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Sample records for tissue-specific cpg island

  1. A novel CpG island set identifies tissue-specific methylation at developmental gene loci.

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    Robert Illingworth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CpG islands (CGIs are dense clusters of CpG sequences that punctuate the CpG-deficient human genome and associate with many gene promoters. As CGIs also differ from bulk chromosomal DNA by their frequent lack of cytosine methylation, we devised a CGI enrichment method based on nonmethylated CpG affinity chromatography. The resulting library was sequenced to define a novel human blood CGI set that includes many that are not detected by current algorithms. Approximately half of CGIs were associated with annotated gene transcription start sites, the remainder being intra- or intergenic. Using an array representing over 17,000 CGIs, we established that 6%-8% of CGIs are methylated in genomic DNA of human blood, brain, muscle, and spleen. Inter- and intragenic CGIs are preferentially susceptible to methylation. CGIs showing tissue-specific methylation were overrepresented at numerous genetic loci that are essential for development, including HOX and PAX family members. The findings enable a comprehensive analysis of the roles played by CGI methylation in normal and diseased human tissues.

  2. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

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    Christoph Bock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1 reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2 failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3 apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to

  3. The CpG island methylator phenotype: What's in a name?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.E. Hughes (Laura A.); V. Melotte (Veerle); J.D. Schrijver (Joachim De); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); J.V.M.G. Bovée (Judith); P.J. French (Pim); P.A. van den Brandt (Piet); L. Schouten (Leo); T. Meyer (Thorsten); W. van Criekinge (Wim); N. Ahuja (Nita); J.G. Herman (James); M.P. Weijenberg (Matty); M. van Engeland (Manon)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first identified and has been most extensively studied in colorectal cancer, the term "CIMP" has been repeatedly used over the past decade to describe CpG island promoter methylation in other tumor types, including bladder, breast,

  4. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

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    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  5. CpG islands or CpG clusters: how to identify functional GC-rich regions in a genome?

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    Han Leng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CpG islands (CGIs, clusters of CpG dinucleotides in GC-rich regions, are often located in the 5' end of genes and considered gene markers. Hackenberg et al. (2006 recently developed a new algorithm, CpGcluster, which uses a completely different mathematical approach from previous traditional algorithms. Their evaluation suggests that CpGcluster provides a much more efficient approach to detecting functional clusters or islands of CpGs. Results We systematically compared CpGcluster with the traditional algorithm by Takai and Jones (2002. Our comparisons of (1 the number of islands versus the number of genes in a genome, (2 the distribution of islands in different genomic regions, (3 island length, (4 the distance between two neighboring islands, and (5 methylation status suggest that Takai and Jones' algorithm is overall more appropriate for identifying promoter-associated islands of CpGs in vertebrate genomes. Conclusion The generation of genome sequence and DNA methylation data is expected to accelerate greatly. The information in this study is important for its extensive utility in gene feature analysis and epigenomics including gene prediction and methylation chip design in different genomes.

  6. Prediction of CpG-island function: CpG clustering vs. sliding-window methods

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    Luque-Escamilla Pedro L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmethylated stretches of CpG dinucleotides (CpG islands are an outstanding property of mammal genomes. Conventionally, these regions are detected by sliding window approaches using %G + C, CpG observed/expected ratio and length thresholds as main parameters. Recently, clustering methods directly detect clusters of CpG dinucleotides as a statistical property of the genome sequence. Results We compare sliding-window to clustering (i.e. CpGcluster predictions by applying new ways to detect putative functionality of CpG islands. Analyzing the co-localization with several genomic regions as a function of window size vs. statistical significance (p-value, CpGcluster shows a higher overlap with promoter regions and highly conserved elements, at the same time showing less overlap with Alu retrotransposons. The major difference in the prediction was found for short islands (CpG islets, often exclusively predicted by CpGcluster. Many of these islets seem to be functional, as they are unmethylated, highly conserved and/or located within the promoter region. Finally, we show that window-based islands can spuriously overlap several, differentially regulated promoters as well as different methylation domains, which might indicate a wrong merge of several CpG islands into a single, very long island. The shorter CpGcluster islands seem to be much more specific when concerning the overlap with alternative transcription start sites or the detection of homogenous methylation domains. Conclusions The main difference between sliding-window approaches and clustering methods is the length of the predicted islands. Short islands, often differentially methylated, are almost exclusively predicted by CpGcluster. This suggests that CpGcluster may be the algorithm of choice to explore the function of these short, but putatively functional CpG islands.

  7. Bryophyte Tissue-specific Carbon Isotope Record from Galindez Island, Argentine Islands, Western Antarctic Peninsula

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    Beilman, D. W.; Yumol, L. M.; Yu, Z.; Parnikoza, I.

    2016-12-01

    Mossbank ecosystems of the western Antarctic Peninsula (AP) provide an under-utilized archive of past terrestrial environmental change. We measured the stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) of both modern and subfossil bryophytes to characterize differences between species and tissues and to identify changes over time. Living plants of common species including Polytrichum strictum and Chorisodontium aciphyllum were collected from several populations between 64° 09' and 67°35'S and had a wide range of δ13C values from -22 to -32‰ that were distinct between species and tissues. In particular, leaves were consistently more enriched in 13C than stems on average by 2‰. Radiocarbon-dated subfossil leaf tissue in a mossbank peat core raised from Galindez Island (65° 14' 51.4"S, 64° 15' 2.3" W) showed that peat formation began 2300 years ago, and provided evidence for very slow growth or a hiatus between about 1100 and 600 years ago during a period of colder air temperatures evident in depleted hydrogen and oxygen isotope values in James Ross Island ice on the eastern AP. Bryophyte macrofossil remains showed a relatively simple bryophyte community of mainly P. strictum throughout the core, but several periods when wet-adapted species became dominant. Subfossil leaf δ13C values of P. strictum varied from -24 to -30‰, and revealed source-independent discrimination that was higher in recent decades than any time during the last 2300 years. Changes in species' abundance between P. strictum and Pohlia nutans varied with discrimination, suggesting that mossbanks have been sensitive to hydroclimate variation during the Late Holocene, and that moss growth conditions at this western AP site have been anomalous in recent decades.

  8. A species-generalized probabilistic model-based definition of CpG islands.

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    Irizarry, Rafael A; Wu, Hao; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    The DNA of most vertebrates is depleted in CpG dinucleotides, the target for DNA methylation. The remaining CpGs tend to cluster in regions referred to as CpG islands (CGI). CGI have been useful as marking functionally relevant epigenetic loci for genome studies. For example, CGI are enriched in the promoters of vertebrate genes and thought to play an important role in regulation. Currently, CGI are defined algorithmically as an observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) of CpG greater than 0.6, G+C content greater than 0.5, and usually but not necessarily greater than a certain length. Here we find that the current definition leaves out important CpG clusters associated with epigenetic marks, relevant to development and disease, and does not apply at all to nonvertabrate genomes. We propose an alternative Hidden Markov model-based approach that solves these problems. We fit our model to genomes from 30 species, and the results support a new epigenomic view toward the development of DNA methylation in species diversity and evolution. The O/E of CpG in islands and nonislands segregated closely phylogenetically and showed substantial loss in both groups in animals of greater complexity, while maintaining a nearly constant difference in CpG O/E between islands and nonisland compartments. Lists of CGI for some species are available at http://www.rafalab.org .

  9. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI-JU GAO

    proposed for cell therapy based on interventions in heart fail- ure, and HFC senescence is associated with upregulation of p16 expression (Golubnitschaja et al. 2003; Ball and Levine. 2005). Although, the involvement of CpG island methylation in suppression of p16 gene expression has been discussed in cancer settings ...

  10. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in p16 promoters in ToF patients was negatively correlated with p16 protein and gene expression (both P < 0.05). Our study reports that high CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein expression associate with the development and progression of ToF, which may have significant therapeutic applications ...

  11. Retrotransposition creates sloping shores: a graded influence of hypomethylated CpG islands on flanking CpG sites.

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    Grandi, Fiorella C; Rosser, James M; Newkirk, Simon J; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xing, Zhuo; Whitmore, Leanne; Bashir, Sanum; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ye, Ping; Yu, Y Eugene; An, Wenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs), through both self-mobilization and trans-mobilization of short interspersed elements and processed pseudogenes, have made an indelible impact on the structure and function of the human genome. One consequence is the creation of new CpG islands (CGIs). In fact, more than half of all CGIs in the genome are associated with repetitive DNA, three-quarters of which are derived from retrotransposons. However, little is known about the epigenetic impact of newly inserted CGIs. We utilized a transgenic LINE-1 mouse model and tracked DNA methylation dynamics of individual germline insertions during mouse development. The retrotransposed GFP marker sequence, a strong CGI, is hypomethylated in male germ cells but hypermethylated in somatic tissues, regardless of genomic location. The GFP marker is similarly methylated when delivered into the genome via the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon, suggesting that the observed methylation pattern may be independent of the mode of insertion. Comparative analyses between insertion- and non-insertion-containing alleles further reveal a graded influence of the retrotransposed CGI on flanking CpG sites, a phenomenon that we described as "sloping shores." Computational analyses of human and mouse methylomic data at single-base resolution confirm that sloping shores are universal for hypomethylated CGIs in sperm and somatic tissues. Additionally, the slope of a hypomethylated CGI can be affected by closely positioned CGI neighbors. Finally, by tracing sloping shore dynamics through embryonic and germ cell reprogramming, we found evidence of bookmarking, a mechanism that likely determines which CGIs will be eventually hyper- or hypomethylated. © 2015 Grandi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Polycomb-like proteins link the PRC2 complex to CpG islands

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    Li, Haojie; Liefke, Robert; Jiang, Junyi; Kurland, Jesse Vigoda; Tian, Wei; Deng, Pujuan; Zhang, Weidi; He, Qian; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Shi, Yang; Wang, Zhanxin

    2017-09-06

    The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mainly mediates transcriptional repression1,2 and has essential roles in various biological processes including the maintenance of cell identity and proper differentiation. Polycomb-like (PCL) proteins, such as PHF1, MTF2 and PHF19, are PRC2-associated factors that form sub-complexes with PRC2 core components3, and have been proposed to modulate the enzymatic activity of PRC2 or the recruitment of PRC2 to specific genomic loci4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. Mammalian PRC2-binding sites are enriched in CG content, which correlates with CpG islands that display a low level of DNA methylation14. However, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to CpG islands is not fully understood. Here we solve the crystal structures of the N-terminal domains of PHF1 and MTF2 with bound CpG-containing DNAs in the presence of H3K36me3-containing histone peptides. We show that the extended homologous regions of both proteins fold into a winged-helix structure, which specifically binds to the unmethylated CpG motif but in a completely different manner from the canonical winged-helix DNA recognition motif. We also show that the PCL extended homologous domains are required for efficient recruitment of PRC2 to CpG island-containing promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our research provides the first, to our knowledge, direct evidence to demonstrate that PCL proteins are crucial for PRC2 recruitment to CpG islands, and further clarifies the roles of these proteins in transcriptional regulation in vivo.

  13. Deletion and aberrant CpG island methylation of Caspase 8 gene in medulloblastoma.

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    Gonzalez-Gomez, Pilar; Bello, M Josefa; Inda, M Mar; Alonso, M Eva; Arjona, Dolores; Amiñoso, Cinthia; Lopez-Marin, Isabel; de Campos, Jose M; Sarasa, Jose L; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in human genes is an alternative genetic inactivation mechanism that contributes to the development of human tumors. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed methylation in medulloblastomas. We determined the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation for Caspase 8 (CASP8) in a group of 24 medulloblastomas arising in 8 adult and 16 pediatric patients. Complete methylation of CASP8 was found in 15 tumors (62%) and one case displayed hemimethylation. Three samples amplified neither of the two primer sets for methylated or unmethylated alleles, suggesting that genomic deletion occurred in the 5' flanking region of CASP8. Our findings suggest that methylation commonly contributes to CASP8 silencing in medulloblastomas and that homozygous deletion or severe sequence changes involving the promoter region may be another mechanism leading to CASP8 inactivation in this neoplasm.

  14. 7-Deaza-2'-deoxyguanosine allows PCR and sequencing reactions from CpG islands.

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    Jung, A; Ruckert, S; Frank, P; Brabletz, T; Kirchner, T

    2002-02-01

    CpG islands are GC rich sequences that are found in the promoters of many genes in higher eukaryotes. They contain a high frequency of CG dinucleotides, which are substrates for DNA methylases. Methylation leads to transcriptional silencing of promoters. Owing to their high GC content CpG islands exhibit strong base-base interactions, which lead to superstructures and consequently to regions with higher melting temperatures. Therefore, Taq polymerases (especially sequenases) fall off their templates, causing premature termination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or sequencing reactions. The results from such reactions are thus insufficient for further analysis. Therefore, we have evaluated the use of 7-deaza-2'-deoxyguanosine for PCR amplification of the human p16(INK4A) promoter and sequencing of HUMARA exon 1 PCR products. Our results show that the addition of 7-deaza-2'-deoxyguanosine significantly improves results, particularly when small amounts of poor quality DNA are available as starting material.

  15. 7-Deaza-2`-deoxyguanosine allows PCR and sequencing reactions from CpG islands

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    Jung, A; Ruckert, S; Frank, P; Brabletz, T; Kirchner, T

    2002-01-01

    CpG islands are GC rich sequences that are found in the promoters of many genes in higher eukaryotes. They contain a high frequency of CG dinucleotides, which are substrates for DNA methylases. Methylation leads to transcriptional silencing of promoters. Owing to their high GC content CpG islands exhibit strong base–base interactions, which lead to superstructures and consequently to regions with higher melting temperatures. Therefore, Taq polymerases (especially sequenases) fall off their templates, causing premature termination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or sequencing reactions. The results from such reactions are thus insufficient for further analysis. Therefore, we have evaluated the use of 7-deaza-2`-deoxyguanosine for PCR amplification of the human p16INK4A promoter and sequencing of HUMARA exon 1 PCR products. Our results show that the addition of 7-deaza-2`-deoxyguanosine significantly improves results, particularly when small amounts of poor quality DNA are available as starting material. PMID:11836448

  16. Gene silencing of Nox4 by CpG island methylation during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

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    Guadalupe S. López-Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between the downregulation of genes and DNA methylation in their CpG islands has been extensively studied as a mechanism that favors carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylation of a set of genes selected based on their microarray expression profiles during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were euthanized at: 24 h, 7, 11, 16 and 30 days and 5, 9, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. We evaluated the methylation status in the CpG islands of four deregulated genes (Casp3, Cldn1, Pex11a and Nox4 using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology for the samples obtained from different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We did not observe methylation in Casp3, Cldn1 or Pex11a. However, Nox4 exhibited altered methylation patterns, reaching a maximum of 10%, even during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We observed downregulation of mRNA and protein of Nox4 (97.5% and 40%, respectively after the first carcinogenic stimulus relative to the untreated samples. Our results suggest that Nox4 downregulation is associated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter. We propose that methylation is a mechanism that can silence the expression of Nox4, which could contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

  17. Discovery of MLL1 binding units, their localization to CpG Islands, and their potential function in mitotic chromatin.

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    Bina, Minou; Wyss, Phillip; Novorolsky, Elise; Zulkelfi, Noorfatin; Xue, Jing; Price, Randi; Fay, Matthew; Gutmann, Zach; Fogler, Brian; Wang, Daidong

    2013-12-28

    Mixed Lineage Leukemia 1 (MLL1) is a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila Trithorax. In Drosophila, Trithorax complexes transmit the memory of active genes to daughter cells through interactions with Trithorax Response Elements (TREs). However, despite their functional importance, nothing is known about sequence features that may act as TREs in mammalian genomic DNA. By analyzing results of reported DNA binding assays, we identified several CpG rich motifs as potential MLL1 binding units (defined as morphemes). We find that these morphemes are dispersed within a relatively large collection of human promoter sequences and appear densely packed near transcription start sites of protein-coding genes. Genome wide analyses localized frequent morpheme occurrences to CpG islands. In the human HOX loci, the morphemes are spread across CpG islands and in some cases tail into the surrounding shores and shelves of the islands. By analyzing results of chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found a connection between morpheme occurrences, CpG islands, and chromatin segments reported to be associated with MLL1. Furthermore, we found a correspondence of reported MLL1-driven "bookmarked" regions in chromatin to frequent occurrences of MLL1 morphemes in CpG islands. Our results implicate the MLL1 morphemes in sequence-features that define the mammalian TREs and provide a novel function for CpG islands. Apparently, our findings offer the first evidence for existence of potential TREs in mammalian genomic DNA and the first evidence for a connection between CpG islands and gene-bookmarking by MLL1 to transmit the memory of highly active genes during mitosis. Our results further suggest a role for overlapping morphemes in producing closely packed and multiple MLL1 binding events in genomic DNA so that MLL1 molecules could interact and reside simultaneously on extended potential transcriptional maintenance elements in human chromosomes to transmit the memory of highly active genes

  18. GaussianCpG: a Gaussian model for detection of CpG island in human genome sequences.

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    Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander; Pan, Yi

    2017-05-24

    As crucial markers in identifying biological elements and processes in mammalian genomes, CpG islands (CGI) play important roles in DNA methylation, gene regulation, epigenetic inheritance, gene mutation, chromosome inactivation and nuclesome retention. The generally accepted criteria of CGI rely on: (a) %G+C content is ≥ 50%, (b) the ratio of the observed CpG content and the expected CpG content is ≥ 0.6, and (c) the general length of CGI is greater than 200 nucleotides. Most existing computational methods for the prediction of CpG island are programmed on these rules. However, many experimentally verified CpG islands deviate from these artificial criteria. Experiments indicate that in many cases %G+C is human genome. We analyze the energy distribution over genomic primary structure for each CpG site and adopt the parameters from statistics of Human genome. The evaluation results show that the new model can predict CpG islands efficiently by balancing both sensitivity and specificity over known human CGI data sets. Compared with other models, GaussianCpG can achieve better performance in CGI detection. Our Gaussian model aims to simplify the complex interaction between nucleotides. The model is computed not by the linear statistical method but by the Gaussian energy distribution and accumulation. The parameters of Gaussian function are not arbitrarily designated but deliberately chosen by optimizing the biological statistics. By using the pseudopotential analysis on CpG islands, the novel model is validated on both the real and artificial data sets.

  19. Methylation detection oligonucleotide microarray analysis: a high-resolution method for detection of CpG island methylation.

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    Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Kendall, Jude; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Tang, Chunlao; Khan, Sohail; Ravi, Kandasamy; Auletta, Theresa; Riggs, Michael; Wang, Yun; Helland, Aslaug; Naume, Bjørn; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hicks, Jim; Lucito, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Methylation of CpG islands associated with genes can affect the expression of the proximal gene, and methylation of non-associated CpG islands correlates to genomic instability. This epigenetic modification has been shown to be important in many pathologies, from development and disease to cancer. We report the development of a novel high-resolution microarray that detects the methylation status of over 25,000 CpG islands in the human genome. Experiments were performed to demonstrate low system noise in the methodology and that the array probes have a high signal to noise ratio. Methylation measurements between different cell lines were validated demonstrating the accuracy of measurement. We then identified alterations in CpG islands, both those associated with gene promoters, as well as non-promoter-associated islands in a set of breast and ovarian tumors. We demonstrate that this methodology accurately identifies methylation profiles in cancer and in principle it can differentiate any CpG methylation alterations and can be adapted to analyze other species.

  20. Long-range autocorrelations of CpG islands in the human genome.

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    Benjamin Koester

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a statistical estimator developed in astrophysics to study the distribution and organization of features of the human genome. Using the human reference sequence we quantify the global distribution of CpG islands (CGI in each chromosome and demonstrate that the organization of the CGI across a chromosome is non-random, exhibits surprisingly long range correlations (10 Mb and varies significantly among chromosomes. These correlations of CGI summarize functional properties of the genome that are not captured when considering variation in any particular separate (and local feature. The demonstration of the proposed methods to quantify the organization of CGI in the human genome forms the basis of future studies. The most illuminating of these will assess the potential impact on phenotypic variation of inter-individual variation in the organization of the functional features of the genome within and among chromosomes, and among individuals for particular chromosomes.

  1. Gene Silencing Triggers Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Recruitment to CpG Islands Genome Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riising, Eva Madi; Vacher-Comet, Itys; Leblanc, Benjamin Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for normal differentiation and development and are frequently deregulated in cancer. PcG proteins are involved in gene silencing; however, their role in initiation and maintenance of transcriptional repression is not well defined. Here, we show that knoc......Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for normal differentiation and development and are frequently deregulated in cancer. PcG proteins are involved in gene silencing; however, their role in initiation and maintenance of transcriptional repression is not well defined. Here, we show......-wide ectopic PRC2 recruitment to endogenous PcG target genes found in other tissues. PRC2 binding analysis shows that it is restricted to nucleosome-free CpG islands (CGIs) of untranscribed genes. Our results show that it is the transcriptional state that governs PRC2 binding, and we propose that it binds...

  2. Deletions of a differentially methylated CpG island at SNRPN define a putative imprinting control region

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    Sutcliffe, J.S.,; Nakao, M.; Beaudet, A.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy, or other mutations. Four transcripts designated PAR-5, PAR-7, PAR-1 and PAR-4 were isolated and localized to a region within 300 kb telomeric to the gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (SNRPN). Analysis of the transcripts in cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from deletion patients demonstrated that SNRPN, PAR-5 and PAR-1 are expressed exclusively from the paternal chromosome, defining an imprinted domain that spans at least 200 kb. All three imprinted transcripts were absent in cells from three PWS patients (one pair of sibs and one sporadic case) with small deletions that involve a differentially methylated CpG island containing a previously undescribed 5{prime} untranslated exon ({alpha}) of SNRPN. Methylation of the CpG island is specific for the maternal chromosome consistent with paternal expression of the imprinted domain. One deletion, which is benign when maternally transmitted, extends upstream <30 kb from the CpG island, and is associated with altered methylation centromeric to SNRPN, and loss of transcription telomeric to SNRPN, implying the presence of an imprinting control region around the CpG island containing exon {alpha}.

  3. Methylation of the BIN1 gene promoter CpG island associated with breast and prostate cancer

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    Khomyakova Anastasiya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of BIN1 tumor suppressor expression is abundant in human cancer and its frequency exceeds that of genetic alterations, suggesting the role of epigenetic regulators (DNA methylation. BIN1 re-expression in the DU145 prostate cancer cell line after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment was recently reported but no methylation of the BIN1 promoter CpG island was found in DU145. Methods Methylation-sensitive arbitrarily-primed PCR was used to detect genomic loci abnormally methylated in breast cancer. BIN1 CpG island fragment was identified among the differentially methylated loci as a result of direct sequencing of the methylation-sensitive arbitrarily-primed PCR product and subsequent BLAST alliance. BIN1 CpG island cancer related methylation in breast and prostate cancers was confirmed by bisulphite sequencing and its methylation frequency was evaluated by methylation sensitive PCR. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the BIN1 region was performed with two introgenic and one closely adjacent extragenic microsatellite markers.BIN1 expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Results We have identified a 3'-part of BIN1 promoter CpG island among the genomic loci abnormally methylated in breast cancer. The fragment proved to be methylated in 18/99 (18% and 4/46 (9% breast and prostate tumors, correspondingly, as well as in MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, but was never methylated in normal tissues and lymphocytes as well as in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. The 5'-part of the CpG island revealed no methylation in all samples tested. BIN1 expression losses were detected in MCF7 and T47D cells and were characteristic of primary breast tumors (10/13; 77%, while loss of heterozygosity was a rare event in tissue samples (2/22 informative cases; 9% and was ruled out for MCF7. Conclusion BIN1 promoter CpG island is composed of two parts differing drastically in the methylation patterns in cancer. This appears to be a

  4. Correlating CpG islands, motifs, and sequence variants in human chromosome 21

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    Cercone Nick

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CpG islands are important regions in DNA. They usually appear at the 5’ end of genes containing GC-rich dinucleotides. When DNA methylation occurs, gene regulation is affected and it sometimes leads to carcinogenesis. We propose a new detection program using a hidden-markov model alongside the Viterbi algorithm. Methods Our solution provides a graphical user interface not seen in many of the other CGI detection programs and we unify the detection and analysis under one program to allow researchers to scan a genetic sequence, detect the significant CGIs, and analyze the sequence once the scan is complete for any noteworthy findings. Results Using human chromosome 21, we show that our algorithm finds a significant number of CGIs. Running an analysis on a dataset of promoters discovered that the characteristics of methylated and unmethylated CGIs are significantly different. Finally, we detected significantly different motifs between methylated and unmethylated CGI promoters using MEME and MAST. Conclusions Developing this new tool for the community using powerful algorithms has shown that combining analysis with CGI detection will improve the continued research within the field of epigenetics.

  5. Incorrect DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter CpG island associates with defective human sperm†

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    Navarro-Costa, Paulo; Nogueira, Paulo; Carvalho, Marta; Leal, Fernanda; Cordeiro, Isabel; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos; Gonçalves, João; Plancha, Carlos E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful gametogenesis requires the establishment of an appropriate epigenetic state in developing germ cells. Nevertheless, an association between abnormal spermatogenesis and epigenetic disturbances in germline-specific genes remains to be demonstrated. METHODS In this study, the DNA methylation pattern of the promoter CpG island (CGI) of two germline regulator genes—DAZL and DAZ, was characterized by bisulphite genomic sequencing in quality-fractioned ejaculated sperm populations from normozoospermic (NZ) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. RESULTS OAT patients display increased methylation defects in the DAZL promoter CGI when compared with NZ controls. Such differences are recorded when analyzing sperm fractions enriched either in normal or defective germ cells (P< 0.001 in both cases). Significant differences in DNA methylation profiles are also observable when comparing the qualitatively distinct germ cell fractions inside the NZ and OAT groups (P= 0.003 and P= 0.007, respectively). Contrastingly, the unmethylation pattern of the DAZ promoter CGI remains correctly established in all experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS An association between disrupted DNA methylation of a key spermatogenesis gene and abnormal human sperm is described here for the first time. These results suggest that incorrect epigenetic marks in germline genes may be correlated with male gametogenic defects. PMID:20685756

  6. Genome-wide CpG island methylation analysis implicates novel genes in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Christopher J.; Morris, Mark R.; Gentle, Dean; Brown, Michael; Wake, Naomi; Woodward, Emma R.; Clarke, Noel; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify novel candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) implicated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of RCC using the HumanMethylation27 BeadChips to assess methylation at >14,000 genes. Two hundred and twenty hypermethylated probes representing 205 loci/genes were identified in genomic CpG islands. A subset of TSGs investigated in detail exhibited frequent tumor methylation, promoter methylation associated transcriptional silencing an...

  7. PRIMEGENS-v2: genome-wide primer design for analyzing DNA methylation patterns of CpG islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gyan P; Guo, Juyuan; Shi, Huidong; Xu, Dong

    2008-09-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in biological processes and human diseases, especially cancers. High-throughput bisulfite genomic sequencing based on new generation of sequencers, such as the 454-sequencing system provides an efficient method for analyzing DNA methylation patterns. The successful implementation of this approach depends on the use of primer design software capable of performing genome-wide scan for optimal primers from in silico bisulfite-treated genome sequences. We have developed a method, which fulfills this requirement and conduct primer design for sequences including regions of given promoter CpG islands. The developed method has been implemented using the C and JAVA programming languages. The primer design results were tested in the PCR experiments of 96 selected human DNA sequences containing CpG islands in the promoter regions. The results indicate that this method is efficient and reliable for designing sequence-specific primers. The sequence-specific primer design for DNA meth-ylated sequences including CpG islands has been integrated into the second version of PRIMEGENS as one of the primer design features. The software is freely available for academic use at http://digbio.missouri.edu/primegens/.

  8. [Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons andp16,FHITgene CpG island methylation in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Liu, X Z; Ren, Z Y; Ding, L; Nan, J; Liu, C L; Song, Z C; Feng, M J; Yang, Q; Wang, J T

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To explore the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and p16, FHIT gene CpG island methylation, as well as their interaction in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias. Methods: Objects of this study were from a cohort of cervical lesions study in Yangqu county of Shanxi province. All the patients were diagnosed pathologically, that including 83 patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅡ/Ⅲ), 86 patients with low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅠ) and another 91 women under normal cervical (NC) condition. 1-hydroxy pyrene in the urine was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) while CpG island methylation status of tumor suppressor gene p16 and FHIT were measured by methylation-specifc polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis H test, chi-square test and trend of chi-square test. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( OR ) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI ) between influencing factors and the cervical disease by using the SPSS statistical software (version 20.0). The interaction under study was evaluated by using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) model. Results: Level of 1-hydroxy pyrene ( H =50.743, P neoplasia. The CpG island methylation rates of p16, FHIT in CINⅠand CINⅡ/Ⅲ group were higher than that in NC group, and gradually increasing along with the severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (trend χ (2)=9.75, P =0.002; trend χ (2)=10.39, P =0.001). Results from the GMDR model showed that interaction existed among the high exposure of 1-hydroxy pyrene and the CpG island methylation of p16, FHIT in CINⅠ and CINⅡ/Ⅲ group. Conclusion: Under the high exposure of 1-hydroxy pyrene and the CpG island methylation of p16, FHIT appeared to have increased the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and causing synergistic effect in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  9. The role of the CpG island methylator phenotype on survival outcome in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Joo; Min, Byung Hoon; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-03-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)- high colorectal cancers (CRCs) have distinct clinicopathologi-cal features from their CIMP-low/negative CRC counterparts. However, controversy exists regarding the prognosis of CRC according to the CIMP status. Therefore, this study examined the prognosis of Korean patients with colon cancer according to the CIMP status. Among a previous cohort pop-ulation with CRC, a total of 154 patients with colon cancer who had available tissue for DNA extraction were included in the study. CIMP-high was defined as ≥3/5 methylated mark-ers using the five-marker panel (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). CIMP-high and CIMP-low/neg-ative cancers were observed in 27 patients (17.5%) and 127 patients (82.5%), respectively. Multivariate analysis adjust-ing for age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage and CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI) statuses indicated that CIMP-high colon cancers were associated with a significant increase in colon cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 8.69; p=0.02). In microsatellite stable cancers, CIMP-high cancer had a poor survival outcome compared to CIMP-low/negative cancer (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.02 to 8.27; p=0.04). Re-gardless of the MSI status, CIMP-high cancers had poor sur-vival outcomes in Korean patients. (Gut Liver, 2015;9202-207).

  10. Diet and lifestyle factor associations with CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF mutations in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Curtin, Karen; Sweeney, Carol; Levin, Theodore R; Potter, John; Wolff, Roger K; Albertsen, Hans; Samowitz, Wade S

    2007-02-01

    It has been proposed that dietary factors such as folate, alcohol and methionine may be associated with colon cancer because of their involvement in DNA methylation processes. Data from a large population-based case-control study of incident colon cancer were used to evaluate whether intake of dietary, obesity, physical activity and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). The BRAF V600E mutation and 5 CpG island markers (MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and hMLH1) were assessed in 1154 cases of colon cancer. We hypothesized that dietary factors involved in DNA methylation, cruciferous vegetables and use of aspirin/NSAIDs would be associated with CIMP-high tumors. Dietary folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), methionine and alcohol were not associated with increased likelihood of colon tumors with the CIMP-high (2 or more markers methylated) phenotype. Dietary fiber, physical activity and aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were inversely associated with both CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors. Our results also suggested non-CIMP pathways as well. Obese individuals were at 2-fold increased risk of having a CIMP-low tumor. Alcohol was associated with an increased risk of tumors that were MSI+ and CIMP-low. In the presence of smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, use of NSAIDs did not protect against a BRAF mutation. Our data suggest multiple pathways to colon cancer. They do not support a unique role for dietary folate, alcohol, vitamins B(6) and B(12) and methionine in a CpG island methylator phenotype.

  11. Polymorphism in folate- and methionine-metabolizing enzyme and aberrant CpG island hypermethylation in uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon Beom; Lee, Hyo Pyo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the association between the CpG island hypermethylation of tumor-associated genes and the polymorphisms of methyl group metabolizing enzymes in uterine cervical cancer. We analyzed CpG island hypermethylation in 15 genes (APC, CDH1, COX2, DAPK, FHIT, GSTP1, HLTF1, hMLH1, MGMT, p14, p16, RASSF1A, RUNX3, THBS1, and TIMP3) and its association with the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C and the methionine synthase (MS) A2756G polymorphisms in 82 Korean women with uterine cervical cancer. All uterine cervical cancer samples had at least one gene methylated. The average number of methylated genes was lower in patients with the heterozygous genotype of MTHFR and MS than in those with the common homozygous genotype, although this difference was not significant. The MTHFR 677 CT genotype was significantly associated with the decreased promoter hypermethylation of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) (OR = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.70, P = 0.011). However, the MTHFR C677T and A1298C and the MS A2756G polymorphisms were not associated with an increased risk of uterine cervical cancer. These findings suggest that there is a possible interaction between epigenetic and genetic factors in uterine cervical cancer.

  12. Fundamental differences in promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation between human cancer and genetically engineered mouse models of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diede, Scott J; Yao, Zizhen; Keyes, C Chip; Tyler, Ashlee E; Dey, Joyoti; Hackett, Christopher S; Elsaesser, Katrina; Kemp, Christopher J; Neiman, Paul E; Weiss, William A; Olson, James M; Tapscott, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations are essential for the initiation and progression of human cancer. We previously reported that primary human medulloblastomas showed extensive cancer-specific CpG island DNA hypermethylation in critical developmental pathways. To determine whether genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of medulloblastoma have comparable epigenetic changes, we assessed genome-wide DNA methylation in three mouse models of medulloblastoma. In contrast to human samples, very few loci with cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation were detected, and in almost all cases the degree of methylation was relatively modest compared with the dense hypermethylation in the human cancers. To determine if this finding was common to other GEMMs, we examined a Burkitt lymphoma and breast cancer model and did not detect promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation, suggesting that human cancers and at least some GEMMs are fundamentally different with respect to this epigenetic modification. These findings provide an opportunity to both better understand the mechanism of aberrant DNA methylation in human cancer and construct better GEMMs to serve as preclinical platforms for therapy development.

  13. An AscI boundary library for the studies of genetic and epigenetic alterations in CpG islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zunyan; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Hall, Julia L; Rush, Laura J; Smith, Laura T; Raval, Aparna; Yu, Li; Kroll, Daniela; Muehlisch, Joerg; Frühwald, Michael C; de Jong, Pieter; Catanese, Joe; Davuluri, Ramana V; Smiraglia, Dominic J; Plass, Christoph

    2002-10-01

    Knudson's two-hit hypothesis postulates that genetic alterations in both alleles are required for the inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. Genetic alterations include small or large deletions and mutations. Over the past years, it has become clear that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation are additional mechanisms for gene silencing. Restriction Landmark Genomic Scanning (RLGS) is a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that assesses the methylation status of thousands of CpG islands. RLGS has been applied successfully to scan cancer genomes for aberrant DNA methylation patterns. So far, the majority of this work was done using NotI as the restriction landmark site. Here, we describe the development of RLGS using AscI as the restriction landmark site for genome-wide scans of cancer genomes. The availability of AscI as a restriction landmark for RLGS allows for scanning almost twice as many CpG islands in the human genome compared with using NotI only. We describe the development of an AscI-EcoRV boundary library that supports the cloning of novel methylated genes. Feasibility of this system is shown in three tumor types, medulloblastomas, lung cancers, and head and neck cancers. We report the cloning of 178 AscI RLGS fragments via two methods by use of this library.

  14. Integrated analysis of gene expression, CpG island methylation, and gene copy number in breast cancer cells by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifu Sun

    Full Text Available We used deep sequencing technology to profile the transcriptome, gene copy number, and CpG island methylation status simultaneously in eight commonly used breast cell lines to develop a model for how these genomic features are integrated in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and negative breast cancer. Total mRNA sequence, gene copy number, and genomic CpG island methylation were carried out using the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Sequences were mapped to the human genome to obtain digitized gene expression data, DNA copy number in reference to the non-tumor cell line (MCF10A, and methylation status of 21,570 CpG islands to identify differentially expressed genes that were correlated with methylation or copy number changes. These were evaluated in a dataset from 129 primary breast tumors. Gene expression in cell lines was dominated by ER-associated genes. ER+ and ER- cell lines formed two distinct, stable clusters, and 1,873 genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Part of chromosome 8 was deleted in all ER- cells and part of chromosome 17 amplified in all ER+ cells. These loci encoded 30 genes that were overexpressed in ER+ cells; 9 of these genes were overexpressed in ER+ tumors. We identified 149 differentially expressed genes that exhibited differential methylation of one or more CpG islands within 5 kb of the 5' end of the gene and for which mRNA abundance was inversely correlated with CpG island methylation status. In primary tumors we identified 84 genes that appear to be robust components of the methylation signature that we identified in ER+ cell lines. Our analyses reveal a global pattern of differential CpG island methylation that contributes to the transcriptome landscape of ER+ and ER- breast cancer cells and tumors. The role of gene amplification/deletion appears to more modest, although several potentially significant genes appear to be regulated by copy number aberrations.

  15. Direct observation of preferential processing of clustered abasic DNA damages with APE1 in TATA box and CpG island by reaction kinetics and fluorescence dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Kumari, Bhavini; Maity, Banibrata; Seth, Debabrata; Das, Prolay

    2014-01-01

    Sequences like the core element of TATA box and CpG island are frequently encountered in the genome and related to transcription. The fate of repair of clustered abasic sites in such sequences of genomic importance is largely unknown. This prompted us to investigate the sequence dependence of cleavage efficiency of APE1 enzyme at abasic sites within the core sequences of TATA box and CpG island using fluorescence dynamics and reaction kinetics. Simultaneous molecular dynamics study through steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using unique ethidium bromide dye release assay confirmed an elevated amount of abasic site cleavage of the TATA box sequence as compared to the core CpG island. Reaction kinetics showed that catalytic efficiency of APE1 for abasic site cleavage of core CpG island sequence was ∼4 times lower as compared to that of the TATA box. Higher value of Km was obtained from the core CpG island sequence than the TATA box sequence. This suggests a greater binding effect of APE1 enzyme on TATA sequence that signifies a prominent role of the sequence context of the DNA substrate. Evidently, a faster response from APE1 was obtained for clustered abasic damage repair of TATA box core sequences than CpG island consensus sequences. The neighboring bases of the abasic sites in the complementary DNA strand were found to have significant contribution in addition to the flanking bases in modulating APE1 activity. The repair refractivity of the bistranded clustered abasic sites arise from the slow processing of the second abasic site, consequently resulting in decreased overall production of potentially lethal double strand breaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 {sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized.

  17. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 INK4a tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized

  18. Characterization of human gastric carcinoma-related methylation of 9 miR CpG islands and repression of their expressions in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yantao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many miR genes are located within or around CpG islands. It is unclear whether methylation of these CpG islands represses miR transcription regularly. The aims of this study are to characterize gastric carcinoma (GC-related methylation of miR CpG islands and its relationship with miRNA expression. Methods Methylation status of 9 representative miR CpG islands in a panel of cell lines and human gastric samples (including 13 normal biopsies, 38 gastritis biopsies, 112 pairs of GCs and their surgical margin samples was analyzed by bisulfite-DHPLC and sequencing. Mature miRNA levels were determined with quantitative RT-PCR. Relationships between miR methylation, transcription, GC development, and clinicopathological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results Methylation frequency of 5 miR CpG islands (miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, miR-34b, and miR-210 gradually increased while the proportion of methylated miR-200b gradually decreased during gastric carcinogenesis (Ps miR-9-1 methylation was detected in 62%-64% of the GC samples and 4% of the normal or gastritis samples (18/28 versus 2/48; Odds ratio, 41.4; P miR-210 methylation showed high correlation with H. pylori infection. miR-375, miR-203, and miR-193b methylation might be host adaptation to the development of GCs. Methylation of these miR CpG islands was consistently shown to significantly decrease the corresponding miRNA levels presented in human cell lines. The inverse relationship was also observed for miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, and miR-200b in gastric samples. Among 112 GC patients, miR-9-1 methylation was an independent favourable predictor of overall survival of GC patients in both univariate and multivariate analysis (P  Conclusions In conclusion, alteration of methylation status of 6 of 9 tested miR CpG islands was characterized in gastric carcinogenesis. miR-210 methylation correlated with H. pylori infection. miR-9-1 methylation may be a GC

  19. Characterization of human gastric carcinoma-related methylation of 9 miR CpG islands and repression of their expressions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yantao; Liu, Zhaojun; Gu, Liankun; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Bu-dong; Ji, Jiafu; Deng, Dajun

    2012-01-01

    Many miR genes are located within or around CpG islands. It is unclear whether methylation of these CpG islands represses miR transcription regularly. The aims of this study are to characterize gastric carcinoma (GC)-related methylation of miR CpG islands and its relationship with miRNA expression. Methylation status of 9 representative miR CpG islands in a panel of cell lines and human gastric samples (including 13 normal biopsies, 38 gastritis biopsies, 112 pairs of GCs and their surgical margin samples) was analyzed by bisulfite-DHPLC and sequencing. Mature miRNA levels were determined with quantitative RT-PCR. Relationships between miR methylation, transcription, GC development, and clinicopathological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Methylation frequency of 5 miR CpG islands (miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, miR-34b, and miR-210) gradually increased while the proportion of methylated miR-200b gradually decreased during gastric carcinogenesis (Ps < 0.01). More miR-9-1 methylation was detected in 62%-64% of the GC samples and 4% of the normal or gastritis samples (18/28 versus 2/48; Odds ratio, 41.4; P < 0.01). miR-210 methylation showed high correlation with H. pylori infection. miR-375, miR-203, and miR-193b methylation might be host adaptation to the development of GCs. Methylation of these miR CpG islands was consistently shown to significantly decrease the corresponding miRNA levels presented in human cell lines. The inverse relationship was also observed for miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, and miR-200b in gastric samples. Among 112 GC patients, miR-9-1 methylation was an independent favourable predictor of overall survival of GC patients in both univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.02). In conclusion, alteration of methylation status of 6 of 9 tested miR CpG islands was characterized in gastric carcinogenesis. miR-210 methylation correlated with H. pylori infection. miR-9-1 methylation may be a GC-specific event. Methylation of miR CpG islands may

  20. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling of CpG Islands in Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Shweta; Deshpande, Archana; Qiao, Liang; Beckman, Kenneth; Sen, Saunak; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hypospadias is one of the most frequent genital malformations in the male newborn, and results from abnormal penile and urethral development. The etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown despite intensive investigations. Fetal androgens have a crucial role in genital differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of androgens on the fetus may involve disruption of epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. We assessed whether epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is associated with hypospadias in a case-control study of 12 hypospadias and 8 control subjects. Materials and Methods Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on the study subjects using the Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 Bead-Chip, which enables the direct investigation of methylation status of more than 485,000 individual CpG sites throughout the genome. The methylation level at each CpG site was compared between cases and controls using the t test and logistic regression. Results We identified 14 CpG sites that were associated with hypospadias with p hypospadias using a unique and novel epigenetic approach. Our findings suggest DNA methylation patterns are useful in identifying new genes such as SCARB1 and MYBPH that may be involved in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:22906644

  1. CpG island clusters and pro-epigenetic selection for CpGs in protein-coding exons of HOX and other transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciamore, Sergio; Chen, Zhao-Xia; Riggs, Arthur D; Rodin, Sergei N

    2010-08-31

    CpG dinucleotides contribute to epigenetic mechanisms by being the only site for DNA methylation in mammalian somatic cells. They are also mutation hotspots and approximately 5-fold depleted genome-wide. We report here a study focused on CpG sites in the coding regions of Hox and other transcription factor genes, comparing methylated genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Danio rerio with nonmethylated genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We analyzed 4-fold degenerate, synonymous codons with the potential for CpG. That is, we studied "silent" changes that do not affect protein products but could damage epigenetic marking. We find that DNA-binding transcription factors and other developmentally relevant genes show, only in methylated genomes, a bimodal distribution of CpG usage. Several genetic code-based tests indicate, again for methylated genomes only, that the frequency of silent CpGs in Hox genes is much greater than expectation. Also informative are NCG-GNN and NCC-GNN codon doublets, for which an unusually high rate of G to C and C to G transversions was observed at the third (silent) position of the first codon. Together these results are interpreted as evidence for strong "pro-epigenetic" selection acting to preserve CpG sites in coding regions of many genes controlling development. We also report that DNA-binding transcription factors and developmentally important genes are dramatically overrepresented in or near clusters of three or more CpG islands, suggesting a possible relationship between evolutionary preservation of CpG dinucleotides in both coding regions and CpG islands.

  2. Aberrant septin 9 DNA methylation in colorectal cancer is restricted to a single CpG island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserkort, Reinhold; Kalmar, Alexandra; Valcz, Gabor; Spisak, Sandor; Krispin, Manuel; Toth, Kinga; Tulassay, Zsolt; Sledziewski, Andrew Z; Molnar, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The septin 9 gene (SEPT9) codes for a GTP-binding protein associated with filamentous structures and cytoskeleton formation. SEPT9 plays a role in multiple cancers as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene. Regulation of SEPT9 expression is complex and not well understood; however, hypermethylation of the gene was recently introduced as a biomarker for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been linked to cancer of the breast and of the head and neck. Because the DNA methylation landscape of different regions of SEPT9 is poorly understood in cancer, we analyzed the methylation patterns of this gene in distinct cell populations from normal and diseased colon mucosa. Laser capture microdissection was performed to obtain homogeneous populations of epithelial and stromal cells from normal, adenomatous, and tumorous colon mucosa. Microdissected samples were analyzed using direct bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylation status of eight regions within and near the SEPT9 gene. Septin-9 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Regions analyzed in SEPT9 were unmethylated in normal tissue except for a methylation boundary detected downstream of the largest CpG island. In adenoma and tumor tissues, epithelial cells displayed markedly increased DNA methylation levels (>80%, p <0.0001) in only one of the CpG islands investigated. SEPT9 methylation in stromal cells increased in adenomatous and tumor tissues (≤50%, p <0.0001); however, methylation did not increase in stromal cells of normal tissue close to the tumor. IHC data indicated a significant decrease (p <0.01) in Septin-9 protein levels in epithelial cells derived from adenoma and tumor tissues; Septin-9 protein levels in stromal cells were low in all tissues. Hypermethylation of SEPT9 in adenoma and CRC specimens is confined to one of several CpG islands of this gene. Tumor-associated aberrant methylation originates in epithelial cells; stromal cells appear to

  3. Comprehensive biostatistical analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Nosho

    Full Text Available The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP is a distinct phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and BRAF mutation in colon cancer. Recent investigations have selected 5 promoters (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1 as surrogate markers for CIMP-high. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated an expanded set of methylation markers (including these 5 markers using a large number of tumors, or deciphered the complex clinical and molecular associations with CIMP-high determined by the validated marker panel. METHOLODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA methylation at 16 CpG islands [the above 5 plus CDKN2A (p16, CHFR, CRABP1, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 (CDKN2A/ARF and WRN] was quantified in 904 colorectal cancers by real-time PCR (MethyLight. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, the 5 markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 and WRN were generally clustered with each other and with MSI and BRAF mutation. KRAS mutation was not clustered with any methylation marker, suggesting its association with a random methylation pattern in CIMP-low tumors. Utilizing the validated CIMP marker panel (including the 5 markers, multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that CIMP-high was independently associated with older age, proximal location, poor differentiation, MSI-high, BRAF mutation, and inversely with LINE-1 hypomethylation and beta-catenin (CTNNB1 activation. Mucinous feature, signet ring cells, and p53-negativity were associated with CIMP-high in only univariate analysis. In stratified analyses, the relations of CIMP-high with poor differentiation, KRAS mutation and LINE-1 hypomethylation significantly differed according to MSI status.Our study provides valuable data for standardization of the use of CIMP-high-specific methylation markers. CIMP-high is independently associated with clinical and key molecular features in colorectal cancer. Our data also

  4. Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Wu, Jun; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Martinez-Redondo, Paloma; Li, Mo; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Min-Zu; Hernández-Benítez, Reyna; Hishida, Tomoaki; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2017-05-05

    CpG islands (CGIs) are primarily promoter-associated genomic regions and are mostly unmethylated within highly methylated mammalian genomes. The mechanisms by which CGIs are protected from de novo methylation remain elusive. Here we show that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation. By targeting the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 CGI, we could generate a PSC model of a cancer-related epimutation. Furthermore, we successfully corrected aberrant imprinting in induced PSCs derived from an Angelman syndrome patient. Our results provide insights into how CpG-free DNA induces de novo CGI methylation and broaden the application of targeted epigenome editing for a better understanding of human development and disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Yuta

    2017-05-05

    CpG islands (CGIs) are primarily promoter-associated genomic regions and are mostly unmethylated within highly methylated mammalian genomes. The mechanisms by which CGIs are protected from de novo methylation remain elusive. Here we show that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation. By targeting the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 CGI, we could generate a PSC model of a cancer-related epimutation. Furthermore, we successfully corrected aberrant imprinting in induced PSCs derived from an Angelman syndrome patient. Our results provide insights into how CpG-free DNA induces de novo CGI methylation and broaden the application of targeted epigenome editing for a better understanding of human development and disease.

  6. CpG island protects Rous sarcoma virus-derived vectors integrated into nonpermissive cells from DNA methylation and transcriptional suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejnar, Jiří; Hájková, P.; Plachý, Jiří; Elleder, Daniel; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Svoboda, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2001), s. 565-569 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/97/P082; GA ČR GA312/98/0825 Keywords : CpG island * provirus silencing * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.890, year: 2001

  7. Methylation of a CpG Island within the Uroplakin Ib Promoter: A Possible Mechanism for Loss of Uroplakin lb Expression in Bladder Carcinoma

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    Andrea E. Varga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Uroplakin Ib is a structural protein on the surface of urothelial cells. Expression of uroplakin Ib mRNA is reduced or absent in many transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs but molecular mechanisms underlying loss of expression remain to be determined. Analysis of the uroplakin Ib promoter identified a weak CpG island spanning the proximal promoter, exon 1, and the beginning of intron 1. This study examined the hypothesis that methylation of this CpG island regulates uroplakin Ib expression. Uroplakin Ib mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and CpG methylation was assessed by bisulfite modification of DNA, PCR, and sequencing. A correlation was demonstrated in 15 TCC lines between uroplakin Ib mRNA expression and lack of CpG methylation. In support of a regulatory role for methylation, incubating uroplakin Ib-negative lines with 5-aza-2′ -deoxycytidine reactivated uroplakin Ib mRNA expression. A trend between uroplakin Ib mRNA expression and CpG methylation was also observed in normal urothelium and bladder carcinomas. In particular, loss of uroplakin Ib expression correlated with methylation of a putative Spi/NFκB binding motif. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that methylation of specific sites within the uroplakin Ib promoter may be an important factor in the loss of uroplakin Ib expression in TCCs.

