucosa graft is the new wave, but this is not based on scientific data. Whether this graft should be used dorsally or ventrally is also a point of discussion. In view of the good results published with both techniques it is probably of no importance. Intraluminal stents are not indicated for complicated cases and give only good results in those cases which can easily be treated with other techniques. Metal self-retaining urethral stent , resorbable stents and endoscopic urethroplasty is briefly discussed. Redo’s and complicated urethral strictures need often other solutions. Here skin flap from the penile skin and scrotal flap can be used. Advantages and drawbracks of both are discussed. There is still a place for two-stage procedures in complicated redo�s. The two-stage mesh-graft urethroplasty offers advantage over the use of scrotal skin. Some other rare techniques like substitution with bowel and pudendal thigh flap, to cover deep defects, are also discussed.

  12. The Friction Coefficient of Shoulder Joints Remains Remarkably Low Over 24 h of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K.; Durney, Krista M.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Six human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean ± standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  13. The remarkable frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onafuwa-Nuga, Adewunmi; Telesnitsky, Alice

    2009-09-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results from a combination of point mutations and genetic recombination, and rates of both processes are unusually high. This review focuses on the mechanisms and outcomes of HIV-1 genetic recombination and on the parameters that make recombination so remarkably frequent. Experimental work has demonstrated that the process that leads to recombination--a copy choice mechanism involving the migration of reverse transcriptase between viral RNA templates--occurs several times on average during every round of HIV-1 DNA synthesis. Key biological factors that lead to high recombination rates for all retroviruses are the recombination-prone nature of their reverse transcription machinery and their pseudodiploid RNA genomes. However, HIV-1 genes recombine even more frequently than do those of many other retroviruses. This reflects the way in which HIV-1 selects genomic RNAs for coencapsidation as well as cell-to-cell transmission properties that lead to unusually frequent associations between distinct viral genotypes. HIV-1 faces strong and changeable selective conditions during replication within patients. The mode of HIV-1 persistence as integrated proviruses and strong selection for defective proviruses in vivo provide conditions for archiving alleles, which can be resuscitated years after initial provirus establishment. Recombination can facilitate drug resistance and may allow superinfecting HIV-1 strains to evade preexisting immune responses, thus adding to challenges in vaccine development. These properties converge to provide HIV-1 with the means, motive, and opportunity to recombine its genetic material at an unprecedented high rate and to allow genetic recombination to serve as one of the highest barriers to HIV-1 eradication.

  14. Genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants provides remarkable protection against hypothyroidism-induced hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Giordimaina, Alicia M; Dolan, David F; Camper, Sally A; Mustapha, Mirna

    2012-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is a cause of genetic and environmentally induced deafness. The sensitivity of cochlear development and function to thyroid hormone (TH) mandates understanding TH action in this sensory organ. Prop1(df) and Pou1f1(dw) mutant mice carry mutations in different pituitary transcription factors, each resulting in pituitary thyrotropin deficiency. Despite the same lack of detectable serum TH, these mutants have very different hearing abilities: Prop1(df) mutants are mildly affected, while Pou1f1(dw) mutants are completely deaf. Genetic studies show that this difference is attributable to the genetic backgrounds. Using embryo transfer, we discovered that factors intrinsic to the fetus are the major contributor to this difference, not maternal effects. We analyzed Prop1(df) mutants to identify processes in cochlear development that are disrupted in other hypothyroid animal models but protected in Prop1(df) mutants by the genetic background. The development of outer hair cell (OHC) function is delayed, but Prestin and KCNQ4 immunostaining appear normal in mature Prop1(df) mutants. The endocochlear potential and KCNJ10 immunostaining in the stria vascularis are indistinguishable from wild type, and no differences in neurofilament or synaptophysin staining are evident in Prop1(df) mutants. The synaptic vesicle protein otoferlin normally shifts expression from OHC to IHC as temporary afferent fibers beneath the OHC regress postnatally. Prop1(df) mutants exhibit persistent, abnormal expression of otoferlin in apical OHC, suggesting delayed maturation of synaptic function. Thus, the genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants is remarkably protective for most functions affected in other hypothyroid mice. The Prop1(df) mutant is an attractive model for identifying the genes that protect against deafness.

  15. Conotruncal Heart Defect Repair in Sub-Saharan Africa: Remarkable Outcomes Despite Poor Access to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Frank; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Sereboe, Lawrence A; Tettey, Mark M; Aniteye, Ernest A; Tamatey, Martin M; Adzamli, Innocent; Akyaa-Yao, Nana; Gyan, Kofi B; Ofosu-Appiah, Ernest; Kotei, David

    2016-09-01

    The outcome of children born with conotruncal heart defects may serve as an indication of the status of pediatric cardiac care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study was undertaken to determine the outcome of children born with conotruncal anomalies in SSA, regarding access to treatment and outcomes of surgical intervention. From our institution in Ghana, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of surgery, in the two-year period from June 2013 to May 2015. The birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in SSA countries was derived by extrapolation using an incidence of 8 per 1,000 live births for CHDs. The birth prevalence of CHDs for the 48 countries in SSA using 2013 country data was 258,875; 10% of these are presumed to be conotruncal anomalies. Six countries (Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya) accounted for 53.5% of the birth prevalence. In Ghana, 20 patients (tetralogy of Fallot [TOF], 17; pulmonary atresia, 3) underwent palliation and 50 (TOF, 36; double-outlet right ventricle, 14) underwent repair. Hospital mortality was 0% for palliation and 4% for repair. Only 6 (0.5%) of the expected 1,234 cases of conotruncal defects underwent palliation or repair within two years of birth. Six countries in SSA account for more than 50% of the CHD burden. Access to treatment within two years of birth is probably <1%. The experience from Ghana demonstrates that remarkable surgical outcomes are achievable in low- to middle-income countries of SSA. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Methanolic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica - A Remarkable Antibacterial Agent Against Many Human and Agricultural Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current investigation was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Methods: The stems, leaves, and whole plants were air dried and extracted with methanol by using a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours at 55 - 60°C. The antimicrobial activities were determined from the zones of inhibition, which were measured by using the agar well diffusion method, and the cytotoxicity assays were performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay method. Results: The methanolic extracts of the stem and the leaves of Plumbago zeylanica were tested against six bacterial species and nine fungal species, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. The leaf extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed maximum antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus sub sp aureus and Fusarium oxysporum. The stem extract was found to be more antimicrobial against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Penicillium expansum species. MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxicity of the whole plant extract in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines, and that extract was shown to have weak cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Conclusion: In the present study, the methanolic stem extracts of Plumbago zeylanica were found to possess remarkable antibacterial activities against many human and agricultural pathogens. The extracts were also found to possess significant antifungal activities, but the antifungal activities were less than the antibacterial activities. Finally, the extracts were found to have weak cytotoxicities in the HCT-116 and the K-562 cell lines.

  17. Cosmological challenges in theories with extra dimensions and remarks on the horizon problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Freese, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    We consider the cosmology that results if our observable universe is a 3-brane in a higher dimensional universe. In particular, we focus on the case where our 3-brane is located at the Z 2 symmetry fixed plane of a Z 2 symmetric five-dimensional spacetime, as in the Horava-Witten model compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold. As our first result, we find that there can be substantial modifications to the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology; as a consequence, a large class of such models is observationally inconsistent. In particular, any relationship between the Hubble constant and the energy density on our brane is possible, including (but not only) FRW. Generically, due to the existence of the bulk and the boundary conditions on the orbifold fixed plane, the relationship is not FRW, and hence cosmological constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation, and the age of the universe difficult to satisfy. We do wish to point out, however, that some specific choices for the bulk stress-energy tensor components do reproduce normal FRW cosmology on our brane, and we have constructed an explicit example. As our second result, for a broad class of models, we find a somewhat surprising fact: the stabilization of the radius of the extra dimension and hence the four dimensional Planck mass requires unrealistic fine-tuning of the equation of state on our 3-brane. In the last third of the paper, we make remarks about causality and the horizon problem that apply to any theory in which the volume of the extra dimension determines the four-dimensional gravitational coupling. We point out that some of the assumptions that lead to the usual inflationary requirements are modified. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Remarkable separability of the circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice loss has an important effect on local climate through increases in ocean to atmosphere heat flux and associated feedbacks, and may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation that can enhance or counter changes that are due to greenhouse gases. The extent to which climate change in a warming world can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by Arctic sea ice loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. Here we use a novel sea ice nudging methodology in the Canadian Earth System Model, which has a fully coupled ocean, to isolate the effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to determine their additivity and sensitivity to mean state. We find that the separate effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled CO2 are remarkably additive and relatively insensitive to mean climate state. This separability is evident in several thermodynamic and dynamic fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. In this model, Arctic sea ice loss enhances the CO2-induced surface air temperature changes nearly everywhere and zonal wind changes over the Pacific sector, whereas sea ice loss counters CO2-induced sea level pressure changes nearly everywhere over land and zonal wind changes over the Atlantic sector. This separability of the response to Arctic sea ice loss from the response to CO2 doubling gives credence to the body of work in which Arctic sea ice loss is isolated from the forcing that modified it, and might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  19. The monophyletic origin of a remarkable sexual system in akentrogonid rhizocephalan parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Stenderup, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    parasites. The Rhizocephala Akentrogonida form a monophyletic group nested within a paraphyletic "Kentrogonida". C. paguri and S. hippolytes are sistergroups confirming the monophyly of the Clistosaccidae that was originally based on similarities in the cypris larvae. We find numerous LM and SEM level...... similarities between the two species, many of which appear to be correlated with their specialized sexual system, where male cyprids use an antennule to implant cells into the virgin female parasite. Some of these traits are also found in cyprids of the thompsoniid species. We conclude that the special cypris...... morphology and the implantation of males by antennular penetration was present in the stem species to the Thompsoniidae and the Clistosaccidae and emphasize the power of larval characters in rhizocephalan systematics. C. delagei is a sister group to Boschmaella balani and the two are nested deep within...

  20. Synovial tissue research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orr, Carl; Sousa, Elsa; Boyle, David L

    2017-01-01

    The synovium is the major target tissue of inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study of synovial tissue has advanced considerably throughout the past few decades from arthroplasty and blind needle biopsy to the use of arthroscopic and ultrasonographic technologies that enable...... easier visualization and improve the reliability of synovial biopsies. Rapid progress has been made in using synovial tissue to study disease pathogenesis, to stratify patients, to discover biomarkers and novel targets, and to validate therapies, and this progress has been facilitated by increasingly...... diverse and sophisticated analytical and technological approaches. In this Review, we describe these approaches, and summarize how their use in synovial tissue research has improved our understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and identified candidate biomarkers that could be used in disease diagnosis...

  1. Optical tomography of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2002-01-01

    Methods of optical tomography of biological tissues are considered, which include pulse-modulation and frequency-modulation tomography, diffusion tomography with the use of cw radiation sources, optical coherent tomography, speckle-correlation tomography of nonstationary media, and optoacoustic tomography. The method for controlling the optical properties of tissues is studied from the point of view of increasing a probing depth in optical coherent tomography. The modern state and prospects of the development of optical tomography are discussed. (review)

  2. Optimized mixed oils remarkably reduce the amount of surfactants in microemulsions without affecting oral bioavailability of ibuprofen by simultaneously enlarging microemulsion areas and enhancing drug solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhen; Tuo, Jue; Huang, Huizhi; Liu, Dan; You, Xiuhua; Mai, Jialuo; Song, Jiaqi; Xie, Yanqi; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-06-20

    The toxicity and irritation associated with high amounts of surfactants restrict the extensive utilization of microemulsions. To address these shortcomings, employing mixed oils to enlarge microemulsion areas therefore reducing surfactant contents is a promising strategy. However, what kinds of mixed oils are more efficient in enlarging microemulsion areas still remains unclear. In this research, we found that the chain length and degree of unsaturation of oils play a key role in enlarging microemulsion areas. The combination of moderate chain saturated oil caprylic/capric triglyceride (GTCC) with long chain unsaturated oil glycerol trioleate significantly increased the microemulsion areas. Solubility of ibuprofen in the mixed oils was unexpectedly and remarkably increased (almost 300mg/mL) compared with that (around 100mg/mL) of the single oil (GTCC), which also resulted in greatly increased solubility of ibuprofen in mixed oils-containing microemulsions. By optimizing the mixed oil formulation, the absolute amount of surfactant in drug-loaded microemulsions was reduced but increased drug oral bioavailability in rats was maintained. It could be concluded that the combined use of moderate chain oils and long chain unsaturated oils could not only acquire enlarged microemulsion areas but also enhanced drug solubility, therefore doubly reducing surfactant amount, which is extremely beneficial for developing safe microemulsions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mapping by monoclonal antibody detection of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Caterson, B; Christner, J E

    1984-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans are widespread connective tissue components and chemical analysis of cartilage and other proteoglycans has demonstrated molecular speciation involving the degree and position of sulphation of the carbohydrate chains. This may, in turn, affect the properties...... of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), particularly with respect to self-association and interactions with other extracellular matrix components. Interactions with specific molecules from different connective tissue types, such as the collagens and their associated glycoproteins, could be favoured by particular charge...... and dermatan sulphate. These provide novel opportunities to study the in vivo distribution of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. We demonstrate that chondroitin sulphates exhibit remarkable connective tissue specificity and furthermore provide evidence that some proteoglycans may predominantly carry only one...

