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Sample records for tissue-specific cpg island

  1. A novel CpG island set identifies tissue-specific methylation at developmental gene loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Illingworth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CpG islands (CGIs are dense clusters of CpG sequences that punctuate the CpG-deficient human genome and associate with many gene promoters. As CGIs also differ from bulk chromosomal DNA by their frequent lack of cytosine methylation, we devised a CGI enrichment method based on nonmethylated CpG affinity chromatography. The resulting library was sequenced to define a novel human blood CGI set that includes many that are not detected by current algorithms. Approximately half of CGIs were associated with annotated gene transcription start sites, the remainder being intra- or intergenic. Using an array representing over 17,000 CGIs, we established that 6%-8% of CGIs are methylated in genomic DNA of human blood, brain, muscle, and spleen. Inter- and intragenic CGIs are preferentially susceptible to methylation. CGIs showing tissue-specific methylation were overrepresented at numerous genetic loci that are essential for development, including HOX and PAX family members. The findings enable a comprehensive analysis of the roles played by CGI methylation in normal and diseased human tissues.

  2. Pan-cancer stratification of solid human epithelial tumors and cancer cell lines reveals commonalities and tissue-specific features of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Margolin, Gennady; Elnitski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The term CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been used to describe widespread DNA hypermethylation at CpG-rich genomic regions affecting clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Even though there have been numerous studies of CIMP in individual cancer types, a uniform analysis across tissues is still lacking. We analyze genome-wide patterns of CpG island hypermethylation in 5,253 solid epithelial tumors from 15 cancer types from TCGA and 23 cancer cell lines from ENCODE. We identify differentially methylated loci that define CIMP+ and CIMP- samples, and we use unsupervised clustering to provide a robust molecular stratification of tumor methylomes for 12 cancer types and all cancer cell lines. With a minimal set of 89 discriminative loci, we demonstrate accurate pan-cancer separation of the 12 CIMP+/- subpopulations, based on their average levels of methylation. Tumor samples in different CIMP subclasses show distinctive correlations with gene expression profiles and recurrence of somatic mutations, copy number variations, and epigenetic silencing. Enrichment analyses indicate shared canonical pathways and upstream regulators for CIMP-targeted regions across cancer types. Furthermore, genomic alterations showing consistent associations with CIMP+/- status include genes involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling genes, and several histone methyltransferases. Associations of CIMP status with specific clinical features, including overall survival in several cancer types, highlight the importance of the CIMP+/- designation for individual tumor evaluation and personalized medicine. We present a comprehensive computational study of CIMP that reveals pan-cancer commonalities and tissue-specific differences underlying concurrent hypermethylation of CpG islands across tumors. Our stratification of solid tumors and cancer cell lines based on CIMP status is data-driven and agnostic to tumor type by design, which protects against known biases that have hindered

  3. The CpG island searcher: a new WWW resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Daiya; Jones, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of CpG dinucleotides in GC rich regions of the genome called "CpG islands" frequently occur in the 5' ends of genes. Methylation of CpG islands plays a role in transcriptional silencing in higher organisms in certain situations. We have established a CpG-island-extraction algorithm, which we previously developed [Takai and Jones, 2002], on a web site which has a simple user interface to identify CpG islands from submitted sequences of up to 50kb. The web site determines the locations of CpG islands using parameters (lower limit of %GC, ObsCpG/ExpCpG, length) set by the user, to display the value of parameters on each CpG island, and provides a graphical map of CpG dinucleotide distribution and borders of CpG islands. A command-line version of the CpG islands searcher has also been developed for larger sequences. The CpG Island Searcher was applied to the latest sequence and mapping information of human chromosomes 20, 21 and 22, and a total of 2345 CpG islands were extracted and 534 (23%) of them contained first coding exons and 650 (28%) contained other exons. The CpG Island Searcher is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.cpgislands.com or http://www.uscnorris.com/cpgislands/cpg.cgi.

  4. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1 reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2 failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3 apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to

  5. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Christoph; Walter, Jörn; Paulsen, Martina; Lengauer, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1) reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2) failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3) apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to their characteristic

  6. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Primary Gastric Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    TOJO Masayuki:筆頭著者; KONISHI Kazuo; YANO Yuichiro; KATAGIRI Atsushi; NOZAWA Hisako; KUBOTA Yutaro; MURAMOTO Takashi; KONDA Kenichi; SHINMURA Kensuke; TAKIMOTO Masafumi; IMAWARI Michio; YOSHIDA Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancers (GC) with methylation of multiple CpG islands have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and they can have different biological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA methylation status of GCs and its association with their clinicopathological features. We evaluated the methylation status of four genes (MINT1, MINT2, MINT25 and MINT31) in 105 primary GCs using bisulfite-pyrosequencing analysis. We classified tumors as CIMP-high (CIMP-H), CIMP-low (CIMP-L...

  7. CpG island methylator phenotype in adenocarcinomas from the digestive tract: Methods, conclusions, and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Chen, Yun-Ching; Elnitski, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades, cancer-related alterations in DNA methylation that regulate transcription have been reported for a variety of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its relevance for translational research, great emphasis has been placed on the analysis and molecular characterization of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined as widespread hypermethylation of CpG islands in clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Here, we present an overview of previous work in this field and also explore some open questions using cross-platform data for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal adenocarcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We provide a data-driven, pan-gastrointestinal stratification of individual samples based on CIMP status and we investigate correlations with oncogenic alterations, including somatic mutations and epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Besides known events in CIMP such as BRAF V600E mutation, CDKN2A silencing or MLH1 inactivation, we discuss the potential role of emerging actors such as Wnt pathway deregulation through truncating mutations in RNF43 and epigenetic silencing of WIF1. Our results highlight the existence of molecular similarities that are superimposed over a larger backbone of tissue-specific features and can be exploited to reduce heterogeneity of response in clinical trials. PMID:28344746

  8. The CpG island methylator phenotype: What's in a name?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.E. Hughes (Laura A.); V. Melotte (Veerle); J.D. Schrijver (Joachim De); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); J.V.M.G. Bovée (Judith); P.J. French (Pim); P.A. van den Brandt (Piet); L. Schouten (Leo); T. Meyer (Thorsten); W. van Criekinge (Wim); N. Ahuja (Nita); J.G. Herman (James); M.P. Weijenberg (Matty); M. van Engeland (Manon)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first identified and has been most extensively studied in colorectal cancer, the term "CIMP" has been repeatedly used over the past decade to describe CpG island promoter methylation in other tumor types, including bladder, breast,

  9. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  10. High CpG island methylation ofp16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    employed to detect CpG island methylation in p16 promoter region and ... of Fallot;p16 gene;p16 protein;CpG islands;Methylation;Promoter regions ..... Our findings that p16 has a role in heart development is ... Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 15, 75-84. .... phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large population-based sample.

  11. Compositional searching of CpG islands in the human genome

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    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro Luis; Martínez-Aroza, José; Oliver, José L.; Gómez-Lopera, Juan Francisco; Román-Roldán, Ramón

    2005-06-01

    We report on an entropic edge detector based on the local calculation of the Jensen-Shannon divergence with application to the search for CpG islands. CpG islands are pieces of the genome related to gene expression and cell differentiation, and thus to cancer formation. Searching for these CpG islands is a major task in genetics and bioinformatics. Some algorithms have been proposed in the literature, based on moving statistics in a sliding window, but its size may greatly influence the results. The local use of Jensen-Shannon divergence is a completely different strategy: the nucleotide composition inside the islands is different from that in their environment, so a statistical distance—the Jensen-Shannon divergence—between the composition of two adjacent windows may be used as a measure of their dissimilarity. Sliding this double window over the entire sequence allows us to segment it compositionally. The fusion of those segments into greater ones that satisfy certain identification criteria must be achieved in order to obtain the definitive results. We find that the local use of Jensen-Shannon divergence is very suitable in processing DNA sequences for searching for compositionally different structures such as CpG islands, as compared to other algorithms in literature.

  12. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI-JU GAO

    The study subjects consisted of 75 healthy controls and 63 ToF ... Additionally, our analysis suggested that CpG island methylation in p16 promoters in ToF ..... reduced p16 protein expression in lung cancer (Kondo et al. 2006). In this context ..... promoter methylation in gastric carcinogenesis: a meta-analysis. Mol. Biol. Rep.

  13. Gene Silencing Triggers Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Recruitment to CpG Islands Genome Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riising, Eva Madi; Vacher-Comet, Itys; Leblanc, Benjamin Olivier

    2014-01-01

    -wide ectopic PRC2 recruitment to endogenous PcG target genes found in other tissues. PRC2 binding analysis shows that it is restricted to nucleosome-free CpG islands (CGIs) of untranscribed genes. Our results show that it is the transcriptional state that governs PRC2 binding, and we propose that it binds...