  8. In silico enhanced restriction enzyme based methylation analysis of the human glioblastoma genome using Agilent 244K CpG Island microarrays

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    Anh Tran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide methylation profiling of gliomas is likely to provide important clues to improving treatment outcomes. Restriction enzyme based approaches have been widely utilized for methylation profiling of cancer genomes and will continue to have importance in combination with higher density microarrays. With the availability of the human genome sequence and microarray probe sequences, these approaches can be readily characterized and optimized via in silico modeling. We adapted the previously described HpaII/MspI based Methylation Sensitive Restriction Enzyme (MSRE assay for use with two-color Agilent 244K CpG island microarrays. In this assay, fragmented genomic DNA is digested in separate reactions with isoschizomeric HpaII (methylation-sensitive and MspI (methylation-insensitive restriction enzymes. Using in silico hybridization, we found that genomic fragmentation with BfaI was superior to MseI, providing a maximum effective coverage of 22,362 CpG islands in the human genome. In addition, we confirmed the presence of an internal control group of fragments lacking HpaII/MspI sites which enable separation of methylated and unmethylated fragments. We used this method on genomic DNA isolated from normal brain, U87MG cells, and a glioblastoma patient tumor sample and confirmed selected differentially methylated CpG islands using bisulfite sequencing. Along with additional validation points, we performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis to determine the optimal threshold (p ≤ 0.001. Based on this threshold, we identified ~2400 CpG islands common to all three samples and 145 CpG islands unique to glioblastoma. These data provide more general guidance to individuals seeking to maximize effective coverage using restriction enzyme based methylation profiling approaches.

  9. CpGislandEVO: A Database and Genome Browser for Comparative Evolutionary Genomics of CpG Islands

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    Guillermo Barturen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypomethylated, CpG-rich DNA segments (CpG islands, CGIs are epigenome markers involved in key biological processes. Aberrant methylation is implicated in the appearance of several disorders as cancer, immunodeficiency, or centromere instability. Furthermore, methylation differences at promoter regions between human and chimpanzee strongly associate with genes involved in neurological/psychological disorders and cancers. Therefore, the evolutionary comparative analyses of CGIs can provide insights on the functional role of these epigenome markers in both health and disease. Given the lack of specific tools, we developed CpGislandEVO. Briefly, we first compile a database of statistically significant CGIs for the best assembled mammalian genome sequences available to date. Second, by means of a coupled browser front-end, we focus on the CGIs overlapping orthologous genes extracted from OrthoDB, thus ensuring the comparison between CGIs located on truly homologous genome segments. This allows comparing the main compositional features between homologous CGIs. Finally, to facilitate nucleotide comparisons, we lifted genome coordinates between assemblies from different species, which enables the analysis of sequence divergence by direct count of nucleotide substitutions and indels occurring between homologous CGIs. The resulting CpGislandEVO database, linking together CGIs and single-cytosine DNA methylation data from several mammalian species, is freely available at our website.

  10. CpGislandEVO: A Database and Genome Browser for Comparative Evolutionary Genomics of CpG Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barturen, Guillermo; Dios, Francisco; Hamberg, E. J. Maarten; Oliver, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypomethylated, CpG-rich DNA segments (CpG islands, CGIs) are epigenome markers involved in key biological processes. Aberrant methylation is implicated in the appearance of several disorders as cancer, immunodeficiency, or centromere instability. Furthermore, methylation differences at promoter regions between human and chimpanzee strongly associate with genes involved in neurological/psychological disorders and cancers. Therefore, the evolutionary comparative analyses of CGIs can provide insights on the functional role of these epigenome markers in both health and disease. Given the lack of specific tools, we developed CpGislandEVO. Briefly, we first compile a database of statistically significant CGIs for the best assembled mammalian genome sequences available to date. Second, by means of a coupled browser front-end, we focus on the CGIs overlapping orthologous genes extracted from OrthoDB, thus ensuring the comparison between CGIs located on truly homologous genome segments. This allows comparing the main compositional features between homologous CGIs. Finally, to facilitate nucleotide comparisons, we lifted genome coordinates between assemblies from different species, which enables the analysis of sequence divergence by direct count of nucleotide substitutions and indels occurring between homologous CGIs. The resulting CpGislandEVO database, linking together CGIs and single-cytosine DNA methylation data from several mammalian species, is freely available at our website. PMID:24205506

  11. Virus-like attachment sites and plastic CpG islands:landmarks of diversity in plant Del retrotransposons.

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    Guilherme M Q Cruz

    Full Text Available Full-length Del elements from ten angiosperm genomes, 5 monocot and 5 dicot, were retrieved and putative attachment (att sites were identified. In the 2432 Del elements, two types of U5 att sites and a single conserved type of U3 att site were identified. Retroviral att sites confer specificity to the integration process, different att sites types therefore implies lineage specificity. While some features are common to all Del elements, CpG island patterns within the LTRs were particular to lineage specific clusters. All eudicot copies grouped into one single clade while the monocots harbour a more diverse collection of elements. Furthermore, full-length Del elements and truncated copies were unevenly distributed amongst chromosomes. Elements of Del lineage are organized in plants into three clusters and each cluster is composed of elements with distinct LTR features. Our results suggest that the Del lineage efficiently amplified in the monocots and that one branch is probably a newly emerging sub-lineage. Finally, sequences in all groups are under purifying selection. These results show the LTR region is dynamic and important in the evolution of LTR-retrotransposons, we speculate that it is a trigger for retrotransposon diversification.

  12. The core element of a CpG island protects avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-derived vectors from transcriptional silencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šenigl, Filip; Plachý, Jiří; Hejnar, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 16 (2008), s. 7818-7827 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0939; GA ČR GA523/07/1171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti-methylation protection * retroviral vector * CpG island Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.308, year: 2008

  13. Rare k-mer DNA: Identification of sequence motifs and prediction of CpG island and promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Hashim, Ezzeddin Kamil; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-12-21

    Empirical analysis on k-mer DNA has been proven as an effective tool in finding unique patterns in DNA sequences which can lead to the discovery of potential sequence motifs. In an extensive study of empirical k-mer DNA on hundreds of organisms, the researchers found unique multi-modal k-mer spectra occur in the genomes of organisms from the tetrapod clade only which includes all mammals. The multi-modality is caused by the formation of the two lowest modes where k-mers under them are referred as the rare k-mers. The suppression of the two lowest modes (or the rare k-mers) can be attributed to the CG dinucleotide inclusions in them. Apart from that, the rare k-mers are selectively distributed in certain genomic features of CpG Island (CGI), promoter, 5' UTR, and exon. We correlated the rare k-mers with hundreds of annotated features using several bioinformatic tools, performed further intrinsic rare k-mer analyses within the correlated features, and modeled the elucidated rare k-mer clustering feature into a classifier to predict the correlated CGI and promoter features. Our correlation results show that rare k-mers are highly associated with several annotated features of CGI, promoter, 5' UTR, and open chromatin regions. Our intrinsic results show that rare k-mers have several unique topological, compositional, and clustering properties in CGI and promoter features. Finally, the performances of our RWC (rare-word clustering) method in predicting the CGI and promoter features are ranked among the top three, in eight of the CGI and promoter evaluations, among eight of the benchmarked datasets. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IGFBP3 Promoter Methylation in Colorectal Cancer: Relationship with Microsatellite Instability, CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, p53

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    Takako Kawasaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, which is induced by wild-type p53, regulates IGF and interacts with the TGF-β pathway. IGFBP3 promoter methylation may occur in colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, which is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and TGFBR2 mutation. We examined the relationship between IGFBP3 methylation, p53 expression, CIMP and MSI in 902 population-based colorectal cancers. Utilizing real-time PCR (MethyLight, we quantified promoter methylation in IGFBP3 and eight other CIMP-high-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1. IGFBP3 methylation was far more frequent in non-MSI-high CIMP-high tumors (85% = 35/41 than in MSI-high CIMPhigh (49% = 44/90, P < .0001, MSI-high non-CIMP-high (17% = 6/36, P < .0001, non-MSI-high non-CIMP-high tumors (22% = 152/680, P < .0001. Among CIMPhigh tumors, the inverse relationship between MSI and IGFBP3 methylation persisted in p53-negative tumors (P < .0001, but not in p53-positive tumors. IGFBP3 methylation was associated inversely with TGFBR2 mutation in MSI-high non-CIMP-high tumors (P = .02. In conclusion, IGFBP3 methylation is inversely associated with MSI in CIMP-high colorectal cancers, this relationship is limited to p53-negative tumors. Our data suggest complex relationship between global genomic/epigenomic phenomena (such as MSI/ CIMP, single molecular events (e.g., IGFBP3 methylation, TP53 mutation, TGFBR2 mutation, the related pathways.

  15. Assessment of clusters of transcription factor binding sites in relationship to human promoter, CpG islands and gene expression

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    Sakaki Yoshiyuki

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated mainly by transcription factors (TFs that interact with regulatory cis-elements on DNA sequences. To identify functional regulatory elements, computer searching can predict TF binding sites (TFBS using position weight matrices (PWMs that represent positional base frequencies of collected experimentally determined TFBS. A disadvantage of this approach is the large output of results for genomic DNA. One strategy to identify genuine TFBS is to utilize local concentrations of predicted TFBS. It is unclear whether there is a general tendency for TFBS to cluster at promoter regions, although this is the case for certain TFBS. Also unclear is the identification of TFs that have TFBS concentrated in promoters and to what level this occurs. This study hopes to answer some of these questions. Results We developed the cluster score measure to evaluate the correlation between predicted TFBS clusters and promoter sequences for each PWM. Non-promoter sequences were used as a control. Using the cluster score, we identified a PWM group called PWM-PCP, in which TFBS clusters positively correlate with promoters, and another PWM group called PWM-NCP, in which TFBS clusters negatively correlate with promoters. The PWM-PCP group comprises 47% of the 199 vertebrate PWMs, while the PWM-NCP group occupied 11 percent. After reducing the effect of CpG islands (CGI against the clusters using partial correlation coefficients among three properties (promoter, CGI and predicted TFBS cluster, we identified two PWM groups including those strongly correlated with CGI and those not correlated with CGI. Conclusion Not all PWMs predict TFBS correlated with human promoter sequences. Two main PWM groups were identified: (1 those that show TFBS clustered in promoters associated with CGI, and (2 those that show TFBS clustered in promoters independent of CGI. Assessment of PWM matches will allow more positive interpretation of TFBS in

  16. Prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype among colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juo, Y Y; Johnston, F M; Zhang, D Y; Juo, H H; Wang, H; Pappou, E P; Yu, T; Easwaran, H; Baylin, S; van Engeland, M; Ahuja, N

    2014-12-01

    Divergent findings regarding the prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients exist in current literature. We aim to review data from published studies in order to examine the association between CIMP and CRC prognosis. A comprehensive search for studies reporting disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), or cancer-specific mortality of CRC patients stratified by CIMP is carried out. Study findings are summarized descriptively and quantitatively, using adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) as summary statistics. Thirty-three studies reporting survival in 10 635 patients are included for review. Nineteen studies provide data suitable for meta-analysis. The definition of CIMP regarding gene panel, marker threshold, and laboratory method varies across studies. Pooled analysis shows that CIMP is significantly associated with shorter DFS (pooled HR estimate 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.97, Q = 3.95, I(2) = 0%) and OS (pooled HR estimate 1.43; 95% CI 1.18-1.73, Q = 4.03, I(2) = 0%) among CRC patients irrespective of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Subgroup analysis of microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC patients also shows significant association between shorter OS (pooled HR estimate 1.37; 95% CI 1.12-1.68, Q = 4.45, I(2) = 33%) and CIMP. Seven studies have explored CIMP's value as a predictive factor on stage II and III CRC patient's DFS after receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy: of these, four studies showed that adjuvant chemotherapy conferred a DFS benefit among CIMP(+) patients, one concluded to the contrary, and two found no significant correlation. Insufficient data was present for statistical synthesis of CIMP's predictive value among CRC patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU therapy. CIMP is independently associated with significantly worse prognosis in CRC patients. However, CIMP's value as a predictive factor in assessing whether adjuvant 5-FU therapy will confer additional survival

  17. Impact on prognosis of the regional distribution of MGMT methylation with respect to the CpG island methylator phenotype and age in glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Pilar; Rodríguez de Lope, Ángel; Díaz-Crespo, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Iglesias, Teresa; Ribalta, Teresa; Fiaño, Concepción; García, Juan Fernando; Rey, Juan Antonio; Mollejo, Manuela; Meléndez, Bárbara

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and molecular prognostic factors in gliomas include age, IDH mutation, the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP+) and promoter methylation of the O(6)-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. Among these markers, a predictive value was reported in glioblastomas (GBM) for MGMT promoter methylation, in particular in elderly GBM patients. In this study, methylation data from 46 glioma samples with the Illumina 450K platform were obtained and extended using external data to include a total of 247 glioma samples. Methylation analysis of the whole MGMT gene with this platform revealed two strongly survival-associated CpG regions within the promoter and the gene body, which were confirmed in a reported dataset of high grade-gliomas. Methylation at the promoter (CpG 25, cg12981137 and the prognostic model MGMT-STP27) and at the gene body CpG 165 (cg07933035), were significantly associated with better overall survival, and strongly correlated with G-CIMP+ status. In this series, the prognostic value of MGMT methylation at the promoter was not observed in G-CIMP- cases, although around 50 % of them were MGMT-methylated. These results were also obtained in an homogeneously-treated series of chemoradiated G-CIMP- GBMs analyzed by MSP and qMSP, and confirmed in a reported pyrosequencing-analyzed series of gliomas. Interestingly, in contrast to the MGMT promoter, gene body methylation was of prognostic value in G-CIMP-patients older than 65 years. Our study highlights the relevance of the prognostic value of the different regions of methylation throughout the MGMT gene that could be affected by specific G-CIMP profiles and age groups.

  18. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

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    Kim Kyu-Tae

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC and Trichostatin A (TSA respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Method Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Results Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS. In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. Conclusion These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically

  19. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS). In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically silenced gene is associated with the long term reversion of

  20. Relational analysis of CpG islands methylation and gene expression in human lymphomas using possibilistic C-means clustering and modified cluster fuzzy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjahputera, Ozy; Keller, James M; Davis, J Wade; Taylor, Kristen H; Rahmatpanah, Farahnaz; Shi, Huidong; Anderson, Derek T; Blisard, Samuel N; Luke, Robert H; Popescu, Mihail; Arthur, Gerald C; Caldwell, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous genetic and epigenetic alterations are commonly found in human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). One such epigenetic alteration is aberrant methylation of gene promoter-related CpG islands, where hypermethylation frequently results in transcriptional inactivation of target genes, while a decrease or loss of promoter methylation (hypomethylation) is frequently associated with transcriptional activation. Discovering genes with these relationships in NHL or other types of cancers could lead to a better understanding of the pathobiology of these diseases. The simultaneous analysis of promoter methylation using Differential Methylation Hybridization (DMH) and its associated gene expression using Expressed CpG Island Sequence Tag (ECIST) microarrays generates a large volume of methylation-expression relational data. To analyze this data, we propose a set of algorithms based on fuzzy sets theory, in particular Possibilistic c-Means (PCM) and cluster fuzzy density. For each gene, these algorithms calculate measures of confidence of various methylation-expression relationships in each NHL subclass. Thus, these tools can be used as a means of high volume data exploration to better guide biological confirmation using independent molecular biology methods.

  1. Up-regulation of expression and lack of 5' CpG island hypermethylation of p16 INK4a in HPV-positive cervical carcinomas

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    Frank Georgy A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High risk type human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV induce carcinomas of the uterine cervix by expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7. Oncogene E7 of HR-HPV disrupts the pRb/E2F interaction, which negatively regulates the S phase entry. Expression of tumor suppressor p16ink4a drastically increases in majority of HR-HPV associated carcinomas due to removal of pRb repression. The p16ink4a overexpression is an indicator of an aberrant expression of viral oncogenes and may serve as a marker for early diagnostic of cervical cancer. On the other hand, in 25–57% of cervical carcinomas hypermethylation of the p16 INK4a promoter has been demonstrated using a methylation-specific PCR, MSP. To evaluate a potential usage of the p16 INK4a 5' CpG island hypermethylation as an indicator of tumor cell along with p16ink4a overexpression, we analyzed the methylation status of p16 INK4a in cervical carcinomas Methods Methylation status of p16 INK4a was analyzed by MSP and by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing. The expression of p16ink4a was analyzed by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemical technique. Results The extensive methylation within p16 INK4a 5' CpG island was not detected either in 13 primary cervical carcinomas or in 5 cancer cell lines by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing (including those that were positive by MSP in our hands. The number and distribution of rare partially methylated CpG sites did not differ considerably in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The levels of the p16 INK4a mRNA were increased in carcinomas compared to the normal tissues independently of the number of partially methylated CpGs within 5'CpG island. The transcriptional activation of p16 INK4a was accompanied by p16ink4a cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the majority of tumor cells and presence of a varied number of the p16 positive nuclei in different tumors. Conclusion Hypermethylaion of the p16INK4a 5' CpG island is not a frequent event in HR-HPV-positive cervical

  2. Aberrant repair initiated by mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylases provides a mechanism for the mutational bias observed in CpG islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Couve, Sophie; Gros, Laurent; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Matkarimov, Bakhyt; Saparbaev, Murat K.

    2014-01-01

    The human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) initiates the base excision repair (BER) pathway to remove spontaneous and induced DNA base damage. It was first biochemically characterized for its ability to remove T mispaired with G in CpG context. TDG is involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expressions by protecting CpG-rich promoters from de novo DNA methylation. Here we demonstrate that TDG initiates aberrant repair by excising T when it is paired with a damaged adenine residue in DNA duplex. TDG targets the non-damaged DNA strand and efficiently excises T opposite of hypoxanthine (Hx), 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine and abasic site in TpG/CpX context, where X is a modified residue. In vitro reconstitution of BER with duplex DNA containing Hx•T pair and TDG results in incorporation of cytosine across Hx. Furthermore, analysis of the mutation spectra inferred from single nucleotide polymorphisms in human population revealed a highly biased mutation pattern within CpG islands (CGIs), with enhanced mutation rate at CpA and TpG sites. These findings demonstrate that under experimental conditions used TDG catalyzes sequence context-dependent aberrant removal of thymine, which results in TpG, CpA→CpG mutations, thus providing a plausible mechanism for the putative evolutionary origin of the CGIs in mammalian genomes. PMID:24692658

  3. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Lee, Jong Cheol [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Hyeok [Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Young Joo [Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hee Jeong [Department of Pathology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Myung Woul [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyo Won [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-A [Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Who, E-mail: swhokim@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon, E-mail: sykim3715@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation.

  4. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Basu

    Full Text Available DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  5. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amitava; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh K; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC) acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE) and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  6. Insertion of core CpG island element into human CMV promoter for enhancing recombinant protein expression stability in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariati; Yeo, Jessna H M; Koh, Esther Y C; Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus promoter (hCMV) is susceptible to gene silencing in CHO cells, most likely due to epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. The core CpG island element (IE) from the hamster adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene has been shown to prevent DNA methylation. A set of modified hCMV promoters was developed by inserting one or two copies of IE in either forward or reverse orientations either upstream of the hCMV enhancer, between the enhancer and core promoter (CP), or downstream of the CP. The modified hCMV with one copy of IE inserted between the enhancer and core promoter in reverse orientation (MR1) was most effective at enhancing expression stability without compromising expression level when compared with the wild-type (WT) hCMV. A third of 18 EGFP expressing clones generated using MR1 retained 70% of their starting expression level after 8 weeks of culture in the absence of selection pressure, while none of 18 WT hCMV generated clones had expression above 50%. MR1 also improved antibody expression stability of methotrexate (MTX) amplified CHO cell lines. Stably transfected pools generated using MR1 maintained 62% of their original monoclonal antibody titer after 8 weeks of culture in the absence of MTX, compared to only 37% for WT hCMV pools. Low levels of CpG methylation within both WT hCMV and MR1 were observed in all the analyzed cell lines and the methylation levels did not correlate to the expression stability, suggesting IE enhances expression stability by other mechanisms other than preventing methylation. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. CpG site DNA methylation patterns reveal a novel regulatory element in the mouse prion protein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALAI, Wuyun; MATSUO, Eiko; TAKEYAMA, Natsumi; KAWANO, Junichi; SAEKI, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) plays critical roles in the development of prion disorders. Although PrP mRNA is ubiquitously present in a tissue-specific manner, the DNA methylation of PrP gene (Prnp) is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the CpG island (CGI, positioned at −218 to +152 bp from the transcriptional start site) including the Prnp core promoter region was completely unmethylated in all tested tissues. On the other hand, CpG methylation in the CGI shore region (positioned at −599 to −238 bp) occurred in various tissue- and site-specific proportions. Interestingly, the correlation analysis between CpG methylation status and PrP mRNA levels showed that one CpG site methylation at −576 was negatively correlated with the PrP mRNA level (Pearson’s r = −0.374, P=0.035). Taken together, our results suggest that Prnp is a typical housekeeping gene and various methylation frequencies of the CGI shore region are likely to affect Prnp expression in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:27666463

  8. Fbxl10/Kdm2b recruits polycomb repressive complex 1 to CpG islands and regulates H2A ubiquitylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xudong; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) catalyzes lysine 119 monoubiquitylation on H2A (H2AK119ub1) and regulates pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the mechanisms controlling the binding of PRC1 to genomic sites and its catalytic activity are poorly understood. Here, we show that...... Fbxl10 interacts with Ring1B and Nspc1, forming a noncanonical PRC1 that is required for H2AK119ub1 in mouse ESCs. Genome-wide analyses reveal that Fbxl10 preferentially binds to CpG islands and colocalizes with Ring1B on Polycomb target genes. Notably, Fbxl10 depletion causes a decrease in Ring1B...... binding to target genes and a major loss of H2AK119ub1. Furthermore, genetic analyses demonstrate that Fbxl10 DNA binding capability and integration into PRC1 are required for H2AK119 ubiquitylation. ESCs lacking Fbxl10, like previously characterized Polycomb mutants, cannot differentiate properly...

  9. A maternally methylated CpG island in KvLQT1 is associated with an antisense paternal transcript and loss of imprinting in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilinich, Nancy J.; Day, Colleen D.; Fitzpatrick, Galina V.; Caldwell, Germaine M.; Lossie, Amy C.; Cooper, P. R.; Smallwood, Allan C.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Schofield, Paul N.; Reik, Wolf; Nicholls, Robert D.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Driscoll, D. J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Shows, Thomas B.; Higgins, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of imprinting at IGF2, generally through an H19-independent mechanism, is associated with a large percentage of patients with the overgrowth and cancer predisposition condition Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Imprinting control elements are proposed to exist within the KvLQT1 locus, because multiple BWS-associated chromosome rearrangements disrupt this gene. We have identified an evolutionarily conserved, maternally methylated CpG island (KvDMR1) in an intron of the KvLQT1 gene. Among 12 cases of BWS with normal H19 methylation, 5 showed demethylation of KvDMR1 in fibroblast or lymphocyte DNA; whereas, in 4 cases of BWS with H19 hypermethylation, methylation at KvDMRl was normal. Thus, inactivation of H19 and hypomethylation at KvDMR1 (or an associated phenomenon) represent distinct epigenetic anomalies associated with biallelic expression of IGF2. Reverse transcription–PCR analysis of the human and syntenic mouse loci identified the presence of a KvDMR1-associated RNA transcribed exclusively from the paternal allele and in the opposite orientation with respect to the maternally expressed KvLQT1 gene. We propose that KvDMR1 and/or its associated antisense RNA (KvLQT1-AS) represents an additional imprinting control element or center in the human 11p15.5 and mouse distal 7 imprinted domains. PMID:10393948

  10. A downstream CpG island controls transcript initiation and elongation and the methylation state of the imprinted Airn macro ncRNA promoter.

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    Martha V Koerner

    Full Text Available A CpG island (CGI lies at the 5' end of the Airn macro non-protein-coding (nc RNA that represses the flanking Igf2r promoter in cis on paternally inherited chromosomes. In addition to being modified on maternally inherited chromosomes by a DNA methylation imprint, the Airn CGI shows two unusual organization features: its position immediately downstream of the Airn promoter and transcription start site and a series of tandem direct repeats (TDRs occupying its second half. The physical separation of the Airn promoter from the CGI provides a model to investigate if the CGI plays distinct transcriptional and epigenetic roles. We used homologous recombination to generate embryonic stem cells carrying deletions at the endogenous locus of the entire CGI or just the TDRs. The deleted Airn alleles were analyzed by using an ES cell imprinting model that recapitulates the onset of Igf2r imprinted expression in embryonic development or by using knock-out mice. The results show that the CGI is required for efficient Airn initiation and to maintain the unmethylated state of the Airn promoter, which are both necessary for Igf2r repression on the paternal chromosome. The TDRs occupying the second half of the CGI play a minor role in Airn transcriptional elongation or processivity, but are essential for methylation on the maternal Airn promoter that is necessary for Igf2r to be expressed from this chromosome. Together the data indicate the existence of a class of regulatory CGIs in the mammalian genome that act downstream of the promoter and transcription start.

  11. The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Lee, Eui Jin; Yu, Hong Suk; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Cheol Keun; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%), and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100%) showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4%) (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results

  12. JC Virus T-Antigen in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with p53 Expression and Chromosomal Instability, Independent of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Nosho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available JC virus has a transforming gene encoding JC virus T-antigen (JCVT. JCVT may inactivate wild-type p53, cause chromosomal instability (CIN, and stabilize β-catenin. A link between JCVT and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP has been suggested. However, no large-scale study has examined the relations of JCVT with molecular alterations, clinical outcome, or prognosis in colon cancer. We detected JCVT expression (by immunohistochemistry in 271 (35% of 766 colorectal cancers. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 and eight other loci (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, p14, WRN by MethyLight. We examined loss of heterozygosity in 2p, 5q, 17q, and 18q. JCVT was significantly associated with p53 expression (P < .0001, p21 loss (P < .0001, CIN (≥2 chromosomal segments with LOH; P < .0001, nuclear β-catenin (P = .006, LINE-1 hypomethylation (P = .002, and inversely with CIMP-high (P = .0005 and microsatellite instability (MSI (P < .0001, but not with PIK3CA mutation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations of JCVT with p53 [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 8.45; P < .0001], CIN (adjusted OR, 2.53; P = .003, cyclin D1 (adjusted OR, 1.57; P = .02, LINE-1 hypomethylation (adjusted OR, 1.97 for a 30% decline as a unit; P = .03, BRAF mutation (adjusted OR, 2.20; P = .04, and family history of colorectal cancer (adjusted OR, 0.64; P = .04 remained statistically significant. However, JCVT was no longer significantly associated with CIMP, MSI, β-catenin, or cyclooxygenase-2 expression in multivariate analysis. JCVT was unrelated with patient survival. In conclusion, JCVT expression in colorectal cancer is independently associated with p53 expression and CIN, which may lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

  13. CpG island clusters and pro-epigenetic selection for CpGs in protein-coding exons of HOX and other transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Branciamore, Sergio; Chen, Zhao-Xia; Riggs, Arthur D.; Rodin, Sergei N.

    2010-01-01

    CpG dinucleotides contribute to epigenetic mechanisms by being the only site for DNA methylation in mammalian somatic cells. They are also mutation hotspots and ∼5-fold depleted genome-wide. We report here a study focused on CpG sites in the coding regions of Hox and other transcription factor genes, comparing methylated genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Danio rerio with nonmethylated genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We analyzed 4-fold degenerate, synony...

  14. Relation of DNA methylation of 5'-CpG island of ACSL3 to transplacental exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

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    Frederica Perera

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal cohort of approximately 700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25% is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5'-CpG island(s (5'-CGI. Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3 exhibited the highest concordance between the extent of methylation of its 5'-CGI in UCWBCs and the level of gene expression in matched fetal placental tissues in the initial 20 cohort children. ACSL3 was therefore chosen for further investigation in a larger sample of 56 cohort children. Methylation of the ACSL3 5'-CGI was found to be significantly associated with maternal airborne PAH exposure exceeding 2.41 ng/m(3 (OR = 13.8; p<0.001; sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 82% and with a parental report of asthma symptoms in children prior to age 5 (OR = 3.9; p<0.05. Thus, if validated, methylated ACSL3 5'CGI in UCWBC DNA may be a surrogate endpoint for transplacental PAH exposure and/or a potential biomarker for environmentally-related asthma. This exploratory report provides a new blueprint for the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers relevant to other exposure assessments and/or investigations of exposure-disease relationships in birth cohorts. The results support the emerging theory of

  15. Deletion hotspots in AMACR promoter CpG island are cis-regulatory elements controlling the gene expression in the colon.

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    Xiang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR regulates peroxisomal beta-oxidation of phytol-derived, branched-chain fatty acids from red meat and dairy products -- suspected risk factors for colon carcinoma (CCa. AMACR was first found overexpressed in prostate cancer but not in benign glands and is now an established diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. Aberrant expression of AMACR was recently reported in Cca; however, little is known about how this gene is abnormally activated in cancer. By using a panel of immunostained-laser-capture-microdissected clinical samples comprising the entire colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence, we show that deregulation of AMACR during colon carcinogenesis involves two nonrandom events, resulting in the mutually exclusive existence of double-deletion at CG3 and CG10 and deletion of CG12-16 in a newly identified CpG island within the core promoter of AMACR. The double-deletion at CG3 and CG10 was found to be a somatic lesion. It existed in histologically normal colonic glands and tubular adenomas with low AMACR expression and was absent in villous adenomas and all CCas expressing variable levels of AMACR. In contrast, deletion of CG12-16 was shown to be a constitutional allele with a frequency of 43% in a general population. Its prevalence reached 89% in moderately differentiated CCas strongly expressing AMACR but only existed at 14% in poorly differentiated CCas expressing little or no AMACR. The DNA sequences housing these deletions were found to be putative cis-regulatory elements for Sp1 at CG3 and CG10, and ZNF202 at CG12-16. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, siRNA knockdown, gel shift assay, ectopic expression, and promoter analyses supported the regulation by Sp1 and ZNF202 of AMACR gene expression in an opposite manner. Our findings identified key in vivo events and novel transcription factors responsible for AMACR regulation in CCas and suggested these AMACR deletions may have diagnostic/prognostic value for

  16. Revised genomic consensus for the hypermethylated CpG island region of the human L1 transposon and integration sites of full length L1 elements from recombinant clones made using methylation-tolerant host strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowther, P J; Doherty, J P; Linsenmeyer, M E

    1991-01-01

    from the 5' end of full length L1 elements. Such potential transcripts are likely to exhibit a high degree of secondary structure. In addition, we have determined the flanking sequences for 6 full length L1 elements. The majority of full length L1 clones show no convincing evidence for target site......Efficient recovery of clones from the 5' end of the human L1 dispersed repetitive elements necessitates the use of deletion mcr- host strains since this region contains a CpG island which is hypermethylated in vivo. Clones recovered with conventional mcr+ hosts seem to have been derived...

  17. Responsiveness of genes to manipulation of transcription factors in ES cells is associated with histone modifications and tissue specificity

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    Thomas Marshall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to determining static states of gene expression (high vs. low, it is important to characterize their dynamic status. For example, genes with H3K27me3 chromatin marks are not only suppressed but also poised for activation. However, the responsiveness of genes to perturbations has never been studied systematically. To distinguish gene responses to specific factors from responsiveness in general, it is necessary to analyze gene expression profiles of cells responding to a large variety of disturbances, and such databases did not exist before. Results We estimated the responsiveness of all genes in mouse ES cells using our recently published database on expression change after controlled induction of 53 transcription factors (TFs and other genes. Responsive genes (N = 4746, which were readily upregulated or downregulated depending on the kind of perturbation, mostly have regulatory functions and a propensity to become tissue-specific upon differentiation. Tissue-specific expression was evaluated on the basis of published (GNF and our new data for 15 organs and tissues. Non-responsive genes (N = 9562, which did not change their expression much following any perturbation, were enriched in housekeeping functions. We found that TF-responsiveness in ES cells is the best predictor known for tissue-specificity in gene expression. Among genes with CpG islands, high responsiveness is associated with H3K27me3 chromatin marks, and low responsiveness is associated with H3K36me3 chromatin, stronger tri-methylation of H3K4, binding of E2F1, and GABP binding motifs in promoters. Conclusions We thus propose the responsiveness of expression to perturbations as a new way to define the dynamic status of genes, which brings new insights into mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and tissue specificity.

  18. In vivo genome-wide profiling reveals a tissue-specific role for 5-formylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Mario; McInroy, Gordon R; Burgess, Heather E; Dean, Wendy; Raiber, Eun-Ang; Bachman, Martin; Beraldi, Dario; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Reik, Wolf

    2016-06-29

    Genome-wide methylation of cytosine can be modulated in the presence of TET and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) enzymes. TET is able to oxidise 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). TDG can excise the oxidative products 5fC and 5caC, initiating base excision repair. These modified bases are stable and detectable in the genome, suggesting that they could have epigenetic functions in their own right. However, functional investigation of the genome-wide distribution of 5fC has been restricted to cell culture-based systems, while its in vivo profile remains unknown. Here, we describe the first analysis of the in vivo genome-wide profile of 5fC across a range of tissues from both wild-type and Tdg-deficient E11.5 mouse embryos. Changes in the formylation profile of cytosine upon depletion of TDG suggest TET/TDG-mediated active demethylation occurs preferentially at intron-exon boundaries and reveals a major role for TDG in shaping 5fC distribution at CpG islands. Moreover, we find that active enhancer regions specifically exhibit high levels of 5fC, resulting in characteristic tissue-diagnostic patterns, which suggest a role in embryonic development. The tissue-specific distribution of 5fC can be regulated by the collective contribution of TET-mediated oxidation and excision by TDG. The in vivo profile of 5fC during embryonic development resembles that of embryonic stem cells, sharing key features including enrichment of 5fC in enhancer and intragenic regions. Additionally, by investigating mouse embryo 5fC profiles in a tissue-specific manner, we identify targeted enrichment at active enhancers involved in tissue development.

  19. Decrease of 5hmC in gastric cancers is associated with TET1 silencing due to with DNA methylation and bivalent histone marks at TET1 CpG island 3'-shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jin; Seo, Eun-Hye; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Lim, Byungho; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Yong Sung

    2015-11-10

    Recent evidence has shown that the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in chromosomal DNA is aberrantly decreased in a variety of cancers, but whether this decrease is a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that, in gastric cancers, the 5 hmC decrease correlates with a decrease in ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) expression, which is strongly associated with metastasis and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, TET1-targeted siRNA induced a decrease in 5 hmC, whereas TET1 overexpression induced an increase in 5 hmC and reduced cell proliferation, thus correlating decreased 5 hmC with gastric carcinogenesis. We also report the epigenetic signatures responsible for regulating TET1 transcription. Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified unique CpG methylation signatures at the CpG island 3'-shore region located 1.3 kb from the transcription start site of TET1 in gastric tumor cells but not in normal mucosa. The luciferase activity of constructs with a methylated 3'-shore sequence was greatly decreased compared with that of an unmethylated sequence in transformed gastric cancer cells. In gastric cancer cells, dense CpG methylation in the 3'-shore was strongly associated with TET1 silencing and bivalent histone marks. Thus, a decrease in 5 hmC may be a cause of gastric tumorigenesis owing to a decrease in TET1 expression through DNA methylation coupled with bivalent marks in the 3'-shore of TET1.

  20. A minimal set of tissue-specific hypomethylated CpGs constitute epigenetic signatures of developmental programming.

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    Alejandro Colaneri

    Full Text Available Cell specific states of the chromatin are programmed during mammalian development. Dynamic DNA methylation across the developing embryo guides a program of repression, switching off genes in most cell types. Thus, the majority of the tissue specific differentially methylated sites (TS-DMS must be un-methylated CpGs.Comparison of expanded Methyl Sensitive Cut Counting data (eMSCC among four tissues (liver, testes, brain and kidney from three C57BL/6J mice, identified 138,052 differentially methylated sites of which 23,270 contain CpGs un-methylated in only one tissue (TS-DMS. Most of these CpGs were located in intergenic regions, outside of promoters, CpG islands or their shores, and up to 20% of them overlapped reported active enhancers. Indeed, tissue-specific enhancers were up to 30 fold enriched in TS-DMS. Testis showed the highest number of TS-DMS, but paradoxically their associated genes do not appear to be specific to the germ cell functions, but rather are involved in organism development. In the other tissues the differentially methylated genes are associated with tissue-specific physiological or anatomical functions. The identified sets of TS-DMS quantify epigenetic distances between tissues, generated during development. We applied this concept to measure the extent of reprogramming in the liver of mice exposed to in utero or early postnatal nutritional stress. Different protocols of food restriction reprogrammed the liver methylome in different but reproducible ways.Thus, each identified set of differentially methylated sites constituted an epigenetic signature that traced the developmental programing or the early nutritional reprogramming of each exposed mouse. We propose that our approach has the potential to outline a number of disease-associated epigenetic states. The composition of differentially methylated CpGs may vary with each situation, behaving as a composite variable, which can be used as a pre-symptomatic marker for

  1. Ubiquitous expression of the rtTA2S-M2 inducible system in transgenic mice driven by the human hnRNPA2B1/CBX3 CpG island

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    Antoniou Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sensitive, ubiquitously expressed tetracycline inducible system would be a valuable tool in mouse transgenesis. However, this has been difficult to obtain due to position effects observed at different chromosomal sites of transgene integration, which negatively affect expression in many tissues. The aim of this study was to test the utility of a mammalian methylation-free CpG island to drive ubiquitous expression of the sensitive doxycycline (Dox inducible rtTA2S-M2 Tet-transactivator in transgenic mice. Results An 8 kb genomic fragment from the methylation-free CpG island of the human hnRNPA2B1-CBX3 housekeeping gene locus was tested. In a number of transgenic mouse lines obtained, rtTA2S-M2 expression was detected in many tissues examined. Characterisation of the highest expressing rtTA2S-M2 transgenic mouse line demonstrated Dox-inducible GFP transgene expression in many tissues. Using this line we also show highly sensitive quantitative induction with low doses of Dox of an assayable plasma protein transgene under the control of a Tet Responsive Element (TRE. The utility of this rtTA2S-M2 line for inducible expression in mouse embryos was also demonstrated using a GATA-6 Tet-inducible transgene to show specific phenotypes in the embryonic lung, as well as broader effects resulting from the inducible widespread overexpression of the transgene. Conclusion The ubiquitously expressing rtTA2S-M2 transgenic mouse line described here provides a very useful tool for studying the effects of the widespread, inducible overexpression of genes during embryonic development and in adult mice.

  2. The application of methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE to DNA methylation analysis of the 5' CpG island of mucin in cancer cells

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    Yokoyama Seiya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of CpG sites in genomic DNA plays an important role in gene regulation and especially in gene silencing. We have reported mechanisms of epigenetic regulation for expression of mucins, which are markers of malignancy potential and early detection of human neoplasms. Epigenetic changes in promoter regions appear to be the first step in expression of mucins. Thus, detection of promoter methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of tumor behavior, and evaluating the response of tumors to targeted therapy. However, conventional analytical methods for DNA methylation require a large amount of DNA and have low sensitivity. Methods Here, we report a modified version of the bisulfite-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using a nested PCR approach. We designated this method as methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE. The MSE method is comprised of the following steps: (a bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA, (b amplification of the target DNA by a nested PCR approach and (c applying to DGGE. To examine whether the MSE method is able to analyze DNA methylation of mucin genes in various samples, we apply it to DNA obtained from state cell lines, ethanol-fixed colonic crypts and human pancreatic juices. Result The MSE method greatly decreases the amount of input DNA. The lower detection limit for distinguishing different methylation status is Conclusions The MSE method can provide a qualitative information of methylated sequence profile. The MSE method allows sensitive and specific analysis of the DNA methylation pattern of almost any block of multiple CpG sites. The MSE method can be applied to analysis of DNA methylation status in many different clinical samples, and this may facilitate identification of new risk markers.

  3. Methylation status of CpG islands in the promoter region of genes differentially expressed in colonic mucosa from adenoma patients and controls in response to altered vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Simone G J; van Delft, Joost H M; Engels, Leopold G J B; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Mathers, John C

    2009-05-01

    Vegetables may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC) via changes in gene expression involved in anticarcinogenic mechanisms. There is considerable evidence that aberrant DNA methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, DNA methylation can be affected by dietary components. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the DNA methylation status of CpG dinucleotides within the promoter region of the four genes protein kinase C b 1, ornithine decarboxylase 1, fos proto-oncogene and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in the colon of female sporadic adenoma patients and healthy controls. These genes were chosen because their expression was modulated in response to altered vegetable intake, they are functionally relevant for CRC; they have CpG islands in their promoter region, and a methylation-specific restriction enzyme is available to permit quantitative assay. No significant differences in extent of methylation in colon DNA were detected for any of the four genes in both adenoma polyp patients and healthy controls after altering vegetable intake. Interestingly, before the intervention, ornithine decarboxylase 1 promoter methylation was lower in the colonic mucosa of the adenoma polyp patients when compared with healthy control subjects, which may explain the increased ornithine decarboxylase 1 activity in CRC reported in the literature. In conclusion, we found no evidence that changes in promoter methylation were responsible for differences in expression of four genes in the human colonic mucosa in response to altered vegetable intake. The mechanism(s) responsible for this altered gene expression and, indeed, potential effects on methylation of other genes remain to be determined.

  4. Methylation Status of the Serotonin Transporter Promoter CpG Island Is Associated With Major Depressive Disorder in Chinese Han Population: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mei; Sun, Hongli; Xu, Ye; Wang, Zhenhua; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Chengmin; Liu, Wei; An, Ganghui; Hu, Jian

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the methylation status of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese Han population. A total of 96 patients with MDD and 55 healthy volunteers were recruited, and the methylation index (MtI) at six positions in the cytosine-phosphate-guanosine island of 5-HTT gene was measured for each subject using bisulfite pyrosequencing. MtIs at positions 5 and 6 were higher in patients with MDD than those in controls. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, MtIs at positions 4 and 5 were significantly associated with MDD. Besides, depression education was an independent risk factor, whereas higher educational levels were protective factors for MDD. In addition, positions 1 and 4 were negatively correlated with weight and diurnal variation. Therefore, 5-HTT methylation might be closely related with MDD in Chinese Han population because of the correlation with diurnal variation and weight.

  5. Assessing CpG island methylator phenotype, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation from epigenome-wide data in the biomarker cohort of the NOA-04 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Hovestadt, Volker; Sill, Martin; Jones, David T.W.; Hartmann, Christian; Felsberg, Joerg; Platten, Michael; Feiden, Wolfgang; Keyvani, Kathy; Pfister, Stefan M.; Wiestler, Otmar D.; Meyermann, Richard; Reifenberger, Guido; Pietsch, Thorsten; von Deimling, Andreas; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular biomarkers including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation may improve prognostication and guide treatment decisions for patients with World Health Organization (WHO) anaplastic gliomas. At present, each marker is individually tested by distinct assays. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays (HM450) enable the determination of large-scale methylation profiles and genome-wide DNA copy number changes. Algorithms have been developed to detect the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) associated with IDH1/2 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation using a single assay. Methods Here, we retrospectively investigated the diagnostic and prognostic performance of these algorithms in comparison to individual marker testing and patient outcome in the biomarker cohort (n = 115 patients) of the NOA-04 trial. Results Concordance for IDH and 1p/19q status was very high: In 92% of samples, the HM450 and reference data agreed. In discordant samples, survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses suggested a more accurate assessment of biological phenotype by the HM450 analysis. The HM450-derived MGMT-STP27 model to calculate MGMT promoter methylation probability revealed this aberration in a significantly higher fraction of samples than conventional methylation-specific PCR, with 87 of 91 G-CIMP tumors predicted as MGMT promoter-methylated. Pyrosequencing of discordant samples confirmed the HM450 assessment in 14 of 17 cases. Conclusions G-CIMP and 1p/19q codeletion are reliably detectable by HM450 analysis and are associated with prognosis in the NOA-04 trial. For MGMT, HM450 suggests promoter methylation in the vast majority of G-CIMP tumors, which is supported by pyrosequencing. PMID:25028501

  6. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  7. Zinc sulfate contributes to promote telomere length extension via increasing telomerase gene expression, telomerase activity and change in the TERT gene promoter CpG island methylation status of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Farahzadi

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported. In this study, MSCs were isolated from the adipose tissue with enzymatic digestion. In addition, immunocytochemistry staining and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate the cell-surface markers. In addition, alizarin red-S, sudan III, toluidine blue, and cresyl violet staining were performed to evaluate the multi-lineage differentiation of hADSCs. In order to improve the effective application of MSCs, these cells were treated with 1.5 × 10-8 and 2.99 × 10-10 M of ZnSO4 for 48 hours. The length of the absolute telomere, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene expression, telomerase activity, the investigation of methylation status of the hTERT gene promoter and the percentage of senescent cells were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR, PCR-ELISA TRAP assay, methylation specific PCR (MSP, and beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining, respectively. The results showed that the telomere length, the hTERT gene expression, and the telomerase activity had significantly increased. In addition, the percentage of senescent cells had significantly decreased and changes in the methylation status of the CpG islands in the hTERT promoter region under treatment with ZnSO4 were seen. In conclusion, it seems that ZnSO4 as a proper antioxidant could improve the aging-related features due to lengthening of the telomeres, increasing the telomerase gene expression

  8. Assessing CpG island methylator phenotype, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation from epigenome-wide data in the biomarker cohort of the NOA-04 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Hovestadt, Volker; Sill, Martin; Jones, David T W; Hartmann, Christian; Felsberg, Joerg; Platten, Michael; Feiden, Wolfgang; Keyvani, Kathy; Pfister, Stefan M; Wiestler, Otmar D; Meyermann, Richard; Reifenberger, Guido; Pietsch, Thorsten; von Deimling, Andreas; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Molecular biomarkers including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation may improve prognostication and guide treatment decisions for patients with World Health Organization (WHO) anaplastic gliomas. At present, each marker is individually tested by distinct assays. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays (HM450) enable the determination of large-scale methylation profiles and genome-wide DNA copy number changes. Algorithms have been developed to detect the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) associated with IDH1/2 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation using a single assay. Here, we retrospectively investigated the diagnostic and prognostic performance of these algorithms in comparison to individual marker testing and patient outcome in the biomarker cohort (n = 115 patients) of the NOA-04 trial. Concordance for IDH and 1p/19q status was very high: In 92% of samples, the HM450 and reference data agreed. In discordant samples, survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses suggested a more accurate assessment of biological phenotype by the HM450 analysis. The HM450-derived MGMT-STP27 model to calculate MGMT promoter methylation probability revealed this aberration in a significantly higher fraction of samples than conventional methylation-specific PCR, with 87 of 91 G-CIMP tumors predicted as MGMT promoter-methylated. Pyrosequencing of discordant samples confirmed the HM450 assessment in 14 of 17 cases. G-CIMP and 1p/19q codeletion are reliably detectable by HM450 analysis and are associated with prognosis in the NOA-04 trial. For MGMT, HM450 suggests promoter methylation in the vast majority of G-CIMP tumors, which is supported by pyrosequencing. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  9. Hypermethylation of the 5′ CpG island of the p14ARF flanking exon 1β in human colorectal cancer displaying a restricted pattern of p53 overexpression concomitant with increased MDM2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyiraneza Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that inactivation of p14ARF, a tumor suppressor central to regulating p53 protein stability through interaction with the MDM2 oncoprotein, abrogates p53 activity in human tumors retaining the wild-type TP53 gene. Differences in expression of tumor suppressor genes are frequently associated with cancer. We previously reported on a pattern of restricted p53 immunohistochemical overexpression significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI, low TP53 mutation frequency, and MDM2 overexpression in colorectal cancers (CRCs. In this study, we investigated whether p14ARF alterations could be a mechanism for disabling the p53 pathway in this subgroup of CRCs. Results Detailed maps of the alterations in the p14ARF gene were determined in a cohort of 98 CRCs to detect both nucleotide and copy-number changes. Methylation-specific PCR combined with bisulfite sequencing was used to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF methylation. p14ARF alterations were then correlated with MSI status, TP53 mutations, and immunohistochemical expression of p53 and MDM2. The frequency of p14ARF mutations was extremely low (1/98; 1%, whereas coexistence of methylated and unmethylated alleles in both tumors and normal colon mucosa was common (91/98; 93%. Only seven of ninety-eight tumors (7% had a distinct pattern of methylation compared with normal colon mucosa. Evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF promoter methylation in a region containing 27 CpG sites in 35 patients showed a range of methylated CpG sites in tumors (0 to 25 (95% CI 1 to 13 versus 0 to 17 (95% CI 0 to 2 in adjacent colon mucosa (P = 0.004. Hypermethylation of the p14ARF promoter was significantly correlated with the restricted p53 overexpression pattern (P = 0.03, and MDM2 overexpression (P = 0.02, independently of MSI phenotype. Although no significant correlation between p14ARF methylation and TP53 mutational

  10. Age-related methylation patterning of housekeeping genes and tissue-specific genes is distinct between the stomach antrum and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Jin; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Min, Ki-Ouk; Choi, Sang-Wook; Rhyu, Mun-Gan

    2013-06-01

    The methylation-variable sites around CpG islands are frequently overmethylated in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomachs. Age-related patterns of the overmethylation changes were compared between the fast-growing antrum cells and the slow-growing body cells. A total of 316 H. pylori-positive tissues and 380 H. pylori-negative tissues were obtained by endoscopic biopsy. The methylation-variable sites of ten housekeeping genes and nine tissue-specific genes were semiquantitatively analyzed, based on the ten-level classification of methylation-specific PCR intensity. The overmethylated genes were scored when their methylation levels were higher than an intermediate level of each gene common in the H. pylori-negative mucosa. The age-dependent methylation level of the inactive APC gene observed similarly in the antrum and the body was used as an age standard of methylation variation in a biopsy tissue. The overmethylation of housekeeping genes and stomach-specific genes rapidly increased to a high plateau frequency in the young-aged APC methylation cases (mean age: 43 years) in the H. pylori-positive antrum. In the H. pylori-positive body, most of the overmethylated housekeeping genes slowly increased to a peak frequency in the middle-aged APC methylation cases (mean age: 53 years). The housekeeping gene pairs showed high correlations (Spearman's correlation coefficient > 0.4) in both the antrum and the body. The overmethylation of housekeeping genes rapidly and slowly increased to a high frequency in concordance with a rapid and slow growth of epithelial cells in the H. pylori-infected stomach.

  11. The reconstruction and analysis of tissue specific human metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tong; Ma, Hong-Wu; Zhao, Xue-Ming; Goryanin, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Human tissues have distinct biological functions. Many proteins/enzymes are known to be expressed only in specific tissues and therefore the metabolic networks in various tissues are different. Though high quality global human metabolic networks and metabolic networks for certain tissues such as liver have already been studied, a systematic study of tissue specific metabolic networks for all main tissues is still missing. In this work, we reconstruct the tissue specific metabolic networks for 15 main tissues in human based on the previously reconstructed Edinburgh Human Metabolic Network (EHMN). The tissue information is firstly obtained for enzymes from Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and UniprotKB databases and transfers to reactions through the enzyme-reaction relationships in EHMN. As our knowledge of tissue distribution of proteins is still very limited, we replenish the tissue information of the metabolic network based on network connectivity analysis and thorough examination of the literature. Finally, about 80% of proteins and reactions in EHMN are determined to be in at least one of the 15 tissues. To validate the quality of the tissue specific network, the brain specific metabolic network is taken as an example for functional module analysis and the results reveal that the function of the brain metabolic network is closely related with its function as the centre of the human nervous system. The tissue specific human metabolic networks are available at .