  4. Mononuclear Cells from Dedifferentiation of Mouse Myotubes display Remarkable Regenerative Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Liu, Qiang; Mannix, Robert J.; Xu, Xiaoyin; Li, Hongli; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ingber, Donald E.; Allen, Paul D.; Wang, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Certain lower organisms achieve organ regeneration by reverting differentiated cells into tissue-specific progenitors that re-enter embryonic programs. During muscle regeneration in the urodele amphibian, post-mitotic multinucleated skeletal myofibers transform into mononucleated proliferating cells upon injury, and a transcription factor-msx1 plays a role in their reprograming. Whether this powerful regeneration strategy can be leveraged in mammals remains unknown, as it has not been demonstrated that the dedifferentiated progenitor cells arising from muscle cells overexpressing Msx1 are lineage-specific and possess the same potent regenerative capability as their amphibian counterparts. Here we show that ectopic expression of Msx1 reprograms post-mitotic, multinucleated, primary mouse myotubes to become proliferating mononuclear cells. These dedifferentiated cells reactivate genes expressed by embryonic muscle progenitor cells and generate only muscle tissue in vivo both in an ectopic location and inside existing muscle. More importantly, distinct from adult muscle satellite cells, these cells appear both to fuse with existing fibers and to regenerate myofibers in a robust and time-dependent manner. Upon transplantation into a degenerating muscle, these dedifferentiated cells generated a large number of myofibers that increased over time and replenished almost half of the cross-sectional area of the muscle in only 12 weeks. Our study demonstrates that mammals can harness a muscle regeneration strategy used by lower organisms when the same molecular pathway is activated. PMID:24916688

  5. 3D Printing of Personalized Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaiming

    2015-03-01

    Authors: Kaiming Ye and Sha Jin, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 Abstract: Creation of highly organized multicellular constructs, including tissues and organs or organoids, will revolutionize tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The development of these technologies will enable the production of individualized organs or tissues for patient-tailored organ transplantation or cell-based therapy. For instance, a patient with damaged myocardial tissues due to an ischemic event can receive a myocardial transplant generated using the patient's own induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Likewise, a type-1 diabetic patient can be treated with lab-generated islets to restore his or her physiological insulin secretion capability. These lab-produced, high order tissues or organs can also serve as disease models for pathophysiological study and drug screening. The remarkable advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering, microfabrication, and materials science in the last decade suggest the feasibility of generating these tissues and organoids in the laboratory. Nevertheless, major challenges still exist. One of the critical challenges that we still face today is the difficulty in constructing or fabricating multicellular assemblies that recapitulate in vivo microenvironments essential for controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and assembly into a biologically functional tissue or organoid structure. These challenges can be addressed through developing 3D organ and tissue printing which enables organizing and assembling cells into desired tissue and organ structures. We have shown that human pluripotent stem cells differentiated in 3D environments are mature and possess high degree of biological function necessary for them to function in vivo.

  6. Dental tissue as a thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, F.; Zahmatkesh, M.H.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of the dosimetry procedures used widely as routine and personal dosimeters. In order to extend this kind of dosimeters, dental tissue has been examined and was found promising as a Thermoluminescence Dosimetry dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, 70 health teeth were collected. The only criterion, wich was considered for selection of the teeth, was the healthiness of them regardless of age and gender of the donors. All collected samples were washed and cleaned and milled uniformly. The final powder had a uniform grain size between 100-300 micrometer. The sample was divided into four groups. Group A and B were used for measurement of density and investigation of variation of thermoluminescent characteristics with temperature respectively. Groups C and D were used for investigation of variation of thermoluminescent intensity with dose and fading of this intensity with time. In all cases the results obtained with dental tissue were compared to a standard LiF, thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter. Results: It was found that, average density of the dental tissue was 1.570 g/cm 3 , which is comparable to density of LiF, which is 1.612g/cm 3 . It was also concluded that the range of 0-300 d ig C , dental tissue has a simple curve with two specific peaks at 140 and 25 d ig C respectively. The experiment also showed that, the variation of relative intensity versus dose is linear in the range of 0.04-0.1 Gy. The fading rate of dental tissue is higher than LiF but still in the acceptable range (14% per month in compare to 5.2% per month). Conclusion: Dental tissue as a natural dosimeter is comparable with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry and can be used in accidental events with a good approximation

  7. Senior expert group for the review of the Agency`s programme of activities. Opening remarks by the Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBaradei, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-03-23

    The document reproduces the opening remarks made by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 March 1998 at the first meeting of the Senior Expert Group for the review of the Agency`s programme and activities. The Director General explains his considerations in establishing the group, and the major challenges facing the safe use of nuclear energy and technologies

  8. Senior expert group for the review of the Agency's programme of activities. Opening remarks by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the opening remarks made by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 March 1998 at the first meeting of the Senior Expert Group for the review of the Agency's programme and activities. The Director General explains his considerations in establishing the group, and the major challenges facing the safe use of nuclear energy and technologies

  9. Biotechnological Chondroitin a Novel Glycosamminoglycan With Remarkable Biological Function on Human Primary Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellavato, Antonietta; Tirino, Virginia; de Novellis, Francesca; Della Vecchia, Antonella; Cinquegrani, Fabio; De Rosa, Mario; Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-09-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering, with in vitro expansion of autologus chondrocytes, is a promising technique for tissue regeneration and is a new potential strategy to prevent and/or treat cartilage damage (e.g., osteoarthritis). The aim of this study was (i) to investigate and compare the effects of new biotechnological chondroitin (BC) and a commercial extractive chondroitin sulfate (CS) on human chondrocytes in vitro culture; (ii) to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the innovative BC compared to extractive CS. A chondrogenic cell population was isolated from human nasoseptal cartilage and in vitro cultures were studied through time-lapse video microscopy (TLVM), immunohistochemical staining and cytometry. In order to investigate the effect of BC and CS on phenotype maintainance, chondrogenic gene expression of aggrecan (AGN), of the transcriptor factor SOX9, of the types I and II collagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2), were quantified through transcriptional and protein evaluation at increasing cultivation time and passages. In addition to resemble the osteoarthritis-like in vitro model, chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory activity of BC and CS was assessed using cytokines quantification by multiplex array. BC significantly enhances cell proliferation also preserving chondrocyte phenotype increasing type II collagen expression up to 10 days of treatment and reduces inflammatory response in IL-1β treated chondrocytes respect to CS treated cells. Our results, taken together, suggest that this new BC is of foremost importance in translational medicine because it can be applied in novel scaffolds and pharmaceutical preparations aiming at cartilage pathology treatments such as the osteoarthritis. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2158-2169, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Light gradients and optical microniches in coral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eWangpraseurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterise vertical and lateral light gradients within and across tissues of several coral species. Our results revealed the presence of steep light gradients with PAR (photosynthetically available radiation decreasing by about one order of magnitude from the tissue surface to the coral skeleton. Surface scalar irradiance was consistently higher over polyp tissue than over coenosarc tissue in faviid corals. Coral bleaching increased surface scalar irradiance by ~150% (between 500-700 nm relative to a healthy coral. Photosynthesis peaked around 300 µm within the tissue, which corresponded to a zone exhibiting strongest depletion of scalar irradiance. Deeper coral tissue layers, e.g. ~1000 µm into aboral polyp tissues, harbor optical microniches, where only ~10% of the incident irradiance remains. We conclude that the optical microenvironment of corals exhibits strong lateral and vertical gradients of scalar irradiance, which are affected by both tissue and skeleton optical properties. Our results imply that zooxanthellae populations inhabit a strongly heterogeneous light environment and highlight the presence of different optical microniches in corals; an important finding for understanding the photobiology, stress response, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic plasticity of coral symbionts.

  11. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  12. Autopsy Tissue Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed

  13. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  15. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (σ complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026

  16. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G A; Narang, S C; Olah, J A

    1981-06-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an alpha-nitronaphthalene to beta-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (sigma complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity.

  17. The book sealed with seven seals (Revelation 5. 1: three remarkable patristic interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Androsova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines various interpretations regarding the book written inside and out and sealed with seven seals (Revelation 5,1 which appears as the central symbol of the fifth chapter of the Revelation of Saint John. The fi gure of the book continues to be of great interest to commentators who find ever new interpretations of the passage. The author of this article has tried to collect these various interpretations and order them into three major groups. At the same time, the author was guided in her choice of these interpretations by the factor of their presence in the patristic tradition. The fi rst group of interpretations points to the Old Testament. The meaning of the Old Testament is opened by Christ and through the figure of Christ becomes understandable. The second group of interpretations envisages the book as holding those things which pertain to the fi nal fate of the world given over to Christ who appears as the fulfi llment of God’s plan of salvation and the master of destiny. In the third interpretation, the sealed book represents the divine testament which is inherited by Christ who accepts death for mankind. The author wishes to highlight a certain chain of borrowings linking the various interpretations as well as a certain planned inter-coordination of all these interpretations of the passage. The author concludes that in spite of the apparent diff erences between the various interpretations, they nevertheless share some common points which result from their thematic intertwining

  18. Some remarks on the neutron elastic- and enelastic-scattering cross sections of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.

    1989-05-01

    The cross sections for the elastic-scattering of 5.9, 7.1 and 8.0 MeV neutrons from elemental palladium were measured at forty scattering angles distributed between ∼15/degree/ and 160/degree/. The inelastic-scattering cross sections for the excitation of palladium levels at energies of 260 keV to 560 keV were measured with high resolution at the same energies, and at a scattering angle of 80/degree/. The experimental results were combined with lower-energy values previously obtained by this group to provide a comprehensive data base extending from near the inelastic-scattering threshold to 8 MeV. That data base was interpreted in terms of a coupled-channel model, including the inelastic excitation of one- and two-phonon vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. It was concluded that the palladium inelastic-scattering cross section, at the low energies of interest in assessment of fast-fission-reactor performance, are large (∼50% greater than given in widely used evaluated fission-product data files). They primarily involve compound-nucleus processes, with only a small direct-reaction component attributable to the excitation of the one-phonon, 2 + , vibrational levels of the even isotopes of palladium. 24 refs., 6 figs

  19. Quantifying remarks to the question of uncertainties of the 'general dose assessment fundamentals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1982-12-01

    Dose prediction models are always subject to uncertainties due to a number of factors including deficiencies in the model structure and uncertainties of the model input parameter values. In lieu of validation experiments the evaluation of these uncertainties is restricted to scientific judgement. Several attempts have been made in the literature to evaluate the uncertainties of the current dose assessment models resulting from uncertainties of the model input parameter values using stochastic approaches. Less attention, however, has been paid to potential sources of systematic over- and underestimations of the predicted doses due to deficiencies in the model structure. The present study addresses this aspect with regard to dose assessment models currently used for regulatory purposes. The influence of a number of basic simplifications and conservative assumptions has been investigated. Our systematic approach is exemplified by a comparison of doses evaluated on the basis of the regulatory guide model and a more realistic model respectively. This is done for 3 critical exposure pathways. As a result of this comparison it can be concluded that the currently used regularoty-type models include significant safety factors resulting in a systematic overprediction of dose to man up to two orders of magnitude. For this reason there are some indications that these models usually more than compensate the bulk of the stochastic uncertainties caused by the variability of the input parameter values. (orig.) [de

  20. Launching the chaotic realm of iso-fractals: A short remark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Schmidt, Nathan [Department of Mathematics, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Katebi, Reza [Department of Physics, California State University in Fullerton, 800 North State College Boulevard, Fullerton, CA 92831 (United States); Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics Einstein-Galilei (IFM), Via Santa Gonda 14, 59100 Prato (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this brief note, we introduce the new, emerging sub-discipline of iso-fractals by highlighting and discussing the preliminary results of recent works. First, we note the abundance of fractal, chaotic, non-linear, and self-similar structures in nature while emphasizing the importance of studying such systems because fractal geometry is the language of chaos. Second, we outline the iso-fractal generalization of the Mandelbrot set to exemplify the newly generated Mandelbrot iso-sets. Third, we present the cutting-edge notion of dynamic iso-spaces and explain how a mathematical space can be iso-topically lifted with iso-unit functions that (continuously or discretely) change; in the discrete case examples, we mention that iteratively generated sequences like Fibonacci’s numbers and (the complex moduli of) Mandelbrot’s numbers can supply a deterministic chain of iso-units to construct an ordered series of (magnified and/or de-magnified) iso-spaces that are locally iso-morphic. Fourth, we consider the initiation of iso-fractals with Inopin’s holographic ring (IHR) topology and fractional statistics for 2D and 3D iso-spaces. In total, the reviewed iso-fractal results are a significant improvement over traditional fractals because the application of Santilli’s iso-mathematics arms us an extra degree of freedom for attacking problems in chaos. Finally, we conclude by proposing some questions and ideas for future research work.

  1. A remark on the motivic Galois group and the quantum coadjoint action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Schlesinger, K.-G.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Grothendieck-Teichmueller group GT should act on the Duflo isomorphism of su(2), but the corresponding realization of GT turned out to be trivial. We show that a solvable quotient of the motivic Galois group - which is supposed to agree with GT - is closely related to the quantum coadjoint action on U q (sl 2 ) for q a root of unity, i.e. in the quantum group case one has a nontrivial realization of a quotient of the motivic Galois group. From a discussion of the algebraic properties of this realization we conclude that in more general cases than U q (sl 2 ) it should be related to a quantum version of the motivic Galois group. Finally, we discuss the relation of our construction to quantum field and string theory and explain what we believe to be the 'physical reason' behind this relation between the motivic Galois group and the quantum coadjoint action. This might be a starting point for the generalization of our construction to more involved examples. (orig.)