  14. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was employed to detect CpG island methylation in p16 promoter region andWestern blotting was used to detect p16 expression of all subjects. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was performed to test p16 mRNA expression.

  15. Polycomb-like proteins link the PRC2 complex to CpG islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haojie; Liefke, Robert; Jiang, Junyi; Kurland, Jesse Vigoda; Tian, Wei; Deng, Pujuan; Zhang, Weidi; He, Qian; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Shi, Yang; Wang, Zhanxin

    2017-09-06

    The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mainly mediates transcriptional repression1,2 and has essential roles in various biological processes including the maintenance of cell identity and proper differentiation. Polycomb-like (PCL) proteins, such as PHF1, MTF2 and PHF19, are PRC2-associated factors that form sub-complexes with PRC2 core components3, and have been proposed to modulate the enzymatic activity of PRC2 or the recruitment of PRC2 to specific genomic loci4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. Mammalian PRC2-binding sites are enriched in CG content, which correlates with CpG islands that display a low level of DNA methylation14. However, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to CpG islands is not fully understood. Here we solve the crystal structures of the N-terminal domains of PHF1 and MTF2 with bound CpG-containing DNAs in the presence of H3K36me3-containing histone peptides. We show that the extended homologous regions of both proteins fold into a winged-helix structure, which specifically binds to the unmethylated CpG motif but in a completely different manner from the canonical winged-helix DNA recognition motif. We also show that the PCL extended homologous domains are required for efficient recruitment of PRC2 to CpG island-containing promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our research provides the first, to our knowledge, direct evidence to demonstrate that PCL proteins are crucial for PRC2 recruitment to CpG islands, and further clarifies the roles of these proteins in transcriptional regulation in vivo.

  16. Determining coding CpG islands by identifying regions significant for pattern statistics on Markov chains.

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    Singer, Meromit; Engström, Alexander; Schönhuth, Alexander; Pachter, Lior

    2011-09-23

    Recent experimental and computational work confirms that CpGs can be unmethylated inside coding exons, thereby showing that codons may be subjected to both genomic and epigenomic constraint. It is therefore of interest to identify coding CpG islands (CCGIs) that are regions inside exons enriched for CpGs. The difficulty in identifying such islands is that coding exons exhibit sequence biases determined by codon usage and constraints that must be taken into account. We present a method for finding CCGIs that showcases a novel approach we have developed for identifying regions of interest that are significant (with respect to a Markov chain) for the counts of any pattern. Our method begins with the exact computation of tail probabilities for the number of CpGs in all regions contained in coding exons, and then applies a greedy algorithm for selecting islands from among the regions. We show that the greedy algorithm provably optimizes a biologically motivated criterion for selecting islands while controlling the false discovery rate. We applied this approach to the human genome (hg18) and annotated CpG islands in coding exons. The statistical criterion we apply to evaluating islands reduces the number of false positives in existing annotations, while our approach to defining islands reveals significant numbers of undiscovered CCGIs in coding exons. Many of these appear to be examples of functional epigenetic specialization in coding exons.

  17. DELETION AND 5'CPG ISLAND METHYLATION OF p15 GENE IN BRAIN GLIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the abnormality of p15 gene in brain glioma and the correlation of it with occurrence or malignant progression of brain glioma. Methods: Deletion and 5'CPG island methylation of p15 gene were detected by the methods of PCR and PCR-based methylation in 56 cases of brain glioma. Results: Out of 43 cases of high grade glioma, 14 cases were found to have homozygous deletion of p15E1, while none of the 13 cases of low grade glioma was found to have deletion of p15E1 (P<0.05). Methylation of 5'CPG Island of p15 gene was found only in four cases of glioma. Conclusion: Abnormality of p15 gene may involved in the occurrence and malignant progression of brain glioma. Homozygous deletion of gene is the major mechanism of inactivation for p15 gene in brain glioma.

  18. Deletion and aberrant CpG island methylation of Caspase 8 gene in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Pilar; Bello, M Josefa; Inda, M Mar; Alonso, M Eva; Arjona, Dolores; Amiñoso, Cinthia; Lopez-Marin, Isabel; de Campos, Jose M; Sarasa, Jose L; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in human genes is an alternative genetic inactivation mechanism that contributes to the development of human tumors. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed methylation in medulloblastomas. We determined the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation for Caspase 8 (CASP8) in a group of 24 medulloblastomas arising in 8 adult and 16 pediatric patients. Complete methylation of CASP8 was found in 15 tumors (62%) and one case displayed hemimethylation. Three samples amplified neither of the two primer sets for methylated or unmethylated alleles, suggesting that genomic deletion occurred in the 5' flanking region of CASP8. Our findings suggest that methylation commonly contributes to CASP8 silencing in medulloblastomas and that homozygous deletion or severe sequence changes involving the promoter region may be another mechanism leading to CASP8 inactivation in this neoplasm.

  19. Unique DNA methylome profiles in CpG island methylator phenotype colon cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaomin; Hu, Bo; Choi, Ae-Jin; Gopalan, Banu; Lee, Byron H.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Church, James M.; Ting, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers was postulated to have the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a higher propensity for CpG island DNA methylation. The validity of CIMP, its molecular basis, and its prognostic value remain highly controversial. Using MBD-isolated genome sequencing, we mapped and compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP colon specimens. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that each specimen could be clearly classified as normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP, thus signifying that these three groups have distinctly different global methylation patterns. We discovered 3780 sites in various genomic contexts that were hypermethylated in both non-CIMP and CIMP colon cancers when compared with normal colon. An additional 2026 sites were found to be hypermethylated in CIMP tumors only; and importantly, 80% of these sites were located in CpG islands. These data demonstrate on a genome-wide level that the additional hypermethylation seen in CIMP tumors occurs almost exclusively at CpG islands and support definitively that these tumors were appropriately named. When these sites were examined more closely, we found that 25% were adjacent to sites that were also hypermethylated in non-CIMP tumors. Thus, CIMP is also characterized by more extensive methylation of sites that are already prone to be hypermethylated in colon cancer. These observations indicate that CIMP tumors have specific defects in controlling both DNA methylation seeding and spreading and serve as an important first step in delineating molecular mechanisms that control these processes. PMID:21990380

  20. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in cancer: causes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoridis, Jens M; Hardie, Catriona; Brown, Robert

    2008-09-18

    Strong evidence exists for a subgroup of tumours, from a variety of tissue types, exhibiting concordant tumour specific DNA methylation: the "CpG island methylator phenotype" (CIMP). Occurrence of CIMP is associated with a range of genetic and environmental factors, although the molecular causes are not well-understood. Both increased expression and aberrant targeting of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) could contribute to the occurrence of CIMP. One under-explored area is the possibility that DNA damage may induce or select for CIMP during carcinogenesis or treatment of tumours with chemotherapy. DNA damaging agents can induce DNA damage at guanine rich regions throughout the genome, including CpG islands. This DNA damage can result in stalled DNA synthesis, which will lead to localised increased DNMT1 concentration and therefore potentially increased DNA methylation at these sites. Chemotherapy can select for cells which have increased tolerance to DNA damage due to increased lesion bypass, in some cases by mechanisms which involve inactivation of genes by CpG island methylation. CIMP has been associated with worse patient prognosis, probably due to increased epigenetic plasticity. Therefore, further clinical testing of the diagnostic and prognostic value of the current CIMP markers, as well as increasing our understanding of the molecular causes underlying CIMP are required.

  1. GaussianCpG: a Gaussian model for detection of CpG island in human genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander; Pan, Yi

    2017-05-24

    As crucial markers in identifying biological elements and processes in mammalian genomes, CpG islands (CGI) play important roles in DNA methylation, gene regulation, epigenetic inheritance, gene mutation, chromosome inactivation and nuclesome retention. The generally accepted criteria of CGI rely on: (a) %G+C content is ≥ 50%, (b) the ratio of the observed CpG content and the expected CpG content is ≥ 0.6, and (c) the general length of CGI is greater than 200 nucleotides. Most existing computational methods for the prediction of CpG island are programmed on these rules. However, many experimentally verified CpG islands deviate from these artificial criteria. Experiments indicate that in many cases %G+C is human genome. We analyze the energy distribution over genomic primary structure for each CpG site and adopt the parameters from statistics of Human genome. The evaluation results show that the new model can predict CpG islands efficiently by balancing both sensitivity and specificity over known human CGI data sets. Compared with other models, GaussianCpG can achieve better performance in CGI detection. Our Gaussian model aims to simplify the complex interaction between nucleotides. The model is computed not by the linear statistical method but by the Gaussian energy distribution and accumulation. The parameters of Gaussian function are not arbitrarily designated but deliberately chosen by optimizing the biological statistics. By using the pseudopotential analysis on CpG islands, the novel model is validated on both the real and artificial data sets.