  12. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein electrophoresis was used to study the distributions and tissue specificity of gene expression of enzymes encoded by 42 loci in Rhinolophus clivosus and R. landeri, the genetically most divergent of the ten species of southern African horseshoe bats. No differences in gene expression were found between R.

  13. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene expression in the horseshoe bat genus Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae). Sarita Maree* and W.S. Grant. Department of Genetics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050 Repubfic of South Africa. Received 9 February 1994; accepted 19 Ouober 1995.

  14. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  15. Methylated site display (MSD)-AFLP, a sensitive and affordable method for analysis of CpG methylation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Toshiki; Saito, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Akiko; Sato, Shinji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Maruyama, Toru; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Kurita, Hisaka; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2017-03-09

    It has been pointed out that environmental factors or chemicals can cause diseases that are developmental in origin. To detect abnormal epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation, convenient and cost-effective methods are required for such research, in which multiple samples are processed simultaneously. We here present methylated site display (MSD), a unique technique for the preparation of DNA libraries. By combining it with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, we developed a new method, MSD-AFLP. Methylated site display libraries consist of only DNAs derived from DNA fragments that are CpG methylated at the 5' end in the original genomic DNA sample. To test the effectiveness of this method, CpG methylation levels in liver, kidney, and hippocampal tissues of mice were compared to examine if MSD-AFLP can detect subtle differences in the levels of tissue-specific differentially methylated CpGs. As a result, many CpG sites suspected to be tissue-specific differentially methylated were detected. Nucleotide sequences adjacent to these methyl-CpG sites were identified and we determined the methylation level by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MSRE)-PCR analysis to confirm the accuracy of AFLP analysis. The differences of the methylation level among tissues were almost identical among these methods. By MSD-AFLP analysis, we detected many CpGs showing less than 5% statistically significant tissue-specific difference and less than 10% degree of variability. Additionally, MSD-AFLP analysis could be used to identify CpG methylation sites in other organisms including humans. MSD-AFLP analysis can potentially be used to measure slight changes in CpG methylation level. Regarding the remarkable precision, sensitivity, and throughput of MSD-AFLP analysis studies, this method will be advantageous in a variety of epigenetics-based research.

  16. Selective estrogen receptor modulators: tissue specificity and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinkovich S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Martinkovich,* Darshan Shah,* Sonia Lobo Planey, John A ArnottDepartment of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs are a diverse group of ­nonsteroidal compounds that function as agonists or antagonists for estrogen receptors (ERs in a target gene-specific and tissue-specific fashion. SERM specificity involves tissue-specific expression of ER subtypes, differential expression of co-regulatory proteins in various tissues, and varying ER conformational changes induced by ligand binding. To date, the major clinical applications of SERMs are their use in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, the prevention of osteoporosis, and the maintenance of beneficial serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. However, SERMs have also been found to promote adverse effects, including thromboembolic events and, in some cases, carcinogenesis, that have proven to be obstacles in their clinical utility. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of SERM tissue specificity and highlight the therapeutic application of well-known and emergent SERMs.Keywords: selective estrogen receptor modulators, SERMs, estrogen receptors

  17. Predicting Tissue-Specific Enhancers in the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2006-07-01

    Determining how transcriptional regulatory signals areencoded in vertebrate genomes is essential for understanding the originsof multi-cellular complexity; yet the genetic code of vertebrate generegulation remains poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate thiscode, we synergistically combined genome-wide gene expression profiling,vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding siteanalysis to define sequence signatures characteristic of candidatetissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this strategyto microarray-based gene expression profiles from 79 human tissues andidentified 7,187 candidate enhancers that defined their flanking geneexpression, the majority of which were located outside of knownpromoters. We cross-validated this method for its ability to de novopredict tissue-specific gene expression and confirmed its reliability in57 of the 79 available human tissues, with an average precision inenhancer recognition ranging from 32 percent to 63 percent, and asensitivity of 47 percent. We used the sequence signatures identified bythis approach to assign tissue-specific predictions to ~;328,000human-mouse conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. Byoverlapping these genome-wide predictions with a large in vivo dataset ofenhancers validated in transgenic mice, we confirmed our results with a28 percent sensitivity and 50 percent precision. These results indicatethe power of combining complementary genomic datasets as an initialcomputational foray into the global view of tissue-specific generegulation in vertebrates.

  18. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung

    2011-04-30

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  19. Tissue-specificity of proteoglycans expression in different cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suhovskih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteoglycans (PGs are complex glycosylated molecules playing an important role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and signaling. Expression of PGs and their expression pattern change considerably during malignant transformation of mammalian cells and tissues.Objective. The aim of our work was to investigate tissue-specificity of main PGs expression (glypican-1, perlecan, syndecan-1, aggrecan, versican, CSPG4/NG2, brevican, decorin, lumican in normal cells (fibroblasts and normal epithelial prostate cells PNT2 and in different human cancer cell lines (prostate, breast, lung, brain, kidney. Expression patterns of main PGs were determined in these cells using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunocytochemical staining.Results. It was shown that fibroblasts actively expressed PGs, and PNT2 cells had lower (5–6-fold expression levels of a limited set of PG. In different cancer cell lines, overall transcriptional activities of PGs varied up to 10-fold, although their expression patterns had tissue-specific properties (for example, expression of syndecan-1 is more specific for prostate cancer cells, while perlecan is typical for lung cancer cell lines.Conclusions. Along with this, variability of the PG expression patterns in cell lines of the same tissue of origin was shown, suggesting a possible contribution of the variable PGs expression to intratumoural heterogeneity of cancer cells and their potential as perspective biomarker (s for personalised cancer diagnostics.

  20. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-04-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.

  1. Tissue-specific sparse deconvolution for brain CT perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Jiang, Haodi; Huang, Junzhou

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing perfusion maps in low-dose computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for cerebrovascular disease diagnosis is a challenging task, especially for low-contrast tissue categories where infarct core and ischemic penumbra usually occur. Sparse perfusion deconvolution has been recently proposed to effectively improve the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of low-dose perfusion CT by extracting the complementary information from the high-dose perfusion maps to restore the low-dose using a joint spatio-temporal model. However the low-contrast tissue classes where infarct core and ischemic penumbra are likely to occur in cerebral perfusion CT tend to be over-smoothed, leading to loss of essential biomarkers. In this paper, we propose a tissue-specific sparse deconvolution approach to preserve the subtle perfusion information in the low-contrast tissue classes. We first build tissue-specific dictionaries from segmentations of high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning, and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation for block-wise tissue segments on the low-dose CTP data. Extensive validation on clinical datasets of patients with cerebrovascular disease demonstrates the superior performance of our proposed method compared to state-of-art, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy by increasing the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissues in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of neuronal tissue in meat using tissue specific DNA modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed to differentiate between non-muscle tissues such as liver, kidney and heart and that of muscle in meat samples using tissue specific DNA detection. Only muscle tissue is considered meat from the point of view of labelling (Food Labelling [Amendment] (England Regulations 2003 and Quantitative Ingredient Declaration (QUID, and also certain parts of the carcass are prohibited to be used in raw meat products (Meat Products [England] Regulations 2003. Included in the prohibited offal are brain and spinal cord. The described methodology has therefore been developed primarily to enforce labelling rules but also to contribute to the enforcement of BSE legislation on the detection of Central Nervous System (CNS tissue. The latter requires the removal of Specified Risk Material (SRM, such as bovine and ovine brain and spinal cord, from the food chain. Current methodologies for detection of CNS tissue include histological examination, analysis of cholesterol content and immunodetection. These can potentially be time consuming, less applicable to processed samples and may not be readily adapted to high throughput sample analysis. The objective of this work was therefore to develop a DNAbased detection assay that exploits the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and is potentially applicable to more highly processed food samples. For neuronal tissue, the DNA target selected was the promoter for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP, a gene whose expression is restricted to astroglial cells within CNS tissue. The promoter fragments from both cattle and sheep have been isolated and key differences in the methylation patterns of certain CpG dinucleotides in the sequences from bovine and sheep brain and spinal cord and the corresponding skeletal muscle identified. These have been used to design a PCR assay exploiting Methylation Specific PCR (MSP to specifically amplify the neuronal tissue derived sequence and therefore identify the

  3. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  4. Tissue specific metal characterization of selected fish species in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mukhtiar; Ahmad, Taufiq; Liaquat, Muhammad; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz; Farid, Ibrahim Bayoumi Abdel; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Concentration of various metals, i.e., zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and silver (Ag), was evaluated in five indigenous fish species (namely, silver carp, common carp, mahseer, thela fish, and rainbow trout), by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It is proved from this study that, overall, mahseer and rainbow trout had high amount of zinc, whereas thela fish and silver carp had high concentration of copper, chromium, silver, nickel, and lead, while common carp had highest amount of iron contents. Furthermore, a tissue-specific discrimination among various fish species was observed, where higher metal concentrations were noticed in fish liver, with decreasing concentration in other organs like skin, gills, and finally the least contents in fish muscle. Multivariate data analysis showed not only a variation in heavy metals among the tissues but also discrimination among the selected fish species.

  5. Dualism of gene GC content and CpG pattern in regard to expression in the human genome: magnitude versus breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I show that, in the human genome, the GC content in genes (but not the CpG island in the promoter) is related to the maximum level of gene expression among tissues, whereas the promoter CpG island and gene CpG level are more strongly related to the breadth of expression among tissues. The relevance of gene GC content to expression cannot be a consequence (i.e. a byproduct) of transcription because it does not correlate with expression in the germline. The variation of GC content and CpG level can determine the characteristics of gene expression in a synergistic interplay with transcription-factor-binding sites (mediated by chromatin condensation).

  6. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone.

  7. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  8. Tissue-Specific Posttranslational Modification Allows Functional Targeting of Thyrotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ikegami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin is a glycoprotein secreted from the pituitary gland. Pars distalis-derived TSH (PD-TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (THs, whereas pars tuberalis-derived TSH (PT-TSH acts on the hypothalamus to regulate seasonal physiology and behavior. However, it had not been clear how these two TSHs avoid functional crosstalk. Here, we show that this regulation is mediated by tissue-specific glycosylation. Although PT-TSH is released into the circulation, it does not stimulate the thyroid gland. PD-TSH is known to have sulfated biantennary N-glycans, and sulfated TSH is rapidly metabolized in the liver. In contrast, PT-TSH has sialylated multibranched N-glycans; in the circulation, it forms the macro-TSH complex with immunoglobulin or albumin, resulting in the loss of its bioactivity. Glycosylation is fundamental to a wide range of biological processes. This report demonstrates its involvement in preventing functional crosstalk of signaling molecules in the body.

  9. Tissue-specific transcriptomics in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Veltsos, Paris; Tan, Yew-Foon; Millar, A Harvey; Ritchie, Michael G; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-02-01

    Field crickets (family Gryllidae) frequently are used in studies of behavioral genetics, sexual selection, and sexual conflict, but there have been no studies of transcriptomic differences among different tissue types. We evaluated transcriptome variation among testis, accessory gland, and the remaining whole-body preparations from males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. Non-normalized cDNA libraries from each tissue were sequenced on the Roche 454 platform, and a master assembly was constructed using testis, accessory gland, and whole-body preparations. A total of 940,200 reads were assembled into 41,962 contigs, to which 36,856 singletons (reads not assembled into a contig) were added to provide a total of 78,818 sequences used in annotation analysis. A total of 59,072 sequences (75%) were unique to one of the three tissues. Testis tissue had the greatest proportion of tissue-specific sequences (62.6%), followed by general body (56.43%) and accessory gland tissue (44.16%). We tested the hypothesis that tissues expressing gene products expected to evolve rapidly as a result of sexual selection--testis and accessory gland--would yield a smaller proportion of BLASTx matches to homologous genes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster compared with whole-body tissue. Uniquely expressed sequences in both testis and accessory gland showed a significantly lower rate of matching to annotated D. melanogaster genes compared with those from general body tissue. These results correspond with empirical evidence that genes expressed in testis and accessory gland tissue are rapidly evolving targets of selection.

  10. Tissue-Specificity of Gene Expression Diverges Slowly between Orthologs, and Rapidly between Paralogs.

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    Nadezda Kryuchkova-Mostacci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ortholog conjecture implies that functional similarity between orthologous genes is higher than between paralogs. It has been supported using levels of expression and Gene Ontology term analysis, although the evidence was rather weak and there were also conflicting reports. In this study on 12 species we provide strong evidence of high conservation in tissue-specificity between orthologs, in contrast to low conservation between within-species paralogs. This allows us to shed a new light on the evolution of gene expression patterns. While there have been several studies of the correlation of expression between species, little is known about the evolution of tissue-specificity itself. Ortholog tissue-specificity is strongly conserved between all tetrapod species, with the lowest Pearson correlation between mouse and frog at r = 0.66. Tissue-specificity correlation decreases strongly with divergence time. Paralogs in human show much lower conservation, even for recent Primate-specific paralogs. When both paralogs from ancient whole genome duplication tissue-specific paralogs are tissue-specific, it is often to different tissues, while other tissue-specific paralogs are mostly specific to the same tissue. The same patterns are observed using human or mouse as focal species, and are robust to choices of datasets and of thresholds. Our results support the following model of evolution: in the absence of duplication, tissue-specificity evolves slowly, and tissue-specific genes do not change their main tissue of expression; after small-scale duplication the less expressed paralog loses the ancestral specificity, leading to an immediate difference between paralogs; over time, both paralogs become more broadly expressed, but remain poorly correlated. Finally, there is a small number of paralog pairs which stay tissue-specific with the same main tissue of expression, for at least 300 million years.

  11. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  12. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

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    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  13. Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes differ in simple sequence repeats in the 5'-UTR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2008-01-15

    SSRs (simple sequence repeats) have been shown to have a variety of effects on an organism. In this study, we compared SSRs in housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in human and mouse, in terms of SSR types and distributions in different regions including 5'-UTRs, introns, coding exons, 3'-UTRs, and upstream regions. Among all these regions, SSRs in the 5'-UTR show the most distinction between housekeeping genes and tissue-specific genes in both densities and repeat types. Specifically, SSR densities in 5'-UTRs in housekeeping genes are about 1.7 times higher than those in tissue-specific genes, in contrast to the 0.8-1.2 times differences between the two classes of genes in other regions. Tri-SSRs in 5'-UTRs of housekeeping genes are more GC rich than those of tissue-specific genes and CGG, the dominant type of tri-SSR in 5'-UTR, accounts for 74-79% of the tri-SSRs in housekeeping genes, as compared to 42-57% in tissue-specific genes. 75% of the tri-SSRs in the 5'-UTR of housekeeping genes have 4-5 repeat units, versus the 86-90% in tissue-specific genes. Taken together, our results suggest that SSRs may have an effect on gene expression and may play an important role in contributing to the different expression profiles between housekeeping and tissue-specific genes.

  14. Tissue-specific RNA expression marks distant-acting developmental enhancers.

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    Han Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short non-coding transcripts can be transcribed from distant-acting transcriptional enhancer loci, but the prevalence of such enhancer RNAs (eRNAs within the transcriptome, and the association of eRNA expression with tissue-specific enhancer activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression dynamics of tissue-specific non-coding RNAs in embryonic mouse tissues via deep RNA sequencing. Overall, approximately 80% of validated in vivo enhancers show tissue-specific RNA expression that correlates with tissue-specific enhancer activity. Globally, we identified thousands of tissue-specifically transcribed non-coding regions (TSTRs displaying various genomic hallmarks of bona fide enhancers. In transgenic mouse reporter assays, over half of tested TSTRs functioned as enhancers with reproducible activity in the predicted tissue. Together, our results demonstrate that tissue-specific eRNA expression is a common feature of in vivo enhancers, as well as a major source of extragenic transcription, and that eRNA expression signatures can be used to predict tissue-specific enhancers independent of known epigenomic enhancer marks.

  15. Epigenomic footprints across 111 reference epigenomes reveal tissue-specific epigenetic regulation of lincRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Viren; Harris, R. Alan; Onuchic, Vitor; Jackson, Andrew R.; Charnecki, Tim; Paithankar, Sameer; Lakshmi Subramanian, Sai; Riehle, Kevin; Coarfa, Cristian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-specific expression of lincRNAs suggests developmental and cell-type-specific functions, yet tissue specificity was established for only a small fraction of lincRNAs. Here, by analysing 111 reference epigenomes from the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics project, we determine tissue-specific epigenetic regulation for 3,753 (69% examined) lincRNAs, with 54% active in one of the 14 cell/tissue clusters and an additional 15% in two or three clusters. A larger fraction of lincRNA TSSs is marked in a tissue-specific manner by H3K4me1 than by H3K4me3. The tissue-specific lincRNAs are strongly linked to tissue-specific pathways and undergo distinct chromatin state transitions during cellular differentiation. Polycomb-regulated lincRNAs reside in the bivalent state in embryonic stem cells and many of them undergo H3K27me3-mediated silencing at early stages of differentiation. The exquisitely tissue-specific epigenetic regulation of lincRNAs and the assignment of a majority of them to specific tissue types will inform future studies of this newly discovered class of genes. PMID:25691256

  16. Functional Enhancers As Master Regulators of Tissue-Specific Gene Regulation and Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Je Yeong; Oh, Sumin; Yoo, Kyung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-specific transcription is critical for normal development, and abnormalities causing undesirable gene expression may lead to diseases such as cancer. Such highly organized transcription is controlled by enhancers with specific DNA sequences recognized by transcription factors. Enhancers are associated with chromatin modifications that are distinct epigenetic features in a tissue-specific manner. Recently, super-enhancers comprising enhancer clusters co-occupied by lineage-specific factors have been identified in diverse cell types such as adipocytes, hair follicle stem cells, and mammary epithelial cells. In addition, noncoding RNAs, named eRNAs, are synthesized at super-enhancer regions before their target genes are transcribed. Many functional studies revealed that super-enhancers and eRNAs are essential for the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning enhancer function in tissue-specific gene regulation and cancer development. PMID:28359147

  17. TiGER: a database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yu, Xueping; Zack, Donald J; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2008-06-09

    Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation). The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM) detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  18. TiGER: A database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Donald J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. Results The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation. The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. Conclusion We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  19. Characterization of regulatory features of housekeeping and tissue-specific regulators within tissue regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengping; Hua, Xu; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jie; Wang, Jin

    2013-10-31

    Transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs are essential for the regulation of gene expression; however, the global view of human gene regulatory networks remains poorly understood. For example, how is the expression of so many genes regulated by limited cohorts of regulators and how are genes differentially expressed in different tissues despite the genetic code being the same in all tissues? We analyzed the network properties of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in gene regulatory networks from seven human tissues. Our results show that different classes of genes behave quite differently in these networks. Tissue-specific miRNAs show a higher average target number compared with non-tissue specific miRNAs, which indicates that tissue-specific miRNAs tend to regulate different sets of targets. Tissue-specific TFs exhibit higher in-degree, out-degree, cluster coefficient and betweenness values, indicating that they occupy central positions in the regulatory network and that they transfer genetic information from upstream genes to downstream genes more quickly than other TFs. Housekeeping TFs tend to have higher cluster coefficients compared with other genes that are neither housekeeping nor tissue specific, indicating that housekeeping TFs tend to regulate their targets synergistically. Several topological properties of disease-associated miRNAs and genes were found to be significantly different from those of non-disease-associated miRNAs and genes. Tissue-specific miRNAs, TFs and disease genes have particular topological properties within the transcriptional regulatory networks of the seven human tissues examined. The tendency of tissue-specific miRNAs to regulate different sets of genes shows that a particular tissue-specific miRNA and its target gene set may form a regulatory module to execute particular functions in the process of tissue differentiation. The regulatory patterns of tissue-specific TFs reflect their vital role in regulatory networks and their

  20. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-06

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive functional analysis of tissue specificity of human gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryanov Alexey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping' genes. We have performed a functional and topological analysis of housekeeping and tissue-specific networks to identify universally necessary biological processes, and those unique to or characteristic of particular tissues. Results We measured whole genome expression in 31 human tissues, identifying 2374 housekeeping genes expressed in all tissues, and genes uniquely expressed in each tissue. Comprehensive functional analysis showed that the housekeeping set is substantially larger than previously thought, and is enriched with vital processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, translation and energy metabolism. Network topology of the housekeeping network was characterized by higher connectivity and shorter paths between the proteins than the global network. Ontology enrichment scoring and network topology of tissue-specific genes were consistent with each tissue's function and expression patterns clustered together in accordance with tissue origin. Tissue-specific genes were twice as likely as housekeeping genes to be drug targets, allowing the identification of tissue 'signature networks' that will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers of tissue-targeted diseases. Conclusion A comprehensive functional analysis of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes showed that the biological function of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes was consistent with tissue origin. Network analysis revealed that tissue-specific networks have distinct network properties related to each tissue's function. Tissue 'signature networks' promise to be a rich source of targets and biomarkers for disease treatment and diagnosis.

  2. Prediction of tissue-specific cis-regulatory modules using Bayesian networks and regression trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoyu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, a large part of gene transcriptional regulation is operated by cis-regulatory modules. These modules are believed to be regulating much of the tissue-specificity of gene expression. Results We develop a Bayesian network approach for identifying cis-regulatory modules likely to regulate tissue-specific expression. The network integrates predicted transcription factor binding site information, transcription factor expression data, and target gene expression data. At its core is a regression tree modeling the effect of combinations of transcription factors bound to a module. A new unsupervised EM-like algorithm is developed to learn the parameters of the network, including the regression tree structure. Conclusion Our approach is shown to accurately identify known human liver and erythroid-specific modules. When applied to the prediction of tissue-specific modules in 10 different tissues, the network predicts a number of important transcription factor combinations whose concerted binding is associated to specific expression.

  3. Strengths and weaknesses of EST-based prediction of tissue-specific alternative splicing

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    Vingron Martin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing contributes significantly to the complexity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms are usually based on EST sequences that also allow to approximate the expression pattern of the related transcripts. However, the limited number of tissues represented in the EST data as well as the different cDNA construction protocols may influence the predictive capacity of ESTs to unravel tissue-specifically expressed transcripts. Methods We predict tissue and tumor specific splice isoforms based on the genomic mapping (SpliceNest of the EST consensus sequences and library annotation provided in the GeneNest database. We further ascertain the potentially rare tissue specific transcripts as the ones represented only by ESTs derived from normalized libraries. A subset of the predicted tissue and tumor specific isoforms are then validated via RT-PCR experiments over a spectrum of 40 tissue types. Results Our strategy revealed 427 genes with at least one tissue specific transcript as well as 1120 genes showing tumor specific isoforms. While our experimental evaluation of computationally predicted tissue-specific isoforms revealed a high success rate in confirming the expression of these isoforms in the respective tissue, the strategy frequently failed to detect the expected restricted expression pattern. The analysis of putative lowly expressed transcripts using normalized cDNA libraries suggests that our ability to detect tissue-specific isoforms strongly depends on the expression level of the respective transcript as well as on the sensitivity of the experimental methods. Especially splice isoforms predicted to be disease-specific tend to represent transcripts that are expressed in a set of healthy tissues rather than novel isoforms. Conclusions We propose to combine the computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms with experimental validation for

  4. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five gen...

  5. Tissue-specific alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis in combined Mct10 and Mct8 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); S. Mayerl (Steffen); T.J. Visser (Theo); V.M. Darras (Veerle); A. Boelen (Anita); L. Frappart (Lucien); L. Mariotta (Luca); F. Verrey; H. Heuer (Heike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe monocarboxylate transporter Mct10 (Slc16a10; T-type amino acid transporter) facilitates the cellular transport of thyroid hormone (TH) and shows an overlapping expression with the wellestablished TH transporter Mct8. Because Mct8 deficiency is associated with distinct tissue-specific

  6. Tissue-specific alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis in combined Mct10 and Mct8 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Julia; Mayerl, Steffen; Visser, Theo J.; Darras, Veerle M.; Boelen, Anita; Frappart, Lucien; Mariotta, Luca; Verrey, Francois; Heuer, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The monocarboxylate transporter Mct10 (Slc16a10; T-type amino acid transporter) facilitates the cellular transport of thyroid hormone (TH) and shows an overlapping expression with the well-established TH transporter Mct8. Because Mct8 deficiency is associated with distinct tissue-specific

  7. Tissue Specific Roles of Dynein Light Chain 1 in Regulating Germ Cell Apoptosis in Ceanorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Tine Hørning

    2015-01-01

    in the etiology of many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Several of the first genes found to regulate apoptosis were discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this project, two different and tissue specific roles of C. elegans dynein light chain 1...

  8. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, B P; Leong, K W

    2008-12-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example.

  9. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle fi...

  10. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  11. CPG Network Optimization for a Biomimetic Robotic Fish via PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junzhi; Wu, Zhengxing; Wang, Ming; Tan, Min

    2016-09-01

    In this brief, we investigate the parameter optimization issue of a central pattern generator (CPG) network governed forward and backward swimming for a fully untethered, multijoint biomimetic robotic fish. Considering that the CPG parameters are tightly linked to the propulsive performance of the robotic fish, we propose a method for determination of relatively optimized control parameters. Within the framework of evolutionary computation, we use a combination of dynamic model and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to seek the CPG characteristic parameters for an enhanced performance. The PSO-based optimization scheme is validated with extensive experiments conducted on the actual robotic fish. Noticeably, the optimized results are shown to be superior to previously reported forward and backward swimming speeds.

  12. CpG Methylation Analysis—Current Status of Clinical Assays and Potential Applications in Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Jones, Dan; Ogino, Shuji; Samowitz, Wade; Gulley, Margaret L.; Edwards, Robin; Levenson, Victor; Pratt, Victoria M.; Yang, Bin; Nafa, Khedoudja; Yan, Liying; Vitazka, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in gene promoter regions is a major molecular mechanism of gene silencing and underlies both cancer development and progression. In molecular oncology, testing for the CpG methylation of tissue DNA has emerged as a clinically useful tool for tumor detection, outcome prediction, and treatment selection, as well as for assessing the efficacy of treatment with the use of demethylating agents and monitoring for tumor recurrence. In addition, because CpG methylation occurs early in pre-neoplastic tissues, methylation tests may be useful as markers of cancer risk in patients with either infectious or inflammatory conditions. The Methylation Working Group of the Clinical Practice Committee of the Association of Molecular Pathology has reviewed the current state of clinical testing in this area. We report here our summary of both the advantages and disadvantages of various methods, as well as the needs for standardization and reporting. We then conclude by summarizing the most promising areas for future clinical testing in cancer molecular diagnostics. PMID:19541921

  13. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  14. Tissue-Specific Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Expression and Metabolic Effects of Telmisartan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2013), s. 829-835 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : telmisartan * metabolic effects * tissue-specific Pparg knockout mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.402, year: 2013

  15. Pyrosequencing data reveals tissue-specific expression of lineage-specific transcripts in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a very important crop legume plant, which provides a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets and has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Despite its economic importance, the functional genomic resources for chickpea are very limited. Recently, we reported the complete transcriptome of chickpea using next generation sequencing technologies. We analyzed the tissue-specific expression of chickpea transcripts based on RNA-seq data. In addition, we identified two sets of lin...

  16. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  17. Tantalus, a novel ASX-interacting protein with tissue-specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, B H; Moore, J; Kyba, M; dosSantos, G; McCloskey, F; Milne, T A; Brock, H W; Krause, H M

    2001-06-15

    The Drosophila trithorax- and Polycomb-group (trxG and PcG) proteins maintain activated and repressed transcriptional states at specific target gene loci. The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene is of particular interest as it appears to function in both protein complexes and yet its effects on target genes are more restricted. A novel protein, Tantalus (TAN), was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for ASX-interacting proteins that might confer tissue-specific ASX functions. TAN contains consensus nuclear localization sites and binds DNA in vitro. However, its subcellular localization varies in a tissue-specific fashion. In salivary glands, TAN is predominantly nuclear and associates with 66 euchromatic sites on polytene chromosomes, more than half of which overlap with ASX. These loci do not include the homeotic genes of the ANT and BX complexes bound by other PcG and trxG proteins. Rather, tan mutant defects are restricted to sensory organs. We show that one of these defects, shared by Asx, is genetically enhanced by Asx. Taken together, the data suggest that TAN is a tissue-specific cofactor for ASX, and that its activity may be partially controlled by subcellular trafficking. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and evolutionary analysis of tissue-specific isoforms of mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFV3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Huynen, Martijn A; Arnold, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the largest respiratory chain complex. Despite the enormous progress made studying its structure and function in recent years, potential regulatory roles of its accessory subunits remained largely unresolved. Complex I gene NDUFV3, which occurs in metazoa, contains an extra exon that is only present in vertebrates and thereby evolutionary even younger than the rest of the gene. Alternative splicing of this extra exon gives rise to a short NDUFV3-S and a long NDUFV3-L protein isoform. Complexome profiling revealed that the two NDUFV3 isoforms are constituents of the multi-subunit complex I. Further mass spectrometric analyses of complex I from different murine and bovine tissues showed a tissue-specific expression pattern of NDUFV3-S and NDUFV3-L. Hence, NDUFV3-S was identified as the only isoform in heart and skeletal muscle, whereas in liver, brain, and lung NDUFV3-L was expressed as the dominant isoform, together with NDUFV3-S present in all tissues analyzed. Thus, we identified NDUFV3 as the first out of 30 accessory subunits of complex I present in vertebrate- and tissue-specific isoforms. Interestingly, the tissue-specific expression pattern of NDUFV3-S and NDUFV3-L isoforms was paralleled by changes in kinetic parameters, especially the substrate affinity of complex I. This may indicate a regulatory role of the NDUFV3 isoforms in different vertebrate tissues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue-specific and ubiquitous expression patterns from alternative promoters of human genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jacox

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome diversity provides the key to cellular identity. One important contribution to expression diversity is the use of alternative promoters, which creates mRNA isoforms by expanding the choice of transcription initiation sites of a gene. The proximity of the basal promoter to the transcription initiation site enables prediction of a promoter's location based on the gene annotations. We show that annotation of alternative promoters regulating expression of transcripts with distinct first exons enables a novel methodology to quantify expression levels and tissue specificity of mRNA isoforms.The use of distinct alternative first exons in 3,296 genes was examined using exon-microarray data from 11 human tissues. Comparing two transcripts from each gene we found that the activity of alternative promoters (i.e., P1 and P2 was not correlated through tissue specificity or level of expression. Furthermore neither P1 nor P2 conferred any bias for tissue-specific or ubiquitous expression. Genes associated with specific diseases produced transcripts whose limited expression patterns were consistent with the tissue affected in disease. Notably, genes that were historically designated as tissue-specific or housekeeping had alternative isoforms that showed differential expression. Furthermore, only a small number of alternative promoters showed expression exclusive to a single tissue indicating that "tissue preference" provides a better description of promoter activity than tissue specificity. When compared to gene expression data in public databases, as few as 22% of the genes had detailed information for more than one isoform, whereas the remainder collapsed the expression patterns from individual transcripts into one profile.We describe a computational pipeline that uses microarray data to assess the level of expression and breadth of tissue profiles for transcripts with distinct first exons regulated by alternative promoters. We conclude that

  2. Differential selective constraints shaping codon usage pattern of housekeeping and tissue-specific homologous genes of rice and arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Basak, Surajit; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2008-12-01

    Intra-genomic variation between housekeeping and tissue-specific genes has always been a study of interest in higher eukaryotes. To-date, however, no such investigation has been done in plants. Availability of whole genome expression data for both rice and Arabidopsis has made it possible to examine the evolutionary forces in shaping codon usage pattern in both housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in plants. In the present work, we have taken 4065 rice-Arabidopsis homologous gene pairs to study evolutionary forces responsible for codon usage divergence between housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. In both rice and Arabidopsis, it is mutational bias that regulates error minimization in highly expressed genes of both housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Our results show that, in comparison to tissue-specific genes, housekeeping genes are under strong selective constraint in plants. However, in tissue-specific genes, lowly expressed genes are under stronger selective constraint compared with highly expressed genes. We demonstrated that constraint acting on mRNA secondary structure is responsible for modulating codon usage variations in rice tissue-specific genes. Thus, different evolutionary forces must underline the evolution of synonymous codon usage of highly expressed genes of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in rice and Arabidopsis.

  3. Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Werman, Roni; Neiman, Daniel; Zemmour, Hai; Moss, Joshua; Magenheim, Judith; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Rubertsson, Sten; Nellgård, Bengt; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty; Haller, Michael J; Wasserfall, Clive H; Schatz, Desmond A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Markus; Zick, Aviad; Hubert, Ayala; Maoz, Myriam; Fendrich, Volker; Bartsch, Detlef K; Golan, Talia; Ben Sasson, Shmuel A; Zamir, Gideon; Razin, Aharon; Cedar, Howard; Shapiro, A M James; Glaser, Benjamin; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval

    2016-03-29

    Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods rely on differences in DNA sequences in source tissues, so that cell death cannot be identified in tissues with a normal genome. We developed a method of detecting tissue-specific cell death in humans based on tissue-specific methylation patterns in cfDNA. We interrogated tissue-specific methylome databases to identify cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures and developed a method to detect these signatures in mixed DNA samples. We isolated cfDNA from plasma or serum of donors, treated the cfDNA with bisulfite, PCR-amplified the cfDNA, and sequenced it to quantify cfDNA carrying the methylation markers of the cell type of interest. Pancreatic β-cell DNA was identified in the circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes and islet-graft recipients; oligodendrocyte DNA was identified in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis; neuronal/glial DNA was identified in patients after traumatic brain injury or cardiac arrest; and exocrine pancreas DNA was identified in patients with pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the tissue origins of cfDNA and thus the rate of death of specific cell types can be determined in humans. The approach can be adapted to identify cfDNA derived from any cell type in the body, offering a minimally invasive window for diagnosing and monitoring a broad spectrum of human pathologies as well as providing a better understanding of normal tissue dynamics.

  4. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Multiple Responses to Salt Stress in Populus euphratica Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the most crucial factors impacting plant growth, development and reproduction. However, information regarding differences in tissue-specific gene expression patterns, which may improve a plant’s tolerance to salt stress, is limited. Here, we investigated the gene expression patterns in tissues of Populus euphratica Oliv. seedlings using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 109.3 million, 125bp paired-end clean reads were generated, and 6428, 4797, 2335 and 3358 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in leaf, phloem, xylem and root tissues, respectively. While the tissue-specific DEGs under salt stress had diverse functions, “membrane transporter activity” was the most significant leaf function, whereas “oxidation–reduction process” was the most significant function in root tissue. Further analysis of the tissue-specific DEGs showed that the expression patterns or functions of gene families, such as SOS, NHX, GolS, GPX, APX, RBOHF and CBL, were diverse, suggesting that calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS and salt overly sensitive (SOS pathways are all involved in ionic homeostasis in tissues from P. euphratica seedlings. The DEGs, for example the up-regulated antioxidant genes, contribute to ROS-scavenging induced by salt stress but result in decreased Na+ concentrations in root vasculature cells and in xylem sap, while the down-regulated rbohF leads to the reverse results. These results suggest that the divergence of DEGs expression patterns contribute to maintenance of ionic and ROS homeostasis in tissues and improve plant salinity tolerance. We comprehensively analyzed the response of P. euphratica seedlings to salt stress and provide helpful genetic resources for studying plant-abiotic stress interactions.

  5. CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2016-12-29

    DNA methylation is involved in regulation of gene expression. Although modern methods profile DNA methylation at single CpG sites, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream analyses. In this study we demonstrate that single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression compared to average promoter / gene body methylation. CpG positions with significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby (named CpG traffic lights) are evolutionary conserved and enriched for exact TSS positions and active enhancers. Among all promoter types, CpG traffic lights are especially enriched in poised promoters. Genes that harbor CpG traffic lights are associated with development and signal transduction. Methylation levels of individual CpG traffic lights vary between cell types dramatically with the increased frequency of intermediate methylation levels, indicating cell population heterogeneity in CpG methylation levels. Being in line with the concept of the inherited stochastic epigenetic variation, methylation of such CpG positions might contribute to transcriptional regulation. Alternatively, one can hypothesize that traffic lights are markers of absent gene expression resulting from inactivation of their regulatory elements. The CpG traffic lights provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to expression.

  6. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  7. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Carroll

    Full Text Available The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington's Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue, using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219 in the striatum to 12% (25/212 in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219 of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224 in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and

  8. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...

  9. De novo assembly and analysis of tissue-specific transcriptomes revealed the tissue-specific genes and profile of immunity from Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadong; Chang, Yaqing; Wang, Xiuli; Qiu, Xuemei; Liu, Yang

    2015-10-01

    Strongylocentrotus intermedius is an important marine species in north China and Japan. Recent years, diseases are threating the sea urchin aquaculture industry seriously. To provide a genetic resource for S. intermedius as well as overview the immune-related genes of S. intermedius, we performed transcriptome sequencing of three cDNA libraries representing three tissues, coelomocytes, gut and peristomial membrane respectively. In total 138,421 contigs were assembled from all sequencing data. 96,764 contigs were annotated according to bioinformatics databases, including NT, nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG. 49,336 Contigs were annotated as CDS. In this study, we obtained 24,778 gene families from S. intermedius transcriptome. The gene expression analysis revealed that more genes were expressed in gut, more high expression level genes in coelomocytes when compared with other tissues. Specific expressed contigs in coelomocytes, gut, and peristomial membrane were 546, 1136, and 1012 respectively. Pathway analysis suggested 25, 17 and 36 potential specifically pathways may specific progressed in peristomial membrane, gut and coelomocytes respectively. Similarities and differences between S. intermedius and other echinoderms were analyzed. S. intermedius was more homology to Strongylocentrotus purpuratus than others sea urchin. Of 24,778 genes, 1074 genes are immune-related, immune genes were expressed with a higher level in coelomocytes than other tissues. Complement system may be the most important immune system in sea urchin. We also identified 2438 SSRs and 16,236 SNPs for S. intermedius. These results provide a transcriptome resource and foundation to study molecular mechanisms of sea urchin immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collaborations between CpG sites in DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You; Ren, Honglei; Lei, Jinzhi

    2017-08-01

    DNA methylation patterns have profound impacts on genome stability, gene expression and development. The molecular base of DNA methylation patterns has long been focused at single CpG sites level. Here, we construct a kinetic model of DNA methylation with collaborations between CpG sites, from which a correlation function was established based on experimental data. The function consists of three parts that suggest three possible sources of the correlation: movement of enzymes along DNA, collaboration between DNA methylation and nucleosome modification, and global enzyme concentrations within a cell. Moreover, the collaboration strength between DNA methylation and nucleosome modification is universal for mouse early embryo cells. The obtained correlation function provides insightful understanding for the mechanisms of inheritance of DNA methylation patterns.

  11. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, Jana; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Gondois-Rey, F.; Halfon, P.; Philibert, P.; Guiguen, A.; Verdin, E.; Olive, D.; Van Lint, C.; Hejnar, Jiří; Hirsch, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2009), e1000554-e1000554 E-ISSN 1553-7374 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0939; GA ČR GP204/08/P616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 * proviral latency * CpG methylation * histone modifications * HAART * epigenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.978, year: 2009

  12. Hypoxia-induced modulation of the respiratory CPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Syed, Naweed I

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of the neural control of breathing, the precise cellular, synaptic, and molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and modulation of respiratory rhythm remain largely unknown. This lack of fundamental knowledge in the field of neural control of respiration is likely due to the complexity of the mammalian brain where synaptic connectivity between central respiratory neurons, motor neurons and their peripheral counterparts cannot be mapped reliably. We have therefore developed an invertebrate model system wherein the essential elements of the central pattern generator (CPG), the motor neurons and the peripheral chemosensory cells involved in respiratory control have been worked out both in vivo and in vitro. We discuss our recent identification of peripheral, hypoxia sensitive chemoreceptor elements in a sensory organ of the pulmonate freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, which provide an excitatory drive to the respiratory CPG neuron RPeD1 via direct chemical synaptic connections. Further studies using this unique invertebrate model system may reveal highly conserved principles of CPG neuromodulation that will remain relevant to more complex mammalian systems.

  13. Tissue-specific splicing of a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor is essential for muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Soji; Faralli, Hervé; Yao, Zizhen; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Palii, Carmen; Cao, Yi; Singh, Kulwant; Liu, Qi-Cai; Chu, Alphonse; Aziz, Arif; Brand, Marjorie; Tapscott, Stephen J; Dilworth, F Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Alternate splicing contributes extensively to cellular complexity by generating protein isoforms with divergent functions. However, the role of alternate isoforms in development remains poorly understood. Mef2 transcription factors are essential transducers of cell signaling that modulate differentiation of many cell types. Among Mef2 family members, Mef2D is unique, as it undergoes tissue-specific splicing to generate a muscle-specific isoform. Since the ubiquitously expressed (Mef2Dα1) and muscle-specific (Mef2Dα2) isoforms of Mef2D are both expressed in muscle, we examined the relative contribution of each Mef2D isoform to differentiation. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrate that Mef2D isoforms act antagonistically to modulate differentiation. While chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing analysis shows that the Mef2D isoforms bind an overlapping set of genes, only Mef2Dα2 activates late muscle transcription. Mechanistically, the differential ability of Mef2D isoforms to activate transcription depends on their susceptibility to phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). Phosphorylation of Mef2Dα1 by PKA provokes its association with corepressors. Conversely, exon switching allows Mef2Dα2 to escape this inhibitory phosphorylation, permitting recruitment of Ash2L for transactivation of muscle genes. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism in which a tissue-specific alternate splicing event has evolved that permits a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor to escape inhibitory signaling for temporal regulation of gene expression.

  14. The Prolactin Gene: A Paradigm of Tissue-Specific Gene Regulation with Complex Temporal Transcription Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, K; White, M R H; Davis, J R E

    2012-01-01

    Transcription of numerous mammalian genes is highly pulsatile, with bursts of expression occurring with variable duration and frequency. The presence of this stochastic or ‘noisy’ expression pattern has been relatively unexplored in tissue systems. The prolactin gene provides a model of tissue-specific gene regulation resulting in pulsatile transcription dynamics in both cell lines and endocrine tissues. In most cell culture models, prolactin transcription appears to be highly variable between cells, with differences in transcription pulse duration and frequency. This apparently stochastic transcription is constrained by a transcriptional refractory period, which may be related to cycles of chromatin remodelling. We propose that prolactin transcription dynamics result from the summation of oscillatory cellular inputs and by regulation through chromatin remodelling cycles. Observations of transcription dynamics in cells within pituitary tissue show reduced transcriptional heterogeneity and can be grouped into a small number of distinct patterns. Thus, it appears that the tissue environment is able to reduce transcriptional noise to enable coordinated tissue responses to environmental change. We review the current knowledge on the complex tissue-specific regulation of the prolactin gene in pituitary and extra-pituitary sites, highlighting differences between humans and rodent experimental animal models. Within this context, we describe the transcription dynamics of prolactin gene expression and how this may relate to specific processes occurring within the cell. PMID:22420298

  15. Obesity-induces Organ and Tissue Specific Tight Junction Restructuring and Barrier Deregulation by Claudin Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Rah, Bilal; Bastola, Dhundy; Dhawan, Punita; Singh, Amar B

    2017-07-11

    Obesity increases susceptibility to multiple organ disorders, however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The subclinical inflammation assisted by obesity-induced gut permeability may underlie obesity-associated co-morbidities. Despite eminent clinical significance of the obesity led gut barrier abnormalities, its precise molecular regulation remains unclear. It is also unknown whether barrier deregulations, similar to the gut, characterize other vital organs in obese individuals. The claudin family of proteins is integral to the tight junction (TJ), the apical cell-cell adhesion and a key regulator of the epithelial barrier. Using comprehensive physiological and biochemical analysis of intestinal and renal tissues from high-fat diet fed mice, critical for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, this study demonstrates that profound TJ-restructuring by organ and tissue-specific claudin switching characterize obese organs. Protein expression and cellular distribution were examined. In-silico analysis further highlighted potential association of select claudins, modulated by the obesity, with signaling and metabolic pathways of pathological significance. In vitro studies using Leptin or DCA-treatment suggested causal significance of obesity-induced changes in tissue microenvironment in regulating barrier deregulations in tissue-specific manner. Overall, current findings advances our understanding of the molecular undertakings of obesity associated changes that help predispose to specific diseases and also identifies novel windows of preventive and/or therapeutic interventions.

  16. Model of Tryptophan Metabolism, Readily Scalable Using Tissue-specific Gene Expression Data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Heiland, Ines; Schuster, Stefan; Puntervoll, Pål; Ziegler, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan is utilized in various metabolic routes including protein synthesis, serotonin, and melatonin synthesis and the kynurenine pathway. Perturbations in these pathways have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Here we present a comprehensive kinetic model of the complex network of human tryptophan metabolism based upon existing kinetic data for all enzymatic conversions and transporters. By integrating tissue-specific expression data, modeling tryptophan metabolism in liver and brain returned intermediate metabolite concentrations in the physiological range. Sensitivity and metabolic control analyses identified expected key enzymes to govern fluxes in the branches of the network. Combining tissue-specific models revealed a considerable impact of the kynurenine pathway in liver on the concentrations of neuroactive derivatives in the brain. Moreover, using expression data from a cancer study predicted metabolite changes that resembled the experimental observations. We conclude that the combination of the kinetic model with expression data represents a powerful diagnostic tool to predict alterations in tryptophan metabolism. The model is readily scalable to include more tissues, thereby enabling assessment of organismal tryptophan metabolism in health and disease. PMID:24129579

  17. Rice tissue-specific promoters and condition-dependent promoters for effective translational application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple food crops for more than half of the world's population. The demand is increasing for food security because of population growth and environmental challenges triggered by climate changes. This scenario has led to more interest in developing crops with greater productivity and sustainability. The process of genetic transformation, a major tool for crop improvement, utilizes promoters as one of its key elements. Those promoters are generally divided into three types: constitutive, spatiotemporal, and condition-dependent. Transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter often leads to reduced plant growth, due to a negative effect of accumulated molecules during cellular functions or energy consumption. To maximize the effect of a transgene on transgenic plants, it is better to use condition-dependent or tissue-specific promoters. However, until now, those types have not been as widely applied in crop biotechnology. In this review, we introduce and discuss four groups of tissue-specific promoters (50 promoters in total) and six groups of condition-dependent promoters (27 promoters). These promoters can be utilized to fine-tune desirable agronomic traits and develop crops with tolerance to various stresses, enhanced nutritional value, and advanced productivity. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Glucocorticoid Signaling in Health and Disease: Insights From Tissue-Specific GR Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whirledge, Shannon; DeFranco, Donald B

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are adrenally produced hormones critically involved in development, general physiology, and control of inflammation. Since their discovery, glucocorticoids have been widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, high doses or prolonged use leads to a number of side effects throughout the body, which preclude their clinical utility. The primary actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that regulates many complex signaling pathways. Although GR is nearly ubiquitous throughout the body, glucocorticoids exhibit cell- and tissue-specific effects. For example, glucocorticoids stimulate glucose production in the liver, reduce glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, and decrease insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells. Mouse models represent an important approach to understanding the dynamic functions of GR signaling in normal physiology, disease, and resistance. In the absence of a viable GR null model, gene-targeting techniques utilizing promoter-driven recombination have provided an opportunity to characterize the tissue-specific actions of GR. The aim of the present review is to describe the organ systems in which GR has been conditionally deleted and summarize the functions ascribed to glucocorticoid action in those tissues. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  19. Tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming drives nutrient flux in diabetic complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Kelli M.; Kayampilly, Pradeep; Byun, Jaeman; Nair, Viji; Hinder, Lucy M.; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Chengmao; Qi, Nathan R.; Michailidis, George; Groop, Per-Henrik; Nelson, Robert G.; Darshi, Manjula; Sharma, Kumar; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Weinberg, Joel M.; Soleimanpour, Scott A.; Abcouwer, Steven F.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Burant, Charles F.; Feldman, Eva L.; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with altered cellular metabolism, but how altered metabolism contributes to the development of diabetic complications is unknown. We used the BKS db/db diabetic mouse model to investigate changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in kidney cortex, peripheral nerve, and retina. A systems approach using transcriptomics, metabolomics, and metabolic flux analysis identified tissue-specific differences, with increased glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the kidney, a moderate increase in the retina, and a decrease in the nerve. In the kidney, increased metabolism was associated with enhanced protein acetylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. To confirm these findings in human disease, we analyzed diabetic kidney transcriptomic data and urinary metabolites from a cohort of Southwestern American Indians. The urinary findings were replicated in 2 independent patient cohorts, the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy and the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes studies. Increased concentrations of TCA cycle metabolites in urine, but not in plasma, predicted progression of diabetic kidney disease, and there was an enrichment of pathways involved in glycolysis and fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Our findings highlight tissue-specific changes in metabolism in complication-prone tissues in diabetes and suggest that urinary TCA cycle intermediates are potential prognostic biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease progression. PMID:27699244

  20. VISTA Enhancer Browser--A Database of Tissue-Specific HumanEnhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Minovitsky, Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-08-01

    Despite the known existence of distant-acting cis-regulatoryelements in the human genome, only a small fraction of these elements hasbeen identified and experimentally characterized in vivo. This paucity ofenhancer collections with defined activities has thus hinderedcomputational approaches for the genome-wide prediction of enhancers andtheir functions. To fill this void, we utilize comparative genomeanalysis to identify candidate enhancer elements in the human genomecoupled with the experimental determination of their in vivo enhanceractivity in transgenic mice (1). These data are available through theVISTA Enhancer Browser (http://enhancer.lbl.gov). This growing databasecurrently contains over 250 experimentally tested DNA fragments, of whichmore than 100 have been validated as tissue-specific enhancers. For eachpositive enhancer, we provide digital images of whole-mount embryostaining at embryonic day 11.5 and an anatomical description of thereporter gene expression pattern. Users can retrieve elements near singlegenes of interest, search for enhancers that target reporter geneexpression to a particular tissue, or download entire collections ofenhancers with a defined tissue specificity or conservation depth. Theseexperimentally validated training sets are expected to provide a basisfor a wide range of downstream computational and functional studies ofenhancer function.

  1. Understanding multicellular function and disease with human tissue-specific networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S.; Krishnan, Arjun; Wong, Aaron K.; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Zelaya, Rene A.; Himmelstein, Daniel S.; Zhang, Ran; Hartmann, Boris M.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Dolinski, Kara; Grosser, Tilo; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue and cell-type identity lie at the core of human physiology and disease. Understanding the genetic underpinnings of complex tissues and individual cell lineages is crucial for developing improved diagnostics and therapeutics. We present genome-wide functional interaction networks for 144 human tissues and cell types developed using a data-driven Bayesian methodology that integrates thousands of diverse experiments spanning tissue and disease states. Tissue-specific networks predict lineage-specific responses to perturbation, reveal genes’ changing functional roles across tissues, and illuminate disease-disease relationships. We introduce NetWAS, which combines genes with nominally significant GWAS p-values and tissue-specific networks to identify disease-gene associations more accurately than GWAS alone. Our webserver, GIANT, provides an interface to human tissue networks through multi-gene queries, network visualization, analysis tools including NetWAS, and downloadable networks. GIANT enables systematic exploration of the landscape of interacting genes that shape specialized cellular functions across more than one hundred human tissues and cell types. PMID:25915600

  2. Immortalization of T-Cells Is Accompanied by Gradual Changes in CpG Methylation Resulting in a Profile Resembling a Subset of T-Cell Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Degerman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs, islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis.