  2. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  4. Effective Suckling C57BL/6, Kunming, and BALB/c Mouse Models with Remarkable Neurological Manifestation for Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuling; Ke, Changwen; Wu, Qinghua; Lu, Weizhi; Qin, Zhiran; He, Xiaoen; Liu, Yujing; Deng, Jieli; Xu, Suiqi; Li, Ying; Zhu, Li; Wan, Chengsong; Xiao, Weiwei; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Since 2015, 84 countries and territories reported evidence of vector-borne Zika Virus (ZIKV) transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared that ZIKV and associated consequences especially the neurological autoimmune disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly will remain a significant enduring public health challenge requiring intense action. We apply a standardization of the multi-subcutaneous dorsal inoculation method to systematically summarize clinical neurological manifestation, viral distribution, and tissue damage during the progress of viremia and systemic spread in suckling mouse models. We found that C57BL/6 and Kunming mice (KM) both showed remarkable and uniform neurologic manifestations. C57BL/6 owned the highest susceptibility and pathogenicity to the nervous system, referred to as movement disorders, with 100% incidence, while KM was an economic model for a Chinese study characterized by lower limb weakness with 62% morbidity. Slight yellow extraocular exudates were observed in BALB/c, suggesting the association with similar ocular findings to those of clinical cases. The virus distribution and pathological changes in the sera, brains, livers, kidneys, spleens, and testes during disease progression had strong regularity and uniformity, demonstrating the effectiveness and plasticity of the animal models. The successful establishment of these animal models will be conducive to expound the pathogenic mechanism of GBS. PMID:28661429

  5. Some remarks on the solid surface tension determination from contact angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław, E-mail: bronislaw.janczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Surface tension of PE, nylon 6 and quartz from different approaches to the interface tension. - Highlights: • New values of water and formamide surface tension components were established. • Quartz surface tension depends on its crystal face. • Usefulness of different approaches for solid surface tension determination was tested. - Abstract: The measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane contact angle (θ) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon 6, quartz and silica were performed. Based on the θ values of these liquids obtained on PTFE, the Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base and/or dispersion and polar components of their surface tension (ST) were determined. In turn, the θ values for water, formamide and diiodomethane on PMMA were applied to calculate the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the formamide ST. For this calculation the same values of the electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters for water ST were used. Taking into account the values of components and parameters of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained by us, van Oss et al. and from the water(formamide)-n-alkane and water-diiodomethane interface tension, the components and parameters of studied solids ST were calculated. To this end different approaches to the interface tension were considered. The obtained values were compared with those in the literature. It was concluded that for determination of solid ST components and parameters, those of water, formamide and diiodomethane ST obtained from the θ measurements on the model solids should be used.

  6. Remark on the role of the driving force in BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykin, V.; Pazsit, I.

    2009-01-01

    Simple models of BWR instability, used e.g. in understanding the role of the various oscillation modes in the overall stability of the plant, assume that each oscillation mode can be described by a second order system (a damped harmonic oscillator) driven by a white noise driving force. Change of the decay ratio (DR) of the observed signal is, as a rule, associated with the changing of the parameters of the damped oscillator, mainly its damping coefficient, and is interpreted in terms of the change of the stability of the system. However, conceptually, one cannot exclude cases when the change of the response of a driven damped oscillator is due to the change of the properties of the driving force. In this work we investigate the effect of a non-white driving force on the behaviour of the system. A question of interest is how changes of the spectrum of the driving force influence the observed autocorrelation function (ACF) of the resulting signal. Hence we calculate the response of a damped harmonic oscillator driven by a non-white driving force, corresponding to the reactivity effect of propagating density fluctuations in two-phase flow. It is shown how in some special cases such a driving force, when interpreting the neutron noise as if induced by a white noise driving source, can lead to an erroneous conclusion regarding the stability of the system. It is also concluded that in the practically interesting cases the effect of the coloured driving force, arising from propagating density fluctuations, is negligible.

  7. Notas sobre o Behaviorismo de ontem e de hoje Remarks on former and current Behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Zagury Tourinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca oferecer algumas referências históricas sobre as origens e desenvolvimentos da Psicologia behaviorista. O artigo parte das contribuições de Watson, destacando seu afastamento do modo causal selecionista, inaugurado na Psicologia por Thorndike. Em seguida, discute alguns desenvolvimentos do behaviorismo sob a liderança de Skinner, apontando que seus avanços resultam em grande medida do retorno ao selecionismo. O artigo argumenta, por fim, que ao final do século XX a abordagem inaugurada por Skinner estende-se a em muitas direções, configurando a análise do comportamento como um sistema multidimensional. O artigo conclui com a indicação de que uma visão histórica do processo de investigação comportamental oferece um quadro mais preciso do que essa abordagem tem representado enquanto sistema na Psicologia.This paper aims at offering some historical references concerning the origins and development of behaviorist Psychology. It begins with Watson's contributions and highlights his detachment from the causal mode of selection by consequence started in Psychology by Thorndike. Then, the paper discusses some developments of behaviorism under the leadership of Skinner and argues that some achievements have largely resulted from a recovery of selectionism. Finally, it contends that, by the end of the 20th century, the approach started by Skinner extended to new directions, engendering behavior analysis as a multidimensional system. The paper concludes by pointing out that a historical view of the process of behavioral investigation provides a more precise frame of what this approach has represented as a psychological system.

  8. Oral soft tissue infections: causes, therapeutic approaches and microbiological spectrum with focus on antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Carolin; Reinhart, Edeltraud; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Intraoral soft tissue infections (OSTI) are a common problem in dentistry and oral surgery. These abscesses are mostly exacerbated dental infections (OIDC), and some emerge as postoperative infections (POI) after tooth extraction (OITR) or apicoectomy (OIRR). The main aim of this study was to compare OIDC with POI, especially looking at the bacteria involved. An additional question was, therefore, if different antibiotic treatments should be used with OSTI of differing aetiologies. The impact of third molars on OSTI was evaluated and also the rates of POI after removal of third molars were specified. Patient data was collected from the patients' medical records and the results were statistically evaluated with SPSS (SPSS version 21.0; SPSS, IBM; Chicago, IL, USA). The inclusion criterion was the outpatient treatment of a patient with an exacerbated oral infection; the exclusion criteria were an early stage of infiltration without abscess formation; and a need for inpatient treatment. Periapical exacerbated infections, especially in the molar region were the commonest cause of OIDC. In the OITR group, mandibular tooth removal was the commonest factor (p=0.016). Remarkably, retained lower wisdom teeth led to significant number of cases in the OITR group (p=0.022). In our study we could not define differences between the causal bacteria found in patients with OIDC and POI. Due to resistance rates we conclude that amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid seems to be the antibiotic standard for exacerbated intraoral infections independent of their aetiology. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano-hydroxyapatite/β-CD/chitosan nanocomposite for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Jolly, Reshma; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Rauf, Ahmar; Kazmi, Shadab

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel tri-component nanocomposite system incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and chitosan (CS), (n-HA/β-CD/CS) at three different temperatures via co-precipitation method. The chemical interactions and surface morphology have been evaluated by TEM, SEM and AFM techniques revealing the agglomerated nanoparticles in CS/n-HA-HA binary system whereas the ternary systems produced needle shaped nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously at low temperature with more porous and rougher surface. The addition of β-CD in CS/n-HA at low temperature decreased the particle size and raised the thermal stability as compared to CS/n-HA. The comparative hemolytic, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion studies confirmed the better hemocompatibility of n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites relative to CS/n-HA. The cell viability has been evaluated in vitro using MG-63 cell line which revealed superior non toxicity of n-HA/β-CD/CS-LT nanocomposite in comparison to n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT) and CS/n-HA nanocomposites. Thus it may be concluded that the orchestrated organic/inorganic n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites exhibited relatively higher cell viability of human osteoblast cells, stimulated greater osteogenesis, controlled biodegradation, enhanced antibacterial activity with excellent in-vitro biomineralization and remarkable mechanical parameters as compared to CS/n-HA nanocomposite and thus may provide opportunities for potential use as an alternative biomaterial for Bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On remarks by K. Guenther on the application of track theory to neutron irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author is replying to criticisms of the application of track theory to neutron irradiation. (Guenther, K., 1976, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., vol. 30, 495). Guenther correctly pointed out that any success of the theory for high neutron energies depends on the neglect of the error made at the stopping end of the path of a secondary heavy ion in relation to the overall estimate of the damage produced by that ion. The identity, size and position within the nucleus of the sensitive element whose inactivation leads to cell-killing are all unknown, but any predictions made using the theory are still useful in that they should provoke further experimental investigations ascertaining the limits of the theory. The track theory has other problems at low particle velocities. Consideration is given to the justification for ignoring the error at the stopping end under various conditions. The extent to which the different errors and neglects of the theory may be self-compensating is not yet known. Even if the agreement in r.b.e.-dose relations between calculation from cell survival parameters and experiment for different tissues is fortuitous, the algorithm serves a useful purpose since r.b.e-dose relations can be calculated from a knowledge of the particle energy spectrum of the radiation. Radiotherapy can then be planned for fast neutrons, pions and ion beams, and radiation hazards evaluated in complex radiation environments. (U.K.)

  11. Failure in cartilaginous tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Talen-Jongeneelen, C.J.M.; Schroeder, Y.; Kraaijeveld, F.; Borst, de R.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Cartilaginous tissues high load bearing capacity is explained by osmotic prestressing putting the collagen fiber reinforcement under tension and the proteoglycan gel under compression. The osmotic forces are boosted by a further 50 % by the affinity of the collagen with the aquous solution. The high

  12. Connective tissue activation. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.J.; Donakowski, C.; Anderson, B.; Meyers, S.; Castor, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The platelet-derived connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating the metabolism and proliferation of human connective tissue cell strains, including synovial tissue cells. The quantities of CTAP-III affecting the cellular changes and the amounts in various biologic fluids and tissues are small. The objectives of this study were to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CTAP-III and to ascertain the specificities of the anti-CTAP-III sera reagents. The antisera were shown not to cross-react with a number of polypeptide hormones. However, two other platelet proteins β-thromboglobulin and low affinity platelet factor-4, competed equally as well as CTAP-III for anti-CTAP-III antibodies in the RIA system. Thus, the three platelet proteins are similar or identical with respect to those portions of the molecules constituting the reactive antigenic determinants. The levels of material in normal human platelet-free plasma that inhibited anti-CTAP-III- 125 I-CTAP-III complex formation were determined to be 34+-13 (S.D.) ng/ml. (Auth.)

  13. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  14. Neoproteoglycans in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318

  15. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  16. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  17. Commentary: Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J.F.; Gemert, M.J.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Laser tissue welding is the process of using laser energy to join tissues without sutures or with a reduced number of sutures. Recently, diode lasers have been added to the list of fusion lasers (Lewis and Uribe 1993, Reali et al 1993). Typically, for tissue welding, deep penetrating diode lasers emitting at 800-810 nm are used, in combination with a strong absorbing protein solder containing the dye indocyanine green. Indocyanine green has a maximum absorption coefficient at 805 nm and binds preferentially with proteins (Sauda et al 1986). The greatest advantage of diode lasers is their compact size, easy use and low cost. In this issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (pp 983-1002, 'Photothermal effects of laser tissue soldering'), in an in vitro study, McNally et al investigate the optimal laser settings and welding temperatures in relation to the tensile strength and thermal damage of bovine aorta specimens. An interesting statement in their introduction is that the low strength of laser produced anastomoses can lead to aneurysm formation. The increased chance of aneurysm formation may merely be due to the thermal effect of the laser on the vascular wall, especially on the adventitia and media layers, which become necrotic after thermal injury. Subsequent haemodynamic stress exerted on a damaged vascular wall is a significant contributing factor for aneurysmal initiation. Also interesting is the remark that 'by the application of wavelength-specific chromophores in tissue welding ... the requirement for precise focusing and aiming of the laser beam may be removed'. Though perhaps not yet fully justified, this statement, if true, would facilitate surgical procedures. While the experiments are conducted in a proper manner, the use of bovine aorta specimens, which were stored at -70 deg. C and subsequently thawed for the tissue welding experiments, may not be the most appropriate for studying tissue effects or tensile strength measurements, as the

  18. Hypothermia and near-drowning associated with life-threatening injuries: A remarkable recovery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Cachalia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A young male suffered multiple severe injuries after a fall and near-drowning. On presentation to the emergency department (ED, he was in a critical and unstable condition and his chances of survival were deemed very low. This case illustrates the management of the hypothermic multi-trauma patient and the remarkable recovery made possible by a high standard of care. Keywords: Polytrauma, Shock, Hypothermia, Coagulopathy, Trauma care

  19. Paecilaema batman, a new species of Brazilian troglophilous harvestman that exhibits a remarkable color patches variation (Opiliones: Cosmetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of harvestman, Paecilaema batman, from Brazilian limestone caves of the state of Goiás, is described, and a remarkable intraspecific color patch variation is discussed. Paecilaema batman sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of features: chelicera similar in both sexes; prosoma without color patches; typical color patches on area I; and area III with two high spines. The new species is considered troglophilous.

  20. SOME REMARKS ON THE RELATION OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL IN SOLVING OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS IN THE FIELD OF AVIATION SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Elisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the authors view and some remarks on the problem of solving optimization problems in the field of aviation security related to insurmountable difficulties of formalization and mathematical interpretation of the domain formulation of such problems. It is shown that the vast majority of these problems is related to the solution of conflicts. The theory of conflicts gives analytical solution only in the simplest cases. For the rest the use of a heuristic approach is suggested.

  1. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  2. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  3. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  4. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  5. Multispectral imaging of acute wound tissue oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Huong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the appropriate range of values for the transcutaneous blood oxygen saturation (StO2 of granulating tissues and the surrounding tissue that can ensure timely wound recovery. This work has used a multispectral imaging system to collect wound images at wavelengths ranging between 520nm and 600nm with a resolution of 10nm. As part of this research, a pilot study was conducted on three injured individuals with superficial wounds of different wound ages at different skin locations. The StO2 value predicted for the examined wounds using the Extended Modified Lambert–Beer model revealed a mean StO2 of 61±10.3% compared to 41.6±6.2% at the surrounding tissues, and 50.1±1.53% for control sites. These preliminary results contribute to the existing knowledge on the possible range and variation of wound bed StO2 that are to be used as indicators of the functioning of the vasomotion system and wound health. This study has concluded that a high StO2 of approximately 60% and a large fluctuation in this value should precede a good progression in wound healing.