  2. Fine mapping of the EDA gene: A translocation breakpoint is associated with a CpG island that is transcribed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Montonen, O. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    In order to identify the gene for human X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), a translocation breakpoint in a female with t(X;1)(q13.1;p36.3) and EDA (patient AK) was finely mapped. The EDA region contains five groups of rare-cutter restriction sites that define CpG islands. The two more centromeric of these islands are associated with transcripts of 3.5 kb and 1.8 kb. The third CpG island maps within <1 kb of the translocation breakpoint in patient AK, as indicated by a genomic rearrangement, and {approximately}100 kb centromeric from another previously mapped translocation breakpoint (patient AnLy). Northern analysis with a probe from this CpG island detected an {approximately}6-kb mRNA in several fetal tissues tested. An extended YAC contig of 1,200 kb with an average of fivefold coverage was constructed. The two most telomeric CpG islands map 350 kb telomeric of the two translocations. Taken together, the results suggest that the CpG island just proximal of the AK translocation breakpoint lies at the 5{prime} end of a candidate gene for EDA. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) colorectal cancer shows not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also low-level methylation at individual loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2008-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct phenotype in colorectal cancer. However, the concept of CIMP-low with less extensive CpG island methylation is still evolving. Our aim is to examine whether density of methylation in individual CpG islands was different between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors. Utilizing MethyLight technology and 889 population-based colorectal cancers, we quantified DNA methylation (methylation index, percentage of methylated reference) at 14 CpG islands, including 8 CIMP-high-specific loci (CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1). Methylation positivity in each locus was defined as methylation index>4. Low-level methylation (methylation index>0, CIMP-high-specific locus was significantly more common in 340 CIMP-low tumors (1/8-5/8 methylation-positive loci) than 133 CIMP-high tumors (> or =6/8 methylation-positive loci) and 416 CIMP-0 tumors (0/8 methylation-positive loci) (PCIMP-high, low-level methylation, was not persistently more prevalent in CIMP-low tumors. In conclusion, compared to CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors, CIMP-low colorectal cancers show not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also more frequent low-level methylation at individual loci. Our data may provide supporting evidence for a difference in pathogenesis of DNA methylation between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors.

  4. Deletions of a differentially methylated CpG island at SNRPN define a putative imprinting control region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, J.S.,; Nakao, M.; Beaudet, A.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy, or other mutations. Four transcripts designated PAR-5, PAR-7, PAR-1 and PAR-4 were isolated and localized to a region within 300 kb telomeric to the gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (SNRPN). Analysis of the transcripts in cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from deletion patients demonstrated that SNRPN, PAR-5 and PAR-1 are expressed exclusively from the paternal chromosome, defining an imprinted domain that spans at least 200 kb. All three imprinted transcripts were absent in cells from three PWS patients (one pair of sibs and one sporadic case) with small deletions that involve a differentially methylated CpG island containing a previously undescribed 5{prime} untranslated exon ({alpha}) of SNRPN. Methylation of the CpG island is specific for the maternal chromosome consistent with paternal expression of the imprinted domain. One deletion, which is benign when maternally transmitted, extends upstream <30 kb from the CpG island, and is associated with altered methylation centromeric to SNRPN, and loss of transcription telomeric to SNRPN, implying the presence of an imprinting control region around the CpG island containing exon {alpha}.

  5. Body size, physical activity and risk of colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Simons, C.C.J.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603

  6. Long-range autocorrelations of CpG islands in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Koester

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a statistical estimator developed in astrophysics to study the distribution and organization of features of the human genome. Using the human reference sequence we quantify the global distribution of CpG islands (CGI in each chromosome and demonstrate that the organization of the CGI across a chromosome is non-random, exhibits surprisingly long range correlations (10 Mb and varies significantly among chromosomes. These correlations of CGI summarize functional properties of the genome that are not captured when considering variation in any particular separate (and local feature. The demonstration of the proposed methods to quantify the organization of CGI in the human genome forms the basis of future studies. The most illuminating of these will assess the potential impact on phenotypic variation of inter-individual variation in the organization of the functional features of the genome within and among chromosomes, and among individuals for particular chromosomes.

  7. CpG Island Methylation in Colorectal Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Curtin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a CpG island methylator phenotype, or CIMP, quickly became the focus of several colorectal cancer studies describing its clinical and pathological features after its introduction in 1999 by Toyota and colleagues. Further characterization of CIMP in tumors lead to widespread acceptance of the concept, as expressed by Shen and Issa in their 2005 editorial, “CIMP, at last.” Since that time, extensive research efforts have brought great insights into the epidemiology and prognosis of CIMP+ tumors and other epigenetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. With the advances in technology and subsequent cataloging of the human methylome in cancer and normal tissue, new directions in research to understand CIMP and its role in complex biological systems yield hope for future epigenetically based diagnostics and treatments.

  8. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Kuppen, Peter Jk; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through multiple genetic and epigenetic pathways. These pathways may be determined on the basis of three molecular features: (i) mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, leading to a DNA microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype, (ii) mutations in APC and other genes that activate Wnt pathway, characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype, and (iii) global genome hypermethylation, resulting in switch off of tumor suppressor genes, indicated as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Each of these pathways is characterized by specific pathological features, mechanisms of carcinogenesis and process of tumor development. The molecular aspects of these pathways have been used clinically in the diagnosis, screening and management of patients with colorectal cancer. In this review we especially describe various aspects of CIMP, one of the important and rather recently discovered pathways that lead to colorectal cancer.

  9. Genome-wide CpG island methylation analysis implicates novel genes in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Christopher J.; Morris, Mark R.; Gentle, Dean; Brown, Michael; Wake, Naomi; Woodward, Emma R.; Clarke, Noel; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify novel candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) implicated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of RCC using the HumanMethylation27 BeadChips to assess methylation at >14,000 genes. Two hundred and twenty hypermethylated probes representing 205 loci/genes were identified in genomic CpG islands. A subset of TSGs investigated in detail exhibited frequent tumor methylation, promoter methylation associated transcriptional silencing an...

  10. A CpG island methylator phenotype of colorectal cancer that is contiguous with conventional adenomas, but not serrated polyps

    OpenAIRE

    HOKAZONO, KOJI; UEKI, TAKASHI; NAGAYOSHI, KINUKO; NISHIOKA, YASUNOBU; HATAE, TATSUNOBU; KOGA, YUTAKA; HIRAHASHI, MINAKO; ODA, YOSHINAO; TANAKA, MASAO

    2014-01-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), with concurrent multiple promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes. A serrated pathway in which CIMP is developed from serrated polyps is proposed. The present study characterized CIMP and morphologically examined precursor lesions of CIMP. In total, 104 CRCs treated between January 1996 and December 2004 were examined. Aberrant promoter methylation of 15 cancer-related genes was analyzed. CIMP sta...

  11. Different definitions of CpG island methylator phenotype and outcomes of colorectal cancer: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Contradictory results were reported for the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Differences in the definitions of CIMP were the most common explanation for these discrepancies. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the published studies on CRC prognosis according to the different definitions of CIMP. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for articles published until 3 ...

  12. Aberrant methylation of Polo-like kinase CpG islands in Plk4 heterozygous mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Alejandra; Morettin, Alan; Shum, David; Hudson, John W

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common cancers world-wide occurs twice as often in men compared to women. Predisposing conditions such as alcoholism, chronic viral hepatitis, aflatoxin B1 ingestion, and cirrhosis all contribute to the development of HCC. We used a combination of methylation specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, qReal-Time PCR (qPCR), and Western blot analysis to examine epigenetic changes for the Polo-like kinases (Plks) during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Plk4 heterozygous mice and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Here we report that the promoter methylation of Plk4 CpG islands increases with age, was more prevalent in males and that Plk4 epigenetic modification and subsequent downregulation of expression was associated with the development of HCC in Plk4 mutant mice. Interestingly, the opposite occurs with another Plk family member, Plk1 which was typically hypermethylated in normal liver tissue but became hypomethylated and upregulated in liver tumours. Furthermore, upon alcohol exposure murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibited increased Plk4 hypermethylation and downregulation along with increased centrosome numbers and multinucleation. These results suggest that aberrant Plk methylation is correlated with the development of HCC in mice

  13. Glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP): biological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Tathiane M; de Souza, Camila F; Sabedot, Thais S; Silva, Tiago C; Mosella, Maritza S; Kalkanis, Steven N; Snyder, James; Castro, Ana Valeria B; Noushmehr, Houtan

    2018-04-09

    Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with distinct biological and clinical properties. Despite advances in surgical techniques and clinical regimens, treatment of high-grade glioma remains challenging and carries dismal rates of therapeutic success and overall survival. Challenges include the molecular complexity of gliomas, as well as inconsistencies in histopathological grading, resulting in an inaccurate prediction of disease progression and failure in the use of standard therapy. The updated 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects a refinement of tumor diagnostics by integrating the genotypic and phenotypic features, thereby narrowing the defined subgroups. The new classification recommends molecular diagnosis of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutational status in gliomas. IDH-mutant gliomas manifest the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Notably, the recent identification of clinically relevant subsets of G-CIMP tumors (G-CIMP-high and G-CIMP-low) provides a further refinement in glioma classification that is independent of grade and histology. This scheme may be useful for predicting patient outcome and may be translated into effective therapeutic strategies tailored to each patient. In this review, we highlight the evolution of our understanding of the G-CIMP subsets and how recent advances in characterizing the genome and epigenome of gliomas may influence future basic and translational research.