  3. Tissue-specific DNA methylation is conserved across human, mouse, and rat, and driven by primary sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Sears, Renee L; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Daofeng; Rockweiler, Nicole B; Jang, Hyo Sik; Choudhary, Mayank N K; Lee, Hyung Joo; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Arand, Jason; Tabers, Brianne; Gu, C Charles; Cicero, Theodore J; Wang, Ting

    2017-09-12

    Uncovering mechanisms of epigenome evolution is an essential step towards understanding the evolution of different cellular phenotypes. While studies have confirmed DNA methylation as a conserved epigenetic mechanism in mammalian development, little is known about the conservation of tissue-specific genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Using a comparative epigenomics approach, we identified and compared the tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns of rat against those of mouse and human across three shared tissue types. We confirmed that tissue-specific differentially methylated regions are strongly associated with tissue-specific regulatory elements. Comparisons between species revealed that at a minimum 11-37% of tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns are conserved, a phenomenon that we define as epigenetic conservation. Conserved DNA methylation is accompanied by conservation of other epigenetic marks including histone modifications. Although a significant amount of locus-specific methylation is epigenetically conserved, the majority of tissue-specific DNA methylation is not conserved across the species and tissue types that we investigated. Examination of the genetic underpinning of epigenetic conservation suggests that primary sequence conservation is a driving force behind epigenetic conservation. In contrast, evolutionary dynamics of tissue-specific DNA methylation are best explained by the maintenance or turnover of binding sites for important transcription factors. Our study extends the limited literature of comparative epigenomics and suggests a new paradigm for epigenetic conservation without genetic conservation through analysis of transcription factor binding sites.

  4. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  5. Lung cancer signature biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of digital differential display (DDD) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mousami; Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani

    2012-11-02

    The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used 'Gene Ontology semantic similarity score' to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1-4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4). Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated

  6. Tissue Specific Effects of Loss of Estrogen During Menopause and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinna eWend

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of estrogens have been best studied in the breast, breast cancers and in the female reproductive tract. However, estrogens have important functions in almost every tissue in the body. Recent clinical trials such as the Women’s Health Initiative have highlighted both the importance of estrogens and how little we know about the molecular mechanism of estrogens in these other tissues. In this review, we illustrate the diverse functions of estrogens in the bone, adipose tissue, skin, hair, brain, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system, and how the loss of estrogens during aging affects these tissues. Early transcriptional targets of estrogen are reviewed in each tissue. We also describe the tissue-specific effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs used for the treatment of breast cancers and post-menopausal symptoms.

  7. Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific alternative splicing of Mef2D required for muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Valeria; Sebastian, Soji; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Gabellini, Davide

    2015-02-15

    Among the Mef2 family of transcription factors, Mef2D is unique in that it undergoes tissue-specific splicing to generate an isoform that is essential for muscle differentiation. However, the mechanisms mediating this muscle-specific processing of Mef2D remain unknown. Using bioinformatics, we identified Rbfox proteins as putative modulators of Mef2D muscle-specific splicing. Accordingly, we found direct and specific Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 binding to Mef2D pre-mRNA in vivo. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 cooperate in promoting Mef2D splicing and subsequent myogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal a new role for Rbfox proteins in regulating myogenesis through activation of essential muscle-specific splicing events. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Targeting tissue-specific metabolic signaling pathways in aging: the promise and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    It has been well established that most of the age-related diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis are all closely related to metabolic dysfunction. On the other hand, interventions on metabolism such as calorie restriction or genetic manipulations of key metabolic signaling pathways such as the insulin and mTOR signaling pathways slow down the aging process and improve healthy aging. These findings raise an important question as to whether improving energy homeostasis by targeting certain metabolic signaling pathways in specific tissues could be an effective anti-aging strategy. With a more comprehensive understanding of the tissue-specific roles of distinct metabolic signaling pathways controlling energy homeostasis and the cross-talks between these pathways during aging may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions not only for metabolic dysfunction but also for aging.

  9. The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Regulator Cyclophilin D Exhibits Tissue-Specific Control of Metabolic Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C Laker

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP is a key regulator of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Cyclophilin D (CypD is a critical regulator that directly binds to mPTP constituents to facilitate the pore opening. We previously found that global CypD knockout mice (KO are protected from diet-induced glucose intolerance; however, the tissue-specific function of CypD and mPTP, particularly in the control of glucose homeostasis, has not been ascertained. To this end, we performed calcium retention capacity (CRC assay to compare the importance of CypD in the liver versus skeletal muscle. We found that liver mitochondria are more dependent on CypD for mPTP opening than skeletal muscle mitochondria. To ascertain the tissue-specific role of CypD in metabolic homeostasis, we generated liver-specific and muscle-specific CypD knockout mice (LKO and MKO, respectively and fed them either a chow diet or 45% high-fat diet (HFD for 14 weeks. MKO mice displayed similar body weight gain and glucose intolerance compared with wild type littermates (WT, whereas LKO mice developed greater visceral obesity, glucose intolerance and pyruvate intolerance compared with WT mice. These findings demonstrate that loss of muscle CypD is not sufficient to alter whole body glucose metabolism, while the loss of liver CypD exacerbates obesity and whole-body metabolic dysfunction in mice fed HFD.

  10. Illuminating a plant's tissue-specific metabolic diversity using computational metabolomics and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Heiling, Sven; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2016-11-22

    Secondary metabolite diversity is considered an important fitness determinant for plants' biotic and abiotic interactions in nature. This diversity can be examined in two dimensions. The first one considers metabolite diversity across plant species. A second way of looking at this diversity is by considering the tissue-specific localization of pathways underlying secondary metabolism within a plant. Although these cross-tissue metabolite variations are increasingly regarded as important readouts of tissue-level gene function and regulatory processes, they have rarely been comprehensively explored by nontargeted metabolomics. As such, important questions have remained superficially addressed. For instance, which tissues exhibit prevalent signatures of metabolic specialization? Reciprocally, which metabolites contribute most to this tissue specialization in contrast to those metabolites exhibiting housekeeping characteristics? Here, we explore tissue-level metabolic specialization in Nicotiana attenuata, an ecological model with rich secondary metabolism, by combining tissue-wide nontargeted mass spectral data acquisition, information theory analysis, and tandem MS (MS/MS) molecular networks. This analysis was conducted for two different methanolic extracts of 14 tissues and deconvoluted 895 nonredundant MS/MS spectra. Using information theory analysis, anthers were found to harbor the most specialized metabolome, and most unique metabolites of anthers and other tissues were annotated through MS/MS molecular networks. Tissue-metabolite association maps were used to predict tissue-specific gene functions. Predictions for the function of two UDP-glycosyltransferases in flavonoid metabolism were confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing. The present workflow allows biologists to amortize the vast amount of data produced by modern MS instrumentation in their quest to understand gene function.

  11. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  12. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blazkova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation of retroviral promoters and enhancers localized in the provirus 5' long terminal repeat (LTR is considered to be a mechanism of transcriptional suppression that allows retroviruses to evade host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs. However, the role of DNA methylation in the control of HIV-1 latency has never been unambiguously demonstrated, in contrast to the apparent importance of transcriptional interference and chromatin structure, and has never been studied in HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we show in an in vitro model of reactivable latency and in a latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected patients that CpG methylation of the HIV-1 5' LTR is an additional epigenetic restriction mechanism, which controls resistance of latent HIV-1 to reactivation signals and thus determines the stability of the HIV-1 latency. CpG methylation acts as a late event during establishment of HIV-1 latency and is not required for the initial provirus silencing. Indeed, the latent reservoir of some aviremic patients contained high proportions of the non-methylated 5' LTR. The latency controlled solely by transcriptional interference and by chromatin-dependent mechanisms in the absence of significant promoter DNA methylation tends to be leaky and easily reactivable. In the latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected individuals without detectable plasma viremia, we found HIV-1 promoters and enhancers to be hypermethylated and resistant to reactivation, as opposed to the hypomethylated 5' LTR in viremic patients. However, even dense methylation of the HIV-1 5'LTR did not confer complete resistance to reactivation of latent HIV-1 with some histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, TNF-alpha, and their combinations with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine: the densely methylated HIV-1 promoter was most efficiently reactivated in virtual absence of T cell activation by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by CpG

  13. Consolidated Recovered Materials Advisory Notice (RMAN) for the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG) designates recycled content products that government agencies should buy. EPA publishes purchasing guidance and...

  14. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....

  15. Endometrial natural killer (NK) cells reveal a tissue-specific receptor repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyaerts, D; Kuret, T; van Cranenbroek, B; van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, S; van der Heijden, O W H; van der Meer, A; Joosten, I; van der Molen, R G

    2018-02-13

    Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific? The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus. NK cells are important for successful pregnancy. After implantation, NK cells encounter extravillous trophoblast cells and regulate trophoblast invasion. NK cell activity is amongst others regulated by C-type lectin heterodimer (CD94/NKG2) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors. KIR expression on decidual NK cells is affected by the presence of maternal HLA-C and biased towards KIR2D expression. However, little is known about NKR expression on eNK cells prior to pregnancy. In this study, matched peripheral and menstrual blood (a source of endometrial cells) was obtained from 25 healthy females with regular menstrual cycles. Menstrual blood was collected during the first 36 h of menstruation using a menstrual cup, a non-invasive technique to obtain endometrial cells. KIR and NKG2 receptor expression on eNK cells was characterized by 10-color flow cytometry, and compared to matched pbNK cells of the same female. KIR and HLA-C genotypes were determined by PCR-SSOP techniques. Anti-CMV IgG antibodies in plasma were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. KIR expression patterns of eNK cells collected from the same female do not differ over consecutive menstrual cycles. The percentage of NK cells expressing KIR2DL2/L3/S2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL1, LILRB1 and/or NKG2A was significantly higher in eNK cells compared to pbNK cells, while no significant difference was observed for NKG2C, KIR2DL1/S1, and KIR3DL1. The NKR repertoire of eNK cells was clearly different from pbNK cells, with eNK cells co-expressing more than three NKR simultaneously. In addition, outlier analysis revealed 8 and 15 NKR

  16. Whole-organ isolation approach as a basis for tissue-specific analyses in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hahnel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, second only to malaria. Schistosomes exhibit an exceptional reproductive biology since the sexual maturation of the female, which includes the differentiation of the reproductive organs, is controlled by pairing. Pathogenicity originates from eggs, which cause severe inflammation in their hosts. Elucidation of processes contributing to female maturation is not only of interest to basic science but also considering novel concepts combating schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To get direct access to the reproductive organs, we established a novel protocol using a combined detergent/protease-treatment removing the tegument and the musculature of adult Schistosoma mansoni. All steps were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and bright-field microscopy (BF. We focused on the gonads of adult schistosomes and demonstrated that isolated and purified testes and ovaries can be used for morphological and structural studies as well as sources for RNA and protein of sufficient amounts for subsequent analyses such as RT-PCR and immunoblotting. To this end, first exemplary evidence was obtained for tissue-specific transcription within the gonads (axonemal dynein intermediate chain gene SmAxDynIC; aquaporin gene SmAQP as well as for post-transcriptional regulation (SmAQP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presented method provides a new way of getting access to tissue-specific material of S. mansoni. With regard to many still unanswered questions of schistosome biology, such as elucidating the molecular processes involved in schistosome reproduction, this protocol provides opportunities for, e.g., sub-transcriptomics and sub-proteomics at the organ level. This will promote the characterisation of gene-expression profiles, or more specifically to complete knowledge of signalling pathways contributing to differentiation processes, so discovering involved

  17. De novo assembly and characterization of tissue specific transcriptomes in the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Troy J; Place, Sean P

    2013-11-20

    The notothenioids comprise a diverse group of fishes that rapidly radiated after isolation by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current approximately 14-25 million years ago. Given that evolutionary adaptation has led to finely tuned traits with narrow physiological limits in these organisms, this system provides a unique opportunity to examine physiological trade-offs and limits of adaptive responses to environmental perturbation. As such, notothenioids have a rich history with respect to studies attempting to understand the vulnerability of polar ecosystems to the negative impacts associated with global climate change. Unfortunately, despite being a model system for understanding physiological adaptations to extreme environments, we still lack fundamental molecular tools for much of the Nototheniidae family. Specimens of the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii, were acclimated for 28 days in flow-through seawater tanks maintained near ambient seawater temperatures (-1.5°C) or at +4°C. Following acclimation, tissue specific cDNA libraries for liver, gill and brain were created by pooling RNA from n = 5 individuals per temperature treatment. The tissue specific libraries were bar-coded and used for 454 pyrosequencing, which yielded over 700 thousand sequencing reads. A de novo assembly and annotation of these reads produced a functional transcriptome library of T. bernacchii containing 30,107 unigenes, 13,003 of which possessed significant homology to a known protein product. Digital gene expression analysis of these extremely cold adapted fish reinforced the loss of an inducible heat shock response and allowed the preliminary exploration into other elements of the cellular stress response. Preliminary exploration of the transcriptome of T. bernacchii under elevated temperatures enabled a semi-quantitative comparison to prior studies aimed at characterizing the thermal response of this endemic fish whose size, abundance and distribution has established it as a

  18. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katter, Katharina; Geurts, Aron M; Hoffmann, Orsolya; Mátés, Lajos; Landa, Vladimir; Hiripi, László; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Jozef; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Popova, Elena; Jerchow, Boris; Becker, Katja; Devaraj, Anantharam; Walter, Ingrid; Grzybowksi, Michael; Corbett, Molly; Filho, Artur Rangel; Hodges, Matthew R; Bader, Michael; Ivics, Zoltán; Jacob, Howard J; Pravenec, Michal; Bosze, Zsuzsanna; Rülicke, Thomas; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2013-03-01

    Germline transgenesis is an important procedure for functional investigation of biological pathways, as well as for animal biotechnology. We have established a simple, nonviral protocol in three important biomedical model organisms frequently used in physiological studies. The protocol is based on the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, SB100X, which reproducibly promoted generation of transgenic founders at frequencies of 50-64, 14-72, and 15% in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. The SB100X-mediated transgene integrations are less prone to genetic mosaicism and gene silencing as compared to either the classical pronuclear injection or to lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method was successfully applied to a variety of transgenes and animal models, and can be used to generate founders with single-copy integrations. The transposon vector also allows the generation of transgenic lines with tissue-specific expression patterns specified by promoter elements of choice, exemplified by a rat reporter strain useful for tracking serotonergic neurons. As a proof of principle, we rescued an inborn genetic defect in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat by SB100X transgenesis. A side-by-side comparison of the SB100X- and piggyBac-based protocols revealed that the two systems are complementary, offering new opportunities in genome manipulation.

  19. Tissue-Specific Ablation of Prkar1a Causes Schwannomas by Suppressing Neurofibromatosis Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette N. Jones

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling events leading to Schwann cell tumor initiation have been extensively characterized in the context of neurofibromatosis (NF. Similar tumors are also observed in patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are not well characterized. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a in neural crest precursor cells (TEC3KO mice causes schwannomas with nearly 80% penetrance by 10 months. These heterogeneous neoplasms were clinically characterized as genetically engineered mouse schwannomas, grades II and III. At the molecular level, analysis of the tumors revealed almost complete loss of both NF proteins, despite the fact that transcript levels were increased, implying posttranscriptional regulation. Although Erk and Akt signaling are typically enhanced in NF-associated tumors, we observed no activation of either of these pathways in TEC3KO tumors. Furthermore, the small G proteins Ras, Rac1, and RhoA are all known to be involved with NF signaling. In TEC3KO tumors, all three molecules showed modest increases in total protein, but only Rac1 showed significant activation. These data suggest that dysregulated protein kinase A activation causes tumorigenesis through pathways that overlap but are distinct from those described in NF tumorigenesis.

  20. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  1. HOXA5 plays tissue-specific roles in the developing respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry-Truchon, Kim; Houde, Nicolas; Boucherat, Olivier; Joncas, France-Hélène; Dasen, Jeremy S; Philippidou, Polyxeni; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2017-10-01

    Hoxa5 is essential for development of several organs and tissues. In the respiratory system, loss of Hoxa5 function causes neonatal death due to respiratory distress. Expression of HOXA5 protein in mesenchyme of the respiratory tract and in phrenic motor neurons of the central nervous system led us to address the individual contribution of these Hoxa5 expression domains using a conditional gene targeting approach. Hoxa5 does not play a cell-autonomous role in lung epithelium, consistent with lack of HOXA5 expression in this cell layer. In contrast, ablation of Hoxa5 in mesenchyme perturbed trachea development, lung epithelial cell differentiation and lung growth. Further, deletion of Hoxa5 in motor neurons resulted in abnormal diaphragm innervation and musculature, and lung hypoplasia. It also reproduced the neonatal lethality observed in null mutants, indicating that the defective diaphragm is the main cause of impaired survival at birth. Thus, Hoxa5 possesses tissue-specific functions that differentially contribute to the morphogenesis of the respiratory tract. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Regulating expressin of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, Roger N. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Dai, Shunhong [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Our research supported by this program has led to the identification of rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 that play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV) through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter. RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants and to improve biofuel feedstock.

  3. Lesions by tissue specific imaging characterize multiple sclerosis patients with more advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; van Gelderen, Peter; Auh, Sungyoung; Hanafy, Jailan; Cantor, Fredric K; Ohayon, Joan; Richert, Nancy; Duyn, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid tissue specific imaging (CSF-TSI), a newly implemented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, allows visualization of a subset of chronic black holes (cBHs) with MRI characteristics suggestive of the presence of CSF-like fluid, and representing lesions with extensive tissue destruction. To investigate the relationship between lesions in CSF-TSI and disease measures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-six patients with MS were imaged at 3.0 T, obtaining T(1)-weighted (T(1)-w) and T(2)-w spin echo (SE), T(1) volumetric images and CSF-TSI images. We measured: (i) lesion volume (LV) in T(1)-w (cBH-LV) and T(2)-w SE images, and in CSF-TSI; (ii) brain parenchyma fraction (BPF). Differences between patients with and without CSF-TSI lesions were analyzed and association between clinical and MRI metrics were investigated. cBHs were seen in 92% of the patients while lesions in CSF-TSI were seen in 40%. Patients with CSF-TSI lesions were older, with longer disease duration, higher disability scores, larger cBH-LV and T(2)-LV, and lower BPF than patients without CSF-TSI lesions (≤0.047). Partial correlation analysis correcting for T(2)-LV, cBH-LV and BPF showed an association (p TSI LV and disability score. CSF-TSI lesions characterize patients with more advanced disease and probably contribute to the progress of disability.

  4. Regulating expression of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, Roger N; Dai, Shunhong

    2010-06-14

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV), through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter (Dai et al., 2006., Dai et al., 2004., Yin et al., 1997). RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. It is equally as important to recognize that these proteins control plant development by regulating differentiation and/or function of the vascular tissues. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins will not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants. We have proposed characterize the function domains of RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 and explore the biological function of the transcription repressor RLP1.

  5. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Sanchez, Angélica B; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR) and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  6. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  7. Identification of a novel, tissue-specific ABCG2 promoter expressed in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick K; Zong, Yang; Yang, Shengping; Zhou, Sheng; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Sorrentino, Brian P

    2011-10-01

    ABCG2 encodes a transporter protein that is associated with multidrug-resistant phenotypes in many cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML); high levels of expression are generally associated with a poor prognosis. To better understand how expression of ABCG2 is controlled in pediatric AML, we performed a detailed analysis of the ABCG2 transcript isoforms from a variety of tissue sources, including 85 pediatric AML samples. These studies revealed a complex 5' untranslated region (UTR) with 6 novel exons and multiple splice variants. Samples from children with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML FAB-M7) not associated with Down syndrome showed uniformly higher levels of ABCG2 transcripts than samples from children with other AML subtypes. A novel 5' UTR identified 90kb upstream of the exon 2 translation initiation site was expressed only in M7 AML subtypes. An associated upstream promoter fragment was shown to be selectively expressed in megakaryoblastic leukemia cells but not in human epithelial cell lines. These findings identify a new tissue-specific ABCG2 promoter that is selectively expressed in pediatric M7 AML. We also show a relatively high incidence of ABCG2 mRNA expression in non-Down associated M7 AML, which may contribute to the relatively poor prognosis of the M7 AML subtype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue-specific distribution of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Huang, Han Cheng; Hu, Shi Jun; Lin, Jie

    2014-10-15

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is expressed in developing and reproductively active male Toxocara canis. To investigate the tissue-specific expression of PP1 in T. canis, the PP1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was used to generate a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Indirect fluorescence immunohistochemical analysis of adult male T. canis showed that PP1 was expressed in the germ line tissues, primarily in the testis, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and sperm cells, indicating the potential roles of PP1 in spermatogenesis. What's more, structural predictions of PP1 in T. canis were performed. The predictions of the structure indicated that PP1 may be a potential target for antihelmintic drugs. This is the first report of the tissue distributions and structural prediction of PP1 in T. canis, which might lead to the development of novel, innovative strategies for controlling T. canis infestations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An immunohistochemical study on the tissue-specific localization of metallothionein in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A; Yanagida, M; Umemura, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the tissue specificity of metallothionein (MT) expression, tissues of dogs ranging in age from 1 day to 18 years were examined immunohistochemically. Of the organs examined, liver and kidney showed the strongest immunoreactivity; a comparable intensity of MT immunolabelling was noted in the two organs in adult animals. In the central nervous system, astrocytes and ependymal cells showed MT immunoreactivity. MT labelling was shown in the sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium, but immunoreactivity was slight in the epithelium of the respiratory tract. Slight MT immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the epithelium of a variety of glands (sweat, uterine, mammary, olfactory, perianal and thyroid) and in parietal cells of the fundic glands of the stomach. Sporadic MT immunolabelling was demonstrated in the columnar and goblet cells of the small and large intestines, surface mucosal cells of the stomach and epithelial cells of the hair follicles. These findings may help in understanding important features of MT, such as its dynamic induction mechanism, its systemic degradation pathway and the possible biological functions.

  10. Zooming-in on cancer metabolic rewiring with tissue specific constraint-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Marzia; Colombo, Riccardo; Damiani, Chiara; Pescini, Dario; Gaglio, Daniela; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia; Mauri, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic rearrangements occurring in cancer cells can be effectively investigated with a Systems Biology approach supported by metabolic network modeling. We here present tissue-specific constraint-based core models for three different types of tumors (liver, breast and lung) that serve this purpose. The core models were extracted and manually curated from the corresponding genome-scale metabolic models in the Human Metabolic Atlas database with a focus on the pathways that are known to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. Along similar lines, we also reconstructed a core model from the original general human metabolic network to be used as a reference model. A comparative Flux Balance Analysis between the reference and the cancer models highlighted both a clear distinction between the two conditions and a heterogeneity within the three different cancer types in terms of metabolic flux distribution. These results emphasize the need for modeling approaches able to keep up with this tumoral heterogeneity in order to identify more suitable drug targets and develop effective treatments. According to this perspective, we identified key points able to reverse the tumoral phenotype toward the reference one or vice-versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% of expressed genes were constitutively active in all tissues. In contrast, water deficit-responsive genes (1915) were consistently regulated in all tissues, while >75% (1501 genes) were specifically regulated in a single root tissue. Water deficit-responsive genes were most numerous in the cortex of the mature root zone and in the elongation zone. The most prominent functional categories among differentially expressed genes in all tissues were 'transcriptional regulation' and 'hormone metabolism', indicating global reprogramming of cellular metabolism as an adaptation to water deficit. Additionally, the most significant transcriptomic changes in the root tip were associated with cell wall reorganization, leading to continued root growth despite water deficit conditions. This study provides insight into tissue-specific water deficit responses and will be a resource for future genetic analyses and breeding strategies to develop more drought-tolerant maize cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-06

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body.

  13. MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Nixon, Susan J; Lo, Harriet P; Abankwa, Daniel; Luetterforst, Robert; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel; Breen, Michael R; Gygi, Steven P; Vinten, Jorgen; Walser, Piers J; North, Kathryn N; Hancock, John F; Pilch, Paul F; Parton, Robert G

    2009-06-29

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein.

  14. A tissue-specific atlas of mouse protein phosphorylation and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttlin, Edward L; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Elias, Joshua E; Goswami, Tapasree; Rad, Ramin; Beausoleil, Sean A; Villén, Judit; Haas, Wilhelm; Sowa, Mathew E; Gygi, Steven P

    2010-12-23

    Although most tissues in an organism are genetically identical, the biochemistry of each is optimized to fulfill its unique physiological roles, with important consequences for human health and disease. Each tissue's unique physiology requires tightly regulated gene and protein expression coordinated by specialized, phosphorylation-dependent intracellular signaling. To better understand the role of phosphorylation in maintenance of physiological differences among tissues, we performed proteomic and phosphoproteomic characterizations of nine mouse tissues. We identified 12,039 proteins, including 6296 phosphoproteins harboring nearly 36,000 phosphorylation sites. Comparing protein abundances and phosphorylation levels revealed specialized, interconnected phosphorylation networks within each tissue while suggesting that many proteins are regulated by phosphorylation independently of their expression. Our data suggest that the "typical" phosphoprotein is widely expressed yet displays variable, often tissue-specific phosphorylation that tunes protein activity to the specific needs of each tissue. We offer this dataset as an online resource for the biological research community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  16. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  17. Tissue-specific mitotic bookmarking by hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Udugama, Maheshi I; Pawlicki, Jan M; Achtman, Jordan C; Jain, Deepti P; Cheng, Yong; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2012-08-17

    Tissue-specific transcription patterns are preserved throughout cell divisions to maintain lineage fidelity. We investigated whether transcription factor GATA1 plays a role in transmitting hematopoietic gene expression programs through mitosis when transcription is transiently silenced. Live-cell imaging revealed that a fraction of GATA1 is retained focally within mitotic chromatin. ChIP-seq of highly purified mitotic cells uncovered that key hematopoietic regulatory genes are occupied by GATA1 in mitosis. The GATA1 coregulators FOG1 and TAL1 dissociate from mitotic chromatin, suggesting that GATA1 functions as platform for their postmitotic recruitment. Mitotic GATA1 target genes tend to reactivate more rapidly upon entry into G1 than genes from which GATA1 dissociates. Mitosis-specific destruction of GATA1 delays reactivation selectively of genes that retain GATA1 during mitosis. These studies suggest a requirement of mitotic "bookmarking" by GATA1 for the faithful propagation of cell-type-specific transcription programs through cell division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human glucagon gene promoter sequences regulating tissue-specific versus nutrient-regulated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Min; Gu, Jun; Irwin, David M; Drucker, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are synthesized and secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner in rodents; however, the factors regulating human GLP-1 and GLP-2 biosynthesis remain unclear. To understand how nutrients regulate human proglucagon gene expression, we studied the expression of a human proglucagon promoter-growth hormone (GH) transgene in 1.6 human glucagon-GH transgenic mice. Fasting-refeeding significantly decreased and increased the levels of circulating mouse insulin and transgene-derived hGH (P fasting vs. refeeding) and decreased and upregulated, respectively, the levels of endogenous mouse proglucagon RNA in the ileum but not in the jejunum or colon. High-fiber feeding significantly increased the levels of glucose-stimulated circulating hGH and upregulated levels of mouse intestinal proglucagon gene expression in the jejunum, ileum, and colon (P fasting-refeeding nor a high-fiber diet upregulated the expression of the human proglucagon promoter-hGH transgene. These findings demonstrate that human proglucagon gene regulatory sequences specifying tissue-specific expression in gut endocrine cells are not sufficient for recognition of energy-derived signals regulating murine glucagon gene expression in enteroendocrine cells in vivo.

  19. Reconstruction of Arabidopsis metabolic network models accounting for subcellular compartmentalization and tissue-specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Ruppin, Eytan; Aharoni, Asaph; Shlomi, Tomer

    2012-01-03

    Plant metabolic engineering is commonly used in the production of functional foods and quality trait improvement. However, to date, computational model-based approaches have only been scarcely used in this important endeavor, in marked contrast to their prominent success in microbial metabolic engineering. In this study we present a computational pipeline for the reconstruction of fully compartmentalized tissue-specific models of Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome scale. This reconstruction involves automatic extraction of known biochemical reactions in Arabidopsis for both primary and secondary metabolism, automatic gap-filling, and the implementation of methods for determining subcellular localization and tissue assignment of enzymes. The reconstructed tissue models are amenable for constraint-based modeling analysis, and significantly extend upon previous model reconstructions. A set of computational validations (i.e., cross-validation tests, simulations of known metabolic functionalities) and experimental validations (comparison with experimental metabolomics datasets under various compartments and tissues) strongly testify to the predictive ability of the models. The utility of the derived models was demonstrated in the prediction of measured fluxes in metabolically engineered seed strains and the design of genetic manipulations that are expected to increase vitamin E content, a significant nutrient for human health. Overall, the reconstructed tissue models are expected to lay down the foundations for computational-based rational design of plant metabolic engineering. The reconstructed compartmentalized Arabidopsis tissue models are MIRIAM-compliant and are available upon request.

  20. ChIP-seq Accurately Predicts Tissue-Specific Activity of Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Blow, Matthew J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-01

    A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover since they are scattered amongst the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300, followed by massively-parallel sequencing, to map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain, and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases revealed reproducible enhancer activity in those tissues predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities and suggest that such datasets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.

  1. Systemic delivery of chTNT-3/CpG immunoconjugates for immunotherapy in murine solid tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Julie K.; Khawli, Leslie A.; Canter, David C.; Hu, Peisheng; Zhu, Tian H.; Wu, Brian W.; Angell, Trevor E.; Li, Zhongjun; Epstein, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) potently activate the immune system by mimicking microbial DNA. Conjugation of CpG to chTNT-3, an antibody targeting the necrotic centers of tumors, enabled CpG to accumulate in tumors after systemic delivery, where it can activate the immune system in the presence of tumor antigens. CpG chemically conjugated to chTNT-3 (chTNT-3/CpG) were compared to free CpG in their ability to stimulate the immune system in vitro and reduce tumor burden in vivo. In subcutaneous Colon 26 adenocarcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma models in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively, chTNT-3/CpG, free CpG, or several different control constructs were administered systemically. Intraperitoneal injections of chTNT-3/CpG delayed tumor growth and improved survival, and were comparable to intratumorally administered CpG. Compared to saline-treated mice, chTNT-3/CpG-treated mice had smaller average tumor volumes by as much as 72% in Colon 26-bearing mice and 79% in B16-bearing mice. Systemically delivered free CpG and CpG conjugated to an isotype control antibody did not reduce tumor burden or improve survival. In this study, chTNT-3/CpG retained immunostimulatory activity of the CpG moiety and enabled delivery to tumors. Because systemically administered CpG rapidly clear the body and do not accumulate into tumors, chTNT-3/CpG provide a solution to the limitations observed in preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:26960932

  2. CpG dinucleotide frequencies reveal the role of host methylation capabilities in parvovirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish; Vasaikar, Suhas; Biswas, Banhi; Gomes, James; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Parvoviruses are rapidly evolving viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Extensive methylation of the parvovirus genome has been recently demonstrated. A global pattern of methylation of CpG dinucleotides is seen in vertebrate genomes, compared to "fractional" methylation patterns in invertebrate genomes. It remains unknown if the loss of CpG dinucleotides occurs in all viruses of a given DNA virus family that infect host species spanning across vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the link between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion among autonomous parvoviruses and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We demonstrate major differences in the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides among autonomous parvoviruses which share similar genome organization and common ancestry, depending on the infected host species. Parvoviruses infecting vertebrate hosts had significantly lower relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides than parvoviruses infecting invertebrate hosts. The strong correlation of CpG dinucleotide depletion with the gain in TpG/CpA dinucleotides and the loss of TpA dinucleotides among parvoviruses suggests a major role for CpG methylation in the evolution of parvoviruses. Our data present evidence that links the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides in parvoviruses to the methylation capabilities of the infected host. In sum, our findings support a novel perspective of host-driven evolution among autonomous parvoviruses.

  3. Reproducibility of methylated CpG typing with the Illumina MiSeq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Meyer, Olivia Strunge; Greby Schmidt, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns may be used for identification of body fluids and for age estimation of human individuals. We evaluated some of the challenges and pitfalls of studying methylated CpG sites. We compared the methylated CpG analysis of two different methods 1) massively parallel sequencing...

  4. Tissue-specific transcriptome analyses provide new insights into GPCR signalling in adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Steffen; Wheeler, Nic; Lu, Zhigang; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; McVeigh, Paul; Maule, Aaron; Berriman, Matthew; Day, Timothy; Ribeiro, Paula; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths. Due to their involvement in diverse biological processes, their pharmacological importance, and proven druggability, GPCRs are promising targets for new anthelmintics. However, to identify candidate receptors, a more detailed understanding of the roles of GPCR signalling in schistosome biology is essential. An updated phylogenetic analysis of the S. mansoni GPCR genome (GPCRome) is presented, facilitated by updated genome data that allowed a more precise annotation of GPCRs. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on GPCR signalling in this parasite and provide new insights into the potential roles of GPCRs in schistosome reproduction based on the findings of a recent tissue-specific transcriptomic study in paired and unpaired S. mansoni. According to the current analysis, GPCRs contribute to gonad-specific functions but also to nongonad, pairing-dependent processes. The latter may regulate gonad-unrelated functions during the multifaceted male-female interaction. Finally, we compare the schistosome GPCRome to that of another parasitic trematode, Fasciola, and discuss the importance of GPCRs to basic and applied research. Phylogenetic analyses display GPCR diversity in free-living and parasitic platyhelminths and suggest diverse functions in schistosomes. Although their roles need to be substantiated by functional studies in the future, the data support the selection of GPCR candidates

  5. Tissue-specific expression of monocarboxylate transporters during fasting in mice.

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    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs. Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4, thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10 and aromatic amino acids (MCT10. Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT and PPARα knockout (KO mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1-4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms.

  6. Tissue-Specific Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporters during Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Wege, Nicole; Stangl, Gabriele I.; König, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1–4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms. PMID:25390336

  7. A tissue-specific approach to the analysis of metabolic changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jürgen Hench

    Full Text Available The majority of metabolic principles are evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. Caenorhabditis elegans has widely accelerated the discovery of new genes important to maintain organismic metabolic homeostasis. Various methods exist to assess the metabolic state in worms, yet they often require large animal numbers and tend to be performed as bulk analyses of whole worm homogenates, thereby largely precluding a detailed studies of metabolic changes in specific worm tissues. Here, we have adapted well-established histochemical methods for the use on C. elegans fresh frozen sections and demonstrate their validity for analyses of morphological and metabolic changes on tissue level in wild type and various mutant strains. We show how the worm presents on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections and demonstrate their usefulness in monitoring and the identification of morphological abnormalities. In addition, we demonstrate how Oil-Red-O staining on frozen worm cross-sections permits quantification of lipid storage, avoiding the artifact-prone fixation and permeabilization procedures of traditional whole-mount protocols. We also adjusted standard enzymatic stains for respiratory chain subunits (NADH, SDH, and COX to monitor metabolic states of various C. elegans tissues. In summary, the protocols presented here provide technical guidance to obtain robust, reproducible and quantifiable tissue-specific data on worm morphology as well as carbohydrate, lipid and mitochondrial energy metabolism that cannot be obtained through traditional biochemical bulk analyses of worm homogenates. Furthermore, analysis of worm cross-sections overcomes the common problem with quantification in three-dimensional whole-mount specimens.

  8. Identification of potential tissue-specific cancer biomarkers and development of cancer versus normal genomic classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Akram; Biegert, Greyson; Adamec, Jiri; Helikar, Tomáš

    2017-10-17

    Machine learning techniques for cancer prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. Recent "OMICS" studies which include a variety of cancer and normal tissue samples along with machine learning approaches have the potential to further accelerate such discovery. To demonstrate this potential, 2,175 gene expression samples from nine tissue types were obtained to identify gene sets whose expression is characteristic of each cancer class. Using random forests classification and ten-fold cross-validation, we developed nine single-tissue classifiers, two multi-tissue cancer-versus-normal classifiers, and one multi-tissue normal classifier. Given a sample of a specified tissue type, the single-tissue models classified samples as cancer or normal with a testing accuracy between 85.29% and 100%. Given a sample of non-specific tissue type, the multi-tissue bi-class model classified the sample as cancer versus normal with a testing accuracy of 97.89%. Given a sample of non-specific tissue type, the multi-tissue multi-class model classified the sample as cancer versus normal and as a specific tissue type with a testing accuracy of 97.43%. Given a normal sample of any of the nine tissue types, the multi-tissue normal model classified the sample as a particular tissue type with a testing accuracy of 97.35%. The machine learning classifiers developed in this study identify potential cancer biomarkers with sensitivity and specificity that exceed those of existing biomarkers and pointed to pathways that are critical to tissue-specific tumor development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of predicting the tissue origin of carcinoma in the context of multiple cancer classes.

  9. Snakes exhibit tissue-specific variation in cardiotonic steroid sensitivity of Na+/K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Petschenka, Georg; French, Susannah S; Mori, Akira; Savitzky, Alan H

    2018-03-01

    Toads are among several groups of organisms chemically defended with lethal concentrations of cardiotonic steroids. As a result, most predators that prey on amphibians avoid toads. However, several species of snakes have gained resistance-conferring mutations of Na + /K + -ATPase, the molecular target of cardiotonic steroids, and can feed on toads readily. Despite recent advances in our understanding of this adaptation at the genetic level, we have lacked functional evidence for how mutations of Na + /K + -ATPase account for cardiotonic steroid resistance in snake tissues. To address this issue, it is necessary to determine how the Na + /K + -ATPases of snakes react to the toxins. Some tissues might have Na + /K + -ATPases that are more susceptible than others and can thus provide clues about how the toxins influence organismal function. Here we provide a mechanistic link between observed Na + /K + -ATPase substitutions and observed resistance using actual snake Na + /K + -ATPases. We used an in vitro approach to determine the tissue-specific levels of sensitivity to cardiotonic steroids in select resistant and non-resistant snakes. We compared the sensitivities of select tissues within and between species. Our results suggest that resistant snakes contain highly resistant Na + /K + -ATPases in their heart and kidney, both of which rely heavily on the enzymes to function, whereas tissues that do not rely as heavily on Na + /K + -ATPases or might be protected from cardiotonic steroids by other means (liver, gut, and brain) contain non-resistant forms of the enzyme. This study reveals functional evidence that tissue-level target-site insensitivity to cardiotonic steroids varies not only among species but also across tissues within resistant taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-specific metabolic activation and mutagenicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone in MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guosheng; Gingerich, John; Soper, Lynda; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2008-10-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagen and suspected human carcinogen detected in diesel exhaust, airborne particulate matter, and urban soil. We investigated the tissue specific mutagenicity of 3-NBA at the lacZ locus of transgenic MutaMouse following acute single dose or 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. In the acute high dose (50 mg/kg) exposure, increased lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and colonic epithelium, but not in liver and bladder. In the repeated-dose study, a dose-dependent increase in lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and liver (2- and 4-fold increase above control), but not in lung or intestinal epithelium. In addition, a concentration-dependent increase in mutant frequency (8.5-fold above control) was observed for MutaMouse FE1 lung epithelial cells exposed in vitro. 1-Nitropyrene reductase, 3-NBA reductase, and acetyltransferase activities were measured in a variety of MutaMouse specimens in an effort to link metabolic activation and mutagenicity. High 3-NBA nitroreductase activities were observed in lung, liver, colon and bladder, and detectable N-acetyltransferase activities were found in all tissues except bone marrow. The relatively high 3-NBA nitroreductase activity in MutaMouse tissues, as compared with those in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, suggests that 3-NBA is readily reduced and activated in vivo. High 3-NBA nitroreductase levels in liver and colon are consistent with the elevated lacZ mutant frequency values, and previously noted inductions of hepatic DNA adducts. Despite an absence of induced lacZ mutations, the highest 3-NBA reductase activity was detected in lung. Further studies are warranted, especially following inhalation or intratracheal exposures. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  12. Tissue-specific gene expression in maize seeds during colonization by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaomei; Livingston, David P; Franks, Robert G; Boston, Rebecca S; Woloshuk, Charles P; Payne, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize kernels and produce the harmful mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Management practice based on potential host resistance to reduce contamination by these mycotoxins has proven difficult, resulting in the need for a better understanding of the infection process by these fungi and the response of maize seeds to infection. In this study, we followed the colonization of seeds by histological methods and the transcriptional changes of two maize defence-related genes in specific seed tissues by RNA in situ hybridization. Maize kernels were inoculated with either A. flavus or F. verticillioides 21-22 days after pollination, and harvested at 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-inoculation. The fungi colonized all tissues of maize seed, but differed in their interactions with aleurone and germ tissues. RNA in situ hybridization showed the induction of the maize pathogenesis-related protein, maize seed (PRms) gene in the aleurone and scutellum on infection by either fungus. Transcripts of the maize sucrose synthase-encoding gene, shrunken-1 (Sh1), were observed in the embryo of non-infected kernels, but were induced on infection by each fungus in the aleurone and scutellum. By comparing histological and RNA in situ hybridization results from adjacent serial sections, we found that the transcripts of these two genes accumulated in tissue prior to the arrival of the advancing pathogens in the seeds. A knowledge of the patterns of colonization and tissue-specific gene expression in response to these fungi will be helpful in the development of resistance. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Tissue-Specific Gain of RTK Signalling Uncovers Selective Cell Vulnerability during Embryogenesis.

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    Yannan Fan

    Full Text Available The successive events that cells experience throughout development shape their intrinsic capacity to respond and integrate RTK inputs. Cellular responses to RTKs rely on different mechanisms of regulation that establish proper levels of RTK activation, define duration of RTK action, and exert quantitative/qualitative signalling outcomes. The extent to which cells are competent to deal with fluctuations in RTK signalling is incompletely understood. Here, we employ a genetic system to enhance RTK signalling in a tissue-specific manner. The chosen RTK is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor Met, an appropriate model due to its pleiotropic requirement in distinct developmental events. Ubiquitously enhanced Met in Cre/loxP-based Rosa26(stopMet knock-in context (Del-R26(Met reveals that most tissues are capable of buffering enhanced Met-RTK signalling thus avoiding perturbation of developmental programs. Nevertheless, this ubiquitous increase of Met does compromise selected programs such as myoblast migration. Using cell-type specific Cre drivers, we genetically showed that altered myoblast migration results from ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme rather than in migrating myoblasts themselves. qRT-PCR analyses show that ectopic Met in limbs causes molecular changes such as downregulation in the expression levels of Notum and Syndecan4, two known regulators of morphogen gradients. Molecular and functional studies revealed that ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme does not alter HGF expression patterns and levels, but impairs HGF bioavailability. Together, our findings show that myoblasts, in which Met is endogenously expressed, are capable of buffering increased RTK levels, and identify mesenchymal cells as a cell type vulnerable to ectopic Met-RTK signalling. These results illustrate that embryonic cells are sensitive to alterations in the spatial distribution of RTK action, yet resilient to fluctuations in signalling levels of an

  14. Tissue-specific responses to the LRPPRC founder mutation in French Canadian Leigh Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasarman, Florin; Nishimura, Tamiko; Antonicka, Hana; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Shoubridge, Eric A

    2015-01-15

    French Canadian Leigh Syndrome (LSFC) is an early-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct pattern of tissue involvement. Most cases are caused by a founder missense mutation in LRPPRC. LRPPRC forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with SLIRP, another RNA-binding protein, and this stabilizes polyadenylated mitochondrial mRNAs. LSFC fibroblasts have reduced levels of LRPPRC and a specific complex IV assembly defect; however, further depletion of mutant LRPPRC results in a complete failure to assemble a functional oxidative phosphorylation system, suggesting that LRPPRC levels determine the nature of the biochemical phenotype. We tested this hypothesis in cultured muscle cells and tissues from LSFC patients. LRPPRC levels were reduced in LSFC muscle cells, resulting in combined complex I and IV deficiencies. A similar combined deficiency was observed in skeletal muscle. Complex IV was only moderately reduced in LSFC heart, but was almost undetectable in liver. Both of these tissues showed elevated levels of complexes I and III. Despite the marked biochemical differences, the steady-state levels of LRPPRC and mitochondrial mRNAs were extremely low, LRPPRC was largely detergent-insoluble, and SLIRP was undetectable in all LSFC tissues. The level of the LRPPRC/SLIRP complex appeared much reduced in control tissues by the first dimension blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis compared with fibroblasts, and even by second dimension analysis it was virtually undetectable in control heart. These results point to tissue-specific pathways for the post-transcriptional handling of mitochondrial mRNAs and suggest that the biochemical defects in LSFC reflect the differential ability of tissues to adapt to the mutation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reprimo tissue-specific expression pattern is conserved between zebrafish and human.

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    Ricardo J Figueroa

    Full Text Available Reprimo (RPRM, a member of the RPRM gene family, is a tumor-suppressor gene involved in the regulation of the p53-mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M. RPRM has been associated with malignant tumor progression and proposed as a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. However, the expression and role of RPRM, as well as its family, are poorly understood and their physiology is as yet unstudied. In this scenario, a model system like the zebrafish could serve to dissect the role of the RPRM family members in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that RPRM and RPRML have been differentially retained by most species throughout vertebrate evolution, yet RPRM3 has been retained only in a small group of distantly related species, including zebrafish. Herein, we characterized the spatiotemporal expression of RPRM (present in zebrafish as an infraclass duplication rprma/rprmb, RPRML and RPRM3 in the zebrafish. By whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, we demonstrate that rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml show a similar spatiotemporal expression profile during zebrafish development. At early developmental stages rprmb is expressed in somites. After one day post-fertilization, rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml are expressed in the notochord, brain, blood vessels and digestive tube. On the other hand, rprm3 shows the most unique expression profile, being expressed only in the central nervous system (CNS. We assessed the expression patterns of RPRM gene transcripts in adult zebrafish and human RPRM protein product in tissue samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining, respectively. Strikingly, tissue-specific expression patterns of the RPRM transcripts and protein are conserved between zebrafish and humans. We propose the zebrafish as a powerful tool to elucidate the both physiological and pathological roles of the RPRM gene family.