  6. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ligament Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Wasim Sardar

    2016-01-01

    Ligaments are commonly injured in the knee joint, and have a poor capacity for healing due to their relative avascularity. Ligament reconstruction is well established for injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, however the use of autografts and allografts for ligament reconstruction are associated with complications, and outcomes are variable. Ligament tissue engineering using stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds is a novel technique that has the potential to provide an unlim...

  8. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  9. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  10. Atomically resolved tissue integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Johan; Sundell, Gustav; Thuvander, Mattias; Andersson, Martin

    2014-08-13

    In the field of biomedical technology, a critical aspect is the ability to control and understand the integration of an implantable device in living tissue. Despite the technical advances in the development of biomaterials, the elaborate interplay encompassing materials science and biology on the atomic level is not very well understood. Within implantology, anchoring a biomaterial device into bone tissue is termed osseointegration. In the most accepted theory, osseointegration is defined as an interfacial bonding between implant and bone; however, there is lack of experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we show that atom probe tomography can be used to study the implant-tissue interaction, allowing for three-dimensional atomic mapping of the interface region. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated that direct contact between Ca atoms and the implanted titanium oxide surface is formed without the presence of a protein interlayer, which means that a pure inorganic interface is created, hence giving experimental support to the current theory of osseointegration. We foresee that this result will be of importance in the development of future biomaterials as well as in the design of in vitro evaluation techniques.

  11. Selective enhancement of scopadulcic acid B production in the cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis by methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkembo, Kasidimoko Marguerite; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2005-07-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on isoprenoid production were evaluated in cultured tissues of Scoparia dulcis. It was found that MeJA suppressed the accumulation of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phytol and beta-sitosterol in the tissues. MeJA, however, remarkably enhanced the production of scopadulcic acid B (SDB), with 10 microM being optimal observed concentration for stimulation of SDB production. The maximum concentration of SDB was observed 6 d after MeJA treatment.

  12. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  13. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.

    1995-01-01

    . The avidin-biotin-complex (ABC)-technique was used. The copper content was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). In all placental tissue sections positive MT immunostaining appeared only in the trophoblast and only in proliferating cells. In placental tissue sections obtained from foetuses...... and children affected by Menkes' disease an additional MT immunostaining appeared in the Hofbauer cells of the chorionic villi. This staining was associated with an increased content of copper as measured by NAA. We conclude that the immunohistochemical demonstration of MT reflects the copper content and may...

  14. TU-EF-207-01: Introductory Remarks on Recent Advances in Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, A. [University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2015-06-15

    mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.

  15. TU-EF-207-01: Introductory Remarks on Recent Advances in Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, A.

    2015-01-01

    mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation

  16. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    With advancements in biological and engineering sciences, the definition of an ideal biomaterial has evolved over the past 50 years from a substance that is inert to one that has select bioinductive properties and integrates well with adjacent host tissue. Biomaterials are a fundamental component of tissue engineering, which aims to replace diseased, damaged, or missing tissue with reconstructed functional tissue. Most biomaterials are less than satisfactory for pediatric patients because the scaffold must adapt to the growth and development of the surrounding tissues and organs over time. The pediatric community, therefore, provides a distinct challenge for the tissue engineering community. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Welcoming remark - International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management, 7-10 September 2004, Saclay, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halm, J. van

    2004-01-01

    (professional information), Recommended restaurants, and other trivia. EUSIDIC's Annual Conference will take place in Helsinki from 17-20 October 2004 and its theme is The Content Battle - content/information ownership versus platform ownership. Information about the conference can be find on the EUSIDIC website www.eusidic.org 2. Where is the information and knowledge management community going? Publishers, information providers and information and knowledge managers have to make strategic decisions over positioning their electronic products and services in global or niche markets. New players will enter the market who will combine IT skills with expertise in the area of data and knowledge management. All will be forced to re-orientate in order to support scientists and managers to do their job more efficiently and effectively. Taking into account that approximately 85% of all scientists use scientific search engines, although only 6% of the estimated number of 800 million web-sites are characterised as being scientific, we may conclude that web search engines are not able to provide world-wide searching needs: they are only a first step. In the past, users of information were concerned about content but now they have to assess a variety of platforms with the same content as well. Some issues here are: the quality of the interfaces offered by aggregators, the choice and quality of content and its metadata. Outsourcing gets more and more important. Providers and users are concerned about new business models, such as pay-per-view. Management capabilities have gained importance and some skills are now indispensable; negotiation, co-operation and knowledge of consortia and virtual communities. A new area is the integration of the library and knowledge management function at R and D establishments, universities and large corporations. Intermediaries which provide value-added services to its users will survive and notably corporate information services have a critical role to play

  18. Remarks at Institute of Retraining and Professional Development, 2 April 2012, Minsk, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    taken since the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Safety will continue to improve, but we must avoid complacency at all costs. I understand that the Institute of Retraining and Professional Development plays a key role in helping to prevent illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials in Belarus. Last week, I attended the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul at which heads of state and government from some 50 countries considered ways to strengthen measures to prevent terrorists and other criminals from obtaining material that could be used to make a dirty bomb. This is a serious threat throughout the world and we must remain very vigilant. The fact that nuclear security is now getting the attention of heads of state and government is very encouraging. The world will undoubtedly be safer as a result. Several countries in this region are planning to embark on new nuclear energy projects. This confirms our assessment at the IAEA that nuclear energy remains a valid option for many countries as they consider their future energy mix. But we must not forget that public confidence in the safety of nuclear power was badly damaged by the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In using nuclear power, all countries must ensure the highest level of transparency and openness in communicating with all stakeholders. Dialogue and communication will be important between government and local communities, between the IAEA and individual Member States, and among countries themselves, so that nuclear power can be used safely, securely and sustainably. I would like to conclude by noting that Belarus has been a valued partner for the IAEA for many years. We are working especially closely with you as you move towards building your first nuclear power reactors. You can count on our support at every stage of the process. I wish you every success with your training here at the Institute of Retraining and Professional Development. Thank you. (IAEA)

  19. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  20. Experimental aspects concerning the laser action on the living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchita, Tavi; Antipa, Ciprian; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Anghel, Sorin; Calugareanu, Mircea

    2001-06-01

    The paper presents some experimental methods of the treatment and investigation aspects and results concerning the interaction of the low energy laser (LEL) with living tissue in the treatment of some skin diseases: lichen ruber planus (LP) and infectious finger pulpits (IFP), scalp alopecia (SA) and crural ulcers (CU). We concluded that LEL therapy is a useful complementary method in the treatments of these skin diseases .

  1. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  2. Remarks on Prof. Michał Kokowski’s comment about the studies into the life of Prof. Jan Czochralski (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł E. TOMASZEWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Remarks on the critical comments regarding the contents of the paper published after the presentation delivered by the biographer of Prof. Jan Czochralski. Unfortunately, Prof. Kokowski used an incorrect historical approach to such a short paper. The remarks are presented in four main points.

  3. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  4. Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Donald; Georgiade, Nicholas G.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1974, 69 patients with extensive defects have undergone reconstruction by microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Using this method, donor composite tissue is isolated on its blood supply, removed to a distant recipient site, and the continuity of blood flow re-established by microvascular anastomoses. In this series, 56 patients (81%) were completely successful. There have been eight (12%) failures, primarily in the extremities. There have been five (7%) partial successes, (i.e., a microvascular flap in which a portion was lost requiring a secondary procedure such as a split thickness graft). In those patients with a severely injured lower extremity, the failure rate was the greatest. Most of these were arterial (six of seven). These failures occurred early in the series and were thought to be related to a severely damaged recipient vasculature. This problem has been circumvented by an autogenous interpositional vein graft, permitting more mobility of flap placement. In the upper extremity, all but one case were successful. Early motion was permitted, preventing joint capsular contractures and loss of function. Twenty-three cases in the head and neck region were successful (one partial success). This included two composite rib grafts to the mandible. Prolonged delays in reconstruction following extirpation of a malignancy were avoided. A rapid return to society following complete reconstruction was ensured. Nine patients presented for reconstruction of the breast and thorax following radical mastectomy. All were successfully reconstructed with this new technique except one patient. Its many advantages include immediate reconstruction without delayed procedures and no secondary deformity of the donor site. Healthy, well vascularized tissue can now be transferred to a previously irradiated area with no tissue loss. This new method offers many advantages to older methods of reconstruction. Length of hospital stay and immobilization are reduced. The

  5. Butyltin Compounds in Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    accumulate tin in their tissues (Dooley & Homer. 1983). Whether the toxic tributyltin (Bu 3 Sn) is accumulated as such or whether the various marine organisms...did not appear to have reached an equilibrium after 60 days of exposure: while fish appeared to be able to deal with tributyltin fairly efficiently...Depuration of tributyltin in oysters occurred at 5 percent/day to give a calculated half-life of about 2 weeks. AcO51.on. For I;, + I - INSPECTED~ is

  6. Soft tissue anchor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M

    1994-04-01

    The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.

  7. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  8. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  9. Random lasing in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, Randal C.; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2004-01-01

    A random collection of scatterers in a gain medium can produce coherent laser emission lines dubbed 'random lasing'. We show that biological tissues, including human tissues, can support coherent random lasing when infiltrated with a concentrated laser dye solution. To extract a typical random resonator size within the tissue we average the power Fourier transform of random laser spectra collected from many excitation locations in the tissue; we verified this procedure by a computer simulation. Surprisingly, we found that malignant tissues show many more laser lines compared to healthy tissues taken from the same organ. Consequently, the obtained typical random resonator was found to be different for healthy and cancerous tissues, and this may lead to a technique for separating malignant from healthy tissues for diagnostic imaging

  10. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  11. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Peripheral tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Hessel, Trine Witzner; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability of measur......Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability......, and response to changing oxygenation by the down slope of rStO2 during vascular occlusion in the respective arm. 10 healthy adults, 21-29 years old, with double skinfolds on the forearm less than 10 mm participated. The median rStO2 was 70.7% (interquartile range (IQR) 7.7%), 68.4% (IQR 8.4%), and 64.6% (IQR 4...

  13. Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.

  14. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory.

  15. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....

  16. A remarkable hematological and molecular response pattern in a patient with polycythemia vera during combination therapy with simvastatin and alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lindholm Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year old man with polycythemia vera, who had a remarkable hematological and molecular response during treatment with simvastatin and alendronate. The patient was treated with this combination for 56 months, and during this period the patient has been in complete hematological remission. The JAK2-V617F allele burden has dropped from 64% to sustained values below 20%, and follow-up bone marrow biopsies have revealed no change in PV features, without any regular cytoreductive treatment.

  17. Localization of IAA transporting tissue by tissue printing and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee-Rye Cha; Evans, M.L.; Hangarter, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membranes provides a useful technique for visualizing anatomical details of tissue morphology of cut ends of stem segments. Basal ends of Coleus stem and corn coleoptile segments that were transporting 14 C-IAA were gently blotted onto DEAE-nitrocellulose for several minutes to allow 14 C-IAA to efflux from the tissue. Because of the anion exchange properties of DEAE-nitrocellulose the 14 C-IAA remains on the membrane at the point it leaves the transporting tissue. Autoradiography of the DEAE membrane allowed indirect visualization of the tissues preferentially involved in auxin transport. The authors observed that polar transport through the stem segments occurred primarily through or in association with vascular tissues. However, in Coleus stems, substantial amounts of the label appeared to move through the tissue by diffusion as well as by active transport

  18. Rapid Column-Free Enrichment of Mononuclear Cells from Solid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen A.; Cheng, Stephanie; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Xiaoli; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Freud, Aharon G.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a rapid negative selection method to enrich rare mononuclear cells from human tissues. Unwanted and antibody-tethered cells are selectively depleted during a Ficoll separation step, and there is no need for magnetic-based reagents and equipment. The new method is fast, customizable, inexpensive, remarkably efficient, and easy to perform, and per sample the overall cost is less than one-tenth the cost associated with a magnetic column-based method. PMID:26223896

  19. Current Concepts in Tissue Engineering: Skin and Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus, Mayer; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Pure regenerative healing with little to no donor morbidity remains an elusive goal for both surgeon and patient. The ability to engineer and promote the development of like tissue holds so much promise, and efforts in this direction are slowly but steadily advancing. Products selected and reviewed reflect historical precedence and importance and focus on current clinically available products in use. Emerging technologies we anticipate will further expand our therapeutic options are introduced. The topic of tissue engineering is incredibly broad in scope, and as such the authors have focused their review on that of constructs specifically designed for skin and wound healing. A review of pertinent and current clinically related literature is included. Products such as biosynthetics, biologics, cellular promoting factors, and commercially available matrices can be routinely found in most modern health care centers. Although to date no complete regenerative or direct identical soft-tissue replacement exists, currently available commercial components have proven beneficial in augmenting and improving some types of wound healing scenarios. Cost, directed specificity, biocompatibility, and bioburden tolerance are just some of the impending challenges to adoption. Quality of life and in fact the ability to sustain life is dependent on our most complex and remarkable organ, skin. Although pure regenerative healing and engineered soft-tissue constructs elude us, surgeons and health care providers are slowly gaining comfort and experience with concepts and strategies to improve the healing of wounds.