  14. CpG island methylator phenotype and its association with malignancy in sporadic duodenal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifeng; Guzzetta, Angela A; Fu, Tao; Chen, Jinming; Jeschke, Jana; Kwak, Ruby; Vatapalli, Rajita; Baylin, Stephen B; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Ahuja, Nita

    2014-05-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been found in multiple precancerous and cancerous lesions, including colorectal adenomas, colorectal cancers, and duodenal adenocarcinomas. There are no reports in the literature of a relationship between CIMP status and clinicopathologic features of sporadic duodenal adenomas. This study sought to elucidate the role of methylation in duodenal adenomas and correlate it with KRAS and BRAF mutations. CIMP+ (with more than 2 markers methylated) was seen in 33.3% of duodenal adenomas; 61% of these CIMP+ adenomas were CIMP-high (with more than 3 markers methylated). Furthermore, CIMP+ status significantly correlated with older age of patients, larger size and villous type of tumor, coexistent dysplasia and periampullary location. MLH1 methylation was seen in 11.1% of duodenal adenomas and was significantly associated with CIMP+ tumors, while p16 methylation was an infrequent event. KRAS mutations were frequent and seen in 26.3% of adenomas; however, no BRAF mutations were detected. Furthermore, CIMP-high status was associated with larger size and villous type of tumor and race (non-white). These results suggest that CIMP+ duodenal adenomas may have a higher risk for developing malignancy and may require more aggressive management and surveillance.

  15. The role of the CpG island methylator phenotype on survival outcome in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Joo; Min, Byung Hoon; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-03-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)- high colorectal cancers (CRCs) have distinct clinicopathologi-cal features from their CIMP-low/negative CRC counterparts. However, controversy exists regarding the prognosis of CRC according to the CIMP status. Therefore, this study examined the prognosis of Korean patients with colon cancer according to the CIMP status. Among a previous cohort pop-ulation with CRC, a total of 154 patients with colon cancer who had available tissue for DNA extraction were included in the study. CIMP-high was defined as ≥3/5 methylated mark-ers using the five-marker panel (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). CIMP-high and CIMP-low/neg-ative cancers were observed in 27 patients (17.5%) and 127 patients (82.5%), respectively. Multivariate analysis adjust-ing for age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage and CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI) statuses indicated that CIMP-high colon cancers were associated with a significant increase in colon cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 8.69; p=0.02). In microsatellite stable cancers, CIMP-high cancer had a poor survival outcome compared to CIMP-low/negative cancer (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.02 to 8.27; p=0.04). Re-gardless of the MSI status, CIMP-high cancers had poor sur-vival outcomes in Korean patients. (Gut Liver, 2015;9202-207).

  16. CpG island methylator phenotype and prognosis of colorectal cancer in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Hu, Fulan; Wang, Yibaina; Yao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zuoming; Wang, Fan; Sun, Guizhi; Cui, Bin-Bin; Dong, Xinshu; Zhao, Yashuang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and the overall survival of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Northeast China. 282 sporadic CRC patients were recruited in this study. We selected MLH1, MGMT, p16, APC, MINT1, MINT31, and RUNX3 as the CIMP panel markers. The promoter methylation was assessed by methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). Proportional hazards-regression models were fitted with computing hazard ratios (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). 12.77% (36/282) of patients were CIMP-0, 74.1% (209/282) of patients were CIMP-L, and 13.12% (37/282) of patients were CIMP-H. The five-year survival of the 282 CRC patients was 58%. There was significant association between APC gene promoter methylation and CRC overall survival (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05-2.46; P = 0.03). CIMP-H was significantly associated with worse prognosis compared to CIMP-0 (HR = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.19-7.89; P = 0.02) and CIMP-L (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.11-3.48; P = 0.02), respectively. While comparing with the combine of CIMP-L and CIMP-0 (CIMP-L/0), CIMP-H also presented a worse prognosis (HR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.02-5.24; P = 0.04). CIMP-H may be a predictor of a poor prognosis of CRC in Northeast China patients.

  17. Aberrant TET1 Methylation Closely Associated with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Norihisa; Shinjo, Keiko; An, Byonggu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Kenji; Ohka, Fumiharu; Katsushima, Keisuke; Hatanaka, Akira; Tojo, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Hiromu; Ueda, Minoru; Kondo, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Inactivation of methylcytosine dioxygenase, ten-eleven translocation (TET) is known to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation in cancers. Tumors with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a distinct subgroup with extensive DNA methylation, show characteristic features in the case of colorectal cancer. The relationship between TET inactivation and CIMP in colorectal cancers is not well understood. The expression level of TET family genes was compared between CIMP-positive (CIMP-P) and CIMP-negative (CIMP-N) colorectal cancers. Furthermore, DNA methylation profiling, including assessment of the TET1 gene, was assessed in colorectal cancers, as well as colon polyps. The TET1 was silenced by DNA methylation in a subset of colorectal cancers as well as cell lines, expression of which was reactivated by demethylating agent. TET1 methylation was more frequent in CIMP-P (23/55, 42%) than CIMP-N (2/113, 2%, P CIMP-P, 16/40, 40%; CIMP-N, 2/24, 8%; P = 0.002), suggesting that TET1 methylation is an early event in CIMP tumorigenesis. TET1 methylation was significantly associated with BRAF mutation but not with hMLH1 methylation in the CIMP-P colorectal cancers. Colorectal cancers with TET1 methylation have a significantly greater number of DNA methylated genes and less pathological metastasis compared to those without TET1 methylation (P = 0.007 and 0.045, respectively). Our data suggest that TET1 methylation may contribute to the establishment of a unique pathway in respect to CIMP-mediated tumorigenesis, which may be incidental to hMLH1 methylation. In addition, our findings provide evidence that TET1 methylation may be a good biomarker for the prediction of metastasis in colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Adverse prognostic impact of the CpG island methylator phenotype in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yongjun; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Han, Sae-Won; Rhee, Ye Young; Bae, Jeong Mo; Wen, Xianyu; Cho, Nam-Yun; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae-You

    2016-07-12

    The association between the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and clinical outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer remains unclear. We investigated the prognostic impact of CIMP in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with systemic chemotherapy. Eight CIMP-specific promoters (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, SOCS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, and MLH1) were examined. The CIMP status was determined by the number of methylated promoters as high (⩾5), low (1-4), and negative (0). A total of 153 patients were included (men/women, 103/50; median age, 61 years; range, 22-80 years). The CIMP status was negative/low/high in 77/ 69/7 patients, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was significantly different among the three CIMP groups, with median values of 35.7, 22.2, and 9.77 months for the negative, low, and high groups, respectively (PCIMP groups; the median OS was 37.9, 23.8, and 6.77 months for the negative, low, and high groups, respectively (PCIMP groups (53.4% vs 45.1% vs 16.7%, respectively; P=0.107). For patients treated with fluoropyrimidine and irinotecan second-line chemotherapy (N=86), only OS showed a difference according to the CIMP status, with median values of 20.4, 13.4, and 2.90 months for the negative, low, and high groups, respectively (PCIMP status is a negative prognostic factor for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy.

  19. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the association between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP and the overall survival of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC in Northeast China. Methods. 282 sporadic CRC patients were recruited in this study. We selected MLH1, MGMT, p16, APC, MINT1, MINT31, and RUNX3 as the CIMP panel markers. The promoter methylation was assessed by methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM. Proportional hazards-regression models were fitted with computing hazard ratios (HR and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results. 12.77% (36/282 of patients were CIMP-0, 74.1% (209/282 of patients were CIMP-L, and 13.12% (37/282 of patients were CIMP-H. The five-year survival of the 282 CRC patients was 58%. There was significant association between APC gene promoter methylation and CRC overall survival (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05–2.46; P=0.03. CIMP-H was significantly associated with worse prognosis compared to CIMP-0 (HR = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.19–7.89; P=0.02 and CIMP-L (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.11–3.48; P=0.02, respectively. While comparing with the combine of CIMP-L and CIMP-0 (CIMP-L/0, CIMP-H also presented a worse prognosis (HR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.02–5.24; P=0.04. Conclusion. CIMP-H may be a predictor of a poor prognosis of CRC in Northeast China patients.

  20. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 {sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized.