  16. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  17. The importance of tissue specificity for RNA-seq: highlighting the errors of composite structure extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R; Atallah, Joel; Plachetzki, David C

    2013-08-28

    A composite biological structure, such as an insect head or abdomen, contains many internal structures with distinct functions. Composite structures are often used in RNA-seq studies, though it is unclear how expression of the same gene in different tissues and structures within the same structure affects the measurement (or even utility) of the resulting patterns of gene expression. Here we determine how complex composite tissue structure affects measures of gene expression using RNA-seq. We focus on two structures in the honey bee (the sting gland and digestive tract) both contained within one larger structure, the whole abdomen. For each of the three structures, we used RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes between two developmental stages, nurse bees and foragers. Based on RNA-seq for each structure-specific extraction, we found that RNA-seq with composite structures leads to many false negatives (genes strongly differentially expressed in particular structures which are not found to be differentially expressed within the composite structure). We also found a significant number of genes with one pattern of differential expression in the tissue-specific extraction, and the opposite in the composite extraction, suggesting multiple signals from such genes within the composite structure. We found these patterns for different classes of genes including transcription factors. Many RNA-seq studies currently use composite extractions, and even whole insect extractions, when tissue and structure specific extractions are possible. This is due to the logistical difficultly of micro-dissection and unawareness of the potential errors associated with composite extractions. The present study suggests that RNA-seq studies of composite structures are prone to false negatives and difficult to interpret positive signals for genes with variable patterns of local expression. In general, our results suggest that RNA-seq on large composite structures should be avoided

  18. The counter regulatory response induced by CpG oligonucleotides prevents bleomycin induced pneumopathy

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    Kinjo Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bleomycin (BLM induces life-threatening pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in 20% of patients, limiting its use as a chemotherapeutic agent. Oligonucleotides expressing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN stimulate cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 to initiate an inflammatory response. This short-lived inflammation is physiologically suppressed by a counter-regulatory process that peaks five days later. Using a murine model of BLM-induced lung injury, the effect of CpG ODN treatment on pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and mortality was examined. Administering CpG ODN 5 days before BLM (so that the peak of the counter-regulatory process induced by CpG ODN coincided with BLM delivery resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in pulmonary toxicity (p 

  19. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  1. Conditional Tissue-Specific Foxa2 Ablation in Mouse Pancreas Causes Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia: RETRACTED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zengbin; Fei, Aihua; Liu, Yingbin; Pan, Shuming

    The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 is a major upstream regulator of Pdx1, a transcription factor necessary for pancreatic development. In the present study, we conditionally knocked out Foxa2 in Pdx1-expressing domain and further analyzed the contribution of Foxa2 to α- and β-cell development and the effect of Foxa2 deletion on plasma insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels. Homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice and heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice were generated by homologous recombination using a Foxa2 gene-targeting vector. α- and β-cell mass was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Plasma glucose, insulin, and plasma were measured at postnatal day 10. For pdx1 lineage tracing studies, heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 EYFP and homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 EYFP mice were used. Our immunofluorescence analysis revealed that in the pancreas sections of the homozygous mutant mice, Foxa2 was virtually absent from non-β cells and its expression almost exclusively coincided with remnant β cells. The density of both α and β cells apparently decreased in the pancreas of the heterozygous mutant mice and in the pancreas of the homozygous mutant mice, α cells lost its predominance and β cells increased proportionally. Direct Pdx1 cell lineage tracing revealed that, on embryonic day 18.5, in the homozygous mutant mice, Pdx1 expression coincided almost exclusively with that of insulin-secreting β cells. Chemiluminescence assays revealed that heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice had significantly lower insulin levels than control mice (P Foxa2 mice and control mice (P > 0.05). Chemiluminescence assays also showed that Foxa2 deletion significantly depressed plasma glucagon levels in both homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice and heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice (P Foxa2 mice compared with control mice (P Foxa2 ablation leads to an imbalance in β/α ratio, profound hypoglucagonemia, inappropriate hyperinsulinemia, and hypoglycemia in mice. Our conditional tissue-specific Foxa2 ablation mouse model

  2. Conditional Tissue-Specific Foxa2 Ablation in Mouse Pancreas Causes Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zengbin; Fei, Aihua; Liu, Yingbin; Pan, Shuming

    The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 is a major upstream regulator of Pdx1, a transcription factor necessary for pancreatic development. In the present study, we conditionally knocked out Foxa2 in Pdx1-expressing domain and further analyzed the contribution of Foxa2 to α- and β-cell development and the effect of Foxa2 deletion on plasma insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels. Homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice and heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice were generated by homologous recombination using a Foxa2 gene-targeting vector. α- and β-cell mass was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Plasma glucose, insulin, and plasma were measured at postnatal day 10. For pdx1 lineage tracing studies, heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 EYFP and homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 EYFP mice were used. Our immunofluorescence analysis revealed that in the pancreas sections of the homozygous mutant mice, Foxa2 was virtually absent from non-β cells and its expression almost exclusively coincided with remnant β cells. The density of both α and β cells apparently decreased in the pancreas of the heterozygous mutant mice and in the pancreas of the homozygous mutant mice, α cells lost its predominance and β cells increased proportionally. Direct Pdx1 cell lineage tracing revealed that, on embryonic day 18.5, in the homozygous mutant mice, Pdx1 expression coincided almost exclusively with that of insulin-secreting β cells. Chemiluminescence assays revealed that heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice had significantly lower insulin levels than control mice (P Foxa2 mice and control mice (P > 0.05). Chemiluminescence assays also showed that Foxa2 deletion significantly depressed plasma glucagon levels in both homozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice and heterozygous pdx1 Foxa2 mice (P Foxa2 mice compared with control mice (P Foxa2 ablation leads to an imbalance in β/α ratio, profound hypoglucagonemia, inappropriate hyperinsulinemia, and hypoglycemia in mice. Our conditional tissue-specific Foxa2 ablation mouse model

  3. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  4. Andrographis paniculata transcriptome provides molecular insights into tissue-specific accumulation of medicinal diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anchal; Agrawal, Lalit; Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sharma, Shubha; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-09-02

    Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) has been widely exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and health disorders. Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e., secondary) metabolites of kalmegh such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, are known for variety of pharmacological activities. However, due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic information, underlying molecular basis of ent-LRDs biosynthesis has remained largely unknown. To identify candidate genes of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis using leaf and root tissues that differentially accumulate ent-LRDs. De novo assembly of Illumina HiSeq2000 platform-generated paired-end sequencing reads resulted into 69,011 leaf and 64,244 root transcripts which were assembled into a total of 84,628 unique transcripts. Annotation of these transcripts to the Uniprot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) databases identified candidate transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. These included transcripts that encode enzymes of the plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway which provides C5 isoprenoid precursors for the ent-LRDs biosynthesis, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, class II diterpene synthase (diTPS), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and glycosyltransferase. Three class II diTPSs (ApCPS1, ApCPS2 and ApCPS3) that showed distinct tissue-specific expression profiles and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledon ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases, are identified. ApCPS1, ApCPS2 and ApCPS3 encode for 832-, 817- and 797- amino acids proteins of 55-63 % identity, respectively. Spatio-temporal patterns of transcripts and ent-LRDs accumulation are consistent with the involvement of ApCPS1 in general (i.e., primary) metabolism for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin, ApCPS2 in leaf specialized ent

  5. Novel human ZAKI-4 isoforms: hormonal and tissue-specific regulation and function as calcineurin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Kambe, Fukushi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sarkar, Devanand; Ohmori, Sachiko; Seo, Hisao

    2002-01-01

    We identified a thyroid hormone [3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T(3))]-responsive gene, ZAKI-4, in cultured human skin fibroblasts. It belongs to a family of genes that encode proteins containing a conserved motif. The motif binds to calcineurin and inhibits its phosphatase activity. In the present study, we have demonstrated three different ZAKI-4 transcripts, alpha, beta1 and beta2, in human brain by 5'- and 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The alpha transcript was identical with the one that we originally cloned from human fibroblasts and the other two are novel. The three transcripts are generated by alternative initiation and splicing from a single gene on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is predicted that beta1 and beta2 encode an identical protein product, beta, which differs from alpha in its N-terminus. Since alpha and beta contain an identical C-terminal region harbouring the conserved motif, both isoforms are suggested to inhibit calcineurin activity. Indeed, each isoform associates with calcineurin A and inhibits its activity in a similar manner, suggesting that the difference in N-terminus of each isoform does not affect the inhibitory function on calcineurin. An examination of the expression profile of the three transcripts in 12 human tissues revealed that the alpha transcript is expressed exclusively in the brain, whereas beta transcripts are expressed ubiquitously, most abundantly in brain, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney. It was also demonstrated that human skin fibroblasts express both alpha and beta transcripts, raising the question of which transcript is up-regulated by T(3). It was revealed that T(3) markedly induced the expression of alpha isoform but not of beta. This T(3)-mediated increase in the alpha isoform was associated with a significant decrease in endogenous calcineurin activity. These results suggest that the expression of ZAKI-4 isoforms is subjected to distinct hormonal as well as tissue-specific regulation, constituting

  6. Diet-induced weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomby, A; Simonyte, K; Mellberg, C; Ryberg, M; Stimson, R H; Larsson, C; Lindahl, B; Andrew, R; Walker, B R; Olsson, T

    2015-05-01

    Tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, and may increase cardiovascular risk. This dysregulation is normalized by short-term calorie restriction and weight loss, an effect that varies with dietary macronutrient composition. However, tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has not been studied during long-term (>6 months) dietary interventions. Therefore our aim was to test whether long-term dietary interventions, either a paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) could normalize tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight and obese women. Forty-nine overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomized to a paleolithic diet or a diet according to NNR for 24 months. At baseline, 6 and 24 months anthropometric measurements, insulin sensitivity, excretion of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites in 24-hour collections, conversion of orally administered cortisone to plasma cortisol and transcript levels of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied. Both diet groups achieved significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss with the PD was greater than on NNR diet after 6 months (Pweight loss in postmenopausal women has tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on glucocorticoid metabolism. This may alter local-tissue cortisol exposure contributing to improved metabolic function during weight loss.

  7. Acquisition and evolution of plant pathogenesis-associated gene clusters and candidate determinants of tissue-specificity in xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lu

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown.To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage.Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small

  8. Prediction of disease-related genes based on weighted tissue-specific networks by using DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Predicting disease-related genes is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics and systems biology. With the advances in high-throughput techniques, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which make it possible to identify disease-related genes at the network level. However, network-based identification of disease-related genes is still a challenge as the considerable false-positives are still existed in the current available protein interaction networks (PIN). Considering the fact that the majority of genetic disorders tend to manifest only in a single or a few tissues, we constructed tissue-specific networks (TSN) by integrating PIN and tissue-specific data. We further weighed the constructed tissue-specific network (WTSN) by using DNA methylation as it plays an irreplaceable role in the development of complex diseases. A PageRank-based method was developed to identify disease-related genes from the constructed networks. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we constructed PIN, weighted PIN (WPIN), TSN, WTSN for colon cancer and leukemia, respectively. The experimental results on colon cancer and leukemia show that the combination of tissue-specific data and DNA methylation can help to identify disease-related genes more accurately. Moreover, the PageRank-based method was effective to predict disease-related genes on the case studies of colon cancer and leukemia. Tissue-specific data and DNA methylation are two important factors to the study of human diseases. The same method implemented on the WTSN can achieve better results compared to those being implemented on original PIN, WPIN, or TSN. The PageRank-based method outperforms degree centrality-based method for identifying disease-related genes from WTSN.

  9. Label free detection of 5′ hydroxymethylcytosine within CpG Islands using optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Rasheeda M.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant research has been invested in correlating genetic variations with different disease probabilities. Recently, it has become apparent that other DNA modifications, such as the addition of a methyl or hydroxymethyl group to cytosine, can also play a role. While these modifications do not change the sequence, they can negatively impact the function. Therefore, it is critical to be able to both read the genetic code and identify these modifications. Currently, the detection of hydroxymethylated cytosine (5′hmC) and the two closely related variants, cytosine (C) and 5′methylcytosine (5′mC), relies on a combination of nucleotide modification steps, followed by PCR and gene sequencing. However, this approach is not ideal because transcription errors which are inherent to the PCR process can be misinterpreted as fluctuations in the relative C:5′mC:5′hmC concentrations. As such, an alternative method which does not rely on PCR or nucleotide modification is desirable. One approach is based on label-free optical resonant cavity sensors. In the present work, toroidal resonant cavity sensors are functionalized with antibodies to enable label-free detection and discrimination between C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC in real-time without PCR. Specifically, epoxide chemistry is used to covalently attach the 5′hmC antibody to the surface of the cavity. Subsequently, to thoroughly characterize the sensor platform, detection of C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC is performed over a concentration range from pM to nM. At low (pM) concentrations, the hydroxymethylated cytosine produces a significantly larger signal than the structurally similar epigenetic markers; thus demonstrating the applicability of this platform. PMID:25461158

  10. High CpG island methylation ofp16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Curr Opin Immunol 21, 431-439.Majid,. S., Kikuno, N., Nelles, J., Noonan, E., Tanaka, Y., Kawamoto, K., et al. 2008 Genistein induces the. p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by epigenetic mechanisms.

  11. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resulting in diversion of all blood from the right ventricle. (RV) into the ... cise intolerance, arrhythmia, right heart failure and sudden death (Bichell ... Materials and methods. Ethics statement. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Com- mittee of Linyi People's Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from ...

  12. A CpG island hypermethylation profile of primary colorectal carcinomas and colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognum Torleiv O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell lines are commonly used as experimental tools in cancer research, but their relevance for the in vivo situation is debated. In a series of 11 microsatellite stable (MSS and 9 microsatellite unstable (MSI colon cancer cell lines and primary colon carcinomas (25 MSS and 28 MSI with known ploidy stem line and APC, KRAS, and TP53 mutation status, we analyzed the promoter methylation of the following genes: hMLH1, MGMT, p16INK4a (CDKN2A α-transcript, p14ARF (CDKN2A β-transcript, APC, and E-cadherin (CDH1. We compared the DNA methylation profiles of the cell lines with those of the primary tumors. Finally, we examined if the epigenetic changes were associated with known genetic markers and/or clinicopathological variables. Results The cell lines and primary tumors generally showed similar overall distribution and frequencies of gene methylation. Among the cell lines, 15%, 50%, 75%, 65%, 20% and 15% showed promoter methylation for hMLH1, MGMT, p16INK4a, p14ARF, APC, and E-cadherin, respectively, whereas 21%, 40%, 32%, 38%, 32%, and 40% of the primary tumors were methylated for the same genes. hMLH1 and p14ARF were significantly more often methylated in MSI than in MSS primary tumors, whereas the remaining four genes showed similar methylation frequencies in the two groups. Methylation of p14ARF, which indirectly inactivates TP53, was seen more frequently in tumors with normal TP53 than in mutated samples, but the difference was not statistically significant. Methylation of p14ARF and p16INK4a was often present in the same primary tumors, but association to diploidy, MSI, right-sided location and female gender was only significant for p14ARF. E-cadherin was methylated in 14/34 tumors with altered APC further stimulating WNT signaling. Conclusions The present study shows that colon cancer cell lines are in general relevant in vitro models, comparable with the in vivo situation, as the cell lines display many of the same molecular alterations as do the primary carcinomas. The combined pattern of epigenetic and genetic aberrations in the primary carcinomas reveals associations between them as well as to clinicopathological variables, and may aid in the future molecular assisted classification of clinically distinct stages.

  13. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FQ-PCR results derived from RVOT revealed that p16 protein expression was significantly lower in ToF group compared to the control group (0.76 ± 0.21 versus 2.31 ± 0.35; P < 0.001), and p16 gene expression was also markedly decreased in ToF ..... Piepkorn M. 2000 Melanoma genetics: an update with focus on the.

  14. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide nanomedicines for the prophylaxis or treatment of cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), which are synthetic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), activate humoral and cellular immunity and are being developed as vaccine adjuvants to prevent or treat cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies. Free CpG ODNs have been used in many clinical trials implemented to verify their effects. However, recent research has reported that self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes demonstrate higher adjuvant effects than free CpG ODNs, owing to their improved uptake efficiency into cells expressing TLR9. Moreover, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes are able to deliver CpG ODNs and antigens (or allergens) to the same types of cells, which enables a higher degree of prophylaxis or therapeutic effect. In this review, the author describes recent trends in the research and development of CpG ODN nanomedicines containing self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes, focusing mainly on the results of preclinical and clinical studies.

  15. Tissue specific promoters improve the localization of radiation-inducible gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis; Kataoka, Yasushi; Kuchibhotla, Jaya; Virudachalam, Subbu; Weichselbaum, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    expression was quantified in vascular endothelial cells from large vessel (HUVEC) and small vessels (HMEC). We found cell-type specificity of radiation-induction. The promoter region from the ELAM gene gave no expression in cells that were not of endothelial cell origin and x-ray-induction of ELAM in the endothelium required the NFkB binding cis-acting element. ELAM induction was achieved at doses as low as 1 Gy, whereas induction of other radiation inducible genes required 5 to 10 Gy. Cells transfected with the minimal promoter (plasmid pTK-CAT) demonstrated no radiation induction. Expression of the CMV-LacZ genetic construct that was used as a negative control in each transfection was not altered by x-irradiation. Moreover, intravenous administration of liposomes containing a reporter gene linked to the ELAM promoter and a transcriptional amplification system were induced specifically at sites of x-irradiation in an animal model. Conclusions: Activation of transcription of the ELAM-1 promoter by ionizing radiation is a means of activating gene therapy within the vascular endothelium and demonstrates the feasibility of treating vascular lesions with noninvasive procedures. Tissue specific promoters (e. g., ELAM-1) combined with radiation inducible gene therapy improves the localization of gene therapy expression. These results have applications in intravascular brachytherapy for the prevention of blood vessel restenosis

  16. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    bone cofactor was identified as a lipid containing a ceramide phosphate, a single chained glycerol lipid and a linker. Tendon uses a different cofactor made up of two fatty acid chains linked directly to the phosphate yielding a molecule about half the size. Moreover, adding the tendon factor/cofactor to osteosarcoma cells causes them to stop growing, which is opposite to its role with tendon cells. Thus, the cofactor is cell type specific both in composition and in the triggered response. Further support of its proposed role came from frozen sections from 5 week old mice where an antibody to the factor stained strongly at the growing ends of the tendon as predicted. In conclusion, the molecule needed for cell density signaling is a small protein bound to a unique, tissue-specific phospholipid yielding a membrane associated but diffusible molecule. Signal transduction is postulated to occur by an increased ordering of the plasma membrane as the concentration of this protein/lipid increases with cell density.

  17. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  18. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  19. Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Oksvold, Per; Kampf, Caroline; Djureinovic, Dijana; Odeberg, Jacob; Habuka, Masato; Tahmasebpoor, Simin; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Asplund, Anna; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Lundberg, Emma; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Skogs, Marie; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M; Lindskog, Cecilia; Danielsson, Frida; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Asa; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Zwahlen, Martin; Olsson, IngMarie; Navani, Sanjay; Huss, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens; Ponten, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody-based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to ∼80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body.

  20. Reinforcement learning for a biped robot based on a CPG-actor-critic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Mori, Takeshi; Sato, Masa-aki; Ishii, Shin

    2007-08-01

    Animals' rhythmic movements, such as locomotion, are considered to be controlled by neural circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), which generate oscillatory signals. Motivated by this biological mechanism, studies have been conducted on the rhythmic movements controlled by CPG. As an autonomous learning framework for a CPG controller, we propose in this article a reinforcement learning method we call the "CPG-actor-critic" method. This method introduces a new architecture to the actor, and its training is roughly based on a stochastic policy gradient algorithm presented recently. We apply this method to an automatic acquisition problem of control for a biped robot. Computer simulations show that training of the CPG can be successfully performed by our method, thus allowing the biped robot to not only walk stably but also adapt to environmental changes.

  1. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of radio- and chemoresponses of murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathryn A.; Neal, Robert; Hunter, Nancy; Ariga, Hisanori; Ang, Kian; Milas, Luka

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motifs bind to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and stimulate both innate and adaptive immune reactions and possess anti-tumor activity. We recently reported that CpG ODN 1826 strongly enhances radioresponse of both immunogenic [Milas L, Mason K, Ariga H, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances tumor response to radiation. Cancer Res 2004;64:5074-7] and non-immunogenic [Mason KA, Ariga H, Neal R, et al. Targeting toll-like receptor-9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhances tumor response to fractionated radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:361-9] murine tumors. Using two immunogenic murine tumors, a fibrosarcoma (FSa) and a mammary carcinoma (MCa-K), the present study explored whether CpG ODN 1826 also improves the response of murine tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel (DOC). Materials and methods: CpG ODN 1826 (100 μg) was given sc three times: when leg tumors were 6 mm, when they grew to 8 mm and again 1 week later. DOC (33 mg/kg iv) and local tumor radiation (10 Gy) were given when tumors were 8 mm. Effects of the treatments were assayed by tumor growth delay, defined as days for tumors to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter. Results: Treatment with CpG ODN 1826 resulted in strongly enhanced response of FSa tumors to radiation and MCa-K tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent DOC. Enhancement of tumor treatment response was demonstrated by a strong prolongation in the primary tumor treatment endpoint, tumor growth delay. Coincidentally, this treatment also resulted in a higher rate of tumor cure than that observed after tumor radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. When all three agents were combined the effect was comparable to that of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with radiation in the case of FSa or of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with DOC in the case of MCa-K. Conclusion: Overall results show that CpG ODN 1826 can markedly improve tumor response

  2. Mendelian inheritance of trimodal CpG methylation sites suggests distal cis-acting genetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlool, Shaza B; Al-Shafai, Mashael; Al Muftah, Wadha A; Kumar, Pankaj; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Falchi, Mario; Suhre, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally influenced phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can be transmitted over multiple generations. Epigenetic modifications, such as methylation of DNA cytosine-guanine (CpG) pairs, may be carriers of inherited information. At the population level, the methylation state of such "heritable" CpG sites is expected to follow a trimodal distribution, and their mode of inheritance should be Mendelian. Using the Illumina Infinium 450 K DNA methylation array, we determined DNA CpG-methylation in blood cells from a family cohort 123 individuals of Arab ethnicity, including 18 elementary father-mother-child trios, we asked whether Mendelian inheritance of CpG methylation is observed, and most importantly, whether it is independent of any genetic signals. Using 40× whole genome sequencing, we therefore excluded all CpG sites with possibly confounding genetic variants (SNP) within the binding regions of the Illumina probes. We identified a total of 955 CpG sites that displayed a trimodal distribution and confirmed trimodality in a study of 1805 unrelated Caucasians. Of 955 CpG sites, 99.9% observed a strict Mendelian pattern of inheritance and had no SNP within +/-110 nucleotides of the CpG site by design. However, in 97% of these cases a distal cis-acting SNP within a +/-1 Mbp window was found that explained the observed CpG distribution, excluding the hypothesis of epigenetic inheritance for these clear-cut trimodal sites. Using power analysis, we showed that in 46% of all cases, the closest CpG-associated SNP was located more than 1000 bp from the CpG site. Our findings suggest that CpG methylation is maintained over larger genomic distances. Furthermore, nearly half of the SNPs associated with these trimodal sites were also associated with the expression of nearby genes ( P  = 4.08 × 10 -6 ), implying a regulatory effect of these trimodal CpG sites.

  3. CpG methylated minichromosomes become inaccessible for V(D)J recombination after undergoing replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, C L; Lieber, M R

    1992-01-01

    The physical parameters controlling the accessibility of antigen receptor loci to the V(D)J recombination activity are unknown. We have used minichromosome substrates to study the role that CpG methylation might play in controlling V(D)J recombination site accessibility. We find that CpG methylation decreases the V(D)J recombination of these substrates more than 100-fold. The decrease correlates with a considerable increase in resistance to endonuclease digestion of the methylated minichromos...

  4. Real-time Walking Pattern Generation for a Biped Robot with Hybrid CPG-ZMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots. The bio-inspired method based on a central pattern generator (CPG can be used to control biped robot walking in a manner like human beings. However, to achieve stable locomotion, it is difficult to modulate the parameters for the neural networks to coordinate every degree of freedom of the walking robot. The zero moment point (ZMP method is very popular for the stability control of biped robot walking. However, the reference trajectories have low energy efficiency, lack naturalness and need significant offline calculation. This paper presents a new method for biped real-time walking generation using a hybrid CPG-ZMP control algorithm. The method can realize a stable walking pattern by combining the ZMP criterion with rhythmic motion control. The CPG component is designed to generate the desired motion for each robot joint, which is modulated by phase resetting according to foot contact information. By introducing the ZMP location, the activity of the CPG output signal is adjusted to coordinate the limbs’ motion and allow the robot to maintain balance during the process of locomotion. The numerical simulation results show that, compared with the CPG method, the new hybrid CPG-ZMP algorithm can enhance the robustness of the CPG parameters and improve the stability of the robot. In addition, the proposed algorithm is more energy efficient than the ZMP method. The results also demonstrate that the control system can generate an adaptive walking pattern through interactions between the robot, the CPG and the environment.

  5. A study of diffusion tensor imaging by tissue-specific, smoothing-compensated voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Eun; Chung, Moo K; Lazar, Mariana; DuBray, Molly B; Kim, Jinsuh; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E; Alexander, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) is commonly used for statistical analysis of image data, including the detection of significant signal differences between groups. Typically, images are co-registered and then smoothed with an isotropic Gaussian kernel to compensate for image misregistration, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), to reduce the number of multiple comparisons, and to apply random field theory. Problems with typical implementations of VBA include poor tissue specificity from image misregistration and smoothing. In this study, we developed a new tissue-specific, smoothing-compensated (T-SPOON) method for the VBA of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data with improved tissue specificity and compensation for image misregistration and smoothing. When compared with conventional VBA methods, the T-SPOON method introduced substantially less errors in the normalized and smoothed DTI maps. Another confound of the conventional DTI-VBA is that it is difficult to differentiate between differences in morphometry and DTI measures that describe tissue microstructure. T-SPOON VBA decreased the effects of differential morphometry in the DTI VBA studies. T-SPOON and conventional VBA were applied to a DTI study of white matter in autism. T-SPOON VBA results were found to be more consistent with region of interest (ROI) measurements in the corpus callosum and temporal lobe regions. The T-SPOON method may be also applicable to other quantitative imaging maps such as T1 or T2 relaxometry, magnetization transfer, or PET tracer maps.

  6. EPS: an empirical Bayes approach to integrating pleiotropy and tissue-specific information for prioritizing risk genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Wan, Xiang; Ma, Shuangge; Yang, Can

    2016-06-15

    Researchers worldwide have generated a huge volume of genomic data, including thousands of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and massive amounts of gene expression data from different tissues. How to perform a joint analysis of these data to gain new biological insights has become a critical step in understanding the etiology of complex diseases. Due to the polygenic architecture of complex diseases, the identification of risk genes remains challenging. Motivated by the shared risk genes found in complex diseases and tissue-specific gene expression patterns, we propose as an Empirical Bayes approach to integrating Pleiotropy and Tissue-Specific information (EPS) for prioritizing risk genes. As demonstrated by extensive simulation studies, EPS greatly improves the power of identification for disease-risk genes. EPS enables rigorous hypothesis testing of pleiotropy and tissue-specific risk gene expression patterns. All of the model parameters can be adaptively estimated from the developed expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We applied EPS to the bipolar disorder and schizophrenia GWAS from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, along with the gene expression data for multiple tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. The results of the real data analysis demonstrate many advantages of EPS. The EPS software is available on https://sites.google.com/site/liujin810822 CONTACT: eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expression analysis of five tobacco EIN3 family members in relation to tissue-specific ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene induces different sets of genes in different tissues and at different stages of development. To investigate whether these differential responses are caused by differential expression of members of the EIN3 family transcription factors, five tobacco family members were isolated. They can be divided into three subgroups, which is probably due to the amphidiploid nature of tobacco. In phylogenetic analysis, each of the subgroups clustered with one of the three tomato EIL proteins and all NtEILs proved to be most homologous to Arabidopsis EIN3 and EIL1. Although organ-specific ethylene responses have been observed before, northern blot analysis showed that all NtEILs were expressed in all organs. To study differential NtEIL expression at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was used on the tobacco ovary. It was found that different ovary tissues displayed variable ethylene-induced expression of two ethylene-responsive marker genes. By contrast, no differences were found in expression level or tissue-specificity for any of the NtEILs in the ovary, before or after ethylene treatment. This indicates that the organ and tissue-specific ethylene responses are not caused by differential expression of NtEIL family members. These results support a model in which the developmental signals that regulate the tissue-specific responses are integrated with the ethylene signal downstream of a common primary ethylene-signalling pathway.

  8. Research on Walking Gait of Biped Robot Based on a Modified CPG Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological studies of animals locomotion have verified that the fundamental rhythmic movements of animals are generated by the central pattern generator (CPG. Many CPG models have been proposed by scientific researchers. In this paper, a modified CPG model whose output function is sin(x is presented. The paper proves that the modified model has stable periodic solution and characteristics of the rhythmic movement using the Lyapunov judgement theorem and the phase diagram. A modified locomotion model is established in which the credit-assignment cerebellar model articulation controller (CA-CMAC algorithm is used to realize the pattern mapping between the CPG output and the musculoskeletal system. And a seven-link biped robot is employed to simulate cyclic walking gait in order to test the validity of the locomotion model. The main findings include the following. (1 The modified CPG model can generate spontaneous oscillations which correspond to biological signals. (2 The analysis of the modified locomotion model reveals that the CA-CMAC algorithm can be used to realize the pattern mapping between the CPG output and the musculoskeletal system.

  9. Predicting tissue specific cis-regulatory modules in the human genome using pairs of co-occurring motifs

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    Girgis Hani Z

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers seeking to unlock the genetic basis of human physiology and diseases have been studying gene transcription regulation. The temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression are controlled by mainly non-coding elements known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs and epigenetic factors. CRMs modulating related genes share the regulatory signature which consists of transcription factor (TF binding sites (TFBSs. Identifying such CRMs is a challenging problem due to the prohibitive number of sequence sets that need to be analyzed. Results We formulated the challenge as a supervised classification problem even though experimentally validated CRMs were not required. Our efforts resulted in a software system named CrmMiner. The system mines for CRMs in the vicinity of related genes. CrmMiner requires two sets of sequences: a mixed set and a control set. Sequences in the vicinity of the related genes comprise the mixed set, whereas the control set includes random genomic sequences. CrmMiner assumes that a large percentage of the mixed set is made of background sequences that do not include CRMs. The system identifies pairs of closely located motifs representing vertebrate TFBSs that are enriched in the training mixed set consisting of 50% of the gene loci. In addition, CrmMiner selects a group of the enriched pairs to represent the tissue-specific regulatory signature. The mixed and the control sets are searched for candidate sequences that include any of the selected pairs. Next, an optimal Bayesian classifier is used to distinguish candidates found in the mixed set from their control counterparts. Our study proposes 62 tissue-specific regulatory signatures and putative CRMs for different human tissues and cell types. These signatures consist of assortments of ubiquitously expressed TFs and tissue-specific TFs. Under controlled settings, CrmMiner identified known CRMs in noisy sets up to 1:25 signal-to-noise ratio. CrmMiner was

  10. Predicting tissue specific cis-regulatory modules in the human genome using pairs of co-occurring motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Hani Z; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2012-02-07

    Researchers seeking to unlock the genetic basis of human physiology and diseases have been studying gene transcription regulation. The temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression are controlled by mainly non-coding elements known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) and epigenetic factors. CRMs modulating related genes share the regulatory signature which consists of transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs). Identifying such CRMs is a challenging problem due to the prohibitive number of sequence sets that need to be analyzed. We formulated the challenge as a supervised classification problem even though experimentally validated CRMs were not required. Our efforts resulted in a software system named CrmMiner. The system mines for CRMs in the vicinity of related genes. CrmMiner requires two sets of sequences: a mixed set and a control set. Sequences in the vicinity of the related genes comprise the mixed set, whereas the control set includes random genomic sequences. CrmMiner assumes that a large percentage of the mixed set is made of background sequences that do not include CRMs. The system identifies pairs of closely located motifs representing vertebrate TFBSs that are enriched in the training mixed set consisting of 50% of the gene loci. In addition, CrmMiner selects a group of the enriched pairs to represent the tissue-specific regulatory signature. The mixed and the control sets are searched for candidate sequences that include any of the selected pairs. Next, an optimal Bayesian classifier is used to distinguish candidates found in the mixed set from their control counterparts. Our study proposes 62 tissue-specific regulatory signatures and putative CRMs for different human tissues and cell types. These signatures consist of assortments of ubiquitously expressed TFs and tissue-specific TFs. Under controlled settings, CrmMiner identified known CRMs in noisy sets up to 1:25 signal-to-noise ratio. CrmMiner was 21-75% more precise than a related CRM

  11. Evaluating the Application of Tissue-Specific Dose Kernels Instead of Water Dose Kernels in Internal Dosimetry : A Monte Carlo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghadam, Maryam Khazaee; Asl, Alireza Kamali; Geramifar, Parham; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the application of tissue-specific dose kernels instead of water dose kernels to improve the accuracy of patient-specific dosimetry by taking tissue heterogeneities into consideration. Materials and Methods: Tissue-specific dose point kernels (DPKs) and

  12. CPG-based Locomotion Controller Design for a Boxfish-like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a Central Pattern Generator (CPG-based locomotion controller design for a boxfish-like robot. The bio-inspired controller is aimed at flexible switching in multiple 3D swimming patterns and exact attitude control of yaw and roll such that the robot will swim more like a real boxfish. The CPG network comprises two layers, the lower layer is the network of coupled linear oscillators and the upper is the transition layer where the lower-dimensional locomotion stimuli are transformed into the higher-dimensional control parameters serving for all the oscillators. Based on such a two-layer framework, flexible switching between multiple three-dimensional swimming patterns, such as swimming forwards/backwards, turning left/right, swimming upwards/downwards and rolling clockwise/counter-clockwise, can be simply realized by inputting different stimuli. Moreover, the stability of the CPG network is strictly proved to guarantee the intrinsic stability of the swimming patterns. As to exact attitude control, based on this open-loop CPG network and the sensory feedback from the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, a closed-loop CPG controller is advanced for yaw and roll control of the robotic fish for the first time. This CPG-based online attitude control for a robotic fish will greatly facilitate high-level practical underwater applications. A series of relevant experiments with the robotic fish are conducted systematically to validate the effectiveness and stability of the open-loop and closed-loop CPG controllers.

  13. Chicken pleiotrophin: regulation of tissue specific expression by estrogen in the oviduct and distinct expression pattern in the ovarian carcinomas.

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    Jin-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Pleiotrophin (PTN is a developmentally-regulated growth factor which is widely distributed in various tissues and also detected in many kinds of carcinomas. However, little is known about the PTN gene in chickens. In the present study, we found chicken PTN to be highly conserved with respect to mammalian PTN genes (91-92.6% and its mRNA was most abundant in brain, heart and oviduct. This study focused on the PTN gene in the oviduct where it was detected in the glandular (GE and luminal (LE epithelial cells. Treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbesterol induced PTN mRNA and protein in GE and LE, but not in other cell types of the oviduct. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-499 and miR-1709 were discovered to influence PTN expression via its 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences PTN expression in chickens. We also compared expression patterns and CpG methylation status of the PTN gene in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Our results indicated that PTN is most abundant in the GE of adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that 30- and 40% of -1311 and -1339 CpG sites are demethylated in ovarian cancer cells, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that chicken PTN is a novel estrogen-induced gene expressed mainly in the oviductal epithelia implicating PTN regulation of oviduct development and egg formation, and also suggest that PTN is a biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma that could be used for diagnosis and monitoring effects of therapies for the disease.

  14. Human Vav1 expression in hematopoietic and cancer cell lines is regulated by c-Myb and by CpG methylation.

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    Lena Ilan

    Full Text Available Vav1 is a signal transducer protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho/Rac GTPases in the hematopoietic system where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in several human malignancies including neuroblastoma, lung cancer, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA. Although some factors that affect vav1 expression are known, neither the physiological nor pathological regulation of vav1 expression is completely understood. We demonstrate herein that mutations in putative transcription factor binding sites at the vav1 promoter affect its transcription in cells of different histological origin. Among these sites is a consensus site for c-Myb, a hematopoietic-specific transcription factor that is also found in Vav1-expressing lung cancer cell lines. Depletion of c-Myb using siRNA led to a dramatic reduction in vav1 expression in these cells. Consistent with this, co-transfection of c-Myb activated transcription of a vav1 promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct in lung cancer cells devoid of Vav1 expression. Together, these results indicate that c-Myb is involved in vav1 expression in lung cancer cells. We also explored the methylation status of the vav1 promoter. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the vav1 promoter was completely unmethylated in human lymphocytes, but methylated to various degrees in tissues that do not normally express vav1. The vav1 promoter does not contain CpG islands in proximity to the transcription start site; however, we demonstrated that methylation of a CpG dinucleotide at a consensus Sp1 binding site in the vav1 promoter interferes with protein binding in vitro. Our data identify two regulatory mechanisms for vav1 expression: binding of c-Myb and CpG methylation of 5' regulatory sequences. Mutation of other putative transcription factor binding sites suggests that additional factors regulate vav1 expression as well.

  15. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  16. Anxiety Associated Increased CpG Methylation in the Promoter of Asb1: A Translational Approach Evidenced by Epidemiological and Clinical Studies and a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeny, Rebecca T; Baumert, Jens; Zannas, Anthony S; Kunze, Sonja; Wahl, Simone; Iurato, Stella; Arloth, Janine; Erhardt, Angelika; Balsevich, Georgia; Schmidt, Mathias V; Weber, Peter; Kretschmer, Anja; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Kruse, Johannes; Strauch, Konstantin; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette; Binder, Elisabeth B; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450K BeadChip), and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation. DNA methylation was measured using the same instrument in a study of patients with anxiety disorders recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (MPIP, 131 non-medicated cases and 169 controls). To expand our mechanistic understanding, these findings were reverse translated in a mouse model of acute social defeat stress. In the KORA study, participants were classified according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of anxiety (29.4%/6.0%/1.5%, respectively). Severe anxiety was associated with 48.5% increased methylation at a single CpG site (cg12701571) located in the promoter of the gene encoding Asb1 (β-coefficient=0.56 standard error (SE)=0.10, p (Bonferroni)=0.005), a protein hypothetically involved in regulation of cytokine signaling. An interaction between IL-18 and severe anxiety with methylation of this CpG cite showed a tendency towards significance in the total population (p=0.083) and a significant interaction among women (p=0.014). Methylation of the same CpG was positively associated with Panic and Agoraphobia scale (PAS) scores (β=0.005, SE=0.002, p=0.021, n=131) among cases in the MPIP study. In a murine model of acute social defeat stress, Asb1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in a tissue-specific manner (p=0.006), which correlated with upregulation of the neuroimmunomodulating cytokine interleukin 1 beta. Our findings suggest epigenetic regulation of the stress

  17. The impact of intragenic CpG content on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Asli Petra; Leikam, Doris; Krinner, Simone; Notka, Frank; Ludwig, Christine; Längst, Gernot; Wagner, Ralf

    2010-07-01

    The development of vaccine components or recombinant therapeutics critically depends on sustained expression of the corresponding transgene. This study aimed to determine the contribution of intragenic CpG content to expression efficiency in transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. Based upon a humanized version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing 60 CpGs within its coding sequence, a CpG-depleted variant of the GFP reporter was established by carefully modulating the codon usage. Interestingly, GFP reporter activity and detectable protein amounts in stably transfected CHO and 293 cells were significantly decreased upon CpG depletion and independent from promoter usage (CMV, EF1 alpha). The reduction in protein expression associated with CpG depletion was likewise observed for other unrelated reporter genes and was clearly reflected by a decline in mRNA copy numbers rather than translational efficiency. Moreover, decreased mRNA levels were neither due to nuclear export restrictions nor alternative splicing or mRNA instability. Rather, the intragenic CpG content influenced de novo transcriptional activity thus implying a common transcription-based mechanism of gene regulation via CpGs. Increased high CpG transcription correlated with changed nucleosomal positions in vitro albeit histone density at the two genes did not change in vivo as monitored by ChIP.

  18. Tissue-specific extracellular matrix coatings for the promotion of cell proliferation and maintenance of cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Yujiang; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Hammam, Nevin; Carnagey, Kristen; Myers, Regina; Atala, Anthony; Van Dyke, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) substitutes can have a dramatic impact on cell growth, differentiation and function. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be developed for specific cell types. In this study, we developed tissue-specific ECM-based coating substrates for skin, skeletal muscle and liver cell cultures. Cellular components were removed from adult skin, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues, and the resulting acellular matrices were homogenized and dissolved. The ECM solutions were used to coat culture dishes. Tissue matched and non-tissue matched cell types were grown on these coatings to assess adhesion, proliferation, maintenance of phenotype and cell function at several time points. Each cell type showed better proliferation and differentiation in cultures containing ECM from their tissue of origin. Although subtle compositional differences in the three ECM types were not investigated in this study, these results suggest that tissue-specific ECMs provide a culture microenvironment that is similar to the in vivo environment when used as coating substrates, and this new culture technique has the potential for use in drug development and the development of cell-based therapies.

  19. A robust approach to identifying tissue-specific gene expression regulatory variants using personalized human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hyuk Lee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal variation in gene expression due to regulatory polymorphisms is often masked by biological and experimental noise. In addition, some regulatory polymorphisms may become apparent only in specific tissues. We derived human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells from adult skin primary fibroblasts and attempted to detect tissue-specific cis-regulatory variants using in vitro cell differentiation. We used padlock probes and high-throughput sequencing for digital RNA allelotyping and measured allele-specific gene expression in primary fibroblasts, lymphoblastoid cells, iPS cells, and their differentiated derivatives. We show that allele-specific expression is both cell type and genotype-dependent, but the majority of detectable allele-specific expression loci remains consistent despite large changes in the cell type or the experimental condition following iPS reprogramming, except on the X-chromosome. We show that our approach to mapping cis-regulatory variants reduces in vitro experimental noise and reveals additional tissue-specific variants using skin-derived human iPS cells.

  20. A robust approach to identifying tissue-specific gene expression regulatory variants using personalized human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-Hyuk; Park, In-Hyun; Gao, Yuan; Li, Jin Billy; Li, Zhe; Daley, George Q; Zhang, Kun; Church, George M

    2009-11-01

    Normal variation in gene expression due to regulatory polymorphisms is often masked by biological and experimental noise. In addition, some regulatory polymorphisms may become apparent only in specific tissues. We derived human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult skin primary fibroblasts and attempted to detect tissue-specific cis-regulatory variants using in vitro cell differentiation. We used padlock probes and high-throughput sequencing for digital RNA allelotyping and measured allele-specific gene expression in primary fibroblasts, lymphoblastoid cells, iPS cells, and their differentiated derivatives. We show that allele-specific expression is both cell type and genotype-dependent, but the majority of detectable allele-specific expression loci remains consistent despite large changes in the cell type or the experimental condition following iPS reprogramming, except on the X-chromosome. We show that our approach to mapping cis-regulatory variants reduces in vitro experimental noise and reveals additional tissue-specific variants using skin-derived human iPS cells.

  1. Soil bacteria confer plant salt tolerance by tissue-specific regulation of the sodium transporter HKT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiming; Kim, Mi-Seong; Sun, Yan; Dowd, Scot E; Shi, Huazhong; Paré, Paul W

    2008-06-01

    Elevated sodium (Na(+)) decreases plant growth and, thereby, agricultural productivity. The ion transporter high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT)1 controls Na(+) import in roots, yet dysfunction or overexpression of HKT1 fails to increase salt tolerance, raising questions as to HKT1's role in regulating Na(+) homeostasis. Here, we report that tissue-specific regulation of HKT1 by the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03 confers salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under salt stress (100 mM NaCl), GB03 concurrently down- and upregulates HKT1 expression in roots and shoots, respectively, resulting in lower Na(+) accumulation throughout the plant compared with controls. Consistent with HKT1 participation in GB03-induced salt tolerance, GB03 fails to rescue salt-stressed athkt1 mutants from stunted foliar growth and elevated total Na(+) whereas salt-stressed Na(+) export mutants sos3 show GB03-induced salt tolerance with enhanced shoot and root growth as well as reduced total Na(+). These results demonstrate that tissue-specific regulation of HKT1 is critical for managing Na(+) homeostasis in salt-stressed plants, as well as underscore the breadth and sophistication of plant-microbe interactions.

  2. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebbink, Wouter A. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F. [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Muir, Derek C.G. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)], E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca

    2008-04-15

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). PCB, OH-PCB, MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and PBDE congener patterns showed significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) mainly in the liver and the brain relative to the adipose tissue and the blood. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were not detected in the brain and liver, but had different patterns in blood versus the adipose tissue. Novel OH-polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), one tri- and two tetra-brominated OH-PBBs were detected in all tissues and blood. Congener pattern differences among tissues and blood are likely due to a combination of factors, e.g., biotransformation and retention in the liver, retention in the blood and blood-brain barrier transport. Our findings suggest that different congener pattern exposures to these classes of contaminants should be considered with respect to potential target tissue-specific effects in East Greenland polar bears. - Tissues-specific (adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood) differences exist for the congener patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites/degradation products in East Greenland polar bears.

  3. Tissue-Specific Contributions of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 in Lactation and Maternal Care of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Frey

    Full Text Available Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3 is an imprinted gene that controls milk letdown and maternal-caring behaviors. In this study, a conditional knockout allele has been developed in Mus musculus to further characterize these known functions of Peg3 in a tissue-specific manner. The mutant line was first crossed with a germline Cre. The progeny of this cross displayed growth retardation phenotypes. This is consistent with those seen in the previous mutant lines of Peg3, confirming the usefulness of the new mutant allele. The mutant line was subsequently crossed individually with MMTV- and Nkx2.1-Cre lines to test Peg3's roles in the mammary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. According to the results, the milk letdown process was impaired in the nursing females with the Peg3 mutation in the mammary gland, but not in the hypothalamus. This suggests that Peg3's roles in the milk letdown process are more critical in the mammary gland than in the hypothalamus. In contrast, one of the maternal-caring behaviors, nest-building, was interrupted in the females with the mutation in both MMTV- and Nkx2.1-driven lines. Overall, this is the first study to introduce a conditional knockout allele of Peg3 and to further dissect its contribution to mammalian reproduction in a tissue-specific manner.

  4. Aire deficient mice do not develop the same profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies as APECED patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöntynen, Nora; Miettinen, Aaro; Arstila, T Petteri; Kämpe, Olle; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Vaarala, Outi; Peltonen, Leena; Ulmanen, Ismo

    2006-09-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, or APS1), is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. The three main components of APECED are chronic mucocuteaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical insufficiency. However, several additional endocrine or other autoimmune disease components, or ectodermal dystrophies form the individually variable clinical picture of APECED. An important feature of APECED is a spectrum of well-characterized circulating autoantibodies, reacting against tissue-specific autoantigens. Aire deficient mice develop some characteristics of APECED phenotype. In order to investigate whether the Aire deficient mice produce autoantibodies similar to human APECED, we studied the reactivity of Aire mouse sera against mouse homologues of 11 human APECED antigens. None of the APECED antigens indicated elevated reactivity in the Aire knock-out mouse sera, implying the absence of APECED associated autoantibodies in Aire deficient mice. These findings were supported by the failure of the autoantigens to activate mouse T-cells. Furthermore, Aire knock-out mice did not express increased levels of anti-nuclear antibodies compared to wt mice. This study indicates that spontaneous induction of tissue-specific autoantibodies similar to APECED does not occur in the rodent model suggesting differences in the immunopathogenic mechanisms between mice and men. Copyright 2006 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. p63 regulates Satb1 to control tissue-specific chromatin remodeling during development of the epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessing, Michael Y.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Rapisarda, Valentina; Gordon, Konstantin B.; Smorodchenko, Anna D.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Ferone, Giustina; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Missero, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    During development, multipotent progenitor cells establish tissue-specific programs of gene expression. In this paper, we show that p63 transcription factor, a master regulator of epidermal morphogenesis, executes its function in part by directly regulating expression of the genome organizer Satb1 in progenitor cells. p63 binds to a proximal regulatory region of the Satb1 gene, and p63 ablation results in marked reduction in the Satb1 expression levels in the epidermis. Satb1−/− mice show impaired epidermal morphology. In Satb1-null epidermis, chromatin architecture of the epidermal differentiation complex locus containing genes associated with epidermal differentiation is altered primarily at its central domain, where Satb1 binding was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation–on-chip analysis. Furthermore, genes within this domain fail to be properly activated upon terminal differentiation. Satb1 expression in p63+/− skin explants treated with p63 small interfering ribonucleic acid partially restored the epidermal phenotype of p63-deficient mice. These data provide a novel mechanism by which Satb1, a direct downstream target of p63, contributes in epidermal morphogenesis via establishing tissue-specific chromatin organization and gene expression in epidermal progenitor cells. PMID:21930775

  6. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki) pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd), or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth), known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  7. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd, or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth, known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  8. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F.; Born, Erik W.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). PCB, OH-PCB, MeSO 2 -PCB and PBDE congener patterns showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) mainly in the liver and the brain relative to the adipose tissue and the blood. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were not detected in the brain and liver, but had different patterns in blood versus the adipose tissue. Novel OH-polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), one tri- and two tetra-brominated OH-PBBs were detected in all tissues and blood. Congener pattern differences among tissues and blood are likely due to a combination of factors, e.g., biotransformation and retention in the liver, retention in the blood and blood-brain barrier transport. Our findings suggest that different congener pattern exposures to these classes of contaminants should be considered with respect to potential target tissue-specific effects in East Greenland polar bears. - Tissues-specific (adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood) differences exist for the congener patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites/degradation products in East Greenland polar bears

  9. Intramyocardial Injection of siRNAs Can Efficiently Establish Myocardial Tissue-Specific Renalase Knockdown Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiliang; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury will cause additional death of cardiomyocytes in ischaemic heart disease. Recent studies revealed that renalase was involved in the I/R injury. So, the myocardial tissue-specific knockdown mouse models were needed for the investigations of renalase. To establish the mouse models, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase was performed in mice. The wild distribution and high transfection efficiency of the siRNAs were approved. And the renalase expression was efficiently suppressed in myocardial tissue. Compared with the high cost, time consumption, and genetic compensation risk of the Cre/loxP technology, RNA interference (RNAi) technology is much cheaper and less time-consuming. Among the RNAi technologies, injection of siRNAs is safer than virus. And considering the properties of the I/R injury mouse models, the efficiency and durability of injection with siRNAs are acceptable for the studies. Altogether, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase is an economical, safe, and efficient method to establish myocardial tissue-specific renalase knockdown mouse models.

  10. Tissue Discrimination by Uncorrected Autofluorescence Spectra: A Proof-of-Principle Study for Tissue-Specific Laser Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tangermann-Gerk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser surgery provides a number of advantages over conventional surgery. However, it implies large risks for sensitive tissue structures due to its characteristic non-tissue-specific ablation. The present study investigates the discrimination of nine different ex vivo tissue types by using uncorrected (raw autofluorescence spectra for the development of a remote feedback control system for tissue-selective laser surgery. Autofluorescence spectra (excitation wavelength 377 ± 50 nm were measured from nine different ex vivo tissue types, obtained from 15 domestic pig cadavers. For data analysis, a wavelength range between 450 nm and 650 nm was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA were used to discriminate the tissue types. ROC analysis showed that PCA, followed by QDA, could differentiate all investigated tissue types with AUC results between 1.00 and 0.97. Sensitivity reached values between 93% and 100% and specificity values between 94% and 100%. This ex vivo study shows a high differentiation potential for physiological tissue types when performing autofluorescence spectroscopy followed by PCA and QDA. The uncorrected autofluorescence spectra are suitable for reliable tissue discrimination and have a high potential to meet the challenges necessary for an optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery.

  11. Physiological, anatomical and genetic identification of CPG neurons in the developing mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Butt, Simon J.B.

    2003-01-01

    . These latter experiments have defined EphA4 as a molecular marker for mammalian excitatory hindlimb CPG neurons. We also review genetic approaches that can be applied to the mouse spinal cord. These include methods for identifying sub-populations of neurons by genetically encoded reporters, techniques to trace...... network connectivity with cell-specific genetically encoded tracers, and ways to selectively ablate or eliminate neuron populations from the CPG. We propose that by applying a multidisciplinary approach it will be possible to understand the network structure of the mammalian locomotor CPG......The basic motor patterns underlying rhythmic limb movements during locomotion are generated by neuronal networks located within the spinal cord. These networks are called Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). Isolated spinal cord preparations from newborn rats and mice have become increasingly...

  12. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A.R.; Sondel, Paul M.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy. PMID:25829245

  13. Effect of the assignment of ancestral CpG state on the estimation of nucleotide substitution rates in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keightley Peter D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies in mammals often estimate nucleotide substitution rates within and outside CpG dinucleotides separately. Frequently, in alignments of two sequences, the division of sites into CpG and non-CpG classes is based simply on the presence or absence of a CpG dinucleotide in either sequence, a procedure that we refer to as CpG/non-CpG assignment. Although it likely that this procedure is biased, it is generally assumed that the bias is negligible if species are very closely related. Results Using simulations of DNA sequence evolution we show that assignment of the ancestral CpG state based on the simple presence/absence of the CpG dinucleotide can seriously bias estimates of the substitution rate, because many true non-CpG changes are misassigned as CpG. Paradoxically, this bias is most severe between closely related species, because a minimum of two substitutions are required to misassign a true ancestral CpG site as non-CpG whereas only a single substitution is required to misassign a true ancestral non-CpG site as CpG in a two branch tree. We also show that CpG misassignment bias differentially affects fourfold degenerate and noncoding sites due to differences in base composition such that fourfold degenerate sites can appear to be evolving more slowly than noncoding sites. We demonstrate that the effects predicted by our simulations occur in a real evolutionary setting by comparing substitution rates estimated from human-chimp coding and intronic sequence using CpG/non-CpG assignment with estimates derived from a method that is largely free from bias. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a common method of assigning sites into CpG and non CpG classes in pairwise alignments is seriously biased and recommends against the adoption of ad hoc methods of ancestral state assignment.

  14. Protective immunity against Megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following CpG ODN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-06-27

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10 7 ) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10 6 ) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10 4 and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10 7 ) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10 4 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gambogic Acid Is a Tissue-Specific Proteasome Inhibitor In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambogic acid (GA is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbs that has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials in cancer patients; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that GA inhibits tumor proteasome activity, with potency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. First, GA acts as a prodrug and only gains proteasome-inhibitory function after being metabolized by intracellular CYP2E1. Second, GA-induced proteasome inhibition is a prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and anticancer effect without off-targets. Finally, because expression of the CYP2E1 gene is very high in tumor tissues but low in many normal tissues, GA could therefore produce tissue-specific proteasome inhibition and tumor-specific toxicity, with clinical significance for designing novel strategies for cancer treatment.