  20. Silk fibroin as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Johanna; Midha, Swati; Ghosh, Sourabh; Ito, Keita; Hofmann, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a fibrous protein which is produced mainly by silkworms and spiders. Its unique mechanical properties, tunable biodegradation rate and the ability to support the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells along the osteogenic lineage, have made SF a favorable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. SF can be processed into various scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified, which provides an impressive toolbox and allows SF scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing SF, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Silk fibroin is a natural biomaterial with remarkable biomedical and mechanical properties which make it favorable for a broad range of bone tissue engineering applications. It can be processed into different scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified which provides a unique toolbox and allows silk fibroin scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing silk fibroin, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-assembled thin film of imidazolium ionic liquid on a silicon surface: Low friction and remarkable wear-resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusain, Rashi; Kokufu, Sho; Bakshi, Paramjeet S.; Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Khatri, Om P.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ionic liquid thin film is deposited on a silicon surface via covalent interaction. • Chemical and morphological features of ionic liquid thin film are probed by XPS and AFM. • Ionic liquid thin film exhibited low and steady friction along with remarkable wear-resistivity. - Abstract: Imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate (ImPF_6) ionic liquid thin film is prepared on a silicon surface using 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane as a bifunctional chemical linker. XPS result revealed the covalent grafting of ImPF_6 thin film on a silicon surface. The atomic force microscopic images demonstrated that the ImPF_6 thin film is composed of nanoscopic pads/clusters with height of 3–7 nm. Microtribological properties in terms of coefficient of friction and wear-resistivity are probed at the mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.35–0.6 GPa under the rotational sliding contact. The ImPF_6 thin film exhibited low and steady coefficient of friction (μ = 0.11) along with remarkable wear-resistivity to protect the underlying silicon substrate. The low shear strength of ImPF_6 thin film, the covalent interaction between ImPF_6 ionic liquid thin film and underlying silicon substrate, and its regular grafting collectively reduced the friction and improved the anti-wear property. The covalently grafted ionic liquid thin film further shows immense potential to expand the durability and lifetime of M/NEMS based devices with significant reduction of the friction.

  2. Proclus' Elaboration of Platonic Remarks on the Problem of Evils, and their Relation to Divine Providence and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza korrang beheshti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is not a fully developed theory of evil in Plato, some various remarks are interspersed throughout his dialogues which provided the main materials for subsequent Platonists to elaborate a systematic doctrine of evil. Proclus is the most distinguished philosopher of the later Neoplatonism whose view became authoritative within the School and thus is most representative of the Neoplatonic doctrine of evil. By a critical assessment of the antecedent theories of evil, Proclus attempts to give a monistic interpretation of Platonic remarks on the problem of evil. According to his explanation, the higher degrees and principles of Being are only and purely good and are not the causes of evils but the good things for all things alone. Evils, however, exist necessarily but only among particular beings in a relative, parasitic, accidental way and dependent upon the good. The parasitic accidental existence of evil does not have a real efficient cause. It arises due to an asymmetry between the activities of the several faculties or powers of a complex particular being. Moreover, the existence of evil is so mixed with and dependent upon the good that despite its opposition to the good, contributes, in its own manner, to the fulfillment of goodness of the whole Universe, being thus reconcilable with Divine Providence and Efficiency.

  3. Radiometric age determination on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. Remarkable age difference across a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    K-Ar and zircon fission-track dating was carried out on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. The samples analyzed were collected on both sides of one of the major faults in the Hida Range: the Kurobe-Takase fracture zone. Ages obtained west of the fault are ∼60 Ma, while those obtained to the east of the fault are less than ∼5 Ma. These results indicate a remarkable age difference across the fault. The Okukurobe granite, located west of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 60-55 Ma, and the Kanazawa granodiorite, located east of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 5-1 Ma. The Okukurobe granite has remained cooler than ∼240degC since ∼55 Ma. Thus, it was found that the granitic rocks across the fault have experienced a remarkable different cooling history. (author)

  4. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in hepatic, adipose tissue and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipid metabolism differ between men and women, and women tend to have better whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. This may be explained, in part, by differences in sex hormones and adipose tissue distribution. Few studies have investigated gender differences in hepatic, adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity between severely obese men and women. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences in glucose metabolism between severely obese men and women using tissue-specific measurements of insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was compared between age and body mass index (BMI-matched obese men and women by a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose. Basal endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue and peripheral tissues were assessed. Liver fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subset of included subjects. We included 46 obese men and women (age, 48±2 vs 46±2 years, p=0.591; BMI, 41±1 vs 41±1 kg/m2, p=0.832. There was no difference in basal endogenous glucose production (14.4±1.0 vs 15.3±0.5 µmol•kg fat-free mass-1•min-1, p=0.410, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids, 71.6±3.6 vs 76.1±2.6%, p=0.314 or peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated rate of disappearance of glucose, 26.2±2.1 vs 22.7±1.7 µmol•kg-1•min-1, p=0.211. Obese men were characterized by lower hepatic insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, 61.7±4.1 vs 72.8±2.5% in men vs women, resp., p=0.028. Finally, these observations could not be explained by differences in liver fat content (men vs women, 16.5±3.1 vs 16.0±2.5%, p=0.913, n=27.We conclude that obese men have lower hepatic, but comparable adipose tissue and peripheral tissue, insulin sensitivity compared to similarly obese women. Hepatic insulin resistance may

  6. Promoting tissue regeneration by modulating the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julier, Ziad; Park, Anthony J; Briquez, Priscilla S; Martino, Mikaël M

    2017-04-15

    The immune system plays a central role in tissue repair and regeneration. Indeed, the immune response to tissue injury is crucial in determining the speed and the outcome of the healing process, including the extent of scarring and the restoration of organ function. Therefore, controlling immune components via biomaterials and drug delivery systems is becoming an attractive approach in regenerative medicine, since therapies based on stem cells and growth factors have not yet proven to be broadly effective in the clinic. To integrate the immune system into regenerative strategies, one of the first challenges is to understand the precise functions of the different immune components during the tissue healing process. While remarkable progress has been made, the immune mechanisms involved are still elusive, and there is indication for both negative and positive roles depending on the tissue type or organ and life stage. It is well recognized that the innate immune response comprising danger signals, neutrophils and macrophages modulates tissue healing. In addition, it is becoming evident that the adaptive immune response, in particular T cell subset activities, plays a critical role. In this review, we first present an overview of the basic immune mechanisms involved in tissue repair and regeneration. Then, we highlight various approaches based on biomaterials and drug delivery systems that aim at modulating these mechanisms to limit fibrosis and promote regeneration. We propose that the next generation of regenerative therapies may evolve from typical biomaterial-, stem cell-, or growth factor-centric approaches to an immune-centric approach. Most regenerative strategies have not yet proven to be safe or reasonably efficient in the clinic. In addition to stem cells and growth factors, the immune system plays a crucial role in the tissue healing process. Here, we propose that controlling the immune-mediated mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration may support

  7. Weak light emission of soft tissues induced by heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Durando, Giovanni; Boschi, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to show that soft tissue interaction with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or direct heating leads to a weak light emission detectable using a small animal optical imaging system. Our results show that the luminescence signal is detectable after 30 min of heating, resembling the time scale of delayed luminescence. The imaging of a soft tissue after heating it using an HIFU field shows that the luminescence pattern closely matches the shape of the cone typical of the HIFU beam. We conclude that heating a soft tissue using two different sources leads to the emission of a weak luminescence signal from the heated region with a decay half-life of a few minutes (4 to 6 min). The origin of such light emission needs to be further investigated.

  8. 3D Bioprinting for Tissue and Organ Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yue, Kan; Aleman, Julio; Moghaddam, Kamyar Mollazadeh; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Yang, Jingzhou; Jia, Weitao; Dell'Erba, Valeria; Assawes, Pribpandao; Shin, Su Ryon; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Oklu, Rahmi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine has progressed tremendously over the past few decades in its ability to fabricate functional tissue substitutes. Conventional approaches based on scaffolding and microengineering are limited in their capacity of producing tissue constructs with precise biomimetic properties. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology, on the other hand, promises to bridge the divergence between artificially engineered tissue constructs and native tissues. In a sense, 3D bioprinting offers unprecedented versatility to co-deliver cells and biomaterials with precise control over their compositions, spatial distributions, and architectural accuracy, therefore achieving detailed or even personalized recapitulation of the fine shape, structure, and architecture of target tissues and organs. Here we briefly describe recent progresses of 3D bioprinting technology and associated bioinks suitable for the printing process. We then focus on the applications of this technology in fabrication of biomimetic constructs of several representative tissues and organs, including blood vessel, heart, liver, and cartilage. We finally conclude with future challenges in 3D bioprinting as well as potential solutions for further development.

  9. 3D Bioprinting for Tissue and Organ Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yang, Jingzhou; Jia, Weitao; Dell’Erba, Valeria; Assawes, Pribpandao; Shin, Su Ryon; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Oklu, Rahmi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine has progressed tremendously over the past few decades in its ability to fabricate functional tissue substitutes. Conventional approaches based on scaffolding and microengineering are limited in their capacity of producing tissue constructs with precise biomimetic properties. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology, on the other hand, promises to bridge the divergence between artificially engineered tissue constructs and native tissues. In a sense, 3D bioprinting offers unprecedented versatility to co-deliver cells and biomaterials with precise control over their compositions, spatial distributions, and architectural accuracy, therefore achieving detailed or even personalized recapitulation of the fine shape, structure, and architecture of target tissues and organs. Here we briefly describe recent progresses of 3D bioprinting technology and associated bioinks suitable for the printing process. We then focus on the applications of this technology in fabrication of biomimetic constructs of several representative tissues and organs, including blood vessel, heart, liver, and cartilage. We finally conclude with future challenges in 3D bioprinting as well as potential solutions for further development. PMID:27126775

  10. Mechanical cues in orofacial tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Katrien M; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Middelkoop, Esther; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients suffer from functional, aesthetical, and psychosocial problems due to suboptimal regeneration of skin, mucosa, and skeletal muscle after restorative cleft surgery. The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE/RM) aims to restore the normal physiology of tissues and organs in conditions such as birth defects or after injury. A crucial factor in cell differentiation, tissue formation, and tissue function is mechanical strain. Regardless of this, mechanical cues are not yet widely used in TE/RM. The effects of mechanical stimulation on cells are not straight-forward in vitro as cellular responses may differ with cell type and loading regime, complicating the translation to a therapeutic protocol. We here give an overview of the different types of mechanical strain that act on cells and tissues and discuss the effects on muscle, and skin and mucosa. We conclude that presently, sufficient knowledge is lacking to reproducibly implement external mechanical loading in TE/RM approaches. Mechanical cues can be applied in TE/RM by fine-tuning the stiffness and architecture of the constructs to guide the differentiation of the seeded cells or the invading surrounding cells. This may already improve the treatment of orofacial clefts and other disorders affecting soft tissues. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Design of a visible-light spectroscopy clinical tissue oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaron, David A; Parachikov, Ilian H; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Friedland, Shai; Rubinsky, Boris E; Otten, David M; Liu, Frank W H; Levinson, Carl J; Murphy, Aileen L; Price, John W; Talmi, Yair; Weersing, James P; Duckworth, Joshua L; Hörchner, Uwe B; Kermit, Eben L

    2005-01-01

    We develop a clinical visible-light spectroscopy (VLS) tissue oximeter. Unlike currently approved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) or pulse oximetry (SpO2%), VLS relies on locally absorbed, shallow-penetrating visible light (475 to 625 nm) for the monitoring of microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2%), allowing incorporation into therapeutic catheters and probes. A range of probes is developed, including noncontact wands, invasive catheters, and penetrating needles with injection ports. Data are collected from: 1. probes, standards, and reference solutions to optimize each component; 2. ex vivo hemoglobin solutions analyzed for StO2% and pO2 during deoxygenation; and 3. human subject skin and mucosal tissue surfaces. Results show that differential VLS allows extraction of features and minimization of scattering effects, in vitro VLS oximetry reproduces the expected sigmoid hemoglobin binding curve, and in vivo VLS spectroscopy of human tissue allows for real-time monitoring (e.g., gastrointestinal mucosal saturation 69+/-4%, n=804; gastrointestinal tumor saturation 45+/-23%, n=14; and p<0.0001), with reproducible values and small standard deviations (SDs) in normal tissues. FDA approved VLS systems began shipping earlier this year. We conclude that VLS is suitable for the real-time collection of spectroscopic and oximetric data from human tissues, and that a VLS oximeter has application to the monitoring of localized subsurface hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the microvascular tissue spaces of human subjects.

  12. Concluding Report on Free-Spinning and Recovery Characteristics of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman F11F-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA AD 395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.

    1956-01-01

    An investigation has been completed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a l/24-scale model of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane to determine its spin and recovery characteristics. An interim report, Research Memorandum SL55G20, was published earlier and the present report concludes the presentation of results of the investigation. Primarily, the present report presents results obtained with engine gyroscopic moments simulated on the model. Also, the current results were obtained with a revised larger vertical tail recently incorporated on the airplane. It was difficult to obtain developed spins on the model when the spin direction was in the same sense as that of the engine rotation (right spin on the airplane). The developed spins obtained were very oscillatory and the recoveries were unsatisfactory. These results were similar to those previously reported for which engine rotation was not simulated. When the spin direction was in the opposite sense (left spin on the airplane), however, developed spins were readily obtainable. Recoveries from these spins also were unsatisfactory. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained on the model, however, when rudder reversal was accompanied by extension of small canards near the nose of the airplane or by deflection of the horizontal tail differentially with the spin.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintschel v Heinegg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB) [de

  14. Comparison of Sirtuin 3 Levels in ALS and Huntington’s Disease—Differential Effects in Human Tissue Samples vs. Transgenic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington’s disease (HD medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3, regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes. SIRT3 expression depends on the activity of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, a modifier of ALS and HD in patients and model organisms. This prompted us to systematically probe Sirt3 mRNA and protein levels in mouse models of ALS and HD and to correlate these with patient tissue levels. We found a selective reduction of Sirt3 mRNA levels and function in the cervical spinal cord of end-stage ALS mice (superoxide dismutase 1, SOD1G93A. In sharp contrast, a tendency to increased Sirt3 mRNA levels was found in the striatum in HD mice (R6/2. Cultured primary neurons express the highest levels of Sirt3 mRNA. In primary cells from PGC-1α knock-out (KO mice the Sirt3 mRNA levels were highest in astrocytes. In human post mortem tissue increased mRNA and protein levels of Sirt3 were found in the spinal cord in ALS, while Sirt3 levels were unchanged in the human HD striatum. Based on these findings we conclude that SIRT3 mediates the different effects of PGC-1α during the course of transgenic (tg ALS and HD and in the human conditions only partial aspects Sirt3 dysregulation manifest.