  1. Integrated analysis of gene expression, CpG island methylation, and gene copy number in breast cancer cells by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifu Sun

    Full Text Available We used deep sequencing technology to profile the transcriptome, gene copy number, and CpG island methylation status simultaneously in eight commonly used breast cell lines to develop a model for how these genomic features are integrated in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and negative breast cancer. Total mRNA sequence, gene copy number, and genomic CpG island methylation were carried out using the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Sequences were mapped to the human genome to obtain digitized gene expression data, DNA copy number in reference to the non-tumor cell line (MCF10A, and methylation status of 21,570 CpG islands to identify differentially expressed genes that were correlated with methylation or copy number changes. These were evaluated in a dataset from 129 primary breast tumors. Gene expression in cell lines was dominated by ER-associated genes. ER+ and ER- cell lines formed two distinct, stable clusters, and 1,873 genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Part of chromosome 8 was deleted in all ER- cells and part of chromosome 17 amplified in all ER+ cells. These loci encoded 30 genes that were overexpressed in ER+ cells; 9 of these genes were overexpressed in ER+ tumors. We identified 149 differentially expressed genes that exhibited differential methylation of one or more CpG islands within 5 kb of the 5' end of the gene and for which mRNA abundance was inversely correlated with CpG island methylation status. In primary tumors we identified 84 genes that appear to be robust components of the methylation signature that we identified in ER+ cell lines. Our analyses reveal a global pattern of differential CpG island methylation that contributes to the transcriptome landscape of ER+ and ER- breast cancer cells and tumors. The role of gene amplification/deletion appears to more modest, although several potentially significant genes appear to be regulated by copy number aberrations.

  2. Characterization of human gastric carcinoma-related methylation of 9 miR CpG islands and repression of their expressions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yantao; Liu, Zhaojun; Gu, Liankun; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Bu-dong; Ji, Jiafu; Deng, Dajun

    2012-01-01

    Many miR genes are located within or around CpG islands. It is unclear whether methylation of these CpG islands represses miR transcription regularly. The aims of this study are to characterize gastric carcinoma (GC)-related methylation of miR CpG islands and its relationship with miRNA expression. Methylation status of 9 representative miR CpG islands in a panel of cell lines and human gastric samples (including 13 normal biopsies, 38 gastritis biopsies, 112 pairs of GCs and their surgical margin samples) was analyzed by bisulfite-DHPLC and sequencing. Mature miRNA levels were determined with quantitative RT-PCR. Relationships between miR methylation, transcription, GC development, and clinicopathological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Methylation frequency of 5 miR CpG islands (miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, miR-34b, and miR-210) gradually increased while the proportion of methylated miR-200b gradually decreased during gastric carcinogenesis (Ps < 0.01). More miR-9-1 methylation was detected in 62%-64% of the GC samples and 4% of the normal or gastritis samples (18/28 versus 2/48; Odds ratio, 41.4; P < 0.01). miR-210 methylation showed high correlation with H. pylori infection. miR-375, miR-203, and miR-193b methylation might be host adaptation to the development of GCs. Methylation of these miR CpG islands was consistently shown to significantly decrease the corresponding miRNA levels presented in human cell lines. The inverse relationship was also observed for miR-9-1, miR-9-3, miR-137, and miR-200b in gastric samples. Among 112 GC patients, miR-9-1 methylation was an independent favourable predictor of overall survival of GC patients in both univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.02). In conclusion, alteration of methylation status of 6 of 9 tested miR CpG islands was characterized in gastric carcinogenesis. miR-210 methylation correlated with H. pylori infection. miR-9-1 methylation may be a GC-specific event. Methylation of miR CpG islands may

  3. Aberrant septin 9 DNA methylation in colorectal cancer is restricted to a single CpG island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserkort, Reinhold; Kalmar, Alexandra; Valcz, Gabor; Spisak, Sandor; Krispin, Manuel; Toth, Kinga; Tulassay, Zsolt; Sledziewski, Andrew Z; Molnar, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The septin 9 gene (SEPT9) codes for a GTP-binding protein associated with filamentous structures and cytoskeleton formation. SEPT9 plays a role in multiple cancers as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene. Regulation of SEPT9 expression is complex and not well understood; however, hypermethylation of the gene was recently introduced as a biomarker for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been linked to cancer of the breast and of the head and neck. Because the DNA methylation landscape of different regions of SEPT9 is poorly understood in cancer, we analyzed the methylation patterns of this gene in distinct cell populations from normal and diseased colon mucosa. Laser capture microdissection was performed to obtain homogeneous populations of epithelial and stromal cells from normal, adenomatous, and tumorous colon mucosa. Microdissected samples were analyzed using direct bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylation status of eight regions within and near the SEPT9 gene. Septin-9 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Regions analyzed in SEPT9 were unmethylated in normal tissue except for a methylation boundary detected downstream of the largest CpG island. In adenoma and tumor tissues, epithelial cells displayed markedly increased DNA methylation levels (>80%, p <0.0001) in only one of the CpG islands investigated. SEPT9 methylation in stromal cells increased in adenomatous and tumor tissues (≤50%, p <0.0001); however, methylation did not increase in stromal cells of normal tissue close to the tumor. IHC data indicated a significant decrease (p <0.01) in Septin-9 protein levels in epithelial cells derived from adenoma and tumor tissues; Septin-9 protein levels in stromal cells were low in all tissues. Hypermethylation of SEPT9 in adenoma and CRC specimens is confined to one of several CpG islands of this gene. Tumor-associated aberrant methylation originates in epithelial cells; stromal cells appear to

  4. Comprehensive biostatistical analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Nosho

    Full Text Available The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP is a distinct phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and BRAF mutation in colon cancer. Recent investigations have selected 5 promoters (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1 as surrogate markers for CIMP-high. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated an expanded set of methylation markers (including these 5 markers using a large number of tumors, or deciphered the complex clinical and molecular associations with CIMP-high determined by the validated marker panel. METHOLODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA methylation at 16 CpG islands [the above 5 plus CDKN2A (p16, CHFR, CRABP1, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 (CDKN2A/ARF and WRN] was quantified in 904 colorectal cancers by real-time PCR (MethyLight. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, the 5 markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 and WRN were generally clustered with each other and with MSI and BRAF mutation. KRAS mutation was not clustered with any methylation marker, suggesting its association with a random methylation pattern in CIMP-low tumors. Utilizing the validated CIMP marker panel (including the 5 markers, multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that CIMP-high was independently associated with older age, proximal location, poor differentiation, MSI-high, BRAF mutation, and inversely with LINE-1 hypomethylation and beta-catenin (CTNNB1 activation. Mucinous feature, signet ring cells, and p53-negativity were associated with CIMP-high in only univariate analysis. In stratified analyses, the relations of CIMP-high with poor differentiation, KRAS mutation and LINE-1 hypomethylation significantly differed according to MSI status.Our study provides valuable data for standardization of the use of CIMP-high-specific methylation markers. CIMP-high is independently associated with clinical and key molecular features in colorectal cancer. Our data also

  5. CpG island protects Rous sarcoma virus-derived vectors integrated into nonpermissive cells from DNA methylation and transcriptional suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejnar, Jiří; Hájková, P.; Plachý, Jiří; Elleder, Daniel; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Svoboda, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2001), s. 565-569 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/97/P082; GA ČR GA312/98/0825 Keywords : CpG island * provirus silencing * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.890, year: 2001

  6. Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Yuta

    2017-05-05

    CpG islands (CGIs) are primarily promoter-associated genomic regions and are mostly unmethylated within highly methylated mammalian genomes. The mechanisms by which CGIs are protected from de novo methylation remain elusive. Here we show that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation. By targeting the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 CGI, we could generate a PSC model of a cancer-related epimutation. Furthermore, we successfully corrected aberrant imprinting in induced PSCs derived from an Angelman syndrome patient. Our results provide insights into how CpG-free DNA induces de novo CGI methylation and broaden the application of targeted epigenome editing for a better understanding of human development and disease.

  7. Integrative DNA methylation and gene expression analysis to assess the universality of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moarii, Matahi; Reyal, Fabien; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2015-10-13

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first characterized in colorectal cancer but since has been extensively studied in several other tumor types such as breast, bladder, lung, and gastric. CIMP is of clinical importance as it has been reported to be associated with prognosis or response to treatment. However, the identification of a universal molecular basis to define CIMP across tumors has remained elusive. We perform a genome-wide methylation analysis of over 2000 tumor samples from 5 cancer sites to assess the existence of a CIMP with common molecular basis across cancers. We then show that the CIMP phenotype is associated with specific gene expression variations. However, we do not find a common genetic signature in all tissues associated with CIMP. Our results suggest the existence of a universal epigenetic and transcriptomic signature that defines the CIMP across several tumor types but does not indicate the existence of a common genetic signature of CIMP.