  16. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tissue specific diurnal rhythms of metabolites and their regulation during herbivore attack in a native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Gyu Kim

    Full Text Available Ecological performance is all about timing and the endogenous clock that allows the entrainment of rhythms and anticipation of fitness-determining events is being rapidly characterized. How plants anticipate daily abiotic stresses, such as cold in early mornings and drought at noon, as well as biotic stresses, such as the timing of pathogen infections, is being explored, but little is known about the clock's role in regulating responses to insect herbivores and mutualists, whose behaviors are known to be strongly diurnally regulated and whose attack is known to reconfigure plant metabolomes. We developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure and analyzed its output with model-based peak picking algorithms to identify metabolites with diurnal accumulation patterns in sink/source leaves and roots in an unbiased manner. The response of metabolites with strong diurnal patterns to simulated attack from the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta larvae was analyzed and annotated with in-house and public databases. Roots and leaves had largely different rhythms and only 10 ions of 182 oscillating ions in leaves and 179 oscillating ions in roots were rhythmic in both tissues: root metabolites mainly peaked at dusk or night, while leaf metabolites peaked during the day. Many oscillating metabolites showed tissue-specific regulation by simulated herbivory of which systemic responses in unattacked tissues were particularly pronounced. Diurnal and herbivory-elicited accumulation patterns of disaccharide, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lyciumoside I, coumaroyl tyramine, 12-oxophytodienoic acid and jasmonic acid and those of their related biosynthetic transcripts were examined in detail. We conclude that oscillating metabolites of N. attenuata accumulate in a highly tissue-specific manner and the patterns reveal pronounced diurnal rhythms in the generalized and specialized metabolism that mediates the plant's responses to herbivores and mutualists. We

  18. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Methylated CpG site count of dapper homolog 1 (DACT1) promoter prediction the poor survival of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingyu; Liang, Han; Zhang, Rupeng; Ying, Guoguang; Xie, Xingmin; Yu, Jun; Fan, Daiming; Hao, Xishan

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the clinical significance of the methylated status of CpG sites of dapper homolog 1 (DACT1) promoter in the survival prediction in gastric cancer (GC). The large scale GC patients (n=459) were analyzed for the quantitatively methylated status of CpG sites of DACT1 DNA promoter with the bisulphite sequencing PCR (BSP). With gene sequencing analysis, the methylated statuses of 12 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in DACT1 promoter were detected to supply detailed information for the precisely prognostic prediction. Associations between molecular, clinicopathologic, and survival data were analyzed. With the MSP detection, different methylated levels of DACT1 promoter were identified in the 25 GC tissues, while none of 25 normal gastric mucosal tissues were found to be methylated. DACT1 promoter methylation was found in 28.32% in 459 patients. GC patients with 4 or more methylated CpG sites of DACT1 promoter was significantly associated with the poorer survival (P=0.19). The methylated statuses of CpG -515, CpG -435, and CpG -430 sites were also identified to provide the elaborate survival discrimination for 459 GC patients, respectively (P=0.049, =0.006, and =0.037). In addition, we demonstrated that the methylated CpG site count had smallest AIC and BIC values than other three methylated status of CpG sites for prediction the survival of 459 GC patients. The methylated CpG site count of DACT1 promoter had the significant applicability for clinical evaluation the prognosis of GC.

  20. A survey on CPG-inspired control models and system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junzhi; Tan, Min; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-03-01

    This paper surveys the developments of the last 20 years in the field of central pattern generator (CPG) inspired locomotion control, with particular emphasis on the fast emerging robotics-related applications. Functioning as a biological neural network, CPGs can be considered as a group of coupled neurons that generate rhythmic signals without sensory feedback; however, sensory feedback is needed to shape the CPG signals. The basic idea in engineering endeavors is to replicate this intrinsic, computationally efficient, distributed control mechanism for multiple articulated joints, or multi-DOF control cases. In terms of various abstraction levels, existing CPG control models and their extensions are reviewed with a focus on the relative advantages and disadvantages of the models, including ease of design and implementation. The main issues arising from design, optimization, and implementation of the CPG-based control as well as possible alternatives are further discussed, with an attempt to shed more light on locomotion control-oriented theories and applications. The design challenges and trends associated with the further advancement of this area are also summarized.

  1. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome fromtransposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG bindingdomain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind tomethylated ...

  2. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as TLR9 agonists: therapeutic applications in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Yanal M; Clay, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system, and they belong to the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) family. The PRR family is designed to recognize and bind conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are not generated by the host and are restricted and essential to micro-organisms. TLR9, which recognizes unmethylated CpG (cytosine guanosine dinucleotide), is a very promising target for therapeutic activation. Stimulation of TLR9 activates human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, and results in potent T helper-1 (T(h)1)-type immune responses and antitumor responses in mouse tumor models and in patients. Several pharmaceutical companies, such as Pfizer, Idera, and Dynavax, are developing CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for the treatment of cancer, along with other conditions, such as infections and allergy. CpG ODNs have shown promising results as vaccine adjuvants and in combination with cancer immunotherapy. Several TLR9 agonists are being developed and have entered clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy for the treatment of several hematopoietic and solid tumors. In this review, we discuss the use of CpG ODNs in several phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of NHL, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and non-small cell lung cancer, either alone or in combination with other agents.

  3. On the role of sensory feedbacks in Rowat-Selverston CPG to improve robot legged locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira eAmrollah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Rowat and Selverston-type of CPG to control locomotion. It focuses on the role of afferent exteroceptive and proprioceptive signals in the dynamic phase synchronization in CPG legged robots. The sensori-motor neural network architecture is evaluated to control a two-joint planar robot leg that slips on a rail. Then, the closed loop between the CPG and the mechanical system allows to study the modulation of rhythmic patterns and the effect of the sensing loop via sensory neurons during the locomotion task. Firstly simulations show that the proposed architecture easily allows to modulate rhythmic patterns of the leg, and therefore the velocity of the robot. Secondly, simulations show that sensori-feedbacks from foot/ground contact of the leg make the hip velocity smoother and larger. The results show that the Rowat-Selverston-type CPG with sensory feedbacks is an effective choice for building adaptive Neural Central Pattern Generators for legged robots.

  4. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, Nikolay B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B.; Korneenko, Tatyana V.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Modyanov, Nikolai N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. ► ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. ► Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. ► Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. ► In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2 gene radiated from ATP2C1 (encoding SPCA1) during adaptation of tetrapod ancestors to terrestrial habitats.

  6. Variation in Metabolic Rate among Individuals Is Related to Tissue-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Leak Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) typically vary two- or threefold among conspecifics, with both traits assumed to significantly impact fitness. However, the underlying mechanisms that determine such intraspecific variation are not well understood. We examined the influence of mitochondrial properties on intraspecific variation in SMR and MMR and hypothesized that if SMR supports the cost of maintaining the metabolic machinery required for MMR, then the mitochondrial properties underlying these traits should be shared. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity (leak and phosphorylating respiration) and mitochondrial content (cytochrome c oxidase activity) were determined in the liver and white muscle of brown trout Salmo trutta of similar age and maintenance conditions. SMR and MMR were uncorrelated across individuals and were not associated with the same mitochondrial properties, suggesting that they are under the control of separate physiological processes. Moreover, tissue-specific relationships between mitochondrial properties and whole-organism metabolic traits were observed. Specifically, SMR was positively associated with leak respiration in liver mitochondria, while MMR was positively associated with muscle mitochondrial leak respiration and mitochondrial content. These results suggest that a high SMR or MMR, rather than signaling a higher ability for respiration-driven ATP synthesis, may actually reflect greater dissipation of energy, driven by proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Knowledge of these links should aid interpretation of the potential fitness consequences of such variation in metabolism, given the importance of mitochondria in the utilization of resources and their allocation to performance.

  7. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F; Born, Erik W; Muir, Derek C G; Letcher, Robert J

    2008-04-01

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO2-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). PCB, OH-PCB, MeSO2-PCB and PBDE congener patterns showed significant differences (ptissue-specific effects in East Greenland polar bears.

  8. Tissue-specific expression of transfected human insulin genes in pluripotent clonal rat insulinoma lines induced during passage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, O.D.; Andersen, L.C.; Michelsen, B.; Owerbach, D.; Larsson, L.I.; Lernmark, A.; Steiner, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The pluripotent rat islet tumor cell line MSL-G2 expresses primarily glucagon or cholecystokinin and not insulin in vitro but changes phenotype completely after prolonged in vivo cultivation to yield small-sized hypoglycemic tumors composed almost entirely of insulin-producing beta cells. When a genomic DNA fragment containing the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the human insulin gene was stably transfected into MSL-G2 cells no measurable amounts of insulin or insulin mRNA were detected in vitro. However, successive transplantation of two transfected clones resulted in hypoglycemic tumors that efficiently coexpressed human and rat insulin as determined by human C-peptide-specific immunoreagents. These results demonstrate that cis-acting tissue-specific insulin gene enhancer elements are conserved between rat and human insulin genes. The authors propose that the in vivo differentiation of MSL-G2 cells and transfected subclones into insulin-producing cells reflects processes of natural beta-cell ontogeny leading to insulin gene expression

  9. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end

  10. Development of a tissue-specific ribosome profiling approach in Drosophila enables genome-wide evaluation of translational adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Dickman, Dion

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing approaches have revolutionized our understanding of transcriptional expression in diverse systems. However, measurements of transcription do not necessarily reflect gene translation, the process of ultimate importance in understanding cellular function. To circumvent this limitation, biochemical tagging of ribosome subunits to isolate ribosome-associated mRNA has been developed. However, this approach, called TRAP, lacks quantitative resolution compared to a superior technology, ribosome profiling. Here, we report the development of an optimized ribosome profiling approach in Drosophila. We first demonstrate successful ribosome profiling from a specific tissue, larval muscle, with enhanced resolution compared to conventional TRAP approaches. We next validate the ability of this technology to define genome-wide translational regulation. This technology is leveraged to test the relative contributions of transcriptional and translational mechanisms in the postsynaptic muscle that orchestrate the retrograde control of presynaptic function at the neuromuscular junction. Surprisingly, we find no evidence that significant changes in the transcription or translation of specific genes are necessary to enable retrograde homeostatic signaling, implying that post-translational mechanisms ultimately gate instructive retrograde communication. Finally, we show that a global increase in translation induces adaptive responses in both transcription and translation of protein chaperones and degradation factors to promote cellular proteostasis. Together, this development and validation of tissue-specific ribosome profiling enables sensitive and specific analysis of translation in Drosophila.

  11. Multi-species, multi-transcription factor binding highlights conserved control of tissue-specific biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Benoit; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Schmidt, Dominic; Gonzàlez-Porta, Mar; Carlucci, Matthew; Chen, Xiaoting; Chessman, Kyle; Faure, Andre J; Funnell, Alister PW; Goncalves, Angela; Kutter, Claudia; Lukk, Margus; Menon, Suraj; McLaren, William M; Stefflova, Klara; Watt, Stephen; Weirauch, Matthew T; Crossley, Merlin; Marioni, John C; Odom, Duncan T; Flicek, Paul; Wilson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    As exome sequencing gives way to genome sequencing, the need to interpret the function of regulatory DNA becomes increasingly important. To test whether evolutionary conservation of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) gives insight into human gene regulation, we determined transcription factor (TF) binding locations of four liver-essential TFs in liver tissue from human, macaque, mouse, rat, and dog. Approximately, two thirds of the TF-bound regions fell into CRMs. Less than half of the human CRMs were found as a CRM in the orthologous region of a second species. Shared CRMs were associated with liver pathways and disease loci identified by genome-wide association studies. Recurrent rare human disease causing mutations at the promoters of several blood coagulation and lipid metabolism genes were also identified within CRMs shared in multiple species. This suggests that multi-species analyses of experimentally determined combinatorial TF binding will help identify genomic regions critical for tissue-specific gene control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02626.001 PMID:25279814

  12. Molecular Characterization and Tissue-specific Expression of a Novel FKBP38 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hao, X Y; Chen, Y H; Zhang, X; Yang, J F; Wang, Z G; Liu, D J

    2012-06-01

    As a member of a subclass of immunophilins, it is controversial that FKBP38 acts an upstream regulator of mTOR signaling pathway, which control the process of cell-growth, proliferation and differentiation. In order to explore the relationship between FKBP38 and mTOR in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) cells, a full-length cDNA was cloned (GenBank accession number JF714970) and expression pattern was analyzed. The cloned FKBP38 gene is 1,248 bp in length, containing an open reading frame (ORF) from nucleotide 13 to 1,248 which encodes 411 amino acids, and 12 nucleotides in front of the initiation codon. The full cDNA sequence shares 98% identity with cattle, 94% with horse and 90% with human. The putative amino acid sequence shows the higher homology which is 98%, 97% and 94%, correspondingly. The bioinformatics analysis showed that FKBP38 contained a FKBP_C domain, two TPR domains and a TM domain. Psite analysis suggested that the ORF encoding protein contained a leucine-zipper pattern and a Prenyl group binding site (CAAX box). Tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and showed that the FKBP38 expression was detected in all the tested tissues and the highest level of mRNA accumulation was detected in testis, suggesting that FKBP38 plays an important role in goat cells.

  13. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  14. Variable expression of Cre recombinase transgenes precludes reliable prediction of tissue-specific gene disruption by tail-biopsy genotyping.

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    Tim J Schulz

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP-system has become the system of choice for the generation of conditional so-called knockout mouse strains, i.e. the tissue-specific disruption of expression of a certain target gene. We here report the loss of expression of Cre recombinase in a transgenic mouse strain with increasing number of generations. This eventually led to the complete abrogation of gene expression of the inserted Cre cDNA while still being detectable at the genomic level. Conversely, loss of Cre expression caused an incomplete or even complete lack of disruption for the protein under investigation. As Cre expression in the tissue of interest in most cases cannot be addressed in vivo during the course of a study, our findings implicate the possibility that individual tail-biopsy genotypes may not necessarily indicate the presence or absence of gene disruption. This indicates that sustained post hoc analyses in regards to efficacy of disruption for every single study group member may be required.

  15. Life-long Maternal Cafeteria Diet Promotes Tissue-Specific Morphological Changes in Male Offspring Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLYNE D.S. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT, Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT, and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation. After birth, only male offspring (F1 were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.

  16. Salt-Induced Tissue-Specific Cytosine Methylation Downregulates Expression of HKT Genes in Contrasting Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Beena, Ananda Sankara; Awana, Monika; Singh, Archana

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity. The differential expression of HKTs has been reported to confer tolerance to salt stress in plants. In this study, we investigated variations in cytosine methylation and their effects on the expression of HKT genes in contrasting wheat genotypes under salt stress. We observed a genotype- and tissue-specific increase in cytosine methylation induced by NaCl stress that downregulated the expression of TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;3 in the shoot and root tissues of Kharchia-65, thereby contributing to its improved salt-tolerance ability. Although TaHKT1;4 was expressed only in roots and was downregulated under the stress in salt-tolerant genotypes, it was not regulated through variations in cytosine methylation. Thus, understanding epigenetic regulation and the function of HKTs would enable an improvement in salt tolerance and the development of salt-tolerant crops.

  17. Adipocyte dysfunction in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS: evidence of adipocyte hypertrophy and tissue-specific inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Marino

    Full Text Available Clinical research shows an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and chronic inflammation, a pathological state thought to contribute to insulin resistance. The underlying pathways, however, have not been defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inflammatory state of a novel mouse model of PCOS. Female mice lacking leptin and insulin receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons (IR/LepR(POMC mice and littermate controls were evaluated for estrous cyclicity, ovarian and adipose tissue morphology, and body composition by QMR and CT scan. Tissue-specific macrophage infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression were measured, as well as circulating cytokine levels. Finally, glucose regulation during pregnancy was evaluated as a measure of risk for diabetes development. Forty-five percent of IR/LepR(POMC mice showed reduced or absent ovulation. IR/LepR(POMC mice also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production in perigonadal adipose tissue, liver, and ovary. These mice also exhibited gestational hyperglycemia as predicted. This report is the first to show the presence of inflammation in IR/LepR(POMC mice, which develop a PCOS-like phenotype. Thus, IR/LepR(POMC mice may serve as a new mouse model to clarify the involvement of adipose and liver tissue in the pathogenesis and etiology of PCOS, allowing more targeted research on the development of PCOS and potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Thomas; Ong, David Eng Hui; Lim, Frances Sheau Huei; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; McGovern, Naomi; Narayanan, Sriram; Ho, Wen Qi; Cerny, Daniela; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Anicete, Rosslyn; Tan, Bien Keem; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Chan, Chung Yip; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng-Huat; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tan, Ern Yu; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Fink, Katja; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ginhoux, Florent; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria Alicia; Newell, Evan William

    2016-08-16

    Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue specificity of 8-prenylnaringenin: protection from ovariectomy induced bone loss with minimal trophic effects on the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümpel, Michael; Isaksson, Päivi; Schaefer, Olaf; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana; Schleuning, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-11-01

    Plant secondary metabolites with estrogenic activity (phyto-estrogens) have been studied in the past as a potential alternative to classical hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) in menopausal women. No final verdict on the efficacy of soy or red clover based pharmaceutical preparations has been reached despite numerous clinical studies. We have studied the novel and most potent phyto-estrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) in adult ovariectomized rats, an established animal model to mimic hormone dependent osteoporosis in menopausal women. Our results demonstrate that 8-PN can completely protect from ovariectomy induced bone-loss while exhibiting minimal, (dose independent) trophic effects on uterus and endometrium. It is estimated that at equivalent bone protective doses of 17beta-estradiol and 8-PN, the phyto-estrogen has a 10-fold lower stimulatory effect on uterus and endometrium. The bone tissue specific effect of 8-PN was confirmed in a transgenic reporter mouse model (ERE-Luc mice). Here we also found pronounced estrogenic activity in prostate. Present results add important aspects to the pharmacological profile of 8-PN and position this compound as an interesting alternative new candidate for treatment of peri- and postmenopausal symptoms.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Tissue-specific Expression of a Novel FKBP38 Gene in the Cashmere Goat (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a member of a subclass of immunophilins, it is controversial that FKBP38 acts an upstream regulator of mTOR signaling pathway, which control the process of cell-growth, proliferation and differentiation. In order to explore the relationship between FKBP38 and mTOR in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus cells, a full-length cDNA was cloned (GenBank accession number JF714970 and expression pattern was analyzed. The cloned FKBP38 gene is 1,248 bp in length, containing an open reading frame (ORF from nucleotide 13 to 1,248 which encodes 411 amino acids, and 12 nucleotides in front of the initiation codon. The full cDNA sequence shares 98% identity with cattle, 94% with horse and 90% with human. The putative amino acid sequence shows the higher homology which is 98%, 97% and 94%, correspondingly. The bioinformatics analysis showed that FKBP38 contained a FKBP_C domain, two TPR domains and a TM domain. Psite analysis suggested that the ORF encoding protein contained a leucine-zipper pattern and a Prenyl group binding site (CAAX box. Tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and showed that the FKBP38 expression was detected in all the tested tissues and the highest level of mRNA accumulation was detected in testis, suggesting that FKBP38 plays an important role in goat cells.

  1. CpG promoter methylation of the ALKBH3 alkylation repair gene in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Olafur Andri; Hermanowicz, Stefan; van der Horst, Jasper; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Staszczak, Zuzanna; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Sigurdsson, Stefan

    2017-07-05

    DNA repair of alkylation damage is defective in various cancers. This occurs through somatically acquired inactivation of the MGMT gene in various cancer types, including breast cancers. In addition to MGMT, the two E. coli AlkB homologs ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 have also been linked to direct reversal of alkylation damage. However, it is currently unknown whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated in cancer. Methylome datasets (GSE52865, GSE20713, GSE69914), available through Omnibus, were used to determine whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated by CpG promoter methylation. TCGA dataset enabled us to then assess the impact of CpG promoter methylation on mRNA expression for both ALKBH2 and ALKBH3. DNA methylation analysis for the ALKBH3 promoter region was carried out by pyrosequencing (PyroMark Q24) in 265 primary breast tumours and 30 proximal normal breast tissue samples along with 8 breast-derived cell lines. ALKBH3 mRNA and protein expression were analysed in cell lines using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. DNA alkylation damage assay was carried out in cell lines based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. Data on clinical parameters and survival outcomes in patients were obtained and assessed in relation to ALKBH3 promoter methylation. The ALKBH3 gene, but not ALKBH2, undergoes CpG promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing in breast cancer. We developed a quantitative alkylation DNA damage assay based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging revealing higher levels of alkylation damage in association with epigenetic inactivation of the ALKBH3 gene (P = 0.029). In our cohort of 265 primary breast cancer, we found 72 cases showing aberrantly high CpG promoter methylation over the ALKBH3 promoter (27%; 72 out of 265). We further show that increasingly higher degree of ALKBH3 promoter methylation is associated with reduced breast-cancer specific survival times in patients. In this analysis, ALKBH3 promoter methylation at >20

  2. Tissue Restricted Splice Junctions Originate Not Only from Tissue-Specific Gene Loci, but Gene Loci with a Broad Pattern of Expression.

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    Matthew S Hestand

    Full Text Available Cellular mechanisms that achieve protein diversity in eukaryotes are multifaceted, including transcriptional components such as RNA splicing. Through alternative splicing, a single protein-coding gene can generate multiple mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. We have conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses of the Bodymap 2.0 messenger RNA-sequencing data from 16 human tissue samples and identified 209,363 splice junctions. Of these, 22,231 (10.6% were not previously annotated and 21,650 (10.3% were expressed in a tissue-restricted pattern. Tissue-restricted alternative splicing was found to be widespread, with approximately 65% of expressed multi-exon genes containing at least one tissue-specific splice junction. Interestingly, we observed many tissue-specific splice junctions not only in genes expressed in one or a few tissues, but also from gene loci with a broad pattern of expression.

  3. Synthetic Human TLR9-LRR11 Peptide Attenuates TLR9 Signaling by Binding to and thus Decreasing Internalization of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xichun; Li, Bin; Kuang, Mei; Liu, Xin; Cen, Yanyan; Qin, Rongxin; Ding, Guofu; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-02-22

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is an endosomal receptor recognizing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN). Blocking CpG ODN/TLR9 activity represents a strategy for therapeutic prevention of immune system overactivation. Herein, we report that a synthetic peptide (SP) representing the leucine-rich repeat 11 subdomain of the human TLR9 extracellular domain could attenuate CpG ODN/TLR9 activity in RAW264.7 cells by binding to CpG ODN and decreasing its internalization. Our results demonstrate that preincubation with SP specifically inhibited CpG ODN- but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and lipopeptide (PAM3CSK4)-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 release. Preincubation of SP with CpG ODN dose-dependently decreased TLR9-driven phosphorylation of IκBα and ERK and activation of NF-κB/p65. Moreover, SP dose-dependently decreased FAM-labeled CpG ODN internalization, whereas non-labeled CpG ODN reversed the inhibition. The KD value of SP-CpG ODN binding was within the micromolar range. Our results demonstrated that SP was a specific inhibitor of CpG ODN/TLR9 activity via binding to CpG ODN, leading to reduced ODN internalization and decreased activation of subsequent pathways within cells. Thus, SP could be used as a potential CpG ODN antagonist to block TLR9 signaling.

  4. Synthetic Human TLR9-LRR11 Peptide Attenuates TLR9 Signaling by Binding to and thus Decreasing Internalization of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichun Pan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR 9 is an endosomal receptor recognizing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN. Blocking CpG ODN/TLR9 activity represents a strategy for therapeutic prevention of immune system overactivation. Herein, we report that a synthetic peptide (SP representing the leucine-rich repeat 11 subdomain of the human TLR9 extracellular domain could attenuate CpG ODN/TLR9 activity in RAW264.7 cells by binding to CpG ODN and decreasing its internalization. Our results demonstrate that preincubation with SP specifically inhibited CpG ODN- but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS- and lipopeptide (PAM3CSK4-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 release. Preincubation of SP with CpG ODN dose-dependently decreased TLR9-driven phosphorylation of IκBα and ERK and activation of NF-κB/p65. Moreover, SP dose-dependently decreased FAM-labeled CpG ODN internalization, whereas non-labeled CpG ODN reversed the inhibition. The KD value of SP-CpG ODN binding was within the micromolar range. Our results demonstrated that SP was a specific inhibitor of CpG ODN/TLR9 activity via binding to CpG ODN, leading to reduced ODN internalization and decreased activation of subsequent pathways within cells. Thus, SP could be used as a potential CpG ODN antagonist to block TLR9 signaling.

  5. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-09-01

    BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LMNA E82K mutation activates FAS and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis in heart tissue specific transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    Full Text Available The lamin A/C (LMNA, nuclear intermediate filament proteins, is a basic component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA are associated with a broad range of laminopathies, congenital diseases affecting tissue regeneration and homeostasis. Heart tissue specific transgenic mice of human LMNA E82K, a mutation causing dilated cardiomyopathy, were generated. Lmna(E82K transgenic mouse lines exhibited thin-walled, dilated left and right ventricles, a progressive decrease of contractile function assessed by echocardiography. Abnormalities of the conduction system, myocytes disarray, collagen accumulation and increased levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, procollagen type III α1 (Col3α1 and skeletal muscle actin α1 (Actα1 were detected in the hearts of Lmna(E82K transgenic mice. The LMNA E82K mutation caused mislocation of LMNA in the nucleus and swollen mitochondria with loss of critae, together with the loss of nuclear envelope integrity. Most interestingly, we found that the level of apoptosis was 8.5-fold higher in the Lmna(E82K transgenic mice than that of non-transgenic (NTG mice. In the presence of the LMNA E82K, both of FAS and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis were activated consistent with the increase of FAS expression, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3. Our results suggested that the apoptosis, at least for the LMNA E82K or the mutations in the rod region of Lamin A/C, might be an important mechanism causing continuous loss of myocytes and lead to myocardial dysfunction. It could be a potential therapeutic means to suppress and/or prevent inappropriate cardiac cell death in patients carrying LMNA mutation.

  7. Methylation of the promoter region may be involved in tissue-specific expression of the mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourrit, F; Coquilleau, I; D'Andon, M F; Rougeon, F; Doyen, N

    1999-09-17

    The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase gene (TdT) is expressed in mice only in early B and T lymphoid precursors a few days after birth. Transactivating factors have been shown to contribute to the lymphoid specific expression of TdT, but they do not account entirely for the restriction of its expression to early precursors. Since tissue-specific expression can be modulated by other mechanisms such as DNA methylation and DNA accessibility, we evaluated the methylation pattern of the TdT gene in various expressing and non-expressing tissues and cell lines. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs differed significantly in their methylation profiles. In the thymus nearly complete demethylation of a Hha I site in the promoter was associated with high levels of TdT transcription. There was similar, but weaker demethylation of the TdT promoter in bone marrow, possibly due to the presence of a few TdT expressing B cell precursors. The same methylation status was also associated with TdT expression in different B and T cell lines. Kinetic studies of TdT gene demethylation and TdT transcription during thymus development showed that changes in methylation status were also involved in the differential expression of TdT in fetal and adult life. Footprinting experiments revealed the existence of three regions specifically protected by nuclear extracts from TdT -expressing cells. Together, these results suggest that promoter demethylation is involved in the control of TdT expression and implicate new promoter regions in this regulation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

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    Lewan Parker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OHD concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56. However, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively. Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473 (r = 0.78, p < 0.001 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312 (r = 0.71, p = 0.01 in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OHD concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OHD and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OHD in each tissue.

  9. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development. PMID:27056332

  10. A new method to determine tissue specific tissue factor thrombomodulin activities: endotoxin and particulate air pollution induced disbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlofs-Nijland Miriam E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in tissue factor (TF and loss in thrombomodulin (TM antigen levels has been described in various inflammatory disorders. The functional consequences of such changes in antigen concentrations in the coagulation balance are, however, not known. This study was designed to assess the consequences of inflammation-driven organ specific functional properties of the procoagulant response. Methods Tissue specific procoagulant activity was assessed by adding tissue homogenate to normal human pool plasma and recording of the thrombin generation curve. The new technique was subsequently applied on two inflammation driven animal models: 1 mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced endotoxemia and 2 spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to environmental air pollution (particulate matter (PM. Results Addition of lung tissue from untreated animals to human plasma suppressed the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP (175 ± 61 vs. 1437 ± 112 nM.min for control. This inhibitory effect was due to TM, because a it was absent in protein C deficient plasma and b lungs from TMpro/pro mice allowed full thrombin generation (ETP: 1686 ± 209 nM.min. The inhibitory effect of TM was lost after LPS administration to mice, which induced TF activity in lungs of C57Bl/6 mice as well as increased the ETP (941 ± 523 vs. 194 ± 159 nM.min for control. Another pro-inflammatory stimulus, PM dose-dependently increased TF in the lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats at 4 and 48 hours after PM exposure. The ETP increased up to 48 hours at the highest concentration of PM (1441 ± 289 nM.min vs. saline: 164 ± 64 nM.min, p Conclusion Inflammation associated procoagulant effects in tissues are dependent on variations in activity of the TF-TM balance. The application of these novel organ specific functional assays is a useful tool to monitor inflammation-driven shifts in the coagulation balance within animal or human tissues.

  11. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  12. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja S Strauss

    Full Text Available Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi.In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp. RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration.We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant-derived compounds and

  13. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Anja S; Wang, Ding; Stock, Magdalena; Gretscher, René R; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant-derived compounds and offer a basis for

  14. Tissue-specific and neural activity-regulated expression of human BDNF gene in BAC transgenic mice

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    Palm Kaia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a small secreted protein that has important roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Altered expression or changes in the regulation of the BDNF gene have been implicated in a variety of human nervous system disorders. Although regulation of the rodent BDNF gene has been extensively investigated, in vivo studies regarding the human BDNF gene are largely limited to postmortem analysis. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice harboring the human BDNF gene and its regulatory flanking sequences constitute a useful tool for studying human BDNF gene regulation and for identification of therapeutic compounds modulating BDNF expression. Results In this study we have generated and analyzed BAC transgenic mice carrying 168 kb of the human BDNF locus modified such that BDNF coding sequence was replaced with the sequence of a fusion protein consisting of N-terminal BDNF and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The human BDNF-BAC construct containing all BDNF 5' exons preceded by different promoters recapitulated the expression of endogenous BDNF mRNA in the brain and several non-neural tissues of transgenic mice. All different 5' exon-specific BDNF-EGFP alternative transcripts were expressed from the transgenic human BDNF-BAC construct, resembling the expression of endogenous BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-EGFP mRNA was induced upon treatment with kainic acid in a promotor-specific manner, similarly to that of the endogenous mouse BDNF mRNA. Conclusion Genomic region covering 67 kb of human BDNF gene, 84 kb of upstream and 17 kb of downstream sequences is sufficient to drive tissue-specific and kainic acid-induced expression of the reporter gene in transgenic mice. The pattern of expression of the transgene is highly similar to BDNF gene expression in mouse and human. This is the first study to show that human BDNF gene is regulated by neural activity.

  15. Effects of adeno-associated virus serotype and tissue-specific expression on circulating biomarkers of propionic acidemia.

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    Guenzel, Adam J; Hillestad, Matthew L; Matern, Dietrich; Barry, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). This enzyme is composed of six PCCA and six PCCB subunits and mediates a critical step in catabolism of odd chain fatty acids and certain amino acids. Current treatment options for PA are limited to stringent dietary restriction of protein consumption and some patients undergo elective liver transplantation. We previously generated a hypomorphic model of PA, designated Pcca(-/-)(A138T), with 2% of wild-type enzyme activity that mimics many aspects of the human disease. In this study, we used the differing tissue tropisms of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to probe the ability of liver or muscle-directed gene therapy to treat systemic aspects of this disease that affects many cell types. Systemic therapy with muscle-biased AAV1, liver-biased AAV8, and broadly tropic AAVrh10 mediated significant biochemical corrections in circulating propionylcarnitine (C3) and methyl citrate by all vectors. The innate tissue bias of AAV1 and AAV8 gene expression was made more specific by the use of muscle-specific muscle creatine kinase (specifically MCK6) and hepatocyte-specific transthyretin (TTR) promoters, respectively. Under these targeted conditions, both vectors mediated significant long-term correction of circulating metabolites, demonstrating that correction of muscle and likely other tissue types in addition to liver is necessary to fully correct pathology caused by PA. Liver-specific AAV8-TTR-PCCA mediated better correction than AAV1-MCK-PCCA. These data suggest that targeted gene therapy may be a viable alternative to liver transplantation for PA. They also demonstrate the effects of tissue-specific and broad gene therapy on a cell autonomous systemic genetic disease.

  16. Early- and late-onset preeclampsia and the tissue-specific epigenome of the placenta and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Emilie M; Eggink, Alex J; Willemsen, Sten P; Slieker, Roderick C; Wijnands, Kim P J; Felix, Janine F; Chen, Jun; Stubbs, Andrew; van der Spek, Peter J; van Meurs, Joyce B; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2017-10-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) carries increased risks of cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases in mothers and offspring during the life course. While the severe early-onset PE (EOPE) phenotype originates from impaired placentation in early pregnancy, late-onset PE (LOPE) is in particular associated with pre-existing maternal cardiovascular- and metabolic risk factors. We hypothesize that PE is associated with altered epigenetic programming of placental and fetal tissues and that these epigenetic changes might elucidate the increased cardiovascular- and metabolic disease susceptibility in PE offspring. A nested case-control study was conducted in The Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort comprising 13 EOPE, 16 LOPE, and three control groups of 36 uncomplicated pregnancies, 27 normotensive fetal growth restricted and 20 normotensive preterm birth (PTB) complicated pregnancies. Placental tissue, newborn umbilical cord white blood cells (UC-WBC) and umbilical vein endothelial cells were collected and DNA methylation of cytosine-guanine dinucleotides was measured by the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. An epigenome-wide analysis was performed by using multiple linear regression models. Epigenome-wide tissue-specific analysis between EOPE and PTB controls revealed 5001 mostly hypermethylated differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in UC-WBC and 869 mostly hypomethylated DMPs in placental tissue, situated in or close to genes associated with cardiovascular-metabolic developmental pathways. This study shows differential methylation in UC-WBC and placental tissue in EOPE as compared to PTB, identifying DMPs that are associated with cardiovascular system pathways. Future studies should examine these loci and pathways in more detail to elucidate the associations between prenatal PE exposure and the cardiovascular disease risk in offspring. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Combinatorial binding leads to diverse regulatory responses: Lmd is a tissue-specific modulator of Mef2 activity.

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    Paulo M F Cunha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how complex patterns of temporal and spatial expression are regulated is central to deciphering genetic programs that drive development. Gene expression is initiated through the action of transcription factors and their cofactors converging on enhancer elements leading to a defined activity. Specific constellations of combinatorial occupancy are therefore often conceptualized as rigid binding codes that give rise to a common output of spatio-temporal expression. Here, we assessed this assumption using the regulatory input of two essential transcription factors within the Drosophila myogenic network. Mutations in either Myocyte enhancing factor 2 (Mef2 or the zinc-finger transcription factor lame duck (lmd lead to very similar defects in myoblast fusion, yet the underlying molecular mechanism for this shared phenotype is not understood. Using a combination of ChIP-on-chip analysis and expression profiling of loss-of-function mutants, we obtained a global view of the regulatory input of both factors during development. The majority of Lmd-bound enhancers are co-bound by Mef2, representing a subset of Mef2's transcriptional input during these stages of development. Systematic analyses of the regulatory contribution of both factors demonstrate diverse regulatory roles, despite their co-occupancy of shared enhancer elements. These results indicate that Lmd is a tissue-specific modulator of Mef2 activity, acting as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, which has important implications for myogenesis. More generally, this study demonstrates considerable flexibility in the regulatory output of two factors, leading to additive, cooperative, and repressive modes of co-regulation.

  18. Sex- and Tissue-Specific Expression Profiles of Odorant Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes in Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae

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    Yunhe Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia odoriphaga is an agricultural pest insect affecting the production of Chinese chive and other liliaceous vegetables in China, and it is significantly attracted by sex pheromones and the volatiles derived from host plants. Despite verification of this chemosensory behavior, however, it is still unknown how B. odoriphaga recognizes these volatile compounds on the molecular level. Many of odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs play crucial roles in olfactory perception. Here, we identified 49 OBP and 5 CSP genes from the antennae and body transcriptomes of female and male adults of B. odoriphaga, respectively. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis among Dipteran OBPs and CSPs were analyzed. The sex- and tissue-specific expression profiles of 54 putative chemosensory genes among different tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR analysis results suggested that 22 OBP and 3 CSP genes were enriched in the antennae, indicating they might be essential for detection of general odorants and pheromones. Among these antennae-enriched genes, nine OBPs (BodoOBP2/4/6/8/12/13/20/28/33 were enriched in the male antennae and may play crucial roles in the detection of sex pheromones. Moreover, some OBP and CSP genes were enriched in non-antennae tissues, such as in the legs (BodoOBP3/9/19/21/34/35/38/39/45 and BodoCSP1, wings (BodoOBP17/30/32/37/44, abdomens and thoraxes (BodoOBP29/36, and heads (BodoOBP14/23/31 and BodoCSP2, suggesting that these genes might be involved in olfactory, gustatory, or other physiological processes. Our findings provide a starting point to facilitate functional research of these chemosensory genes in B. odoriphaga at the molecular level.

  19. Transcription elongation rate has a tissue-specific impact on alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochuan; Freitas, Jaime; Zheng, Dinghai; Oliveira, Marta S; Hoque, Mainul; Martins, Torcato; Henriques, Telmo; Tian, Bin; Moreira, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a mechanism that generates multiple mRNA isoforms with different 3'UTRs and/or coding sequences from a single gene. Here, using 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), we have systematically mapped cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in Drosophila melanogaster , expanding the total repertoire of PASs previously identified for the species, especially those located in A-rich genomic sequences. Cis -element analysis revealed distinct sequence motifs around fly PASs when compared to mammalian ones, including the greater enrichment of upstream UAUA elements and the less prominent presence of downstream UGUG elements. We found that over 75% of mRNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster undergo APA. The head tissue tends to use distal PASs when compared to the body, leading to preferential expression of APA isoforms with long 3'UTRs as well as with distal terminal exons. The distance between the APA sites and intron location of PAS are important parameters for APA difference between body and head, suggesting distinct PAS selection contexts. APA analysis of the RpII215 C4 mutant strain, which harbors a mutant RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with a slower elongation rate, revealed that a 50% decrease in transcriptional elongation rate leads to a mild trend of more usage of proximal, weaker PASs, both in 3'UTRs and in introns, consistent with the "first come, first served" model of APA regulation. However, this trend was not observed in the head, suggesting a different regulatory context in neuronal cells. Together, our data expand the PAS collection for Drosophila melanogaster and reveal a tissue-specific effect of APA regulation by RNAPII elongation rate. © 2017 Liu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Tissue-specific regulation of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines in keratinocytes: Implications for oral inflammatory disease.

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    Alison Marshall

    Full Text Available The IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 play a key role in many inflammatory conditions, particularly those mediated by T cells. Therefore, the production of these chemokines in peripheral tissues could be instrumental in the pathophysiology of tissue-specific immunological diseases such as oral lichen planus (OLP. In the present study, we assessed the production of keratinocyte-derived CXCL9/10/11 under basal and inflammatory conditions and investigated whether these chemokines were involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. We used semi-quantitative PCR, ELISA, chemotaxis assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS to assess the expression and functional role of CXCL9/10/11 in oral keratinocytes (three strains of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK, and the H357 oral cancer cell line in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. CXCL9/10/11 were also assessed in tissues from normal patients and those with oral lichen planus (OLP. The time course study in oral keratinocytes treated with IFN-γ showed that expression of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines was significantly enhanced by IFN-γ in a time-dependent manner. In particular, CXCL10, a prominent chemokine that was overexpressed by IFN-γ-stimulated NHOK, was able to effectively recruit CD4 lymphocytes, mainly CD4+CD45RA- cells. Significantly higher levels of CXCL9/10/11 were found in tissues from patients with OLP compared to normal oral mucosa. Taken together, the results demonstrate that normal oral keratinocytes produce chemotactic molecules that mediate T cell recruitment. This study furthers understanding of chemokine production in oral keratinocytes and their role in the pathophysiology of oral mucosa, with particular relevance to OLP.

  1. New Therapeutic and Diagnostic Opportunities for Injured Tissue-Specific Targeting of Complement Inhibitors and Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holers, V. Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen; Kulik, Liudmila; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel; Banda, Nirmal; Thurman, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial opportunity and commercial interest in developing drugs that modulate the complement system in a broad range of non-orphan indications, several obstacles remain to be overcome. Among these issues is the biophysical nature of complement proteins, whose circulating levels are typically very high and whose turnover rates are relatively rapid, especially in the setting of chronic inflammatory conditions. This situation necessitates the use of very high levels of therapeutic compounds in order to achieve both multi-pathway and multiple effector mechanism inhibition. In addition, one must avoid infectious complications or the systemic impairment of the other important physiological functions of complement. Herein we focus on the development of a novel therapeutic strategy based on injured tissue-specific targeting of complement inhibitors using the antigen-combining domains of a small subset of natural IgM antibodies, which as endogenous antibodies specifically recognize sites of local damage across a broad range of tissues and locally activate complement C3, resulting in C3 fragment covalent fixation. Because the use of such recombinant tissue-targeting inhibitors precludes the utility of measuring systemic levels of complement biomarkers or function, since a goal of this targeting strategy is to leave those processes intact and unimpeded, we also briefly describe a new method designed to quantitatively measure using imaging modalities the inhibition of generation of fixed C3 fragments at sites of inflammation/injury. In addition to the ability to determine whether complement activation is locally constrained with the use of inhibitors, there is also a broader application of this imaging approach to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases characterized by local complement activation. PMID:27282113

  2. Endogenous collagen peptide activation of CD1d-restricted NKT cells ameliorates tissue-specific inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Anna; Mondoc, Emma; Ibrahim, Saleh; Holmdahl, Rikard; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2011-01-01

    NKT cells in the mouse recognize antigen in the context of the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d and play an important role in peripheral tolerance and protection against autoimmune and other diseases. NKT cells are usually activated by CD1d-presented lipid antigens. However, peptide recognition in the context of CD1 has also been documented, although no self-peptide ligands have been reported to date. Here, we have identified an endogenous peptide that is presented by CD1d to activate mouse NKT cells. This peptide, the immunodominant epitope from mouse collagen type II (mCII707-721), was not associated with either MHC class I or II. Activation of CD1d-restricted mCII707-721-specific NKT cells was induced via TCR signaling and classical costimulation. In addition, mCII707-721-specific NKT cells induced T cell death through Fas/FasL, in an IL-17A-independent fashion. Moreover, mCII707-721-specific NKT cells suppressed a range of in vivo inflammatory conditions, including delayed-type hypersensitivity, antigen-induced airway inflammation, collagen-induced arthritis, and EAE, which were all ameliorated by mCII707-721 vaccination. The findings presented here offer new insight into the intrinsic roles of NKT cells in health and disease. Given the results, endogenous collagen peptide activators of NKT cells may offer promise as novel therapeutics in tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  4. DNA-methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) binding to CpG rich GABAergic and BDNF promoters is increased in the brain of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Ruzicka, W B; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2015-09-01

    The down regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD1), reelin (RELN), and BDNF expression in brain of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients is associated with overexpression of DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) and ten-eleven translocase methylcytosine dioxygenase1 (TET1). DNMT1 and TET1 belong to families of enzymes that methylate and hydroxymethylate cytosines located proximal to and within cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) islands of many gene promoters, respectively. Altered promoter methylation may be one mechanism underlying the down-regulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic gene expression. However, recent reports suggest that both DNMT1 and TET1 directly bind to unmethylated CpG rich promoters through their respective Zinc Finger (ZF-CXXC) domains. We report here, that the binding of DNMT1 to GABAergic (GAD1, RELN) and glutamatergic (BDNF-IX) promoters is increased in SZ and BP disorder patients and this increase does not necessarily correlate with enrichment in promoter methylation. The increased DNMT1 binding to these promoter regions is detected in the cortex but not in the cerebellum of SZ and BP disorder patients, suggesting a brain region and neuron specific dependent mechanism. Increased binding of DNMT1 positively correlates with increased expression of DNMT1 and with increased binding of MBD2. In contrast, the binding of TET1 to RELN, GAD1 and BDNF-IX promoters failed to change. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the down-regulation of specific GABAergic and glutamatergic genes in SZ and BP disorder patients may be mediated, at least in part, by a brain region specific and neuronal-activity dependent DNMT1 action that is likely independent of its DNA methylation activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn't affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase.

  6. Electrophysiological representation of scratching CpG activity in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Silva, Lourdes; Manjarrez, Elias; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Quevedo, Jorge N

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the electrical activity of neuronal populations in the cerebellum and the lumbar spinal cord during fictive scratching in adult decerebrate cats before and after selective sections of the Spino-Reticulo Cerebellar Pathway (SRCP) and the Ventral-Spino Cerebellar Tract (VSCT). During fictive scratching, we found a conspicuous sinusoidal electrical activity, called Sinusoidal Cerebellar Potentials (SCPs), in the cerebellar vermis, which exhibited smaller amplitude in the paravermal and hemisphere cortices. There was also a significant spino-cerebellar coherence between these SCPs and the lumbar sinusoidal cord dorsum potentials (SCDPs). However, during spontaneous activity such spino-cerebellar coherence between spontaneous potentials recorded in the same regions decreased. We found that the section of the SRCP and the VSCT did not abolish the amplitude of the SCPs, suggesting that there are additional pathways conveying information from the spinal CPG to the cerebellum. This is the first evidence that the sinusoidal activity associated to the spinal CPG circuitry for scratching has a broad representation in the cerebellum beyond the sensory representation from hindlimbs previously described. Furthermore, the SCPs represent the global electrical activity of the spinal CPG for scratching in the cerebellar cortex.

  7. Smooth transition for CPG-based body shape control of a snake-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, Norzalilah Mohamad; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a locomotion control based on central pattern generator (CPG) of a snake-like robot. The main point addressed in this paper is a method that produces a smooth transition of the body shape of a snake-like robot. Body shape transition is important for snake-like robot locomotion to adapt to different space widths and also for obstacle avoidance. By manipulating the phase difference of the CPG outputs instantly, it will results in a sharp point or discontinuity which lead to an unstable movement of the snake-like robot. To tackle the problem, we propose a way of controlling the body shape: by incorporating activation function in the phase oscillator CPG model. The simplicity of the method promises an easy implementation and simple control. Simulation results and torque analysis confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method and thus, can be used as a locomotion control in various potential applications of a snake-like robot. (paper)

  8. Dynamic Modelling of a CPG-Controlled Amphibious Biomimetic Swimming Robot

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    Rui Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modelling and control problems of a self-propelled, multimodal amphibious robot. Inspired by the undulatory body motions of fish and dolphins, the amphibious robot propels itself underwater by oscillations of several modular fish-like propelling units coupled with a pair of pectoral fins capable of non-continuous 360 degree rotation. In order to mimic fish-like undulating propulsion, a control architecture based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG is applied to the amphibious robot for robust swimming gaits, including forward and backward swimming and turning, etc. With the simplification of the robot as a multi-link serial mechanism, a Lagrangian function is employed to establish the hydrodynamic model for steady swimming. The CPG motion control law is then imported into the Lagrangian-based dynamic model, where an associated system of kinematics and dynamics is formed to solve real-time movements and, further, to guide the exploration of the CPG parameters and steady locomotion gaits. Finally, comparative results between the simulations and experiments are provided to show the effectiveness of the built control models.

  9. Polyethyleneimine-functionalized boron nitride nanospheres as efficient carriers for enhancing the immunostimulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang HJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Huijie Zhang,1 Shini Feng,1 Ting Yan,1 Chunyi Zhi,2 Xiao-Dong Gao,1 Nobutaka Hanagata3,41The Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowlong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Nanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, JapanAbstract: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, these molecules are promising therapeutic agents and vaccine adjuvants against various diseases. In this study, we developed a novel CpG ODNs delivery system based on polyethyleneimine (PEI-functionalized boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS. PEI was coated on the surface of BNNS via electrostatic interactions. The prepared BNNS–PEI complexes had positive zeta potential and exhibited enhanced dispersity and stability in aqueous solution. In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that the BNNS–PEI complexes with concentrations up to 100 µg/mL exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the positively charged surface of the BNNS–PEI complexes greatly improved the loading capacity and cellular uptake efficiency of CpG ODNs. Class B CpG ODNs loaded on the BNNS–PEI complexes enhanced the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS. Contrary to the free CpG ODNs or CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS, class B CpG ODNs loaded on the BNNS–PEI complexes induced interferon-α simultaneously. PEI coating may have changed the physical form of class B CpG ODNs on BNNS, which further affected their interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 and induced interferon

  10. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Induce Differential Cytokine and Chemokine Gene Expression Profiles in Dapulian and Landrace Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaqing; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Hui; Li, Chuanhao; Zeng, Yongqing; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) mimic the immunostimulatory activity of microbial DNA by interacting with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) to activate both the innate and adaptive immune responses in different species. However, few studies have been published to compare the effects of CpG ODN on different pig breeds. Therefore, in this study, whole blood gene expression profiles of DPL and Landrace pigs treated with CpG ODN were studied using RNA-seq technology. Five Hundred differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two breeds. DPL pigs had significantly higher number of immune-relevant DEGs than the Landrace pigs after CpG ODN treatment. Pathway analysis showed that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway were the major enriched pathways of the immune-relevant DEGs. Further in vitro experiments showed that PBMCs of the DPL pigs had significantly higher levels of TLR9 mRNA than those of the Landrace pigs, both before and after CpG ODN stimulation. Cytokine and chemokine induction in the PBMCs of both breeds were also measured after CpG ODN stimulation. Our data showed that mRNA levels of cytokines (IFNα, IL8, IL12 p40) and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL13) were significantly higher in the PBMCs of the DPL pigs than those of the Landrace pigs. Taken together, our data provide new information regarding the pig breed difference in response to CpG ODN stimulation and that higher levels of TLR9 mRNA in DPL pigs may be a major contributor for disease resistance.