  15. Solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of boron in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Briceno, J.; Aramendia, M.; Belarra, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the potential of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of B in plant tissues has been investigated. Three certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves, NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves and BCR CRM 679 white cabbage) were selected for this study, the goal always being to develop a fast procedure that could be robust enough to provide a satisfactory performance for all of them, without any modifications in the conditions applied. The use of a suitable chemical modifier was found to be essential for obtaining a reproducible and sufficiently sensitive signal for boron solutions. In this regard, the performance of the combination of citric acid plus W (added as a permanent modifier) was noteworthy, resulting in well-defined signal profiles, a remarkable analyte stabilization during the pyrolysis step (up to 2100 deg. C) and minimal memory effects. This mixture of modifiers provided a good performance for the direct analysis of solid samples as well, but only if a suitable temperature program, favoring the interaction between the analyte and the modifiers, was used. Thus, such a temperature program, with two pyrolysis steps and the addition of NH 4 NO 3 in order to carry out the in situ sample microdigestion, was optimized. Under these conditions, the peak areas obtained for both solid samples and aqueous standards were comparable. Finally, the analysis of the samples was carried out. In all cases, a good agreement with the certified values was obtained, while R.S.D. values ranged between 6 and 10%. It can be concluded that the method proposed shows significant advantages for the determination of this complicated element in solid samples such as the use of aqueous standards for calibration, a high sample throughput (20 min per sample), a suitable limit of detection (0.3 μg g -1 ) and reduced risk of analyte losses and contamination

  16. Remarks on numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1995-12-01

    We extend results on Weierstrass semigroups at ramified points of double covering of curves to any numerical semigroup whose genus is large enough. As an application we strengthen the properties concerning Weierstrass weights state in [To]. (author). 25 refs

  17. CAPITALIST CRISIS: BRIEF REMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudinei Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the joint context of the theory of crises and the resultant theory of revolutions of Marx and Engels for the analysis of the genesis, development and death of Capitalism, a summary of the historical confronts from which relations of capital have been hegemonic in the XX and XXI centuries is presented. Within this same context, a synthesis of the debates on the structural crisis of Capitalism in the past years is made with an emphasis on its relevance and seriousness in history. It is emphasized that communism is not an idea to be implemented but a reality to be constructed by real men in struggles, conquests and defeats. The revolution of a way of production is not made by itself or by decree, but it is in fact the product of organized men. It is claimed that the maturing of a struggle may lead to the formation of a wide front to articulate anti-capitalist and revolutionary forces. It is observed the need for a tactic and strategic organization to overcome the logics of the Capital and the role each educationalist must play to expand and deepen the debate.

  18. A remarkable legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Stuart

    2008-02-01

    Joseph Rotblat, who died in 2005 at the age of 96, was a rare combination of distinguished scientist and leading peace advocate. During the Second World War he was involved with the Manhattan Project - which created the world's first atomic bombs - but then decided to resign on ethical grounds. This life-changing decision set the scene for the dual role that he would play for the rest of his life. On the one hand, Rotblat was a key figure in setting up and leading the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which bring together scientists and public figures concerned with reducing the danger of armed conflict and seeking co-operative solutions for global problems. On the other, he was an accomplished nuclear and medical physicist, eventually becoming president of the British Institute of Radiology.

  19. Closing remarks: astronomical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1990-01-01

    During the discussions we have covered many facets of the basic interactions between solar activity and the Earth's climate. Solar activity is not the only astronomical or astrophysical phenomenon to influence physical conditions in the biosphere. Over timescales an order of magnitude less, the location of the Solar System in the Galaxy may have influenced life on Earth. The Sun is a complex generator of radiation, particles and magnetic fields sent far into space. Even if the total radiation emitted is constant, the amount of radiation received by the Earth changes with time: this change is complex and involved with a redistribution of energy emitted at different solar latitudes than to a real change in solar luminosity. These changes in the Earth's illumination may be a function of the wavelength, and have various effects in different layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also emits particles of all energies. Some of them find their way through the magnetopause, giving rise to auroras, to magnetic storms, to ionospheric disturbances and the like. The possible climatological effects are yet obscure. To understand the solar terrestrial relations better, regular, routine observations from ground-based stations and from space of solar phenomena must be continued. The sensitivity of human life to small changes in climatic conditions is very large. A good knowledge of solar-physics is therefore important and relevant. (author)

  20. Preliminary y remarks y

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    for Women in India brought o ... 2) A Girl's Guide to Life in S ... mathematics or science (man women). We dont seem to have our Larr. B ill d b ... family balance. ... awareness for this not just also the parents, the also the parents, the work.

  1. Mathematics Admission Test Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ideon Erge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2014, there have been admission tests in mathematics for applicants to the Estonian University of Life Sciences for Geodesy, Land Management and Real Estate Planning; Civil Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering and Water Pollution Control; Engineering and Technetronics curricula. According to admission criteria, the test must be taken by students who have not passed the specific mathematics course state exam or when the score was less than 20 points. The admission test may also be taken by those who wish to improve their state exam score. In 2016, there were 126 such applicants of whom 63 took the test. In 2015, the numbers were 129 and 89 and in 2014 150 and 47 accordingly. The test was scored on scale of 100. The arithmetic average of the score was 30.6 points in 2016, 29.03 in 2015 and 18.84 in 2014. The test was considered to be passed with 1 point in 2014 and 20 points in 2015 and 2016. We analyzed test results and gave examples of problems which were solved exceptionally well or not at all.

  2. Remarks on stochastic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeff, P.

    1982-12-01

    Stochastic acceleration and turbulent diffusion are strong turbulence problems since no expansion parameter exists. Hence the problem of finding rigorous results is of major interest both for checking approximations and for reference models. Since we have found a way of constructing such models in the turbulent diffusion case the question of the extension to stochastic acceleration now arises. The paper offers some possibilities illustrated by the case of 'stochastic free fall' which may be particularly interesting in the context of linear response theory. (orig.)

  3. Closing Remarks and Awards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, M.; Van der Meer, K.; Hamilton, A.

    2015-01-01

    M. Whitaker: On behalf of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, we are grateful for the opportunity to support this symposium. The number of symposium events-presentations, posters, technical demonstrations, panel discussions, and receptions - has been completely overwhelming and truly impressive. My compliments to the IAEA organization staff for a spectacular event. I have gained a much better appreciation for why these are only once every four years. This symposium has provided an important opportunity to reengage with friends and colleagues from around the globe to discuss international safeguards topics. The theme this year is very appropriate. So much of our work relies upon people. Together we work to develop the strategies that ensure that international safeguards are effectively implemented to provide the world the assurances that they expect from us. Thank you for this opportunity to share in the organization and execution of this symposium. K. Van der Meer: It is my pleasure to give the last poster awards. We have had two award ceremonies already this week on Wednesday and Thursday to recognize the best posters in those sessions. Today it will be two parts. First we will give the award for the best posters for this morning's sessions, and then we have four special awards: Gold, Silver, Bronze and the New Generation Symposium Award. These are the awards for the best posters for the whole week. The New Generation Symposium Award is for recognition of a younger participant and the prize is also for a younger participant. The full list of award winners is available under the symposium website. The IAEA recognizes the generous donations by INMM and ESARDA of the following prizes given as awards for the best posters: · Best e-poster advertisement per session: free subscription to the ESARDA Bulletin; · Best e-poster per session: free membership in INMM; · Best poster of the week ''Bronze'': free registration for the 8th INMM/ESARDA Joint Workshop; · Best poster of the week ''Silver'': free registration for the 2015 ESARDA Symposium; · Best poster of the week ''Gold'': free registration for the 2015 INMM Annual Meeting; · Best poster of the week ''New Generation Symposium Award'': free participation in the 2015 ESARDA Safeguards course

  4. Some remarks about decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, A.

    1990-01-01

    Decontamination in itself is not the elimination of a problem, but corresponds to move that problem from one place to another. It is beneficial only if the contamination is less of a nuisance when moved to the ''other place''. Therefore any prospective decontamination process is to be considered essentially in terms of cost-benefit, and in particular in terms of reducing the burden on the waste management systems. The paper is not intended to deal with and to review critically the technical aspects of the various decontamination processes which are currently available. Its aim is to call the attention of those who may be faced with the problem of large-scale decontamination, so that this operation is carried out after all practical aspects have been examined. (author)

  5. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  6. Momentum distributions: opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigold, E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the hydrogen atom has played a central role in the development of quantum mechanics, beginning with Bohr's daring speculations. It was also the first problem tackled by Schroedinger with his new wave mechanics and similarly it was used by Heisenberg in his first papers as a prime example of the success of quantum mechanics. It has always played a central role in the teaching of quantum physics and has served as a most important heuristic tool, shaping our intuition and inspiring many expositions. The Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom is usually solved in the position representation, the solution to the equation being the wave functions psi/sub nlm/(r). If Schroedinger's equation is solved in the momentum representation instead of the coordinate representation, the absolute square of the corresponding momentum state wave function phi/sub nlm/(p) would give the momentum probability distribution of the electron in the state defined by the quantum numbers n, l and m. Three different types of collisions which can take place in the (e,2e) reaction on atomic hydrogen, which is a three body problem, are discussed

  7. Overview and summary remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The non-scientific community believes that there is such a thing as safety and that this should be an attainable goal in any technology. People are poor intuitive judges of risks. If the first inducer of mutation to be discovered had been mustard gas rather than ionizing radiation, we probably would not be as concerned about radiation. Radiation is a relatively poor mutagen; it is a good recombinogen but poor compared to ultraviolet and may chemicals for the production of point mutagens. The issue of threshold doses has not been resolved; when one allows for the existence of repair, one opens the possibility that repair-proficient cells could have a dose-response curve with a zero slope at very low doses. Another issue concerns mutagen burden, particularly when comparing radiation with chemicals. Exposure to ionizing radiation may be a very minor component of the total mutagen burden to which we are all exposed. There can exist both synergistic and antagonistic interactions among mutagens. We should not forget the role of metabolism in genetic responses. The responses of cells to mutagens of all kinds are much more complex biochemically than one would imagine on the basis of the simple notion of DNA damage and its error-free or error-prone repair. (L.L.)

  8. Plenary presentations - opening remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    I am pleased to be here today as one of the U.S. Co-Chairs for the Second U.S./Japan Workshop on Global Change. This series of workshops is an outgrowth of the 1988 bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Japanese governments on scientific and technological cooperation. That agreement called for comparable access to, and exchange of, information in scientific and technological fields, as well as the joint undertaking of cooperative activities for peaceful purposes in nationally important areas of science and technology. Meetings such as this were envisioned under the agreement to allow experts from both sides to discuss and exchange information on scientific and technological aspects of important problems and to identify research and development projects that might usefully be undertaken on a cooperative basis. The first U.S./Japan Workshop on Global Change focused on research needed to better understand how the global climate system operates, what the interactions are between the climate system and marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and how Earth systems might respond to global climatic changes.