  8. Association of the colorectal CpG island methylator phenotype with molecular features, risk factors, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Daniel J; Levine, A Joan; Long, Tiffany I; Buchanan, Daniel D; Walters, Rhiannon; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Joshi, Amit D; Stern, Mariana C; LeMarchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M; Daftary, Darshana; Gallinger, Steven; Selander, Teresa; Bapat, Bharati; Newcomb, Polly A; Campbell, Peter T; Casey, Graham; Ahnen, Dennis J; Baron, John A; Haile, Robert W; Hopper, John L; Young, Joanne P; Laird, Peter W; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) represents a subset of colorectal cancers characterized by widespread aberrant DNA hypermethylation at select CpG islands. The risk factors and environmental exposures contributing to etiologic heterogeneity between CIMP and non-CIMP tumors are not known. We measured the CIMP status of 3,119 primary population-based colorectal cancer tumors from the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry. Etiologic heterogeneity was assessed by a case-case study comparing risk factor frequency of colorectal cancer cases with CIMP and non-CIMP tumors using logistic regression to estimate the case-case odds ratio (ccOR). We found associations between tumor CIMP status and MSI-H (ccOR = 7.6), BRAF V600E mutation (ccOR = 59.8), proximal tumor site (ccOR = 9; all P CIMP status for both males and females (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively), use of multivitamin or calcium supplements did not. Only for female colorectal cancer was CIMP status associated with increased pack-years of smoking (Ptrend CIMP status, and the associations of smoking and obesity with tumor subtype were evident only for females. Differences in the associations of a unique DNA methylation-based subgroup of colorectal cancer with important lifestyle and environmental exposures increase understanding of the molecular pathologic epidemiology of this heavily methylated subset of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 512-9. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. No association of CpG island methylator phenotype and colorectal cancer survival: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Jansen, Lina; Walter, Viola; Tagscherer, Katrin; Roth, Wilfried; Herpel, Esther; Kloor, Matthias; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-11-22

    Previous studies have shown adverse effects of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) on colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. However, sample sizes were often limited and only few studies were able to adjust for relevant molecular features associated with CIMP. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CIMP on CRC survival in a large population-based study with comprehensive adjustment. The CIMP status and other molecular tumour features were analysed in 1385 CRC patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2010. Detailed information were obtained from standardised personal interviews and medical records. During follow-up (median: 4.9 years), we assessed vital status, cause of death and therapy details. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of survival after CRC. The CIMP-H occurred more frequently in patients with older age, female gender, cancer in the proximal colon, BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H). However, CIMP status was not associated with CRC prognosis in CRC patients (HR=1.00; 95% CI=0.72-1.40 for overall survival; HR=0.96; 95% CI=0.65-1.41 for disease-specific survival) or in any of the subgroups. Although CIMP status was associated with the presence of MSI-H and BRAF mutation, the prognostic effects of MSI-H (HR=0.49; 95% CI=0.27-0.90) and BRAF mutation (HR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.84) were independent of CIMP status. Similar benefit of chemotherapy was found for CRC outcomes in both the CIMP-low/negative group and the CIMP-high group. CpG island methylator phenotype was not associated with CRC prognosis after adjusting for other important clinical factors and associated mutations.

  10. Association between the CpG island methylator phenotype and its prognostic significance in primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Chun, Sung-Min; Park, Young-Soo; Song, Joon Seon; Lee, Geon Kook; Khang, Shin Kwang; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-08-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is one of the most important inactivation mechanisms for tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes. Previous studies using genome-wide DNA methylation microarray analysis have suggested the existence of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in lung adenocarcinomas. Although the biological behavior of these tumors varies according to tumor stage, no large-scale study has examined the CIMP in lung adenocarcinoma patients according to tumor stage. Furthermore, there have been no reported results regarding the clinical significance of each of the six CIMP markers. To examine the CIMP in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma after a surgical resection, we performed methylation analysis of six genes (CCNA1, ACAN, GFRA1, EDARADD, MGC45800, and p16 (INK4A)) in 230 pulmonary adenocarcinoma cases using the SEQUENOM MassARRAY platform. Fifty-four patients (28 %, 54/191) were in the CIMP-high (CIMP-H) group associated with high nodal stage (P = 0.007), the presence of micropapillary or solid histology (P = 0.003), and the absence of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (P = 0.002). By multivariate analysis, CIMP was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.03 and P = 0.43, respectively). In the stage I subgroups alone, CIMP-H patients had lower OS rates than the CIMP-low (CIMP-L) group (P = 0.041). Of the six CIMP markers, ACAN alone was significantly associated with patient survival. CIMP predicted the risk of progression independently of clinicopathological variables and enables the stratification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, particularly among stage I cases.

  11. Modulation of transcription factor binding and epigenetic regulation of the MLH1 CpG island and shore by polymorphism rs1800734 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Andrea J; Bapat, Bharati

    2017-06-03

    The MLH1 promoter polymorphism rs1800734 is associated with MLH1 CpG island hypermethylation and expression loss in colorectal cancer (CRC). Conversely, variant rs1800734 is associated with MLH1 shore, but not island, hypomethylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA. To explore these distinct patterns, MLH1 CpG island and shore methylation was assessed in CRC cell lines stratified by rs1800734 genotype. Cell lines containing the variant A allele demonstrated MLH1 shore hypomethylation compared to wild type (GG). There was significant enrichment of transcription factor AP4 at the MLH1 promoter in GG and GA cell lines, but not the AA cell line, by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Preferential binding to the G allele was confirmed by sequencing in the GA cell line. The enhancer-associated histone modification H3K4me1 was enriched at the MLH1 shore; however, H3K27ac was not, indicating the shore is an inactive enhancer. These results demonstrate the role of variant rs1800734 in altering transcription factor binding as well as epigenetics at regions beyond the MLH1 CpG island in which it is located.

  12. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI-JU GAO

    abnormality or family history of congenital heart disease, as well as the exclusion of ... Germany) according to the manufacture's protocol. A total of. 45 μL of DNA was ... islands and the primer sites are illustrated in figure 1. Detection of p16 ...

  13. High CpG island methylation ofp16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    :Tetralogy of Fallot;p16 gene;p16 protein;CpG islands;Methylation;Promoter regions ... of congenital heart disease, as well as the exclusion of previous history of ..... malignant progression of oral epithelial dysplasia: a prospective cohort study.

  14. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 R132C mutation occurs exclusively in microsatellite stable colorectal cancers with the CpG island methylator phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehall, VLJ; Dumenil, TD; McKeone, DM; Bond, CE; Bettington, ML; Buttenshaw, RL; Bowdler, L; Montgomery, GW; Wockner, LF; Leggett, BA

    2014-01-01

    The CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is fundamental to an important subset of colorectal cancer; however, its cause is unknown. CIMP is associated with microsatellite instability but is also found in BRAF mutant microsatellite stable cancers that are associated with poor prognosis. The isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene causes CIMP in glioma due to an activating mutation that produces the 2-hydroxyglutarate oncometabolite. We therefore examined IDH1 alteration as a potential cause o...

  15. The core element of a CpG island protects avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-derived vectors from transcriptional silencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šenigl, Filip; Plachý, Jiří; Hejnar, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 16 (2008), s. 7818-7827 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0939; GA ČR GA523/07/1171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : anti-methylation protection * retroviral vector * CpG island Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.308, year: 2008

  16. CpGislandEVO: A Database and Genome Browser for Comparative Evolutionary Genomics of CpG Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Barturen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypomethylated, CpG-rich DNA segments (CpG islands, CGIs are epigenome markers involved in key biological processes. Aberrant methylation is implicated in the appearance of several disorders as cancer, immunodeficiency, or centromere instability. Furthermore, methylation differences at promoter regions between human and chimpanzee strongly associate with genes involved in neurological/psychological disorders and cancers. Therefore, the evolutionary comparative analyses of CGIs can provide insights on the functional role of these epigenome markers in both health and disease. Given the lack of specific tools, we developed CpGislandEVO. Briefly, we first compile a database of statistically significant CGIs for the best assembled mammalian genome sequences available to date. Second, by means of a coupled browser front-end, we focus on the CGIs overlapping orthologous genes extracted from OrthoDB, thus ensuring the comparison between CGIs located on truly homologous genome segments. This allows comparing the main compositional features between homologous CGIs. Finally, to facilitate nucleotide comparisons, we lifted genome coordinates between assemblies from different species, which enables the analysis of sequence divergence by direct count of nucleotide substitutions and indels occurring between homologous CGIs. The resulting CpGislandEVO database, linking together CGIs and single-cytosine DNA methylation data from several mammalian species, is freely available at our website.