  11. The Effect of TLR9 Agonist CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides on the Intestinal Immune Response of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Byadgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1β. Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds and B (30 folds isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668 and MyD88 (21 folds at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395. Subsequently, IL-1β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  12. Role of Replication and CpG Methylation in Fragile X Syndrome CGG Deletions in Primate Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol Edamura, Kerrie; Leonard, Michelle R.; Pearson, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Instability of the fragile X CGG repeat involves both maternally derived expansions and deletions in the gametes of full-mutation males. It has also been suggested that the absence of aberrant CpG methylation may enhance repeat deletions through an unknown process. The effect of CGG tract length, DNA replication direction, location of replication initiation, and CpG methylation upon CGG stability were investigated using an SV40 primate replication system. Replication-dependant deletions with 53 CGG repeats were observed when replication was initiated proximal to the repeat, with CGG as the lagging-strand template. When we initiated replication further from the repeat, while maintaining CGG as the lagging-strand template or using CCG as the lagging-strand template, significant instability was not observed. CpG methylation of the unstable template stabilized the repeat, decreasing both the frequency and the magnitude of deletion events. Furthermore, CpG methylation slowed the efficiency of replication for all templates. Interestingly, replication forks displayed no evidence of a block at the CGG repeat tract, regardless of replication direction or CpG methylation status. Templates with 20 CGG repeats were stable under all circumstances. These results reveal that CGG deletions occur during replication and are sensitive to replication-fork dynamics, tract length, and CpG methylation. PMID:15625623

  13. Metabolite profiling of red and blue potatoes revealed cultivar and tissue specific patterns for anthocyanins and other polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Anne; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Dehmer, Klaus J; Martens, Stefan; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Metabolite profiling of tuber flesh and peel for selected colored potato varieties revealed cultivar and tissue specific profiles of anthocyanins and other polyphenols with variations in composition and concentration. Starchy tubers of Solanum tuberosum are a staple crop and food in many countries. Among cultivated potato varieties a huge biodiversity exists, including an increasing number of red and purple colored cultivars. This coloration relates to the accumulation of anthocyanins and is supposed to offer nutritional benefits possibly associated with the antioxidative capacity of anthocyanins. However, the anthocyanin composition and its relation to the overall polyphenol constitution in colored potato tubers have not been investigated closely. This study focuses on the phytochemical characterization of the phenolic composition of a variety of colored potato tubers, both for peel and flesh tissues. First, liquid chromatography (LC) separation coupled to UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection of polyphenolic compounds of potato tubers from 57 cultivars was used to assign groups of potato cultivars differing in their anthocyanin and polyphenol profiles. Tissues from 19 selected cultivars were then analyzed by LC separation coupled to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect quantitative differences in anthocyanin and polyphenol composition. The measured intensities of 21 anthocyanins present in the analyzed potato cultivars and tissues could be correlated with the specific tuber coloration. Besides secondary metabolites well-known for potato tubers, the metabolic profiling led to the detection of two anthocyanins not described for potato tuber previously, which we tentatively annotated as pelargonidin feruloyl-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside and cyanidin 3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. We detected significant correlations between some of the measured metabolites, as for example the negative correlation between the main anthocyanins of red and blue potato

  14. Tissue-specific analysis of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α in glucose metabolism: effect of strain variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-activity and elevated expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Administration of specific GSK-3 inhibitors to diabetic or obese rodent models improves glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity. However, due to the indiscriminatory nature of these inhibitors, the relative contribution of the two isoforms of GSK-3 (GSK-3α and GSK-3β is not known. Recently, we demonstrated that an out-bred strain of mice (ICR lacking expression of GSK-3α in all tissues displayed improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced hepatic glucose metabolism. We also found that muscle (but not liver inactivation of GSK-3β conferred insulin and glucose sensitization in an in-bred strain of mice (C57BL/6. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have employed tissue-specific deletion of GSK-3α, to examine the relative contribution of two insulin-sensitive tissues, muscle and liver, towards the insulin sensitization phenotype originally observed in the global GSK-3α KO animals. We found that mice in which GSK-3α has been inactivated in either skeletal-muscle or liver displayed no differences in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity compared to wild type littermates. Given the strain differences in our original analyses, we examined the insulin and glucose sensitivity of global GSK-3α KO animals bred onto a C57BL/6 background. These animals also revealed no significant differences in glucose metabolism/insulin sensitivity compared to their wild type littermates. Furthermore, deletion of hepatic GSK-3α on the out-bred, ICR background failed to reproduce the insulin sensitivity manifested by the global deletion of this isoform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data we conclude that the improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose homeostasis phenotype observed upon global inactivation of GSK-3α is strain-specific. We surmise that the insulin

  15. MTO1 mediates tissue specificity of OXPHOS defects via tRNA modification and translation optimization, which can be bypassed by dietary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, Christin; Hofer, Annette; Wulff, Veronika; Stepek, Joanna; Dumitru, Iulia; Becker, Lore; Haack, Tobias; Kremer, Laura; Datta, Alexandre N.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia; De Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Klopstock, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Wenz, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases often exhibit tissue-specific pathologies, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here we present regulation of mitochondrial translation by the Mitochondrial Translation Optimization Factor 1, MTO1, as a novel player in this scenario. We demonstrate that MTO1 mediates tRNA modification and controls mitochondrial translation rate in a highly tissue-specific manner associated with tissue-specific OXPHOS defects. Activation of mitochondrial proteases, aberrant translation products, as well as defects in OXPHOS complex assembly observed in MTO1 deficient mice further imply that MTO1 impacts translation fidelity. In our mouse model, MTO1-related OXPHOS deficiency can be bypassed by feeding a ketogenic diet. This therapeutic intervention is independent of the MTO1-mediated tRNA modification and involves balancing of mitochondrial and cellular secondary stress responses. Our results thereby establish mammalian MTO1 as a novel factor in the tissue-specific regulation of OXPHOS and fine tuning of mitochondrial translation accuracy. PMID:25552653

  16. Mining tissue specificity, gene connectivity and disease association to reveal a set of genes that modify the action of disease causing genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reverter Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue specificity of gene expression has been linked to a number of significant outcomes including level of expression, and differential rates of polymorphism, evolution and disease association. Recent studies have also shown the importance of exploring differential gene connectivity and sequence conservation in the identification of disease-associated genes. However, no study relates gene interactions with tissue specificity and disease association. Methods We adopted an a priori approach making as few assumptions as possible to analyse the interplay among gene-gene interactions with tissue specificity and its subsequent likelihood of association with disease. We mined three large datasets comprising expression data drawn from massively parallel signature sequencing across 32 tissues, describing a set of 55,606 true positive interactions for 7,197 genes, and microarray expression results generated during the profiling of systemic inflammation, from which 126,543 interactions among 7,090 genes were reported. Results Amongst the myriad of complex relationships identified between expression, disease, connectivity and tissue specificity, some interesting patterns emerged. These include elevated rates of expression and network connectivity in housekeeping and disease-associated tissue-specific genes. We found that disease-associated genes are more likely to show tissue specific expression and most frequently interact with other disease genes. Using the thresholds defined in these observations, we develop a guilt-by-association algorithm and discover a group of 112 non-disease annotated genes that predominantly interact with disease-associated genes, impacting on disease outcomes. Conclusion We conclude that parameters such as tissue specificity and network connectivity can be used in combination to identify a group of genes, not previously confirmed as disease causing, that are involved in interactions with disease causing

  17. Genome-wide tissue-specific gene expression, co-expression and regulation of co-expressed genes in adult nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a valuable resource for studying tissue-specific biological functions in

  18. Identification of an atypical etiological head and neck squamous carcinoma subtype featuring the CpG island methylator phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Further distinguishing features of this ‘CIMP-Atypical’ subtype include an antiviral gene expression profile associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and CD8+ T cell infiltration, CASP8 mutations, and a well-differentiated state corresponding to normal SOX2 copy number and SOX2OT hypermethylation. We developed a gene expression classifier for the CIMP-Atypical subtype that could classify atypical disease features in two independent patient cohorts, demonstrating the reproducibility of this subtype. Taken together, these findings provide unprecedented evidence that atypical HNSCC is molecularly distinct, and postulates the CIMP-Atypical subtype as a distinct clinical entity that may be caused by chronic inflammation.

  19. Methylation status of CpG islands at sites −59 to +96 in exon 1 of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia) protocol for fresh tumour and normal tissue samples, and by applying the cell lysing technique (Williams et al. .... DNA methylation in all common human cancers. Cancer Res. 55, 4525–4530. Kang H. J., Kim S. J., Noh D. Y., Park I. A., Choe K. J., Yoo O. J. and Kang H. S. 2001 Methylation in ...

  20. The Role of Liposomal CpG ODN on the Course of L. major Infection in BALB/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hejazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Historically, leishmanization is the most effective protective measure against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL, CL lesion induced by leishmanization sometimes takes a long time to heal. Ma­nipulation of leishmanization inoculums needed to induce a mild and acceptable CL lesion. The aim of this study was to explore if liposomal form of CpG ODN (Cytosin phosphate Guanin Oligodeoxynu­cleotides mixed with Leishmania major   would induce a milder lesion size in Balb/c mice."nMethods: This study was performed in Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad, and Center for Re­search and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran, Iran during 2008-2009.  mice were subcutaneously (SC inoculated with L. major mixed with liposomal form of CpG ODN, or L. major plus free CpG ODN, or L. major mixed with empty liposomes or L. major in PBS. The lesion onset and the size of lesion were recorded; the death rate was also monitored. "nResult: Footpad thickness was significantly (P<0.01 smaller, death rate was also significantly (P<0.05 lower in the mice received L. major mixed with liposomal CpG ODN or free CpG ODN than control groups received L. major in PBS or L. major plus liposomes, also mice which received L. ma­jor mixed with CpG ODN in soluble form showed a significantly (P < 0.001 smaller lesion size than control groups."nConclusion: CpG ODN seems to be an appropriate immunopotentiator mixed with Leishmania stabi­late in leishmanization.

  1. Analysis of CpG SNPs in 34 genes: association test with suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Zai, Clement; de Souza, Renan; Le Foll, Bernard; Kennedy, James L; Wong, Albert H; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. The lifetime suicide risk in schizophrenia is 4.9% and 20% to 50% of patients with SCZ will attempt suicide during their life. The other risk factors for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia include prior history of suicide attempts, active psychosis, depression and substance abuse. To date, there are no robust genetic or epigenetic predictors of suicide or suicide attempt in this specific population. We collected detailed clinical information and DNA samples from 241 schizophrenia patients and performed the genetic analyses in suicide attempters and non-attempters, among these patients. Using the structured research interview, we determined the presence of suicide attempt lifetime and then we tested 384 DNA variants in candidate genes supposed to be involved in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. We applied a novel mapping analysis using a specific bioinformatic tool that analyzed only the polymorphic CpG sites in our SNP panel. This analysis looked at the presence or absence of methylation sites affected by the SNP allele. The SNPs in the candidate genes were studied under a different perspective considering their direct contribution to the availability of methylation sites within the gene of interest. The level of potential methylation was compared using a linear model in attempters and non-attempters. Among the 384 SNPs selected from the Illumina Bead Chip only the rs2661319 in the RGS4 gene was significantly associated with suicide attempt (p = 0.002). There were 119 CpG SNPs in the aforementioned panel. The gene-wise potential methylation level of RGS4 was 55% in the attempters and 65% in the non-attempters with a p-value of 0.005. The total level of potential metylation in the overall panel (119 SNPs combined) was not associated with suicide attempt. However, when considering the potential methylation at chromosome 1, we found that suicide attempt (p = 0.036) was associated with lower methylation. The

  2. Glutamatergic mechanisms for speed control and network operation in the rodent locomotor CPG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Kiehn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in mammals have produced conflicting results regarding the necessity and role of the different ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the CPG function. Here, we use electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques in the in vitro neonatal mouse lumbar spinal cord to investigate the role of a broad...... mechanisms acting at various network levels. AMPA and kainate receptors are necessary for generating the highest locomotor frequencies. For coordination, NMDARs are more important than non-NMDARs for conveying the rhythmic signal from the network to the motor neurons during long-lasting and steady locomotor...

  3. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    of 60 min reperfusion following brief, reversible ischemia (15 min; 15I/60R) for comparison with irreversible I/R (60I/60R). Perfusate proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), revealing 26 tissue-specific proteins released during...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified......Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin...

  4. Multiple POU-binding motifs, recognized by tissue-specific nuclear factors, are important for Dll1 gene expression in neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kohzo; Nagase, Kazuko; Tokutake, Yuriko; Koh, Chang-Sung; Hiratochi, Masahiro; Ohkawara, Takeshi; Nakayama, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the mouse homolog of the Delta gene (Dll1) and demonstrated that the sequence between nucleotide position -514 and -484 in the 5'-flanking region of Dll1 played a critical role in the regulation of its tissue-specific expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Further, we showed that multiple POU-binding motifs, located within this short sequence of 30 bp, were essential for transcriptional activation of Dll1 and also that multiple tissue-specific nuclear factors recognized these POU-binding motifs in various combinations through differentiation of NSCs. Thus, POU-binding factors may play an important role in Dll1 expression in developing NSCs

  5. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  6. CpG adjuvant enhances the mucosal immunogenicity and efficacy of a Treponema pallidum DNA vaccine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feijun; Liu, Shuangquan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Yu, Jian; Zeng, Tiebing; Gu, Weiming; Cao, Xunyu; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yimou

    2013-04-01

    The protective response against Treponema pallidum (Tp) infection of a DNA vaccine enhanced by an adjuvant CpG ODN was investigated. The mucosal adjuvant CpG ODN enhanced the production of higher levels of anti-TpGpd antibodies induced by pcD/Gpd-IL-2 in rabbits. It also resulted in higher levels of secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and facilitated T cell proliferation and differentiation (p0.05). Furthermore, CpG ODN stimulated the production of mucosa-specific anti-sIgA antibodies and resulted in the lowest Tp-positive rate (6.7%) for Tp-infection of skin lesions and the lowest rates (8.3%) of ulceration lesions, thus achieving better protective effects. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with the eukaryotic vector encoding recombinant pcD/Gpd-IL-2 using intramuscular multi-injection or together with mucosal enhancement via a nasal route. The effect of the mucosal adjuvant CpG ODN was examined. The CpG ODN adjuvant significantly enhances the humoral and cellular immune effects of the immunization by pcD/Gpd-IL-2 with mucosal enhancement via nasal route. It also stimulates strong mucosal immune effects, thus initiating more efficient immune-protective effects.

  7. Towards autonomous locomotion: CPG-based control of smooth 3D slithering gait transition of a snake-like robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhenshan; Cheng, Long; Chen, Guang; Röhrbein, Florian; Huang, Kai; Knoll, Alois

    2017-04-04

    Snake-like robots with 3D locomotion ability have significant advantages of adaptive travelling in diverse complex terrain over traditional legged or wheeled mobile robots. Despite numerous developed gaits, these snake-like robots suffer from unsmooth gait transitions by changing the locomotion speed, direction, and body shape, which would potentially cause undesired movement and abnormal torque. Hence, there exists a knowledge gap for snake-like robots to achieve autonomous locomotion. To address this problem, this paper presents the smooth slithering gait transition control based on a lightweight central pattern generator (CPG) model for snake-like robots. First, based on the convergence behavior of the gradient system, a lightweight CPG model with fast computing time was designed and compared with other widely adopted CPG models. Then, by reshaping the body into a more stable geometry, the slithering gait was modified, and studied based on the proposed CPG model, including the gait transition of locomotion speed, moving direction, and body shape. In contrast to sinusoid-based method, extensive simulations and prototype experiments finally demonstrated that smooth slithering gait transition can be effectively achieved using the proposed CPG-based control method without generating undesired locomotion and abnormal torque.

  8. Comparative network analysis reveals that tissue specificity and gene function are important factors influencing the mode of expression evolution in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Sara; Van de Peer, Yves; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2011-07-01

    Microarray experiments have yielded massive amounts of expression information measured under various conditions for the model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Expression compendia grouping multiple experiments make it possible to define correlated gene expression patterns within one species and to study how expression has evolved between species. We developed a robust framework to measure expression context conservation (ECC) and found, by analyzing 4,630 pairs of orthologous Arabidopsis and rice genes, that 77% showed conserved coexpression. Examples of nonconserved ECC categories suggested a link between regulatory evolution and environmental adaptations and included genes involved in signal transduction, response to different abiotic stresses, and hormone stimuli. To identify genomic features that influence expression evolution, we analyzed the relationship between ECC, tissue specificity, and protein evolution. Tissue-specific genes showed higher expression conservation compared with broadly expressed genes but were fast evolving at the protein level. No significant correlation was found between protein and expression evolution, implying that both modes of gene evolution are not strongly coupled in plants. By integration of cis-regulatory elements, many ECC conserved genes were significantly enriched for shared DNA motifs, hinting at the conservation of ancestral regulatory interactions in both model species. Surprisingly, for several tissue-specific genes, patterns of concerted network evolution were observed, unveiling conserved coexpression in the absence of conservation of tissue specificity. These findings demonstrate that orthologs inferred through sequence similarity in many cases do not share similar biological functions and highlight the importance of incorporating expression information when comparing genes across species.

  9. Strand-specific CpG hemimethylation, a novel epigenetic modification functional for genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Parrado, Iris; Gómez-Jiménez, Álvaro; López-Sánchez, Noelia; Frade, José M

    2017-09-06

    Imprinted genes are regulated by allele-specific differentially DNA-methylated regions (DMRs). Epigenetic methylation of the CpGs constituting these DMRs is established in the germline, resulting in a 5-methylcytosine-specific pattern that is tightly maintained in somatic tissues. Here, we show a novel epigenetic mark, characterized by strand-specific hemimethylation of contiguous CpG sites affecting the germline DMR of the murine Peg3, but not Snrpn, imprinted domain. This modification is enriched in tetraploid cortical neurons, a cell type where evidence for a small proportion of formylmethylated CpG sites within the Peg3-controlling DMR is also provided. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based transcriptional analysis indicated that these epigenetic modifications participate in the maintainance of the monoallelic expression pattern of the Peg3 imprinted gene. Our results unexpectedly demonstrate that the methylation pattern observed in DMRs controlling defined imprinting regions can be modified in somatic cells, resulting in a novel epigenetic modification that gives rise to strand-specific hemimethylated domains functional for genomic imprinting. We anticipate the existence of a novel molecular mechanism regulating the transition from fully methylated CpGs to strand-specific hemimethylated CpGs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Frequency Modulation and Spatiotemporal Stability of the sCPG in Preterm Infants with RDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnutritive suck (NNS is an observable and accessible motor behavior which is often used to make inference about brain development and pre-feeding skill in preterm and term infants. The purpose of this study was to model NNS burst compression pressure dynamics in the frequency and time domain among two groups of preterm infants, including those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, N=15 and 17 healthy controls. Digitized samples of NNS compression pressure waveforms recorded at a 1-week interval were collected 15 minutes prior to a scheduled feed. Regression analysis and ANOVA revealed that healthy preterm infants produced longer NNS bursts and the mean burst initiation cycle frequencies were higher when compared to the RDS group. Moreover, the initial 5 cycles of the NNS burst manifest a frequency modulated (FM segment which is a significant feature of the suck central pattern generator (sCPG, and differentially expressed in healthy and RDS infants. The NNS burst structure revealed significantly lower spatiotemporal index values for control versus RDS preterm infants during FM, and provides additional information on the microstructure of the sCPG which may be used to gauge the developmental status and progression of oromotor control systems among these fragile infants.

  11. FPGA implementation of a configurable neuromorphic CPG-based locomotion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-09-01

    Neuromorphic engineering is a discipline devoted to the design and development of computational hardware that mimics the characteristics and capabilities of neuro-biological systems. In recent years, neuromorphic hardware systems have been implemented using a hybrid approach incorporating digital hardware so as to provide flexibility and scalability at the cost of power efficiency and some biological realism. This paper proposes an FPGA-based neuromorphic-like embedded system on a chip to generate locomotion patterns of periodic rhythmic movements inspired by Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). The proposed implementation follows a top-down approach where modularity and hierarchy are two desirable features. The locomotion controller is based on CPG models to produce rhythmic locomotion patterns or gaits for legged robots such as quadrupeds and hexapods. The architecture is configurable and scalable for robots with either different morphologies or different degrees of freedom (DOFs). Experiments performed on a real robot are presented and discussed. The obtained results demonstrate that the CPG-based controller provides the necessary flexibility to generate different rhythmic patterns at run-time suitable for adaptable locomotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increase in CpG DNA-induced inflammatory responses by DNA oxidation in macrophages and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kiyota, Tsuyoshi; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2011-07-15

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide (CpG motif) is involved in the exacerbation of DNA-associated autoimmune diseases. We investigated the effect of DNA containing 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (oxo-dG), a representative DNA biomarker for oxidative stress in the diseases, on CpG motif-dependent inflammatory responses. ODN1668 and ODN1720 were selected as CpG-DNA and non-CpG DNA, respectively. Deoxyguanosine in the CpG motif (G9) or outside the motif (G15) of ODN1668 was substituted with oxo-dG to obtain oxo(G9)-1668 and oxo(G15)-1668, respectively. Oxo(G15)-1668 induced a significantly higher amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells than ODN1668, whereas oxo(G9)-1668, oxo(G8)-1720, or oxo(G15)-1720 hardly did. CpG DNA-induced TNF-α production was significantly increased by addition of oxo(G8)-1720 or oxo(G15)-1720, but not of ODN1720. This oxo-dG-containing DNA-induced increase in TNF-α production was also observed in primary cultured macrophages isolated from wild-type mice, but not observed in those from Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 knockout mice. In addition, TNF-α production by ligands for TLR3, TLR4, or TLR7 was not affected by oxo-dG-containing DNA. Then, the footpad swelling induced by subcutaneous injection of ODN1668 into mice was increased by coinjection with oxo(G8)-1720, but not with ODN1720. These results indicate that oxo-dG-containing DNA increases the CpG motif-dependent inflammatory responses, which would exacerbate DNA-related autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic application of CpG oligonucleotides augments the early host response and confers protection in acute melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Judy

    Full Text Available Prophylactic administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs is known to confer protection against lethal sepsis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in the mouse model. The mechanisms whereby CpG regulates the innate immune response to provide protection against B. pseudomallei, however, are poorly characterized. In the present study, we demonstrate that intranasal treatment of mice with Class C CpG, results in recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils to the lung at 48 h post-treatment. Mice infected with B. pseudomallei 48 h post-CpG treatment had reduced organ bacterial load and significantly altered cytokine and chemokine profiles concomitant with protection as compared to control animals. CpG administration reduced the robust production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood, lung and spleen, observed following infection of non-treated animals. Death of control animals coincided with the time of peak cytokine production (day 1-3, while a moderate; sustained cytokine production in CpG-treated animals was associated with survival. In general, CpG treatment resulted in diminished expression of cytokines and chemokines post-infection, though IL-12p40 was released in larger quantities in CpG treated animals. In contrast to CpG-treated animals, the lungs of infected control animals were infiltrated with leukocytes, especially neutrophils, and large numbers of necrotic lesions were observed in lung sections. Therapeutic treatment of B. pseudomallei-infected animals with CpG at 24 h post-infection did not impact survival compared to control animals. In summary, protection of CpG-treated animals was associated with recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils into the lungs prior to infection. These responses correspond with early control of bacterial growth, a dampened inflammatory cytokine/chemokine response, reduced lung pathology, and greatly increased survival. In contrast, a delay in recruitment of

  14. Protection of Balb/c mice against infection with FMDV by immunostimulation with CpG oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene

    2006-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, and are capable of aborting several infections in a non-specific manner. We here report studies of the capacity of such ODN to protect mice against infection with foot and mouth...... serotypes, when compared to no treatment or treatment with a control ODN. The effect was observed when ODN was administered simultaneously with, or up to 12 h after, infection with FMDV, and lasted for 14 days post treatment. The potential application of CpG ODN for control of FMDV during an outbreak...

  15. Dual activity of phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on HIV: reactivation of latent provirus and inhibition of productive infection in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Carsten; Ullrich, Anett; Lamla, Stefan; Dittmer, Ulf; Rethwilm, Axel; Koutsilieri, Eleni

    2006-12-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) bind to toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) and activate immune cells with antigen-presenting activity, including B cells and dendritic cells. Here we show that treatment of the latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T cell line ACH-2 with the CpG ODNs 2006 or 2040 triggers activation of viral gene expression, demonstrating that CpG-signaling activity can also be found in T cells. The CpG ODNs g12AAC and g12GTC had no effect on virus reactivation. In contrast to the stimulating effects on viral gene expression in latently infected cells, CpG ODNs potently suppressed HIV replication in productively infected MT4 T cells or PBLs. Inhibition of virus replication was not related to the CpG motif but similarly occurred with non-CpG phosphorothioate (PTO)-ODNs. Thus, virus inhibition was likely caused by the PTO backbone of the CpG ODNs, probably by interfering with events prior to integration of the viral cDNA into the host genome. The ability of CpG PTO-ODNs to trigger reactivation of latent HIV in combination with their antiviral activity on productive infection makes this substance class an interesting candidate for further test to asses their potential as supplements in HIV therapy.

  16. DMPD: Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways

  17. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Taghizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+.We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone.The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  18. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  19. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Shih, Tsung-Mu; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2010-12-17

    SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM) and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  20. Simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues from GWAS data via Bayesian integration of multiple tissue-specific gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Lin, Zhixiang; Ma, Shining; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui; Wong, Wing Hung

    2017-12-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of genomic loci associated with hundreds of complex traits in the past decade, the debate about such problems as missing heritability and weak interpretability has been appealing for effective computational methods to facilitate the advanced analysis of the vast volume of existing and anticipated genetic data. Towards this goal, gene-level integrative GWAS analysis with the assumption that genes associated with a phenotype tend to be enriched in biological gene sets or gene networks has recently attracted much attention, due to such advantages as straightforward interpretation, less multiple testing burdens, and robustness across studies. However, existing methods in this category usually exploit non-tissue-specific gene networks and thus lack the ability to utilize informative tissue-specific characteristics. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a Bayesian approach called SIGNET (Simultaneously Inference of GeNEs and Tissues) to integrate GWAS data and multiple tissue-specific gene networks for the simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues. Through extensive simulation studies, we showed the effectiveness of our method in finding both associated genes and relevant tissues for a phenotype. In applications to real GWAS data of 14 complex phenotypes, we demonstrated the power of our method in both deciphering genetic basis and discovering biological insights of a phenotype. With this understanding, we expect to see SIGNET as a valuable tool for integrative GWAS analysis, thereby boosting the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human inherited diseases and eventually facilitating precision medicine.

  1. E2a-Pbx1 induces aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, X; Kamps, M P

    1997-01-01

    The E2a-Pbx1 oncoprotein contains the transactivation domain of E2a joined to the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of Pbx1. In mice, E2a-Pbx1 transforms T lymphoblasts and fibroblasts and blocks myeloblast differentiation. Pbx1 and E2a-Pbx1 bind DNA as heterodimers with other HD proteins whose expression is tissue specific. While the transactivation domain of E2a is required for all forms of transformation, DNA binding by the Pbx1 HD is essential for blocking myeloblast differentiation but dispen...

  2. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  3. CpG Type A Induction of an Early Protective Environment in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Crooks

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS that mimics human multiple sclerosis (MS, and it is thought to be driven by Th1 and Th17 myelin-reactive cells. Although adaptive immunity is clearly pivotal in the pathogenesis of EAE, with an essential role of CD4+ T cells, little is known of early, innate responses in this experimental setting. CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, typically found in microbial genomes, are potent activators of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. In this study, we compared the effects of two types of CpG, namely, type A and type B, on EAE. We found that treatment with CpG type A ODN (CpG-A, known to induce high amounts of IFN-α in pDCs, significantly reduced disease severity in EAE, relative to controls (12.63±1.86 versus 23.49±1.46, resp.; p=0.001. Treatment also delayed onset of neurological deficits and reduced spinal cord demyelination, while increasing the percentage of splenic regulatory (Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. CpG-A likewise reduced the levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in the CNS. Mechanistic insight into those events showed that CpG-A promoted a regulatory phenotype in pDCs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of pDCs isolated from CpG-A-treated mice inhibited CNS inflammation and induced disease remission in acute-phase EAE. Our data thus identify a link between TLR9 activation by specific ligands and the induction of tolerance via innate immunity mechanisms.

  4. Inhibitory effects of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on MHC class I-deficient and -proficient HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2006), s. 1836-1842 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * immunotherapy * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.693, year: 2006

  5. Methylation of CpG sites in RNF180 DNA promoter prediction poor survival of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingyu; Liang, Han; Ying, Guoguang; Zhang, Rupeng; Wang, Baogui; Yu, Jun; Fan, Daiming; Hao, Xishan

    2014-05-30

    RNF 180, a novel tumor suppressor, has been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progress of gastric cancer. At present study, we found that lower expression of RNA180 was specific in gastric cancer tissues, and the inconsistently methylated levels of RNF180 promoter were identified in the gastric cancer tissues. Importantly, we demonstrated that the methylated CpG site count and four hypermethylated CpG sites (-116, -80, +97, and +102) were significantly associated with the survival of 400 gastric cancer patients, respectively. With multivariate survival analyses, we demonstrated that both the methylation of combined CpG (-116, -80, +97, and +102) sites and N stage were the independent indictor of prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Eventually, the methylation of combined CpG (-116, -80, +97, and +102) sites was identified to have smaller AIC value than N stage by mean of AIC calculation with the Cox proportional hazards model. These findings indicated that the quantitative detection of RNF180 promoter methylation had the intensive feasibility for evaluation the prognosis of gastric cancer patients in clinic.

  6. Erasure of CpG methylation in Arabidopsis alters patterns of histone H3 methylation in heterochromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, M.; Saze, H.; Probst, A.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and plants, formation of heterochromatin is associated with hypermethylation of DNA at CpG sites and histone H3 methylation at lysine 9. Previous studies have revealed that maintenance of DNA methylation in Neurospora and Arabidopsis requires histone H3 methylation. A feedback loop from...

  7. Protection of Balb/c mice against infection with FMDV by immunostimulation with CpG oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene

    2006-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, and are capable of aborting several infections in a non-specific manner. We here report studies of the capacity of such ODN to protect mice against infection with foot and mouth dise...

  8. Direct Lymph Node Vaccination of Lentivector/Prostate-Specific Antigen is Safe and Generates Tissue-Specific Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Au

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer immunotherapy is emerging from a nadir and demonstrating tangible benefits to patients. A variety of approaches are now employed. We are invoking antigen (Ag-specific responses through direct injections of recombinant lentivectors (LVs that encode sequences for tumor-associated antigens into multiple lymph nodes to optimize immune presentation/stimulation. Here we first demonstrate the effectiveness and antigen-specificity of this approach in mice challenged with prostate-specific antigen (PSA-expressing tumor cells. Next we tested the safety and efficacy of this approach in two cohorts of rhesus macaques as a prelude to a clinical trial application. Our vector encodes the cDNA for rhesus macaque PSA and a rhesus macaque cell surface marker to facilitate vector titering and tracking. We utilized two independent injection schemas demarcated by the timing of LV administration. In both cohorts we observed marked tissue-specific responses as measured by clinical evaluations and magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland. Tissue-specific responses were sustained for up to six months—the end-point of the study. Control animals immunized against an irrelevant Ag were unaffected. We did not observe vector spread in test or control animals or perturbations of systemic immune parameters. This approach thus offers an “off-the-shelf” anti-cancer vaccine that could be made at large scale and injected into patients—even on an out-patient basis.

  9. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  10. Molecular cloning of tissue-specific transcripts of a transketolase-related gene: Implications for the evolution of new vertebrate genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coy, J.F.; Duebel, S.; Kioschis, P.; Delius, H.; Poustka, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)] [and others

    1996-03-05

    As part of a systematic search for differentially expressed genes, we have isolated a novel transketolase-related gene (TKR) (HGMW-approved symbol TKT), located between the green color vision pigment gene (GCP) and the ABP-280 filamin gene (FLN1) in Xq28. Transcripts encoding tissue-specific protein isoforms could be isolated. Comparison with known transketolases (TK) demonstrated a TKR-specific deletion mutating one thiamine binding site. Genomic sequencing of the TKR gene revealed the presence of a pseudoexon as well as the acquisition of a tissue-specific spliced exon compared to TK. Since it has been postulated that the vertebrate genome arose by two cycles of tetraploidization from a cephalochordate genome, this could represent an example of the modulation of the function of a preexisting transketolase gene by gene duplication. Thiamine defiency is closely involved with two neurological disorders, Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromes, and in both of these conditions TK with altered activity are found. We discuss the possible involvement of TKR in explaining the observed variant transketolase forms. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Phylogenic diversity and tissue specificity of fungal endophytes associated with the pharmaceutical plant, Stellera chamaejasme L. revealed by a cultivation-independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Li, Chunjie; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zeng, Liming; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The fungal endophytes associated with medicinal plants have been demonstrated as a reservoir with novel natural products useful in medicine and agriculture. It is desirable to explore the species composition, diversity and tissue specificity of endophytic fungi that inhabit in different tissues of medicinal plants. In this study, a culture-independent survey of fungal diversity in the rhizosphere, leaves, stems and roots of a toxic medicinal plant, Stellera chamaejasme L., was conducted by sequence analysis of clone libraries of the partial internal transcribed spacer region. Altogether, 145 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units), represented by 464 sequences, were found in four samples, of these 109 OTUs (75.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 20 (13.8 %) to Basidiomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Zygomycota, 1 (0.7 %) to Chytridiomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to Glomeromycota. The richness and diversity of fungal communities were strongly influenced by plant tissue environments, and the roots are associated with a surprisingly rich endophyte community. The endophyte assemblages associated with S. chamaejasme were strongly shaped by plant tissue environments, and exhibited a certain degree of tissue specificity. Our results suggested that a wide variety of fungal assemblages inhabit in S. chamaejasme, and plant tissue environments conspicuously influence endophyte community structure.

  12. CpG DNA facilitate the inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus in enhancing the local and systemic immune response of pigs via oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Tu, Chongzhi; Mou, Chunxiao; Chen, Xiaojuan; Yang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replicates in the small intestine and induces enteritis and watery diarrhea. Establishment of local immunity in the intestine would thus prevent TGEV transmission. CpG DNA has been reported as a promising mucosal adjuvant in some animals. The effects of oral immunization of CpG DNA together with inactivated TGEV (ITGEV) were investigated in this study. Pigs (6 weeks old) were orally immunized with ITGEV plus CpG DNA. The TGEV-specific IgA level in the intestinal tract and the TGEV-specific IgG level in serum significantly increased following immunization with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, populations of IgA-secreting cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), in the intestine increased significantly after immunization with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in ligated intestine segments increased significantly after injection with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that oral immunization of ITGEV plus CpG DNA elicits a local immune response. Further studies are required to determine whether this immunity provides protection against TGEV in pigs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. α-Fetoprotein promoter-driven Cre/LoxP-switched RNA interference for hepatocellular carcinoma tissue-specific target therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fei Peng

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment.Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1 was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3 and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116 were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5 was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay in vitro and tumorigenesis assay in vivo.The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1 but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1 in vivo while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth suppression in vivo.An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA was successfully established. The system provides a usable tool for HCC-specific RNAi

  14. E2a-Pbx1 induces aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X; Kamps, M P

    1997-03-01

    The E2a-Pbx1 oncoprotein contains the transactivation domain of E2a joined to the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of Pbx1. In mice, E2a-Pbx1 transforms T lymphoblasts and fibroblasts and blocks myeloblast differentiation. Pbx1 and E2a-Pbx1 bind DNA as heterodimers with other HD proteins whose expression is tissue specific. While the transactivation domain of E2a is required for all forms of transformation, DNA binding by the Pbx1 HD is essential for blocking myeloblast differentiation but dispensable for fibroblast or T-lymphoblast transformation. These properties suggest (i) that E2a-Pbx1 causes cellular transformation by activating gene transcription, (ii) that transcription of E2a-Pbx1 target genes is normally regulated by ubiquitous Pbx proteins and tissue-specific partners, and (iii) that DNA-binding mutants of E2a-Pbx1 activate a subset of all gene targets. To test these predictions, genes induced in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts by E2a-Pbx1 were identified and examined for tissue- and stage-specific expression and their differential abilities to be upregulated by E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and myeloblasts and by a DNA-binding mutant of E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 cells. Of 12 RNAs induced by E2a-Pbx1, 4 encoded known proteins (a J-C region of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain, natriuretic peptide receptor C, mitochondrial fumarase, and the 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE1A) and 5 encoded new proteins related to angiogenin, ion channels, villin, epidermal growth factor repeat proteins, and the human 2.19 gene product. Expression of many of these genes was tissue specific or developmentally regulated, and most were not expressed in fibroblasts, indicating that E2a-Pbx1 can induce ectopic expression of genes associated with lineage-specific differentiation.

  15. A four step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eMurakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  16. A minimal peach type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein promoter retains tissue-specificity and light regulation in tomato

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    Scorza Ralph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoters with tissue-specificity are desirable to drive expression of transgenes in crops to avoid accumulation of foreign proteins in edible tissues/organs. Several photosynthetic promoters have been shown to be strong regulators of expression of transgenes in light-responsive tissues and would be good candidates for leaf and immature fruit tissue-specificity, if expression in the mature fruit were minimized. Results A minimal peach chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb2*Pp1 promoter (Cab19 was isolated and fused to an uidA (β-glucuronidase [GUS] gene containing the PIV2 intron. A control vector carrying an enhanced mas35S CaMV promoter fused to uidA was also constructed. Two different orientations of the Cab19::GUS fusion relative to the left T-DNA border of the binary vector were transformed into tomato. Ten independent regenerants of each construct and an untransformed control line were assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively for GUS expression in leaves, fruit and flowers, and quantitatively in roots. Conclusion The minimal CAB19 promoter conferred GUS activity primarily in leaves and green fruit, as well as in response to light. GUS activity in the leaves of both Cab19 constructs averaged about 2/3 that observed with mas35S::GUS controls. Surprisingly, GUS activity in transgenic green fruit was considerably higher than leaves for all promoter constructs; however, in red, ripe fruit activities were much lower for the Cab19 promoter constructs than the mas35S::GUS. Although GUS activity was readily detectable in flowers and roots of mas35S::GUStransgenic plants, little activity was observed in plants carrying the Cab19 promoter constructs. In addition, the light-inducibility of the Cab19::GUS constructs indicated that all the requisite cis-elements for light responsiveness were contained on the Cab19 fragment. The minimal Cab19 promoter retains both tissue-specificity and light regulation and can be used to

  17. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

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    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly thought that autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases (Marrack et al., 2001; Mathis and Benoist, 2004). In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established (Mocci et al., 2000; Skapenko et al., 2005). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mice (F759 mice) are such examples (Atsumi et al., 2002; Brennan et al., 2002; Falgarone et al., 2009). These include associations with class II MHC and CD4 molecules; increased numbers of memory/activated CD4+ T cells; and improved outcomes in response to suppressions and/or deficiencies in class II MHC molecules, CD4+ T cells, and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. Regarding the development of arthritis in F759 mice, it is not only the immune system, but also non-immune tissue that are involved, indicating that the importance of their interactions (Sawa et al., 2006, 2009; Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Furthermore, we have shown that local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice (Murakami et al., 2011). For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induce such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non-hematopoietic cells in the joint (Murakami et al., 2011). We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier for

  18. Novel insights into structure-function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus.

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    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure-function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future.

  19. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  20. Effects of chronic exposure to waterborne copper and nickel in binary mixture on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

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    Driessnack, Melissa K; Jamwal, Ankur; Niyogi, Som

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fish trios (1 male: 2 female; n = 5-6) were exposed for 21 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Ni), (ii) waterborne Cu (45 μg/L), (iii) waterborne Ni (270 μg/L), and (iv) binary mixture of waterborne Cu and Ni (45 and 270 μg/L, respectively). Fish fecundity (cumulative egg production) was found to be the most sensitive reproductive endpoint, and the interaction of Cu and Ni elicited an additive effect on egg production. Tissue-specific accumulation of both metals was not influenced by the interaction of Cu and Ni, except an increased Cu and Ni burden in the carcass and ovary, respectively, were recorded. The expressions of hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) and the circulating estradiol level in females were also not affected by the metal-mixture treatment. However, co-exposure to waterborne Cu and Ni resulted in a significant downregulation of the hepatic vitellogenin gene in females, which was associated with the maximum upregulation of the hepatic metallothionein gene. In addition, a significant alteration of ovarian histopathology (decreased abundance of post-vitellogenic follicles, and increased follicular atresia) was also observed only in females exposed to Cu and Ni in mixture. Collectively, these observations suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu and Ni in binary mixture may impair fish reproductive capacity by inducing histopathological damage in ovarian tissue, and disrupting of energy homeostasis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of CTLA2A, DEFB29, WFDC15B, SERPINA1F and MUP19 as Novel Tissue-Specific Secretory Factors in Mouse.

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    Jibin Zhang

    Full Text Available Secretory factors in animals play an important role in communication between different cells, tissues and organs. Especially, the secretory factors with specific expression in one tissue may reflect important functions and unique status of that tissue in an organism. In this study, we identified potential tissue-specific secretory factors in the fat, muscle, heart, lung, kidney and liver in the mouse by analyzing microarray data from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository and searching and predicting their subcellular location in GeneCards and WoLF PSORT, and then confirmed tissue-specific expression of the genes using semi-quantitative PCR reactions. With this approach, we confirmed 11 lung, 7 liver, 2 heart, 1 heart and muscle, 7 kidney and 2 adipose and liver-specific secretory factors. Among these genes, 1 lung-specific gene--CTLA2A (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 2 alpha, 3 kidney-specific genes--SERPINA1F (serpin peptidase inhibitor, Clade A, member 1F, WFDC15B (WAP four-disulfide core domain 15B and DEFB29 (defensin beta 29 and 1 liver-specific gene--MUP19 (major urinary protein 19 have not been reported as secretory factors. These genes were tagged with hemagglutinin at the 3'end and then transiently transfected to HEK293 cells. Through protein detection in cell lysate and media using Western blotting, we verified secretion of the 5 genes and predicted the potential pathways in which they may participate in the specific tissue through data analysis of GEO profiles. In addition, alternative splicing was detected in transcripts of CTLA2A and SERPINA1F and the corresponding proteins were found not to be secreted in cell culture media. Identification of novel secretory factors through the current study provides a new platform to explore novel secretory factors and a general direction for further study of these genes in the future.

  2. Epigenetic events determine tissue-specific toxicity of inhalational exposure to the genotoxic chemical 1,3-butadiene in male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Kobets, Tetyana; O'Brien, Bridget; Tretyakova, Natalia; Sangaraju, Dewakar; Kosyk, Oksana; Sexton, Kenneth G; Bodnar, Wanda; Pogribny, Igor P; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a widely used industrial chemical and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is a known human carcinogen. Although genotoxicity is an established mechanism of the tumorigenicity of BD, epigenetic effects have also been observed in livers of mice exposed to the chemical. To better characterize the diverse molecular mechanisms of BD tumorigenicity, we evaluated genotoxic and epigenotoxic effects of BD exposure in mouse tissues that are target (lung and liver) and non-target (kidney) for BD-induced tumors. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations may explain, at least in part, the tissue-specific differences in BD tumorigenicity in mice. We evaluated the level of N-7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybut-1-yl)guanine adducts and 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol crosslinks, DNA methylation, and histone modifications in male C57BL/6 mice exposed to filtered air or 425 ppm of BD by inhalation (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for 2 weeks. Although DNA damage was observed in all three tissues of BD-exposed mice, variation in epigenetic effects clearly existed between the kidneys, liver, and lungs. Epigenetic alterations indicative of genomic instability, including demethylation of repetitive DNA sequences and alterations in histone-lysine acetylation, were evident in the liver and lung tissues of BD-exposed mice. Changes in DNA methylation were insignificant in the kidneys of treated mice, whereas marks of condensed heterochromatin and transcriptional silencing (histone-lysine trimethylation) were increased. These modifications may represent a potential mechanistic explanation for the lack of tumorigenesis in the kidney. Our results indicate that differential tissue susceptibility to chemical-induced tumorigenesis may be attributed to tissue-specific epigenetic alterations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

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    Monika Stimac

    Full Text Available Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET (TS plasmid, in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid, in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  4. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

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    Marc Galland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality.

  5. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Marc; He, Dongli; Lounifi, Imen; Arc, Erwann; Clément, Gilles; Balzergue, Sandrine; Huguet, Stéphanie; Cueff, Gwendal; Godin, Béatrice; Collet, Boris; Granier, Fabienne; Morin, Halima; Tran, Joseph; Valot, Benoit; Rajjou, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins) in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality. PMID:29213276

  6. The impact of laser ablation on optical soft tissue differentiation for tissue specific laser surgery-an experimental ex vivo study

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    Stelzle Florian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical diffuse reflectance can remotely differentiate various bio tissues. To implement this technique in an optical feedback system to guide laser surgery in a tissue-specific way, the alteration of optical tissue properties by laser ablation has to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the general feasibility of optical soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy under the influence of laser ablation, comparing the tissue differentiation results before and after laser intervention. Methods A total of 70 ex vivo tissue samples (5 tissue types were taken from 14 bisected pig heads. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded before and after Er:YAG-laser ablation. The spectra were analyzed and differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA. To assess the potential of tissue differentiation, area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity was computed for each pair of tissue types before and after laser ablation, and compared to each other. Results Optical tissue differentiation showed good results before laser exposure (total classification error 13.51%. However, the tissue pair nerve and fat yielded lower AUC results of only 0.75. After laser ablation slightly reduced differentiation results were found with a total classification error of 16.83%. The tissue pair nerve and fat showed enhanced differentiation (AUC: 0.85. Laser ablation reduced the sensitivity in 50% and specificity in 80% of the cases of tissue pair comparison. The sensitivity of nerve–fat differentiation was enhanced by 35%. Conclusions The observed results show the general feasibility of tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy even under conditions of tissue alteration by laser ablation. The contrast enhancement for the differentiation between nerve and fat tissue after ablation is assumed to be due to laser removal of the

  7. In vivo control of CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases.

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    Julia Arand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic control of the setting and maintenance of symmetric and non-symmetric DNA methylation patterns in a particular genome context is not well understood. Here, we describe a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation patterns generated by high resolution sequencing of hairpin-bisulfite amplicons of selected single copy genes and repetitive elements (LINE1, B1, IAP-LTR-retrotransposons, and major satellites. The analysis unambiguously identifies a substantial amount of regional incomplete methylation maintenance, i.e. hemimethylated CpG positions, with variant degrees among cell types. Moreover, non-CpG cytosine methylation is confined to ESCs and exclusively catalysed by Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. This sequence position-, cell type-, and region-dependent non-CpG methylation is strongly linked to neighboring CpG methylation and requires the presence of Dnmt3L. The generation of a comprehensive data set of 146,000 CpG dyads was used to apply and develop parameter estimated hidden Markov models (HMM to calculate the relative contribution of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts for de novo and maintenance DNA methylation. The comparative modelling included wild-type ESCs and mutant ESCs deficient for Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, or Dnmt3a/3b, respectively. The HMM analysis identifies a considerable de novo methylation activity for Dnmt1 at certain repetitive elements and single copy sequences. Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b contribute de novo function. However, both enzymes are also essential to maintain symmetrical CpG methylation at distinct repetitive and single copy sequences in ESCs.

  8. Applicability of the methylated CpG sites of paired box 5 (PAX5) promoter for prediction the prognosis of gastric cancer.

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    Deng, Jingyu; Liang, Han; Zhang, Rupeng; Dong, Qiuping; Hou, Yachao; Yu, Jun; Fan, Daiming; Hao, Xishan

    2014-09-15

    Paired box gene 5 (PAX5), a member of the paired box gene family, is involved in control of organ development and tissue differentiation. In previous study, PAX5 promoter methylation was found in gastric cancer (GC) cells and tissues. At present study, we found that the inconsistently methylated levels of PAX5 promoter were identified in the different GC tissues. The methylated CpG site count and the methylated statuses of four CpG sites (-236, -183, -162, and -152) were significantly associated with the survival of 460 GC patients, respectively. Ultimately, the methylated CpG -236 was the optimal prognostic predictor of patients identified by using the Cox regression with AIC value calculation. These findings indicated that the methylated CpG -236 of PAX5 promoter has the potential applicability for clinical evaluation the prognosis of GC.

  9. CpG ODN and ISCOMATRIX Adjuvant: A Synergistic Adjuvant Combination Inducing Strong T-Cell IFN-γ Responses

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    Michael J. McCluskie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses, a strong rationale exists to use vaccine-adjuvant combinations possessing both immune modulatory and enhanced delivery capabilities. Herein, we evaluated the combination of 2 different adjuvants, a TLR9 agonist, composed of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG, and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX, composed of saponin, phospholipid, and cholesterol, which possesses both immunostimulatory and delivery properties. While both individual adjuvants have been shown effective in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, it is likely that for optimal adjuvant activity a combined adjuvant approach will be necessary. Herein, using three different antigens, namely, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, ovalbumin (OVA, and influenza A haemagglutinin antigen (HA, we show in mice that some adjuvant effects of CpG and ISCOMATRIX are further enhanced if they are used in combination. In particular, with all three antigens, IFN-γ levels were greatly increased with the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination. The ability of the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination to induce antitumor responses when administered with OVA following administration to mice of a highly metastatic OVA-secreting tumor cell line (B16-OVA melanoma was also demonstrated. Thus the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of novel or improved vaccines.

  10. A Panel of CpG Methylation Sites Distinguishes Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Kevin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are epigenetically identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs has been debated in the stem cell field. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in a large number of hiPSCs (n = 114 and hESCs (n = 155, and identified a panel of 82 CpG methylation sites that can distinguish hiPSCs from hESCs with high accuracy. We show that 12 out of the 82 CpG sites were subject to hypermethylation in part by DNMT3B. Notably, DNMT3B contributes directly to aberrant hypermethylation and silencing of the signature gene, TCERG1L. Overall, we conclude that DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during reprogramming, a portion of which contributes to the unique hiPSC methylation signature. These 82 CpG methylation sites may be useful as biomarkers to distinguish between hiPSCs and hESCs.

  11. Dengue-1 envelope protein domain III along with PELC and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically enhances immune responses.

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    Chen-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are their low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Adjuvants can help to overcome some of these inherent defects with subunit vaccines. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed water-in-oil-in-water multiphase emulsion system, termed PELC, in potentiating the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III. Unlike aluminum phosphate, dengue-1 envelope protein domain III formulated with PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induced neutralizing antibodies against dengue-1 virus and increased the splenocyte secretion of IFN-γ after in vitro re-stimulation. The induced antibodies contained both the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. A rapid anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against a live dengue virus challenge was elicited at week 26 after the first immunization. These results demonstrate that PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides broaden the dengue-1 envelope protein domain III-specific immune responses. PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is a promising adjuvant for recombinant protein based vaccination against dengue virus.

  12. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Firouzmand, Hengameh; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  13. A novel method to quantify local CpG methylation density by regional methylation elongation assay on microarray

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    Qiao Yingjuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation based techniques are important tools in both clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. But most of these methods only analyze a few CpG sites in a target region. Indeed, difference of site-specific methylation may also lead to a change of methylation density in many cases, and it has been found that the density of methylation is more important than methylation of single CpG site for gene silencing. Results We have developed a novel approach for quantitative analysis of CpG methylation density on the basis of microarray-based hybridization and incorporation of Cy5-dCTP into the Cy3 labeled target DNA by using Taq DNA Polymerase on microarray. The quantification is achieved by measuring Cy5/Cy3 signal ratio which is proportional to methylation density. This methylation-sensitive technique, termed RMEAM (regional methylation elongation assay on microarray, provides several advantages over existing methods used for methylation analysis. It can determine an exact methylation density of the given region, and has potential of high throughput. We demonstrate a use of this method in determining the methylation density of the promoter region of the tumor-related gene MLH1, TERT and MGMT in colorectal carcinoma patients. Conclusion This technique allows for quantitative analysis of regional methylation density, which is the representative of all allelic methylation patterns in the sample. The results show that this technique has the characteristics of simplicity, rapidness, specificity and high-throughput.

  14. Phase 1 trial of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909: an asexual blood-stage vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Gregory E D Mullen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1, a polymorphic merozoite surface protein, is a leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. This is the first reported use in humans of an investigational vaccine, AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel, with the novel adjuvant CPG 7909.A phase 1 trial was conducted at the University of Rochester with 75 malaria-naive volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 malaria vaccine. Participants were sequentially enrolled and randomized within dose escalating cohorts to receive three vaccinations on days 0, 28 and 56 of either 20 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+564 microg CPG 7909 (n = 15, 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel (n = 30, or 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+564 microg CPG 7909 (n = 30.Local and systemic adverse events were significantly more likely to be of higher severity with the addition of CPG 7909. Anti-AMA1 immunoglobulin G (IgG were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the immune sera of volunteers that received 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 had up to 14 fold significant increases in anti-AMA1 antibody concentration compared to 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel alone. The addition of CPG 7909 to the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel vaccine in humans also elicited AMA1 specific immune IgG that significantly and dramatically increased the in vitro growth inhibition of homologous parasites to levels as high as 96% inhibition.The safety profile of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 malaria vaccine is acceptable, given the significant increase in immunogenicity observed. Further clinical development is ongoing.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00344539.