  9. Opening keynote remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinwart, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    The outlook for western Canadian natural gas supply was introduced as the principal conference topic, with particular attention to U.S. Midwest markets and the new transportation options from Alberta and British Columbia. Prospects were considered to be excellent, with large connected surplus capacity envisaged well into the next century. Some of the advantages of Canada as a supplier were enumerated: a large resource base, excellent established infrastructure, technical competence, competitive pricing, and political stability

  10. Opening remarks: Preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Harold L.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue contains the proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements held 4-5 April 2001 in Arlington, Virginia. The theme of the meeting was 'Fallout from Atmospheric Nuclear Tests-Impact on Science and Society.' Between 1945 and 1980, over 500 nuclear weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere by the United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China. This practice resulted in the release of large quantities of radioactive materials, which dispersed widely in the atmosphere and deposited on Earth's surface. The measurement of these so-called 'fallout' radionuclides in air, soil, and water and the evaluation of the transfer of these materials to the human body became a significant scientific endeavor. Many national and international monitoring projects were initiated, and extended studies were made of the fallout behavior. An historical overview of the testing and resultant monitoring programs, fallout mechanisms, and estimates of the resultant deposition of fallout is presented in the first paper in this Symposium. University and national laboratory scientists conducted a large number of research programs during the course of weapons tests and fallout. This research resulted in substantial improvements in low-level radioactivity metrology as well as significant advances in the understanding of atmospheric, ecological, and oceanographic processes. Many of these results are still highly pertinent to present-day environmental radiation issues related to the cleanup of contaminated sites, the decommissioning of contaminated facilities, and the assessment of accidents such as occurred at Three Mile Island and at Chernobyl. The results of these investigations were published in thousands of research papers and presented at a number of international conferences held over the processes. The radionuclides served as tracer materials in this regard. The initiation of research on radioactive fallout was the beginning of a new scientific era of opportunity and discovery using the radionuclides injected into the environment from weapons tests as a tool for studying such phenomena as atmospheric chemistry and ecological transfer processes and for developing new methods for the measurement and analysis of low levels of radioactive materials in environmental samples. Webb (1949), of the Eastman Kodak Company of Rochester, New York, was the first to report an occurrence of long-range fallout. He observed 'a new type of radioactive contaminant' in paper packing materials used to separate sensitive photographic films. This observation was made shortly after the first nuclear detonation on 16 July 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico, and the two events were immediately linked. During the war years Kodak had encountered radium-contaminated paper, caused by paper and cardboard salvaged and recycled from war plants where radium instrument dials were prepared. The company had therefore instigated a radiation-monitoring program. The paper contaminated by fallout was discovered in August 1945 in paper material that had been produced in Indiana from corn stalks grown in Iowa, some 1,600 km distant from the New Mexico test location. The contamination, identified as 141 Ce, had originated from dust particles deposited from the atmosphere, transferred to river water, and filtered out onto the paper raw material. Even though fallout was detected far from New Mexico as a result of the Trinity test, the systematic monitoring of long-range fallout did not begin until February 1951, 50 y ago. At that time, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere began in earnest and it was first recognized that fallout formed in the tests could become widely distributed downrange of the test site. Thus, it seemed appropriate for the NCRP at their 2001 annual meeting to mark this 50 y since the initiation of the global fallout monitoring and research programs by providing a forum to look back at the fallout phenomenon and, in particular, at the impact of the resultant investigations on the atmospheric, ecological, oceanographic, and measurement sciences. These scientific achievements are reviewed in the papers in this Symposium volume discussing the 'Impact on Science'

  11. Remarks on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    In two partially entangled states, entanglement swapping by Bell measurement will yield the weaker entanglement of the two. This scheme is optimal because the average entanglement cannot increase under local operation and classical communication. However, for more than two states, this scheme does not always yield the weakest link. We consider projective measurements other than Bell-type measurement and show, numerically, that while Bell measurement may not be unique, it is indeed optimal among these projective measurements. We also discuss the non-uniqueness of Bell measurements. (letter to the editor)

  12. A remark on accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xinxing; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Obtain some characteristics of accessibility and Kato’s chaos. • Answer negatively a question in [Li R, Wang H, Zhao Y. Kato’s chaos in duopoly games. Chaos Solit Fract 2016;84:69–72]. • A dynamical system is indecomposable if and only if it is weakly transitive. - Abstract: This note obtains some characteristics of accessibility and Kato’s chaos. Applying these results, an accessible dynamical system whose product system is not accessible is constructed, giving a negative answer to a question in [Li R, Wang H, Zhao Y. Kato’s chaos in duopoly games. Chaos Solit Fract 2016;84:69–72]. Besides, it is proved that every transitive interval self-map is accessible.

  13. Remarks on transparent adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Protopopescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the contrast arising between subject/object oriented depictives and manner adverbs. We adopt Geuder’s (2004 label of “transparent” adverbs and embark upon a comparison between this particular class and manner adverbs in English and Romanian, with a look at depictive constructions as well. The problem discussed here is the ambiguity arising in Romanian where most such adverbs seem to overlap their corresponding adjectival forms. Tests will show where they have to be adjoined and the possible readings which they are attached.

  14. Remarks on Batchelor's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, R.J.; Rawnsley, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors show that the structure sheaf of a graded manifold is the sheaf of sections of the exterior algebra bundle of a vector bundle by reducing the problem to one in the theory of extensions of sheaves of commutative algebras to which standard cohomological techniques can be applied. (Auth.)

  15. Welcome and introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalsund, J.L.; Wiley, W.R.; Wagoner, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Attendees are welcomed to the conference. The general scope of the problem is touched on, and the driving point is made, that the development of new technology is necessary to meet the environmental restoration goals for the Hanford Reservation with a reasonable expenditure of funds and resources. If present technology in treating radioactive waste has to be applied to the wastes prior to final disposal, then the processing costs, and the resultant disposal costs, because of the volume of material to be disposed of, will be tremendous. This conference brings together researchers from national laboratories, universities, and industry to present the scope of the problem, the present status of separation science, and to encourage new technological development

  16. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  17. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  18. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  19. Bioprinting for Neural Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Anand, Shivesh; Shah, Twisha; Tasoglu, Savas

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions. We review a range of bioprinted neural tissue models and discuss how they can be used to observe how neurons behave, understand disease processes, develop new therapies and, ultimately, design replacement tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational Modeling in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is the translation of biological knowledge on complex cell and tissue behavior into a predictive and robust engineering process. Mastering this complexity is an essential step towards clinical applications of tissue engineering. This volume discusses computational modeling tools that allow studying the biological complexity in a more quantitative way. More specifically, computational tools can help in:  (i) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering product, e.g. by adapting scaffold design to optimize micro-environmental signals or by adapting selection criteria to improve homogeneity of the selected cell population; (ii) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering process, e.g. by adapting bioreactor design to improve quality and quantity of the final product; and (iii) assessing the influence of the in vivo environment on the behavior of the tissue engineering product, e.g. by investigating vascular ingrowth. The book presents examples of each...

  1. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  3. Remarkably enhanced gas separation by partial self-conversion of a laminated membrane to metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Pan, Jia Hong; Wang, Nanyi; Steinbach, Frank; Liu, Xinlei; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-03-02

    Separation methods based on 2D interlayer galleries are currently gaining widespread attention. The potential of such galleries as high-performance gas-separation membranes is however still rarely explored. Besides, it is well recognized that gas permeance and separation factor are often inversely correlated in membrane-based gas separation. Therefore, breaking this trade-off becomes highly desirable. Here, the gas-separation performance of a 2D laminated membrane was improved by its partial self-conversion to metal-organic frameworks. A ZIF-8-ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite membrane was thus successfully prepared in one step by partial conversion of the ZnAl-NO3 LDH membrane, ultimately leading to a remarkably enhanced H2 /CH4 separation factor and H2 permeance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A remarkable systemic error in calibration methods of γ spectrometer used for determining activity of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Cheng Jianping; Diao Lijun; Li Guiqun

    2006-01-01

    A remarkable systemic error which was unknown in past long time has been indicated. The error appears in the calibration methods of determining activity of 238 U is used with γ-spectrometer with high resolution. When the γ-ray of 92.6 keV as the characteristic radiation from 238 U is used to determine the activity of 238 U in natural environment samples, the disturbing radiation produced by external excitation (or called outer sourcing X-ray radiation) is the main problem. Because the X-ray intensity is changed with many indefinite factors, it is advised that the calibration methods should be put away. As the influence of the systemic errors has been left in some past research papers, the authors suggest that the data from those papers should be cited carefully and if possible the data ought to be re-determined. (authors)

  5. Remarks on the paper ''Two-dimensional quantum field theories involving massless particles'' by N.Nakanishi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.Ts.

    1978-01-01

    Some critical remarks on the paper by N.Nakanishi ''Tso-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories Involving Massless Particles'' are presented. It is stated that because of the obtained commutation relations the massless scalar fields of the theory connot have the asymptotic behaviour assumed by N.Nakanishi. The contradiction, appearing in the proof of the irreducibility of the scalar field, is demonstrated. Therefore, the theory constructed by Nakanishi, in which an attempt is made to formulate it with the help of one scalar field and correspondingly with one topological charge, is contradictory. It is shown that the statistics of the solutions is not fixed and the solutions satisfying Bose or Fermi statistics differ by constant operator factors

  6. “Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2016-01-01

    studies. In the fall of 2014 we carried out ethnographic fieldwork (Hastrup 2010, Spradley 1980) in the city of Horsens in Denmark in relation to our research on unstructured socialization among urban youth in urban public spaces. Despite our efforts to explain the young people about our field work......“Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth As pointed out by Hammersley and Atkinson (2007) the field observer can experience being perceived as a spy and feeling undeniably unwelcome, especially in the beginning of observation...... and our role as non-SSP (a special Social services, School and Police unit) and non-police, we repeatedly experienced the youngsters questioning our presence. The confusion and skepticism that we experienced emphasized the importance of reflecting our position as researchers (Bourdieu 1999, Goodson...

  7. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.

  8. Remarkable Improvement of Nail Changes in Alopecia Areata Universalis with 10 Months of Treatment with Tofacitinib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sineida Berbert Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a chronic, autoimmune disease. The main symptom is massive hair loss, localized or diffuse, in the scalp and the whole body. However, nails may also be involved, and brittleness, fragility and pitting can be signs of nail dystrophy in AA patients. Here, we report the case of a male patient with AA refractory to various treatments, including oral, topical and intralesional corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, cyclosporin and PUVA (oxoralen plus ultraviolet light, all interrupted due to side effects. The patient’s nails had erythematous blotches (striated lunulae with regular and superficial pitting as well as fragility (trachyonychia, and he could no longer play the guitar because of these symptoms. With patient consent, we introduced tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily, which resulted in remarkable improvements not only regarding hair regrowth but also nail changes, with function recovery within 10 months.

  9. Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol on a Strontium-Based Gold Material: Remarkable Intrinsic Basicity and Reusable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patrícia R. Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of stable and active gold catalysts has arisen as a significant strategy for oxidation of alcohols. Nano-size PVA-stabilized gold nanoparticles immobilized on Sr(OH2 by colloidal deposition presented high catalytic activity for benzyl alcohol oxidation. In 2.5 h, 2 bar of O2 and without extra-base addition, the calcined support reached 54.6% (100 °C and 67.4% (140 °C of conversion, presenting the remarkable and unexplored intrinsic basicity that strontium-based materials retain. With sub-stoichiometric K2CO3 adding, under the same catalytic conditions, the catalyst conducted the reaction with similar activity, but with excellent reusability in the process, without any gold leaching. We investigated the influence that the support synthesis method and the solvent used for the NPs stabilization have on the oxidation activity. The produced materials were fully characterized by XPS, Rietveld refinement, and TEM.

  10. Remarkable heterogeneity displayed by oval cells in rat and mouse models of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Peter; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The experimental protocols used in the investigation of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration in rodents are characterized by activation of the hepatic stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering followed by transit amplification of oval cells and their subsequent differentiation along hepatic...... the molecular phenotypes of oval cells in several of the most commonly used protocols of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration-namely, treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial (70%) hepatectomy (AAF/PHx); a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet; a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro...... remarkable phenotypic discrepancies exhibited by oval cells in stem cell-mediated liver regeneration between rats and mice and underline the importance of careful extrapolation between individual species....

  11. Self-assembled thin film of imidazolium ionic liquid on a silicon surface: Low friction and remarkable wear-resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusain, Rashi [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India); Kokufu, Sho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Bakshi, Paramjeet S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Khatri, Om P., E-mail: opkhatri@iip.res.in [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ionic liquid thin film is deposited on a silicon surface via covalent interaction. • Chemical and morphological features of ionic liquid thin film are probed by XPS and AFM. • Ionic liquid thin film exhibited low and steady friction along with remarkable wear-resistivity. - Abstract: Imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate (ImPF{sub 6}) ionic liquid thin film is prepared on a silicon surface using 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane as a bifunctional chemical linker. XPS result revealed the covalent grafting of ImPF{sub 6} thin film on a silicon surface. The atomic force microscopic images demonstrated that the ImPF{sub 6} thin film is composed of nanoscopic pads/clusters with height of 3–7 nm. Microtribological properties in terms of coefficient of friction and wear-resistivity are probed at the mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.35–0.6 GPa under the rotational sliding contact. The ImPF{sub 6} thin film exhibited low and steady coefficient of friction (μ = 0.11) along with remarkable wear-resistivity to protect the underlying silicon substrate. The low shear strength of ImPF{sub 6} thin film, the covalent interaction between ImPF{sub 6} ionic liquid thin film and underlying silicon substrate, and its regular grafting collectively reduced the friction and improved the anti-wear property. The covalently grafted ionic liquid thin film further shows immense potential to expand the durability and lifetime of M/NEMS based devices with significant reduction of the friction.

  12. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  13. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  14. Transforming the Air National Guard in the 21st Century: How to Balance the Air Guard's "Remarkable Trinity"- The Airman, the Family, and the Employer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comtois, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In his book On War-published in 1852 the great Prussian theorist Carl Von Clausewitz described what we have come to know today as a remarkable trinity that consisted of the government the military and the people...

  15. Considerations of the potential for observation of tissue function using in-vivo magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates on three topics - the observation of perfused flow, tissue susceptibility variations, and aspects of localized spectroscopy - to illustrate the potential offered by in vivo NMR for the study of tissue function. It concludes that while useful data can be learned now from observation of flow, the reality of the situation is that the process is going to require much more work before real biochemical observation is possible. (author)

  16. Modeling collagen remodeling in tissue engineered cardiovascular tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, A.L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, heart valve replacements consist of non-living materials lacking the ability to grow, repair and remodel. Tissue engineering (TE) offers a promising alternative to these replacement strategies since it can overcome its disadvantages. The technique aims to create an autologous living tissue

  17. Technical and economic feasibility study for the creation of a tissue bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncomilla Sandoval, Andrea Rosi; Mendez Guerra, Karina Angelica

    2006-01-01

    The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungi or bacteria coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allograft must be sterilized. The work presented is a Technical and economic Feasibility Study for the creation of a Tissue Bank in Chile, considering the fact of lacking of such institutions in our country and the need to satisfy the population that requires tissues. It is shown the processes involved and the characteristics of a tissue bank, and also a market survey in order to meet the demand, supply, technical requirements, competitors, opportunities and legal aspects of the process. Finally, it was examined the economic feasibility at which defines the investment, financing and business projections to determine the profitability of the project

  18. Clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas

  19. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and structure to the skin and internal organs. Epithelial tissue provides a covering for deeper body layers. The ... such as the gastrointestinal system, are made of epithelial tissue. Muscle tissue includes three types of tissue: Striated ...