  17. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-02-18

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as 'backbone', largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Different definitions of CpG island methylator phenotype and outcomes of colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Contradictory results were reported for the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Differences in the definitions of CIMP were the most common explanation for these discrepancies. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the published studies on CRC prognosis according to the different definitions of CIMP. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for articles published until 3 April 2015. Data extraction included information about the study population, the definition of CIMP, and investigated outcomes. Thirty-six studies were included in this systematic review. Among them, 30 studies reported the association of CIMP and CRC prognosis and 11 studies reported the association of CIMP with survival after CRC therapy. Overall, 16 different definitions of CIMP were identified. The majority of studies reported a poorer prognosis for patients with CIMP-positive (CIMP+)/CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRC than with CIMP-negative (CIMP-)/CIMP-low (CIMP-L) CRC. Inconsistent results or varying effect strengths could not be explained by different CIMP definitions used. No consistent variation in response to specific therapies according to CIMP status was found. Comparative analyses of different CIMP panels in the same large study populations are needed to further clarify the role of CIMP definitions and to find out how methylation information can best be used to predict CRC prognosis and response to specific CRC therapies.

  19. Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A G M T; Soul, S; Christian, A; Lewis, W G

    2018-01-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been identified as a distinct molecular subtype of gastric cancer, yet associations with survival are conflicting. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the prognostic significance of CIMP. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane databases were searched systematically for studies related to the association between CIMP and survival in patients undergoing potentially curative resection for gastric cancer. A total of 918 patients from ten studies were included, and the median proportion of tumours with CIMP-high (CIMP-H) status was 40·9 (range 4·8-63) per cent. Gene panels for assessing CIMP status varied between the studies. Pooled analysis suggested that specimens exhibiting CIMP-H were associated with poorer 5-year survival (odds ratio (OR) for death 1·48, 95 per cent c.i. 1·10 to 1·99; P = 0·009). Significant heterogeneity was observed between studies (I 2 = 88 per cent, P CIMP-H tumours, revealed that CIMP-H was associated with both poor (OR for death 8·15, 4·65 to 14·28, P CIMP, which may explain the survival differences. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The CpG island methylator phenotype is concordant between primary colorectal carcinoma and matched distant metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stacey A; Yu, Ming; Baker, Kelsey; Redman, Mary; Wu, Chen; Heinzerling, Tai J; Wirtz, Ralph M; Charalambous, Elpida; Pentheroudakis, George; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Fountzilas, George; Grady, William M

    2017-01-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in stage III colon cancer (CRC) has been associated with improved survival after treatment with adjuvant irinotecan-based chemotherapy. In this analysis, we determine whether CIMP status in the primary CRC is concordant with the CIMP status of matched metastases in order to determine if assessment of CIMP status in the primary tumor can be used to predict CIMP status of metastatic disease, which is relevant for patient management as well as for understanding the biology of CIMP CRCs. We assessed the CIMP status of 70 pairs of primary CRC and matched metastases using a CRC-specific panel of five markers ( CACNA1G , IGF2 , NEUROG1 , RUNX3 , and SOCS1 ) where CIMP positive was defined as 3/5 positive markers at a percent methylated reference threshold of ≥10%. Concordance was compared using the Fisher's exact test and P  CIMP status in the primary tumor and matched metastasis; five (7.0%) of the pairs were concordantly CIMP positive. Only one pair (1.4%) had divergent CIMP status, demonstrating CIMP positivity (4/5 markers positive) in the primary tumor, while the matched metastasis was CIMP negative (0 markers positive). CIMP status is generally concordant between primary CRCs and matched metastases. Thus, CIMP status in the primary tumor is maintained in matched metastases and can be used to inform CIMP-based therapy options for the metastases.

  1. Prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype among hepatocellular carcinoma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Gang; Liu, Chaoxu; He, Xianli

    2018-04-24

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), characterized by multiple genes are concurrently methylated, has been reported to be associated with the prognosis of colorectal cancer. However, current studies have not explored the relationship between CIMP status with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) clinicopathological features. To assess these associations, we performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science to identify all eligible studies. Publication bias was tested using Begg's and Egger's test. Seven studies that involved 568 HCC patients (379 CIMP+ and 189 CIMP-) were eligible for inclusion in our study. CIMP+ in HCC was significantly associated with distant metastasis (OR = 4.28, 95% CI = 2.57-7.10, P 300 ng/ml) than those with CIMP- (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.79,3.89, P CIMP+ was associated with an unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.60-5.70, P CIMP is independently associated with significantly worse prognosis in HCC patients. Examination of CIMP status may be useful for identifying patients who are at higher risk for disease progression. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CpG island methylator phenotype identifies high risk patients among microsatellite stable BRAF mutated colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeld, Hege Marie; Merok, Marianne; Jeanmougin, Marine; Danielsen, Stine A; Honne, Hilde; Presthus, Gro Kummeneje; Svindland, Aud; Sjo, Ole H; Hektoen, Merete; Eknaes, Mette; Nesbakken, Arild; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lind, Guro E

    2017-09-01

    The prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer remains unsettled. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of this phenotype analyzing a total of 1126 tumor samples obtained from two Norwegian consecutive colorectal cancer series. CIMP status was determined by analyzing the 5-markers CAGNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1 by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP). The effect of CIMP on time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS) were determined by uni- and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to MSI and BRAF mutation status, disease stage, and also age at time of diagnosis (CIMP positive tumors demonstrated significantly shorter TTR and worse OS compared to those with CIMP negative tumors (multivariate hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.86 [1.31-2.63] and 1.89 [1.34-2.65], respectively). In stratified analyses, CIMP tumors showed significantly worse outcome among patients with microsatellite stable (MSS, P CIMP is significantly associated with inferior outcome for colorectal cancer patients, and can stratify the poor prognostic patients with MSS BRAF mutated tumors. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  3. Prognostic and Predictive Value of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Patients with Locally Advanced Nonmetastatic Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the present study, the prognostic significance of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in stage II/III sporadic colorectal cancer was evaluated using a five-gene panel. Methods. Fifty stage II/III colorectal cancer patients who received radical resection were included in this study. Promoter methylation of p14ARF, hMLH1, p16INK4a, MGMT, and MINT1 was determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. CIMP positive was defined as hypermethylation of three or more of the five genes. Impact factors on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test and adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Twenty-four percent (12/50 of patients were characterized as CIMP positive. Univariate analysis showed stage III (P=0.049 and CIMP positive (P=0.014 patients who had significantly inferior DFS. In Cox regression analysis, CIMP positive epigenotype was independently related with poor DFS with HR = 2.935 and 95% CI: 1.193–7.220 (P=0.019. In patients with CIMP positive tumor, those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had a poor DFS than those without adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.023. Conclusions. CIMP positive was significantly correlated with decreased DFS in stage II/III colorectal cancer. Patients with CIMP positive locally advanced sporadic colorectal cancers may not benefit from 5-fluorouracil based adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Evaluation of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype as a Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Oxaliplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stacey A; Wu, Chen; Yu, Ming; Gourgioti, Georgia; Wirtz, Ralph; Raptou, Georgia; Gkakou, Chryssa; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Pentheroudakis, George; Papaxoinis, George; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Fountzilas, George; Grady, William M

    2016-06-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is a promising biomarker for irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/leucovorin chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether CIMP is a prognostic biomarker for standard-of-care oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy. The HE6C/05 trial randomized 441 patients with stage II-III colorectal adenocarcinoma to adjuvant XELOX (capecitabine, oxaliplatin) or modified FOLFOX6 (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin). The primary and secondary objectives were disease-free and overall survival, respectively. CIMP status was determined using the DNA methylation status of CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1. Cox models were used to assess the association of CIMP with survival. Of the 293 available tumors, 28 (9.6%) were CIMP(+). On univariate Cox regression analysis, no significant differences in survival were observed between individuals with CIMP(+) versus CIMP(-) tumors. CIMP(+) tumors were more likely to be right-sided and BRAF mutant (χ(2), P CIMP did not appear to be a prognostic biomarker in oxaliplatin-treated patients with resected colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Characterization and Drug Response of Freshly Established Patient-Derived Tumor Models with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maletzki

    Full Text Available Patient-individual tumor models constitute a powerful platform for basic and translational analyses both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the labor-intensive and highly time-consuming process, only few well-characterized patient-derived cell lines and/or corresponding xenografts exist. In this study, we describe successful generation and functional analysis of novel tumor models from patients with sporadic primary colorectal carcinomas (CRC showing CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Initial DNA fingerprint analysis confirmed identity with the patient in all four cases. These freshly established cells showed characteristic features associated with the CIMP-phenotype (HROC40: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 3/8 marker methylated; HROC43: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC60: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRASwt; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC183: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 6/8 marker methylated. Cell lines were of epithelial origin (EpCAM+ with distinct morphology and growth kinetics. Response to chemotherapeutics was quite individual between cells, with stage I-derived cell line HROC60 being most susceptible towards standard clinically approved chemotherapeutics (e.g. 5-FU, Irinotecan. Of note, most cell lines were sensitive towards "non-classical" CRC standard drugs (sensitivity: Gemcitabin > Rapamycin > Nilotinib. This comprehensive analysis of tumor biology, genetic alterations and assessment of chemosensitivity towards a broad range of (chemo- therapeutics helps bringing forward the concept of personalized tumor therapy.