  15. The rates of G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G transversions at CpG dinucleotides in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The authors have identified eight independent transversions at CpG in 290 consecutive families with hemophilia B. These eight transversions account for 16.3% of all independent transversions in the sample, yet the expected frequency of CpG transversions at random in the factor IX gene is only 2.6% (P<0.1). The aggregate data suggest that the two types of CpG transversions (G:C[yields]T:A and G:C[yields]C:G) possess similar mutation rates (24.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] and 20.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]10], respectively), which are about fivefold greater than the comparable rates for transversions at non-CpG dinucleotides. The enhancement of transversions at CpG suggest that the model by which mutations occur at CpG may need to be reevaluated. The relationship, if any, between deamination of 5-methyl cytosine and enhancement of transversions at CpG remains to be defined. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Transcriptomic Insights into the Response of Placenta and Decidua Basalis to the CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice and Wild-Type Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD mice but not in the wild-type (WT mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection. The susceptibility to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption in the NOD mice might mainly be attributed to M1 macrophage polarization and the immunodeficient status, such as the down-regulation in antigen processing and presentation, allograft rejection, and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, the WT mice with normal immune systems could activate multiple immune responses and be resistant to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption, such as M2 macrophage differentiation and activation regulated by complement component C1q and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathways. Collectively, this study suggests that the immunodeficient status of NOD mice and the macrophage polarization regulated by C1q and PPAR signaling might be the basis for differential pregnancy outcomes between the NOD and WT mice.

  17. Analysis of 13 cell types reveals evidence for the expression of numerous novel primate- and tissue-specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londin, Eric; Loher, Phillipe; Telonis, Aristeidis G; Quann, Kevin; Clark, Peter; Jing, Yi; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Kirino, Yohei; Honda, Shozo; Lally, Michelle; Ramratnam, Bharat; Comstock, Clay E S; Knudsen, Karen E; Gomella, Leonard; Spaeth, George L; Hark, Lisa; Katz, L Jay; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Jimenez, Sergio A; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Yeh, Jen Jen; Shaw, Chad A; McKenzie, Steven E; Bray, Paul; Nelson, Peter T; Zupo, Simona; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A; Yeo, Charles; Jimbo, Masaya; Cozzitorto, Joseph; Brody, Jonathan R; Delgrosso, Kathleen; Mattick, John S; Fortina, Paolo; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2015-03-10

    Two decades after the discovery of the first animal microRNA (miRNA), the number of miRNAs in animal genomes remains a vexing question. Here, we report findings from analyzing 1,323 short RNA sequencing samples (RNA-seq) from 13 different human tissue types. Using stringent thresholding criteria, we identified 3,707 statistically significant novel mature miRNAs at a false discovery rate of ≤ 0.05 arising from 3,494 novel precursors; 91.5% of these novel miRNAs were identified independently in 10 or more of the processed samples. Analysis of these novel miRNAs revealed tissue-specific dependencies and a commensurate low Jaccard similarity index in intertissue comparisons. Of these novel miRNAs, 1,657 (45%) were identified in 43 datasets that were generated by cross-linking followed by Argonaute immunoprecipitation and sequencing (Ago CLIP-seq) and represented 3 of the 13 tissues, indicating that these miRNAs are active in the RNA interference pathway. Moreover, experimental investigation through stem-loop PCR of a random collection of newly discovered miRNAs in 12 cell lines representing 5 tissues confirmed their presence and tissue dependence. Among the newly identified miRNAs are many novel miRNA clusters, new members of known miRNA clusters, previously unreported products from uncharacterized arms of miRNA precursors, and previously unrecognized paralogues of functionally important miRNA families (e.g., miR-15/107). Examination of the sequence conservation across vertebrate and invertebrate organisms showed 56.7% of the newly discovered miRNAs to be human-specific whereas the majority (94.4%) are primate lineage-specific. Our findings suggest that the repertoire of human miRNAs is far more extensive than currently represented by public repositories and that there is a significant number of lineage- and/or tissue-specific miRNAs that are uncharacterized.

  18. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B., E-mail: korn@mail.ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Korneenko, Tatyana V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shakhparonov, Mikhail I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2

  19. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded secretory proteins via the ER-associated degradation pathway. This functional diversity of p97 depends on its association with various cofactors, and to further our understanding of p97 function it is important that these cofactors are identified and analyzed. Here, we isolate and characterize the human protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8 is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p97 to the ER membrane for efficient ER-associated degradation.

  20. Towards a Novel Patch Material for Cardiac Applications: Tissue-Specific Extracellular Matrix Introduces Essential Key Features to Decellularized Amniotic Membrane

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    Matthias Becker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for scaffold material with tissue-specific bioactivity for use in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and for surgical repair of structural defects. We developed a novel composite biomaterial by processing human cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM into a hydrogel and combining it with cell-free amniotic membrane via a dry-coating procedure. Cardiac biocompatibility and immunogenicity were tested in vitro using human cardiac fibroblasts, epicardial progenitor cells, murine HL-1 cells, and human immune cells derived from buffy coat. Processing of the ECM preserved important matrix proteins as demonstrated by mass spectrometry. ECM coating did not alter the mechanical characteristics of decellularized amniotic membrane but did cause a clear increase in adhesion capacity, cell proliferation and viability. Activated monocytes secreted less pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both macrophage polarization towards the pro-inflammatory M1 type and T cell proliferation were prevented. We conclude that the incorporation of human cardiac ECM hydrogel shifts and enhances the bioactivity of decellularized amniotic membrane, facilitating its use in future cardiac applications.

  1. Alternative splicing and tissue-specific elastin misassembly act as biological modifiers of human elastin gene frameshift mutations associated with dominant cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Hideki; Hirano, Eiichi; Knutsen, Russell H; Shifren, Adrian; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Ciliberto, Christopher; Kozel, Beth A; Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Mecham, Robert P

    2012-06-22

    Elastin is the extracellular matrix protein in vertebrates that provides elastic recoil to blood vessels, the lung, and skin. Because the elastin gene has undergone significant changes in the primate lineage, modeling elastin diseases in non-human animals can be problematic. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying a class of elastin gene mutations leading to autosomal dominant cutis laxa, we engineered a cutis laxa mutation (single base deletion) into the human elastin gene contained in a bacterial artificial chromosome. When expressed as a transgene in mice, mutant elastin was incorporated into elastic fibers in the skin and lung with adverse effects on tissue function. In contrast, only low levels of mutant protein incorporated into aortic elastin, which explains why the vasculature is relatively unaffected in this disease. RNA stability studies found that alternative exon splicing acts as a modifier of disease severity by influencing the spectrum of mutant transcripts that survive nonsense-mediated decay. Our results confirm the critical role of the C-terminal region of tropoelastin in elastic fiber assembly and suggest tissue-specific differences in the elastin assembly pathway.

  2. Alternative Splicing and Tissue-specific Elastin Misassembly Act as Biological Modifiers of Human Elastin Gene Frameshift Mutations Associated with Dominant Cutis Laxa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Hideki; Hirano, Eiichi; Knutsen, Russell H.; Shifren, Adrian; Wagenseil, Jessica E.; Ciliberto, Christopher; Kozel, Beth A.; Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is the extracellular matrix protein in vertebrates that provides elastic recoil to blood vessels, the lung, and skin. Because the elastin gene has undergone significant changes in the primate lineage, modeling elastin diseases in non-human animals can be problematic. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying a class of elastin gene mutations leading to autosomal dominant cutis laxa, we engineered a cutis laxa mutation (single base deletion) into the human elastin gene contained in a bacterial artificial chromosome. When expressed as a transgene in mice, mutant elastin was incorporated into elastic fibers in the skin and lung with adverse effects on tissue function. In contrast, only low levels of mutant protein incorporated into aortic elastin, which explains why the vasculature is relatively unaffected in this disease. RNA stability studies found that alternative exon splicing acts as a modifier of disease severity by influencing the spectrum of mutant transcripts that survive nonsense-mediated decay. Our results confirm the critical role of the C-terminal region of tropoelastin in elastic fiber assembly and suggest tissue-specific differences in the elastin assembly pathway. PMID:22573328

  3. Evolutionary rate heterogeneity between multi- and single-interface hubs across human housekeeping and tissue-specific protein interaction network: Insights from proteins' and its partners' properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kakali; Acharya, Debarun; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2017-12-02

    Integrating gene expression into protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) leads to the construction of tissue-specific (TS) and housekeeping (HK) sub-networks, with distinctive TS- and HK-hubs. All such hub proteins are divided into multi-interface (MI) hubs and single-interface (SI) hubs, where MI hubs evolve slower than SI hubs. Here we explored the evolutionary rate difference between MI and SI proteins within TS- and HK-PPIN and observed that this difference is present only in TS, but not in HK-class. Next, we explored whether proteins' own properties or its partners' properties are more influential in such evolutionary discrepancy. Statistical analyses revealed that this evolutionary rate correlates negatively with protein's own properties like expression level, miRNA count, conformational diversity and functional properties and with its partners' properties like protein disorder and tissue expression similarity. Moreover, partial correlation and regression analysis revealed that both proteins' and its partners' properties have independent effects on protein evolutionary rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comprehensive genome-wide study on tissue-specific and abiotic stress-specific miRNAs in Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Pandey

    Full Text Available Productivity of wheat crop is largely dependent on its growth and development that, in turn, is mainly regulated by environmental conditions, including abiotic stress factors. miRNAs are key regulators of gene expression networks involved in diverse aspects of development and stress responses in plants. Using high-throughput sequencing of eight small RNA libraries prepared from diverse abiotic stresses and tissues, we identified 47 known miRNAs belonging to 20 families, 49 true novel and 1030 candidate novel miRNAs. Digital gene expression analysis revealed that 257 miRNAs exhibited tissue-specific expression and 74 were associated with abiotic stresses. Putative target genes were predicted for miRNAs identified in this study and their grouping into functional categories indicated that the putative targets were involved in diverse biological processes. RLM-RACE of predicted targets of three known miRNAs (miR156, miR160 and miR164 confirmed their mRNA cleavage, thus indicating their regulation at post-transcriptional level by the corresponding miRNAs. Mapping of the sequenced data onto the wheat progenitors and closely related monocots revealed a large number of evolutionary conserved miRNAs. Additional expression profiling of some of these miRNAs in other abiotic stresses underline their involvement in multiple stresses. Our findings provide valuable resource for an improved understanding of the role of miRNAs in stress tolerance as well as plant development.

  5. Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pacheco

    Full Text Available Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95% and dorsal soft palate (71.43%. FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT. Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198, IFN-β (RE = 0.269, IL-12 (RE = 0.275, and IL-2 (RE = 0.312. Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065. Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

  6. Characterization of the tissue-specific expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoter from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Chiang, Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    We isolated the 5' flanking region of a gene for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) from Pinus taeda, PtaPAL. To investigate the tissue-specific expression of the PtaPAL promoter, histochemical assay of GUS activity was performed using the transgenic tobacco expressing the PtaPAL promoter-GUS. The region of -897 to -420 in PtaPAL promoter showed high activities in the secondary xylem and response to bending stress. To characterize the cis-regulatory functions of the promoters for enzymes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, we examined the activity of chimeric promoters of PtaPAL and a 4-coumarate CoA ligase, Pta4CL alpha. The chimeric promoter showed similar activity as the Pta4CL alpha promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicated -897 to -674 of PtaPAL promoter containing cis-elements of the expression in xylem of Pinus taeda. The results suggested that AC elements of PtaPAL have multiple functions in the expression under the various developmental stages and stress conditions in the transgenic tobacco.

  7. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  8. Characterization of intravitreally delivered capsid mutant AAV2-Cre vector to induce tissue-specific mutations in murine retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J; Yang, Zhiyong; Polisetti, Sraavya M; Welsbie, Derek S; Hauswirth, William W; Zack, Donald J; Merbs, Shannath L; Enke, Raymond A

    2016-10-01

    Targeted expression of Cre recombinase in murine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by viral vector is an effective strategy for creating tissue-specific gene knockouts for investigation of genetic contribution to RGC degeneration associated with optic neuropathies. Here we characterize dosage, efficacy and toxicity for sufficient intravitreal delivery of a capsid mutant Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding Cre recombinase. Wild type and Rosa26 (R26) LacZ mice were intravitreally injected with capsid mutant AAV2 viral vectors. Murine eyes were harvested at intervals ranging from 2 weeks to 15 weeks post-injection and were assayed for viral transduction, transgene expression and RGC survival. 10(9) vector genomes (vg) were sufficient for effective in vivo targeting of murine ganglion cell layer (GCL) retinal neurons. Transgene expression was observed as early as 2 weeks post-injection of viral vectors and persisted to 11 weeks. Early expression of Cre had no significant effect on RGC survival, while significant RGC loss was detected beginning 5 weeks post-injection. Early expression of viral Cre recombinase was robust, well-tolerated and predominantly found in GCL neurons suggesting this strategy can be effective in short-term RGC-specific mutation studies in experimental glaucoma models such as optic nerve crush and transection experiments. RGC degeneration with Cre expression for more than 4 weeks suggests that Cre toxicity is a limiting factor for targeted mutation strategies in RGCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide identification and tissue-specific expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat gene family in Cicer arietinum (kabuli chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Rawat, Vimal; Suresh, C G

    2017-12-01

    The nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins play an important role in the defense mechanisms against pathogens. Using bioinformatics approach, we identified and annotated 104 NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Phylogenetic analysis points to their diversification into two families namely TIR-NBS-LRR and non-TIR-NBS-LRR. Gene architecture revealed intron gain/loss events in this resistance gene family during their independent evolution into two families. Comparative genomics analysis elucidated its evolutionary relationship with other fabaceae species. Around 50% NBS-LRRs reside in macro-syntenic blocks underlining positional conservation along with sequence conservation of NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Transcriptome sequencing data provided evidence for their transcription and tissue-specific expression. Four cis -regulatory elements namely WBOX, DRE, CBF, and GCC boxes, that commonly occur in resistance genes, were present in the promoter regions of these genes. Further, the findings will provide a strong background to use candidate disease resistance NBS-encoding genes and identify their specific roles in chickpea.

  10. Temporal and tissue specific regulation of RP-associated splicing factor genes PRPF3, PRPF31 and PRPC8--implications in the pathogenesis of RP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibi Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations in several ubiquitously expressed RNA splicing genes such as PRPF3, PRP31 and PRPC8, have been found to cause retina-specific diseases in humans. To understand this intriguing phenomenon, most studies have been focused on testing two major hypotheses. One hypothesis assumes that these mutations interrupt retina-specific interactions that are important for RNA splicing, implying that there are specific components in the retina interacting with these splicing factors. The second hypothesis suggests that these mutations have only a mild effect on the protein function and thus affect only the metabolically highly active cells such as retinal photoreceptors.We examined the second hypothesis using the PRPF3 gene as an example. We analyzed the spatial and temporal expression of the PRPF3 gene in mice and found that it is highly expressed in retinal cells relative to other tissues and its expression is developmentally regulated. In addition, we also found that PRP31 and PRPC8 as well as snRNAs are highly expressed in retinal cells.Our data suggest that the retina requires a relatively high level of RNA splicing activity for optimal tissue-specific physiological function. Because the RP18 mutation has neither a debilitating nor acute effect on protein function, we suggest that retinal degeneration is the accumulative effect of decades of suboptimal RNA splicing due to the mildly impaired protein.

  11. MsJ1, an alfalfa DnaJ-like gene, is tissue-specific and transcriptionally regulated during cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugis, G; Mele, G; Giannino, D; Mariotti, D

    1999-06-01

    DnaJ-like proteins are molecular chaperones that regulate Hsp70 ATPase activity both in protein folding, assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here we report the isolation of MsJ1, an alfalfa gene encoding a protein homologous to cytosolic DnaJ-like proteins. MsJ1 was induced under heat-shock treatment in both leaves and stems of adult plants. In the absence of heat shock MsJ1 expression was tissue-specific with the highest levels of mRNA in roots and in embryonal structures. High levels of transcript were also detected in cotyledons where active degradation of storage protein occurs. In synchronized alfalfa suspension-cultured cells the MsJ1 transcript was actively expressed and showed a phase-specific modulation during cell cycle with a 2-fold induction in G2/M. These findings suggest that DnaJ-like proteins play an active role in regulating normal cellular events like protein degradation, morphogenesis and cell cycle progression.

  12. Genome-Wide Comprehensive Analysis the Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation and Tissue-Specific Expression of SABATH Gene Family in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant SABATH gene family is a group of O-methyltransferases (O-MTs, which belongs to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases (SAM-MTs. The resulting reaction products of SABATH genes play an important role in various processes of plant development. In this study, a total of 30 SABATH genes were detected in Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is an important medicinal plant, widely used to treat cardiovascular disease. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that SmSABATH genes could be classified into three groups. The ratios of non-synonymous (Ka and synonymous (Ks substitution rates of 11 pairs paralogous of SmSABATH genes revealed that the SmSABATH genes had gone through purifying selection. Positive selection analyses using site models and branch-site models indicated that SmSABATH genes had undergone selective pressure for adaptive evolution. Functional divergence analyses suggested that the SmSABATH subgroup genes were divergent in terms of functions and positive selection sites that contributed to a functional divergence among the subgroups that were detected. Tissue-specific expression showed that the SABATH gene family in S. miltiorrhiza was primarily expressed in stems and leaves.

  13. Mouse thymic epithelial cell lines expressing "Aire" and peripheral tissue-specific antigens reproduce in vitro negative selection of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Chen, Jiabing; Sakai, Kosuke; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-15

    In the human thymus, AIRE (autoimmune regulator) gene is expressed in a very limited type of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and no cognate cell lines are available, hence the molecular analysis of AIRE gene function has been difficult. To improve this situation, we attempted to isolate Aire-expressing cells and established three cell lines (Aire⁺TEC1, Aire⁺TEC2, Aire⁺DC) from the abnormally enlarged thymus, which was developed in the transgenic mice expressing SV40 T-antigen driven by the mouse Aire gene promoter. When these Aire⁺ cell lines were co-cultured with fresh thymocytes, they adhered to the majority of thymocytes and induced apoptosis as if negative selection of T-cells in the thymus is occurring in vitro. Further analysis revealed that these Aire⁺ cell lines are derived from mTECs and exhibit characteristic natures of "antigen presenting cells" including several distinct abilities: to express a variety of peripheral tissue-specific antigens, to produce immunoproteasome and immunological synapse, and to express some of TNFSFs (tumor necrosis factor super families). Thus, the newly established Aire⁺ cell lines will be invaluable for the further detailed analysis of AIRE gene function in the central tolerance of immunity and autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  17. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Xie, Jianghui; Duan, Yajie; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-27

    Dwarfism is one of the most valuable traits in banana breeding because semi-dwarf cultivars show good resistance to damage by wind and rain. Moreover, these cultivars present advantages of convenient cultivation, management, and so on. We obtained a dwarf mutant '8818-1' through EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) mutagenesis of Williams banana 8818 (Musa spp. AAA group). Our research have shown that gibberellins (GAs) content in 8818-1 false stems was significantly lower than that in its parent 8818 and the dwarf type of 8818-1 could be restored by application of exogenous GA3. Although GA exerts important impacts on the 8818-1 dwarf type, our understanding of the regulation of GA metabolism during banana dwarf mutant development remains limited. Genome-wide screening revealed 36 candidate GA metabolism genes were systematically identified for the first time; these genes included 3 MaCPS, 2 MaKS, 1 MaKO, 2 MaKAO, 10 MaGA20ox, 4 MaGA3ox, and 14 MaGA2ox genes. Phylogenetic tree and conserved protein domain analyses showed sequence conservation and divergence. GA metabolism genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Early GA biosynthesis genes were constitutively expressed but presented differential regulation in different tissues in Williams banana. GA oxidase family genes were mainly transcribed in young fruits, thus suggesting that young fruits were the most active tissue involved in GA metabolism, followed by leaves, bracts, and finally approximately mature fruits. Expression patterns between 8818 and 8818-1 revealed that MaGA20ox4, MaGA20ox5, and MaGA20ox7 of the MaGA20ox gene family and MaGA2ox7, MaGA2ox12, and MaGA2ox14 of the MaGA2ox gene family exhibited significant differential expression and high-expression levels in false stems. These genes are likely to be responsible for the regulation of GAs content in 8818-1 false stems. Overall, phylogenetic evolution, tissue specificity and differential expression analyses of GA metabolism genes can provide a

  18. The neuropeptides and protein hormones of the agricultural pest fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis: What do we learn from the genome sequencing and tissue-specific transcriptomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are very important signaling molecules, and are involved in the regulation and coordination of various physiological processes in invertebrates and vertebrates. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome and six tissue-specific transcriptome databases (central nervous system, fat body, ovary, testes, male accessory glands, antennae) of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit. Thirty-nine candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or protein hormones. These include most of the known insect neuropeptides and protein hormones, with the exception of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-related peptide, allatropin, diuretic hormone 34, diuretic hormone 45, IMFamide, inotocin, and sex peptide. Our results showed the neuropeptides and protein hormones of Diptera insects appear to have a reduced repertoire compared to some other insects. Moreover, there are also differences between B. dorsalis and the super-model of Drosophila melanogaster. Interesting features of the oriental fruit fly are the absence of genes coding for sex peptide and the presence of neuroparsin and two genes coding neuropeptide F. The majority of the identified neuropeptides and protein hormones is present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of these in the other tissues. Moreover, we predicted their physiological functions via comparing with data of FlyBase and FlyAtlas. Taken together, owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference about structure, tissue distribution and physiological functions for comparative studies in other model and important pest insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifier (ID) elements are not preferentially located to brain-specific genes: high ID element representation in other tissue-specific- and housekeeping genes of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Andrés; Capoano, Carlos A; González-López, Evangelina; Geisinger, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    BC1 is a short non-coding RNA from rodents, which is transcribed by RNA pol III. Its RNA is highly abundant in the brain, where it exerts a post-transcriptional regulatory role in dendrites. Upon transcription, retroposition and insertion, BC1 gives rise to a subclass of short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) named identifier (ID) elements. IDs can become integrated inside non-coding regions of RNA pol II transcription units, and - although challenged by a couple of reports - their preferential location to brain-specific genes has been long proposed. Furthermore, an additional, cis-regulatory role in the control of brain-specific pol II-directed transcripts has been suggested for these sequences. In this work we used Northern blot and in silico analyses to examine IDs' location among pol II transcription units in different tissues, and in housekeeping genes. ID sequences appeared distributed in a similar fashion within tissue-specific hnRNA populations of the brain, testis and liver, and within housekeeping primary transcripts as well. Moreover, when the lengths of the unprocessed transcripts were considered, ID representation was higher in housekeeping ones. On the other hand, ID elements appeared similarly distributed among the different gene regions, with the obvious exclusion of those sequences where strict constraints for proper gene expression exist. Altogether, the widespread distribution of ID elements in all the analyzed genes - including housekeeping - and in all gene regions, suggests a random location, raising questions about the specific cis-regulatory role of those sequences. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and domain/splice variants modulate assembly and elastomeric properties of human elastin. Implications for tissue specificity and durability of elastic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Reichheld, Sean E; Muiznieks, Lisa D; Sitarz, Eva E; Sharpe, Simon; Keeley, Fred W

    2017-05-01

    Polymeric elastin provides the physiologically essential properties of extensibility and elastic recoil to large arteries, heart valves, lungs, skin and other tissues. Although the detailed relationship between sequence, structure and mechanical properties of elastin remains a matter of investigation, data from both the full-length monomer, tropoelastin, and smaller elastin-like polypeptides have demonstrated that variations in protein sequence can affect both polymeric assembly and tensile mechanical properties. Here we model known splice variants of human tropoelastin (hTE), assessing effects on shape, polymeric assembly and mechanical properties. Additionally we investigate effects of known single nucleotide polymorphisms in hTE, some of which have been associated with later-onset loss of structural integrity of elastic tissues and others predicted to affect material properties of elastin matrices on the basis of their location in evolutionarily conserved sites in amniote tropoelastins. Results of these studies show that such sequence variations can significantly alter both the assembly of tropoelastin monomers into a polymeric network and the tensile mechanical properties of that network. Such variations could provide a temporal- or tissue-specific means to customize material properties of elastic tissues to different functional requirements. Conversely, aberrant splicing inappropriate for a tissue or developmental stage or polymorphisms affecting polymeric assembly could compromise the functionality and durability of elastic tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a study that assesses the consequences of known polymorphisms and domain/splice variants in tropoelastin on assembly and detailed elastomeric properties of polymeric elastin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  2. Effect of tissue-specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 on α3β4 and αβεδ acetylcholine receptors in COS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindovský, Jiří; Petrov, Konstantin; Krůšek, Jan; Reznik, Vladimir S; Nikolsky, Eugeny E; Vyskočil, František

    2012-08-05

    The C-547 is the most effective muscle and tissue-specific anticholinesterase among alkylammonium derivatives of 6-methyluracil (ADEMS) acting in nanomolar concentrations on locomotor muscles but not on respiratory muscles, smooth muscles and heart and brain acetylcholine esterases (AChE). When applied systematically it could influence peripheral acetylcholine receptors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C-547 on rat α3β4 (ganglionic type) and αβεδ (muscle type) nicotinic receptors expressed in COS cells. Currents evoked by rapid application of acetylcholine or nicotine were recorded in whole-cell mode by electrophysiological patch-clamp technique 2-4 days after cell transfection by plasmids coding the α3β4 or αβεδ combination of receptor subunits. In cells sensitive to acetylcholine, the application of C-547 evoked no responses. When acetylcholine was applied during an already running application of C-547, acetylcholine responses were only inhibited at concentrations higher than 10(-7)M. This inhibition is not voltage-dependent, but is accompanied by an increased rate of desensitization. Thus in both types of receptors, effective doses are approximately 100 times higher than those inhibiting AChE in leg muscles and similar to those inhibiting respiratory diaphragm muscles and external intercostal muscles. These observations show that C-547 can be considered for symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis and other congenital myasthenic syndromes as an inhibitor of AChE in leg muscles at concentrations much lower than those inhibiting muscle and ganglion types of acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF/Pangolin is remarkably flexible and contributes to transcriptional responsiveness and tissue specificity of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary C Archbold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The T-cell factor (TCF family of transcription factors are major mediators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in metazoans. All TCFs contain a High Mobility Group (HMG domain that possesses specific DNA binding activity. In addition, many TCFs contain a second DNA binding domain, the C-clamp, which binds to DNA motifs referred to as Helper sites. While HMG and Helper sites are both important for the activation of several Wnt dependent cis-regulatory modules (W-CRMs, the rules of what constitutes a functional HMG-Helper site pair are unknown. In this report, we employed a combination of in vitro binding, reporter gene analysis and bioinformatics to address this question, using the Drosophila family member TCF/Pangolin (TCF/Pan as a model. We found that while there were constraints for the orientation and spacing of HMG-Helper pairs, the presence of a Helper site near a HMG site in any orientation increased binding and transcriptional response, with some orientations displaying tissue-specific patterns. We found that altering an HMG-Helper site pair from a sub-optimal to optimal orientation/spacing dramatically increased the responsiveness of a W-CRM in several fly tissues. In addition, we used the knowledge gained to bioinformatically identify two novel W-CRMs, one that was activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the prothoracic gland, a tissue not previously connected to this pathway. In sum, this work extends the importance of Helper sites in fly W-CRMs and suggests that the type of HMG-Helper pair is a major factor in setting the threshold for Wnt activation and tissue-responsiveness.

  4. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  5. Tissue-specific root ion profiling reveals essential roles of the CAX and ACA calcium transport systems in response to hypoxia in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Xiaohui; Colmer, Timothy David; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    Waterlogging is a major abiotic stress that limits the growth of plants. The crucial role of Ca(2+) as a second messenger in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli has been widely recognized in plants. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) distribution within specific cell types in different root zones under hypoxia is poorly understood. In this work, whole-plant physiological and tissue-specific Ca(2+) changes were studied using several ACA (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and CAX (Ca(2+)/proton exchanger) knock-out Arabidopsis mutants subjected to waterlogging treatment. In the wild-type (WT) plants, several days of hypoxia decreased the expression of ACA8, CAX4, and CAX11 by 33% and 50% compared with the control. The hypoxic treatment also resulted in an up to 11-fold tissue-dependent increase in Ca(2+) accumulation in root tissues as revealed by confocal microscopy. The increase was much higher in stelar cells in the mature zone of Arabidopsis mutants with loss of function for ACA8, ACA11, CAX4, and CAX11 In addition, a significantly increased Ca(2+) concentration was found in the cytosol of stelar cells in the mature zone after hypoxic treatment. Three weeks of waterlogging resulted in dramatic loss of shoot biomass in cax11 plants (67% loss in shoot dry weight), while in the WT and other transport mutants this decline was only 14-22%. These results were also consistent with a decline in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (F v/F m). It is suggested that CAX11 plays a key role in maintaining cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis and/or signalling in root cells under hypoxic conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa K Morrison

    Full Text Available Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB, follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots. The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs

  7. Tissue specific expression of potent insecticidal, Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) in important pulse crop, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to resist the phloem feeding Aphis craccivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sarkar, Anindya; Mondal, Hossain Ali; Das, Sampa

    2009-08-01

    The phloem sap-sucking hemipteran insect, Aphis craccivora, commonly known as cowpea aphid, cause major yield loss of important food legume crop chickpea. Among different plant lectins Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL), a mannose binding lectin was found to be potent antifeedant for sap sucking insect A. craccivora. Present study describes expression of ASAL in chickpea through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of "single cotyledon with half embryo" explant. ASAL was expressed under the control of CaMV35S promoter for constitutive expression and phloem specific rolC promoter for specifically targeting the toxin at feeding site, using pCAMBIA2301 vector containing plant selection marker nptII. Southern blot analysis demonstrated the integration and copy number of chimeric ASAL gene in chickpea and its inheritance in T(1) and T(2) progeny plants. Expression of ASAL in T(0) and T(1) plants was confirmed through northern and western blot analysis. The segregation pattern of ASAL transgene was observed in T(1) progenies, which followed the 3:1 Mendelian ratio. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) determined the level of ASAL expression in different transgenic lines in the range of 0.08-0.38% of total soluble protein. The phloem tissue specific expression of ASAL gene driven by rolC promoter has been monitored by immunolocalization analysis of mature stem sections. Survival and fecundity of A. craccivora decreased to 11-26% and 22-42%, respectively when in planta bioassay conducted on T(1) plants compared to untransformed control plant which showed 85% survival. Thus, through unique approach of phloem specific expression of novel insecticidal lectin (ASAL), aphid resistance has been successfully achieved in chickpea.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger family identifies tissue specific and stress responsive candidates in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Seema; Kant, Chandra; Verma, Subodh; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2017-01-01

    The CCCH zinc finger is a group of proteins characterised by a typical motif consisting of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue. These proteins have been reported to play important roles in regulation of plant growth, developmental processes and environmental responses. In the present study, genome wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger gene family was carried out in the available chickpea genome. Various bioinformatics tools were employed to predict 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in chickpea (designated CarC3H1-58), which were analysed for their physio-chemical properties. Phylogenetic analysis classified the proteins into 12 groups in which members of a particular group had similar structural organization. Further, the numbers as well as the types of CCCH motifs present in the CarC3H proteins were compared with those from Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula. Synteny analysis revealed valuable information regarding the evolution of this gene family. Tandem and segmental duplication events were identified and their Ka/Ks values revealed that the CarC3H gene family in chickpea had undergone purifying selection. Digital, as well as real time qRT-PCR expression analysis was performed which helped in identification of several CarC3H members that expressed preferentially in specific chickpea tissues as well as during abiotic stresses (desiccation, cold, salinity). Moreover, molecular characterization of an important member CarC3H45 was carried out. This study provides comprehensive genomic information about the important CCCH zinc finger gene family in chickpea. The identified tissue specific and abiotic stress specific CCCH genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in development and stress.

  9. Generalized min-max bound-based MRI pulse sequence design framework for wide-range T1 relaxometry: A case study on the tissue specific imaging sequence.

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    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new design strategy for optimizing MRI pulse sequences for T1 relaxometry. The design strategy optimizes the pulse sequence parameters to minimize the maximum variance of unbiased T1 estimates over a range of T1 values using the Cramér-Rao bound. In contrast to prior sequences optimized for a single nominal T1 value, the optimized sequence using our bound-based strategy achieves improved precision and accuracy for a broad range of T1 estimates within a clinically feasible scan time. The optimization combines the downhill simplex method with a simulated annealing process. To show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, we optimize the tissue specific imaging (TSI sequence. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the optimized TSI sequence yields improved precision and accuracy over the popular driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 (DESPOT1 approach for normal brain tissues (estimated T1 700-2000 ms at 3.0T. The relative mean estimation error (MSE for T1 estimation is less than 1.7% using the optimized TSI sequence, as opposed to less than 7.0% using DESPOT1 for normal brain tissues. The optimized TSI sequence achieves good stability by keeping the MSE under 7.0% over larger T1 values corresponding to different lesion tissues and the cerebrospinal fluid (up to 5000 ms. The T1 estimation accuracy using the new pulse sequence also shows improvement, which is more pronounced in low SNR scenarios.

  10. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  11. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Powles, Ryan L; Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-07-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  12. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K.; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson’s disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline. PMID:28742084

  13. Genome-wide sequencing of small RNAs reveals a tissue-specific loss of conserved microRNA families in Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Jin, Lei; Kang, Hui; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Lu; Li, Xia; Ma, Fengshou; Zhao, Li; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; McManus, Donald P; Zhang, Wenbao; Wang, Shengyue

    2014-08-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators which control growth and development in eukaryotes. The cestode Echinococcus granulosus has a complex life-cycle involving different development stages but the mechanisms underpinning this development, including the involvement of miRNAs, remain unknown. Using Illumina next generation sequencing technology, we sequenced at the genome-wide level three small RNA populations from the adult, protoscolex and cyst membrane of E. granulosus. A total of 94 pre-miRNA candidates (coding 91 mature miRNAs and 39 miRNA stars) were in silico predicted. Through comparison of expression profiles, we found 42 mature miRNAs and 23 miRNA stars expressed with different patterns in the three life stages examined. Furthermore, considering both the previously reported and newly predicted miRNAs, 25 conserved miRNAs families were identified in the E. granulosus genome. Comparing the presence or absence of these miRNA families with the free-living Schmidtea mediterranea, we found 13 conserved miRNAs are lost in E. granulosus, most of which are tissue-specific and involved in the development of ciliated cells, the gut and sensory organs. Finally, GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential targets indicated that they may be involved in bi-directional development, nutrient metabolism and nervous system development in E. granulosus. This study has, for the first time, provided a comprehensive description of the different expression patterns of miRNAs in three distinct life cycle stages of E. granulosus. The analysis supports earlier suggestions that the loss of miRNAs in the Platyhelminths might be related to morphological simplification. These results may help in the exploration of the mechanism of interaction between this parasitic worm and its definitive and intermediate hosts, providing information that can be used to develop new interventions and therapeutics for the control of cystic

  14. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Alvarez S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sasha Vega-Alvarez,1 Adriana Herrera,2 Carlos Rinaldi,2–4 Franklin A Carrero-Martínez1,5 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico; 3J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico Abstract: Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. Keywords: nanotoxicity, Drosophila, microtransfer, nanoparticle, iron oxide, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube

  15. Analysis of transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of Avicennia marina Plasma Membrane Protein 3 suggests it contributes to Na(+) transport and homoeostasis in A. marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Rajalakshmi; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane proteins (PMP3) play a role in cation homoeostasis. The 5' flanking sequence of stress inducible, Avicennia marina PMP3 (AmPMP3prom) was transcriptionally fused to (a) GUS or (b) GFP-AmPMP3 and analyzed in transgenic tobacco. Tissue-histochemical GUS and GFP:AmPMP3 localization are co-incident under basal and stress conditions. AmPMP3prom directed GUS activity is highest in roots. Basal transcription is conferred by a 388bp segment upstream of the translation start site. A 463bp distal enhancer in the AmPMP3prom confers enhanced expression under salinity in all tissues and also responds to increases in salinity. The effect of a central, stem-specific negative regulatory region is suppressed by the distal enhancer. The A. marina rhizosphere encounters dynamic changes in salinity at the inter-tidal interface. The complex, tissue-specific transcriptional responsiveness of AmPMP3 to salinity appears to have evolved in response to these changes. Under salinity, guard cell and phloem-specific expression of GFP:AmPMP3 is highly enhanced. Mesophyll, trichomes, bundle sheath, parenchymatous cortex and xylem parenchyma also show GFP:AmPMP3 expression. Cis-elements conferring stress, root and vascular-specific expression are enriched in the AmPMP3 promoter. Pronounced vascular-specific AmPMP3 expression suggests a role in salinity induced Na(+) transport, storage, and secretion in A. marina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-definition CpG methylation of novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis identified by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Jorge L; Gutierrez-Pajares, Jorge L; Luna, Aesis; Yao, Yuan; Tobias, John W; Thomas, Steven; Woo, Yanghee; Giorgi, Federico; Komissarova, Elena V; Califano, Andrea; Wang, Timothy C; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancers are the most frequent gastric malignancy and usually arise in the sequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. CpG methylation is a central mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation affecting cancer-related genes, and occurs early in gastric carcinogenesis. DNA samples from non-metaplastic gastric mucosa with variable levels of gastritis (non-metaplastic mucosa), intestinal metaplasia, or gastric cancer were screened with methylation arrays for CpG methylation of cancer-related genes and 30 gene targets were further characterized by high-definition bisulfite next-generation sequencing. In addition, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for correlation of methylation with gene expression. Overall, 13 genes had significantly increased CpG methylation in gastric cancer vs non-metaplastic mucosa (BRINP1, CDH11, CHFR, EPHA5, EPHA7, FGF2, FLI1, GALR1, HS3ST2, PDGFRA, SEZ6L, SGCE, and SNRPN). Further, most of these genes had corresponding reduced expression levels in gastric cancer compared with intestinal metaplasia, including novel hypermethylated genes in gastric cancer (FLI1, GALR1, SGCE, and SNRPN), suggesting that they may regulate neoplastic transformation from non-malignant intestinal metaplasia to cancer. Our data suggest a tumor-suppressor role for FLI1 in gastric cancer, consistent with recently reported data in breast cancer. For the genes with strongest methylation/expression correlation, namely FLI1, the expression was lowest in microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with other gastric cancer molecular subtypes. Importantly, reduced expression of hypermethylated BRINP1 and SGCE was significantly associated with favorable survival in gastric cancer. In summary, we report novel methylation gene targets that may have functional roles in discrete stages of gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of CpG promoter methylation in invasive prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar William L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, much attention has been focused on gaining a better understanding of the different populations of cells within a tumor and their contribution to cancer progression. One of the most commonly used methods to isolate a more aggressive sub-population of cells utilizes cell sorting based on expression of certain cell adhesion molecules. A recently established method we developed is to isolate these more aggressive cells based on their properties of increased invasive ability. These more invasive cells have been previously characterized as tumor initiating cells (TICs that have a stem-like genomic signature and express a number of stem cell genes including Oct3/4 and Nanog and are more tumorigenic compared to their 'non-invasive' counterpart. They also have a profile reminiscent of cells undergoing a classic pattern of epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT. Using this model of invasion, we sought to investigate which genes are under epigenetic control in this rare population of cells. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methylation, are key events regulating the process of normal human development. To determine the specific methylation pattern in these invasive prostate cells, and if any developmental genes were being differentially regulated, we analyzed differences in global CpG promoter methylation. Results Differentially methylated genes were determined and select genes were chosen for additional analyses. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase BMX and transcription factor SOX1 were found to play a significant role in invasion. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the methylated gene list frequently displayed genes from the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Cells which have decreased levels of the targets BMX and SOX1 also display loss of STAT3 activity. Finally, using Oncomine, it was determined that more aggressive metastatic prostate cancers in humans also have higher levels of both Stat3 and Sox1. Conclusions Using this

  18. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snijders Peter JF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential mechanisms underlying deregulated hTERT transcription in hrHPV-transformed cells. Methods Using luciferase reporter assays we analyzed hTERT promoter activity in primary keratinocytes, HPV16- and HPV18-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines and cervical cancer cell lines. In the same cells as well as cervical specimens we determined hTERT methylation by bisulfite sequencing analysis of the region spanning -442 to +566 (relative to the ATG and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP analysis of two regions flanking the hTERT core promoter. Results We found that in most telomerase positive cells increased hTERT core promoter activity coincided with increased hTERT mRNA expression. On the other hand basal hTERT promoter activity was also detected in telomerase negative cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT mRNA expression levels. In both telomerase positive and negative cells regulatory sequences flanking both ends of the core promoter markedly repressed exogenous promoter activity. By extensive bisulfite sequencing a strong increase in CpG methylation was detected in hTERT positive cells compared to cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT expression. Subsequent qMSP analysis of a larger set of cervical tissue specimens revealed methylation of both regions analyzed in 100% of cervical carcinomas and 38% of the high-grade precursor lesions, compared to 9% of low grade precursor lesions and 5% of normal controls. Conclusions Methylation of transcriptionally repressive sequences in the hTERT promoter and proximal exonic sequences is correlated to deregulated hTERT transcription in HPV-immortalized cells and cervical cancer cells. The detection of DNA

  19. Analysis of Geologic Parameters on the Performance of CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) Systems in a Multi-Layered Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeable sedimentary basins. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The heat density of sedimentary basins is typically relatively low.However, this drawback is likely counteracted by the large accessible volume of natural reservoirs compared to artificial, hydrofractured, and thus small-scale, reservoirs. Furthermore, supercritical CO2has a large mobility (inverse kinematic viscosity) and expansibility compared to water resulting in the formation of a strong thermosiphon which eliminates the need for parasitic pumping power requirements and significantly increasing electricity production efficiency. Simultaneously, the life span of the geothermal power plant can be increased by operating the CPG system such that it depletes the geothermal reservoir heat slowly. Because the produced CO2 is reinjected into the ground with the main CO2 sequestration stream coming from a CO2 emitter, all of the CO2 is ultimately geologically sequestered resulting in a CO2 sequestering geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Conventional geothermal process requires pumping of huge amount of water for the propagation of the fractures in the reservoir, but CPG process eliminates this requirement and conserves water resources. Here, we present results for performance of a CPG system as a function of various geologic properties of multilayered systemsincludingpermeability anisotropy, rock thermal conductivity, geothermal gradient, reservoir depth and initial native brine salinity as well as spacing between the injection and production wells. The model consists of a 50 m thick, radially symmetric grid with a semi-analytic heat exchange and no fluid flow at the top and bottom boundaries and no fluid and heat flow at the lateral boundaries. We design Plackett

  20. Expression of Toll-like receptor 9 and response to bacterial CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in human intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Andresen, Lars; Matthiessen, M W

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of repeat CpG motifs, which are common in bacterial, but not in mammalian, DNA, through Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 is an integral part of the innate immune system. As the role of TLR9 in the human gut is unknown, we determined the spectrum of TLR9 expression in normal and inflamed colon...... in vitro despite spontaneous TLR9 gene expression. This suggests that the human epithelium is able to avoid inappropriate immune responses to luminal bacterial products through modulation of the TLR9 pathway....

  1. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0840] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION... Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH. (a) Location. The...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Primates by Using Synthetic Type D/A Oligodeoxynucleotides Expressing CpG Motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Barbara; Wang, Vivian; Sacks, David L.; Seder, Robert A; Verthelyi, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG motifs mimic microbial DNA and are recognized by toll-like receptor 9 on immune cells. The resulting response limits the early spread of infectious organisms and promotes the development of adaptive immunity. In this regard, CpG ODN show promise as immunoprotective agents and as vaccine adjuvants. Previous studies of nonhuman primates showed that administration of CpG ODN type D (also known as type A) at the site of infection 3 days before and after a challenge with Leishmania major enhanced host resistance and reduced the lesion's severity. In this study, we show that systemic administration of D/A ODN limits the size of lesions following an intradermal infection with L. major. Importantly, the reduced morbidity was not associated with a reduction in long-term immunity, as such treated macaques were still protected following a secondary challenge. Finally, administration of D/A ODN to macaques that had established cutaneous lesions reduced the severity of the lesions, suggesting a potential role for CpG ODN in L. major treatment. Together, these findings support the development of clinical studies to assess the use of CpG ODN types D/A as immunoprotective and therapeutic agents. PMID:16041009

  3. Proinflammatory Stimulation of Toll-Like Receptor 9 with High Dose CpG ODN 1826 Impairs Endothelial Regeneration and Promotes Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O Krogmann

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR of the innate immune system have been closely linked with the development of atherosclerotic lesions. TLR9 is activated by unmethylated CpG motifs within ssDNA, but also by CpG motifs in nucleic acids released during vascular apoptosis and necrosis. The role of TLR9 in vascular disease remains controversial and we sought to investigate the effects of a proinflammatory TLR9 stimulation in mice.TLR9-stimulation with high dose CpG ODN at concentrations between 6.25 nM to 30 nM induced a significant proinflammatory cytokine response in mice. This was associated with impaired reendothelialization upon acute denudation of the carotid and increased numbers of circulating endothelial microparticles, as a marker for amplified endothelial damage. Chronic TLR9 agonism in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice fed a cholesterol-rich diet increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species, the number of circulating endothelial microparticles, circulating sca-1/flk-1 positive cells, and most importantly augmented atherosclerotic plaque formation when compared to vehicle treated animals. Importantly, high concentrations of CpG ODN are required for these proatherogenic effects.Systemic stimulation of TLR9 with high dose CpG ODN impaired reendothelialization upon acute vascular injury and increased atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice. Further studies are necessary to fully decipher the contradictory finding of TLR9 agonism in vascular biology.

  4. Prolactin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and putative somatolactin receptor in Mozambique tilapia: tissue specific expression and differential regulation by salinity and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A L; Fox, B K; Davis, L K; Visitacion, N; Kitahashi, T; Hirano, T; Grau, E G

    2007-01-01

    , liver levels of GHR1 and GHR2 transcripts, and liver and muscle levels of IGF-I transcripts were unaffected by fasting. These results clearly indicate tissue specific expression and differential physiological regulation of GH family receptors in the tilapia.

  5. Organization of the Mammalian Locomotor CPG: Review of Computational Model and Circuit Architectures Based on Genetically Identified Spinal Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The organization of neural circuits that form the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) and provide flexor–extensor and left–right coordination of neuronal activity remains largely unknown. However, significant progress has been made in the molecular/genetic identification of several types of spinal interneurons, including V0 (V0D and V0V subtypes), V1, V2a, V2b, V3, and Shox2, among others. The possible functional roles of these interneurons can be suggested from changes in the locomotor pattern generated in mutant mice lacking particular neuron types. Computational modeling of spinal circuits may complement these studies by bringing together data from different experimental studies and proposing the possible connectivity of these interneurons that may define rhythm generation, flexor–extensor interactions on each side of the cord, and commissural interactions between left and right circuits. This review focuses on the analysis of potential architectures of spinal circuits that can reproduce recent results and suggest common explanations for a series of experimental data on genetically identified spinal interneurons, including the consequences of their genetic ablation, and provides important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG and neural control of locomotion. PMID:26478909

  6. Biophysical Attributes of CpG Presentation Control TLR9 Signaling to Differentially Polarize Systemic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardin A. Leleux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is currently unknown whether and how mammalian pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs respond to biophysical patterns of pathogen-associated molecular danger signals. Using synthetic pathogen-like particles (PLPs that mimic physical properties of bacteria or large viruses, we have discovered that the quality and quantity of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 signaling by CpG in mouse dendritic cells (mDCs are uniquely dependent on biophysical attributes; specifically, the surface density of CpG and size of the presenting PLP. These physical patterns control DC programming by regulating the kinetics and magnitude of MyD88-IRAK4 signaling, NF-κB-driven responses, and STAT3 phosphorylation, which, in turn, controls differential T cell responses and in vivo immune polarization, especially T helper 1 (Th1 versus T helper 2 (Th2 antibody responses. Our findings suggest that innate immune cells can sense and respond not only to molecular but also pathogen-associated physical patterns (PAPPs, broadening the tools for modulating immunity and helping to better understand innate response mechanisms to pathogens and develop improved vaccines.

  7. A hybrid CPG-ZMP control system for stable walking of a simulated flexible spine humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Jimmy

    2010-04-01

    Biped humanoid robots have gained much popularity in recent years. These robots are mainly controlled by two major control methods, the biologically-inspired approach based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG) and the engineering-oriented approach based on Zero Moment Point (ZMP). Given that flexibility in the body torso is required in some human activities, we believe that it is beneficial for the next generation of humanoid robots to have a flexible spine as humans do. In order to cope with the increased complexity in controlling this type of robot, a new kind of control system is necessary. Currently, there is no controller that allows a flexible spine humanoid robot to maintain stability in real-time while walking with dynamic spine motions. This paper presents a new hybrid CPG-ZMP control system for the walking of a realistically simulated flexible spine humanoid robot. Experimental results showed that using our control method, the robot is able to adapt its spine motions in real-time to allow stable walking. Our control system could be used for the control of the next generation humanoid robots. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccination with Toxoplasma lysate antigen and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides: comparison of immune responses in intranasal versus intramuscular administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Malky, Mohamed A; Al-Harthi, Saeed A; Mohamed, Raafat T; EL Bali, Mohamed A; Saudy, Niveen S

    2014-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most successful intracellular protozoan parasites on earth and highly prevalent in most warm-blooded vertebrates. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance in disease control. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) which contain immunostimulatory CG motifs (CpG ODN) can promote T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, an adjuvant activity that is desirable for vaccination against intracellular pathogen. In this study, we compare the immune responses of Toxoplasma susceptible C57BL/6 mice following intranasal and intramuscular vaccination with Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) with or without CpG ODN as adjuvant. Immunized and control non-immunized mice were challenged with 85 cyst of the moderately virulent Beverley strain of T. gondii. Intranasal vaccination gave significantly a higher protection compared to other groups as indicated by prolonged survival and significantly reduced brain cyst burden (P intramuscular vaccination enhanced humoral immunity towards a type Th1 pattern characterized by a significant increase of specific IgG and Ig2a. Our results suggest that intranasal administration of CpG/TLA would provide a stable, pronounced, and effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis through stimulation of Th1 cellular immunity and mucosal IgA.

  9. Detection and discrimination of maintenance and de novo CpG methylation events using MethylBreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, William; Mercado, Augustus T; Hsiao, George; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yung

    2017-05-15

    Understanding the principles governing the establishment and maintenance activities of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can help in the development of predictive biomarkers associated with genetic disorders and diseases. A detection system was developed that distinguishes and quantifies methylation events using methylation-sensitive endonucleases and molecular beacon technology. MethylBreak (MB) is a 22-mer oligonucleotide with one hemimethylated and two unmethylated CpG sites, which are also recognition sites for Sau96I and SacII, and is attached to a fluorophore and a quencher. Maintenance methylation was quantified by fluorescence emission due to the digestion of SacII when the hemimethylated CpG site is methylated, which