  20. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  1. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  2. Non-myogenic Contribution to Muscle Development and Homeostasis: The Role of Connective Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassari, Sonya; Duprez, Delphine; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles belong to the musculoskeletal system, which is composed of bone, tendon, ligament and irregular connective tissue, and closely associated with motor nerves and blood vessels. The intrinsic molecular signals regulating myogenesis have been extensively investigated. However, muscle development, homeostasis and regeneration require interactions with surrounding tissues and the cellular and molecular aspects of this dialogue have not been completely elucidated. During development and adult life, myogenic cells are closely associated with the different types of connective tissue. Connective tissues are defined as specialized (bone and cartilage), dense regular (tendon and ligament) and dense irregular connective tissue. The role of connective tissue in muscle morphogenesis has been investigated, thanks to the identification of transcription factors that characterize the different types of connective tissues. Here, we review the development of the various connective tissues in the context of the musculoskeletal system and highlight their important role in delivering information necessary for correct muscle morphogenesis, from the early step of myoblast differentiation to the late stage of muscle maturation. Interactions between muscle and connective tissue are also critical in the adult during muscle regeneration, as impairment of the regenerative potential after injury or in neuromuscular diseases results in the progressive replacement of the muscle mass by fibrotic tissue. We conclude that bi-directional communication between muscle and connective tissue is critical for a correct assembly of the musculoskeletal system during development as well as to maintain its homeostasis in the adult.

  3. Status quo of management of the human tissue banks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Pang; Chou, Szu-Cheng; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Ming-Shin

    2017-03-01

    As the technologies associated with transplantation and biological tissue engineering continue to advance, human cells and tissues form an integral part to the practice of regenerative medicine. The patient's use of tissues entails the risk of introducing, transmitting and spreading communicable diseases. To prevent such risk and to ensure that the human organs, tissues and cells remain intact and functional after being handled and processed, the transplanted tissues must be subject to good management standards through all stages of collection, screening, processing, storage and distribution as the safety of the users is of the utmost importance. On February 2009, the government of Taiwan promulgated the Regulations for Administration on Human Organ Bank that requires all human tissues banks to adhere to the Good Tissue Practice for Human Organ, Tissue and Cell in terms of establishment and operation in order to cope with the international management trend and the development and management need of the domestic industry. Six years have passed since the law became effective. This article seeks to introduce the current management mechanism and status quo of management of human tissue banks in Taiwan. We also conducted statistical analysis of the data relating to the tissue banks to identify potential risks and the room for improvement. The study concludes that human tissue banks in Taiwan are on the right track with their management practice, leading to a state of steady development and progress.

  4. Agudizaciones endodónticas al concluir diferentes variantes técnicas de tratamiento pulporadicular Incidence of endodontic acuteness when concluding the different technical variants in the pulp-radicular treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Guerra Pando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las agudizaciones endodónticas constituyen eventos inflamatorios periapicales que se producen durante y después de concluida la terapéutica endodóntica, complicando y tornando más costosos dichos procederes. Para determinar su aparición e intensidad se realizó la presente investigación en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente Provincial "Antonio Briones Montoto" entre septiembre de 2007 y julio de 2008. El muestreo realizado fue de tipo opinático, constituido por 80 casos. Fueron divididos en 4 grupos de 20 casos, aplicándoseles diferentes esquemas de tratamiento. Los datos, recogidos en una planilla, se representaron en las tablas y gráficos en medidas resúmenes para variables cualitativas. Se empleó la estadística descriptiva: pruebas de 2 y K proporciones y la prueba no paramétrica Ji cuadrado. Se pudo constatar que el 17,5% de los casos tratados presentaron algún grado de agudización. El total de casos con agudizaciones resultó significativamente superior con la técnica estandarizada, no hubo diferencias en la aparición de las mismas en tratamientos en una o dos visitas, el mejor esquema de tratamiento empleado fue la técnica cérvico-apical en una sesión y los conductos abiertos al medio bucal el principal factor de riesgo asociado.Endodontic acuteness constitutes periapical inflammatory events that are produced during and after concluding the endodontic therapeutic, complicating and increasing the cost of the dental procedures. This research was aimed at determining their onset and intensity at "Antonio Briones Montoto" Dentist's Teaching Clinic from September 2007 to July 2008. The sampling was based on opinions and with 80 cases that were divided into 4 groups of 20 cases applying different treatment schedules. Data were collected in tables and graphics and in measures summed up to qualitative variables. A descriptive statistics was used: the two tests, K-proportions and the non-parametric chi-square test to compare

  5. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  6. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  7. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  8. Medical image of the week: necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 70-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, chronic back pain, and general debilitation presented to the emergency department with complaints of fever, weakness and right buttock discomfort. Physical exam was remarkable for a temperature of 101.7º F, and for moderate erythema of the skin of the right inguinal area and right buttock, with associated tenderness. Laboratory exam was significant for a WBC of 22.7 K/ɥL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 82 mm, and serum creatinine phosphokinase of 2856 U/L. CAT of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive gluteal and perineal soft tissue inflammation with gas formation, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection (Figures 1 and 2. Three basic subsets of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs have been described. Type I infections are the most common form and are characterized by a polymicrobial process typically involving gram positive cocci, gram negative rods, and anaerobes. Type I infections occur ...

  9. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  10. Application of Hanging Drop Technique for Kidney Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Wang, Ximing; Boone, Jasmine; Wie, Jin; Yip, Kay-Pong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ruisheng

    2017-01-01

    The hanging drop technique is a well-established method used in culture of animal tissues. However, this method has not been used in adult kidney tissue culture yet. This study was to explore the feasibility of using this technique for culturing adult kidney cortex to study the time course of RNA viability in the tubules and vasculature, as well as the tissue structural integrity. In each Petri dish with the plate covered with sterile buffer, a section of mouse renal cortex was cultured within a drop of DMEM culture medium on the inner surface of the lip facing downward. The tissue were then harvested at each specific time points for Real-time PCR analysis and histological studies. The results showed that the mRNA level of most Na+ related transporters and cotransporters were stably maintained within 6 hours in culture, and that the mRNA level of most receptors found in the vasculature and glomeruli were stably maintained for up to 9 days in culture. Paraffin sections of the cultured renal cortex indicated that the tubules began to lose tubular integrity after 6 hours, but the glomeruli and vasculatures were still recognizable up to 9 days in culture. We concluded that adult kidney tissue culture by hanging drop method can be used to study gene expressions in vasculature and glomeruli. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Application of Hanging Drop Technique for Kidney Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The hanging drop technique is a well-established method used in culture of animal tissues. However, this method has not been used in adult kidney tissue culture yet. This study was to explore the feasibility of using this technique for culturing adult kidney cortex to study the time course of RNA viability in the tubules and vasculature, as well as the tissue structural integrity. Methods: In each Petri dish with the plate covered with sterile buffer, a section of mouse renal cortex was cultured within a drop of DMEM culture medium on the inner surface of the lip facing downward. The tissue were then harvested at each specific time points for Real-time PCR analysis and histological studies. Results: The results showed that the mRNA level of most Na+ related transporters and cotransporters were stably maintained within 6 hours in culture, and that the mRNA level of most receptors found in the vasculature and glomeruli were stably maintained for up to 9 days in culture. Paraffin sections of the cultured renal cortex indicated that the tubules began to lose tubular integrity after 6 hours, but the glomeruli and vasculatures were still recognizable up to 9 days in culture. Conclusions: We concluded that adult kidney tissue culture by hanging drop method can be used to study gene expressions in vasculature and glomeruli.

  12. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic aspects of failure of mineralized tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalla, Ravi Kiran

    Over the past few decades, there has been increased interest in the structure and properties of mineralized biological tissues like bone and dentin (a structurally simpler analogue of bone that makes up the bulk of the human tooth). In particular, there has been considerable research into the mechanical properties of such tissues and into how they fracture. An understanding of these properties is of great importance from the perspective of developing a realistic framework for life prediction, particularly in light of the effect of microstructural modifications from aging, disease, remodeling, etc. Central to these issues is the resistance to fracture of these materials, and the microstructural mechanisms that are the source of such resistance. Understanding such properties in the context of the inherent hierarchical complexity of the microstructure of these tissues is of obvious importance. However, surprisingly, such questions have largely remained unanswered and to a large extent, even uninvestigated. The present study initially seeks to focus on the fracture and fatigue behavior of dentin and to extend the observations to cortical bone. Accordingly, fracture mechanics based experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture toughness of dentin in the context of the anisotropy with respect to the underlying microstructure, and discussed in terms of the salient toughening mechanisms active in this material. In light of the presence of such mechanisms, the fracture toughness properties were then evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, i.e., fracture resistance increasing with crack extension. Furthermore, dentin is known to be susceptible to failure under cyclic loading. The "stress-life" and fatigue-crack propagation data obtained through a systematic investigation of the effects of prolonged cyclical loading are discussed. It is concluded that the presence of small incipient flaws in human teeth of the order of 250 mum in size will not

  14. Equivalence of hyperfractionated and continuous brachytherapy in a rat tumor model and remarkable effectiveness when preceded by external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veninga, Theo; Visser, Andries G.; Berg, Ad P. van den; Hooije, Christel van; Geel, Cornelis A.J.F. van; Levendag, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical brachytherapy, there is a tendency to replace continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by either single-dose or fractionated high-dose-rate (HDR) irradiation. In this study, the equivalence of LDR treatments and fractionated HDR (2 fractions/day) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR, 4 fractions/day) schedules in terms of tumor cure was investigated in an experimental tumor model. Methods and Materials: Tumors (rat rhabdomyosarcoma R1M) were grown s.c. in the flank of rats and implanted with 4 catheters guided by a template. All interstitial radiation treatment (IRT) schedules were given in the same geometry. HDR was given using an 192 Ir single-stepping source. To investigate small fraction sizes, part of the fractionated HDR and PDR schedules were applied after an external irradiation (ERT) top-up dose. The endpoint was the probability of tumor control at 150 days after treatment. Cell survival was estimated by excision assay. Results: Although there was no fractionation effect for fractionated HDR given in 1 or 2 fractions per day, TCD 50 -values were substantially lower than that for LDR. A PDR schedule with an interfraction interval of 3 h (4 fractions/day), however, was equivalent to LDR. The combination of ERT and IRT resulted in a remarkably increased tumor control probability in all top-up regimens, but no difference was found between 2 or 4 fractions/day. Catheter implantation alone decreased the TCD 50 for single-dose ERT already by 17.4 Gy. Cell viability assessed at 24 h after treatment demonstrated an increased effectiveness of interstitial treatment, but, after 10 Gy ERT followed by 10 Gy IRT (24-h interval), it was not less than that calculated for the combined effect of these treatments given separately. Conclusion: In full fractionation schedules employing large fractions and long intervals, the sparing effect of sublethal damage repair may be significantly counteracted by reoxygenation. During 3-h intervals, however, repair may be

  15. Polyelectrolyte-complex nanostructured fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana S.; Katti, Dinesh R.

    2009-01-01

    In the current work, polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering have been synthesized and a mechanism of their formation has been investigated. The scaffolds are synthesized using polygalacturonic acid and chitosan using the freeze drying methodology. Highly interconnected pores of sizes in the range of 5-20 μm are observed in the scaffolds. The thickness of the fibers was found to be in the range of 1-2 μm. Individual fibers have a nanogranular structure as observed using AFM imaging. In these scaffolds, PEC nanoparticles assemble together at the interface of ice crystals during freeze drying process. Further investigation shows that the freezing temperature and concentration have a remarkable effect on structure of scaffolds. Biocompatibility studies show that scaffold containing chitosan, polygalacturonic acid and hydroxyapatite promotes cell adhesion and proliferation. On the other hand, cells on scaffolds fabricated without hydroxyapatite nanoparticles showed poor adhesion.

  16. Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro--a weighted tissue proportion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Ville; Andersson, Britt M; Bergh, Anders; Ljungberg, Börje; Lindahl, Olof A

    2006-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the US. The methods to detect prostate cancer are still precarious and new techniques are needed. A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system is set to vibrate with its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various patho-physiological conditions. In this study the sensor's ability to measure the stiffness of prostate tissue, from two excised prostatectomy specimens in vitro, was analysed. The specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5-1.7 mm, the maximum R(2) > or = 0.60 (p sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed. Tissue sections deeper in the tissue were assigned a lower mathematical weighting than sections closer to the sensor probe. It is concluded that cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differ from cancer.

  17. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmitz

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice as well as in a significant subpopulation of obese patients.

  18. Tissue bioengineering and artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of organs and tissues for transplant and the need of immunosuppressive drugs to avoid rejection constitute two reasons that justify organ and tissue production in the laboratory. Tissue engineering based tissues (TE) could allow to regenerate the whole organ from a fragment or even to produce several organs from an organ donor for grafting purposes. TE is based in: (1) the ex vivo expansion of cells, (2) the seeding of these expanded cells in tridimensional structures that mimic physiological conditions and, (3) grafting the prototype. In order to graft big structures it is necessary that the organ or tissue produced "ex vivo" bears a vascular tree to ensure the nutrition of its deep layers. At present, no technology has been developed to provide this vascular tree to TE derived products. Thus, these tissues must be thin enough to acquire nutrients during the first days by diffusion from surrounding tissues. This fact constitutes nowadays the greatest limitation of technologies for organ development in the laboratory.In this chapter, all these problems and their possible solutions are commented. Also, the present status of TE techniques in the regeneration of different organ systems is reviewed.

  19. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  20. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cleavage strength for YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. The remarkable weakness is due to cracks on the slit edge of the conductor. The cleavage stress appears on YBCO double pancake coils impregnated with epoxy. The cleavage stress should be avoided in the coil winding. Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.