  6. Prognostication of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas based on quantification of DNA methylation levels of CpG island methylator phenotype marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kanai, Yae

    2014-10-20

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is characterized by accumulation of DNA methylation at CpG islands and poorer patient outcome. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for prognostication of patients with ccRCCs using the ccRCC-specific CIMP marker genes. DNA methylation levels at 299 CpG sites in the 14 CIMP marker genes were evaluated quantitatively in tissue specimens of 88 CIMP-negative and 14 CIMP-positive ccRCCs in a learning cohort using the MassARRAY system. An additional 100 ccRCCs were also analyzed as a validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that area under the curve values for the 23 CpG units including the 32 CpG sites in the 7 CIMP-marker genes, i.e. FAM150A, ZNF540, ZNF671, ZNF154, PRAC, TRH and SLC13A5, for discrimination of CIMP-positive from CIMP-negative ccRCCs were larger than 0.95. Criteria combining the 23 CpG units discriminated CIMP-positive from CIMP-negative ccRCCs with 100% sensitivity and specificity in the learning cohort. Cancer-free and overall survival rates of patients with CIMP-positive ccRCCs diagnosed using the criteria combining the 23 CpG units in a validation cohort were significantly lower than those of patients with CIMP-negative ccRCCs (P = 1.41 × 10-5 and 2.43 × 10-13, respectively). Patients with CIMP-positive ccRCCs in the validation cohort had a higher likelihood of disease-related death (hazard ratio, 75.8; 95% confidence interval, 7.81 to 735; P = 1.89 × 10-4) than those with CIMP-negative ccRCCs. The established criteria are able to reproducibly diagnose CIMP-positive ccRCCs and may be useful for personalized medicine for patients with ccRCCs.

  7. Nucleosomes correlate with in vivo progression pattern of de novo methylation of p16 CpG islands in human gastric carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact relationship between nucleosome positioning and methylation of CpG islands in human pathogenesis is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we characterized the nucleosome position within the p16 CpG island and established a seeding methylation-specific PCR (sMSP assay based on bisulfite modification to enrich the p16 alleles containing methylated-CpG at the methylation "seeding" sites within its intron-1 in gastric carcinogenesis. The sMSP-positive rate in primary gastric carcinoma (GC samples (36/40 was significantly higher than that observed in gastritis (19/45 or normal samples (7/13 (P<0.01. Extensive clone sequencing of these sMSP products showed that the density of methylated-CpGs in p16 CpG islands increased gradually along with the severity of pathological changes in gastric tissues. In gastritis lesions the methylation was frequently observed in the region corresponding to the exon-1 coding-nucleosome and the 5'UTR-nucleosome; the methylation was further extended to the region corresponding to the promoter-nucleosome in GC samples. Only few methylated-CpG sites were randomly detected within p16 CpG islands in normal tissues. The significantly inversed relationship between the p16 exon-1 methylation and its transcription was observed in GC samples. An exact p16 promoter-specific 83 bp-MSP assay confirms the result of sMSP (33/55 vs. 1/6, P<0.01. In addition, p16 methylation in chronic gastritis lesions significantly correlated with H. pylori infection; however, such correlation was not observed in GC specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that de novo methylation was initiated in the coding region of p16 exon-1 in gastritis, then progressed to its 5'UTR, and ultimately to the proximal promoter in GCs. Nucleosomes may function as the basic extension/progression unit of de novo methylation of p16 CpG islands in vivo.

  8. Assessment of clusters of transcription factor binding sites in relationship to human promoter, CpG islands and gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaki Yoshiyuki

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated mainly by transcription factors (TFs that interact with regulatory cis-elements on DNA sequences. To identify functional regulatory elements, computer searching can predict TF binding sites (TFBS using position weight matrices (PWMs that represent positional base frequencies of collected experimentally determined TFBS. A disadvantage of this approach is the large output of results for genomic DNA. One strategy to identify genuine TFBS is to utilize local concentrations of predicted TFBS. It is unclear whether there is a general tendency for TFBS to cluster at promoter regions, although this is the case for certain TFBS. Also unclear is the identification of TFs that have TFBS concentrated in promoters and to what level this occurs. This study hopes to answer some of these questions. Results We developed the cluster score measure to evaluate the correlation between predicted TFBS clusters and promoter sequences for each PWM. Non-promoter sequences were used as a control. Using the cluster score, we identified a PWM group called PWM-PCP, in which TFBS clusters positively correlate with promoters, and another PWM group called PWM-NCP, in which TFBS clusters negatively correlate with promoters. The PWM-PCP group comprises 47% of the 199 vertebrate PWMs, while the PWM-NCP group occupied 11 percent. After reducing the effect of CpG islands (CGI against the clusters using partial correlation coefficients among three properties (promoter, CGI and predicted TFBS cluster, we identified two PWM groups including those strongly correlated with CGI and those not correlated with CGI. Conclusion Not all PWMs predict TFBS correlated with human promoter sequences. Two main PWM groups were identified: (1 those that show TFBS clustered in promoters associated with CGI, and (2 those that show TFBS clustered in promoters independent of CGI. Assessment of PWM matches will allow more positive interpretation of TFBS in

  9. IGFBP3 Promoter Methylation in Colorectal Cancer: Relationship with Microsatellite Instability, CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Kawasaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, which is induced by wild-type p53, regulates IGF and interacts with the TGF-β pathway. IGFBP3 promoter methylation may occur in colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, which is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and TGFBR2 mutation. We examined the relationship between IGFBP3 methylation, p53 expression, CIMP and MSI in 902 population-based colorectal cancers. Utilizing real-time PCR (MethyLight, we quantified promoter methylation in IGFBP3 and eight other CIMP-high-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1. IGFBP3 methylation was far more frequent in non-MSI-high CIMP-high tumors (85% = 35/41 than in MSI-high CIMPhigh (49% = 44/90, P < .0001, MSI-high non-CIMP-high (17% = 6/36, P < .0001, non-MSI-high non-CIMP-high tumors (22% = 152/680, P < .0001. Among CIMPhigh tumors, the inverse relationship between MSI and IGFBP3 methylation persisted in p53-negative tumors (P < .0001, but not in p53-positive tumors. IGFBP3 methylation was associated inversely with TGFBR2 mutation in MSI-high non-CIMP-high tumors (P = .02. In conclusion, IGFBP3 methylation is inversely associated with MSI in CIMP-high colorectal cancers, this relationship is limited to p53-negative tumors. Our data suggest complex relationship between global genomic/epigenomic phenomena (such as MSI/ CIMP, single molecular events (e.g., IGFBP3 methylation, TP53 mutation, TGFBR2 mutation, the related pathways.

  10. Body size, physical activity and risk of colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A E Hughes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in colorectal cancer (CRC. METHODS: In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852, risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603 cases and 4,631 sub-cohort members were available. CIMP status according to the Weisenberger markers was determined using methylation specific PCR on DNA from paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Hazard rate ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals for CIMP (27.7% and non-CIMP (72.3% tumors were calculated according to BMI, BMI at age 20, BMI change, trouser/skirt size, height, and physical activity. RESULTS: BMI modeled per 5 kg/m(2 increase was associated with both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors, however, HRs were attenuated when additionally adjusted for trouser/skirt size. Trouser/skirt size, per 2 size increase, was associated with both tumor subtypes, even after adjustment for BMI (CIMP HR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43; non-CIMP HR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.28. Height per 5 cm was associated with both tumor sub-types, but HRs were attenuated when adjusted for body weight. BMI at age 20 was positively associated with increased risk of CIMP tumors and the association was significantly less pronounced for non-CIMP tumors (P-heterogeneity = 0.01. Physical activity was inversely associated with both subtypes, but a dose-response association was observed only for non-CIMP tumors (P-trend = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Body size, especially central adiposity, may increase the risk of both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors. Body fat at young age may differentially influence risk. Physical activity appears to decrease the risk of CRC regardless of these molecular subtypes.

  11. Body size, physical activity and risk of colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laura A E; Simons, Colinda C J M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Goeij, Anton F; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2011-04-05

    We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603 cases and 4,631 sub-cohort members were available. CIMP status according to the Weisenberger markers was determined using methylation specific PCR on DNA from paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for CIMP (27.7%) and non-CIMP (72.3%) tumors were calculated according to BMI, BMI at age 20, BMI change, trouser/skirt size, height, and physical activity. BMI modeled per 5 kg/m(2) increase was associated with both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors, however, HRs were attenuated when additionally adjusted for trouser/skirt size. Trouser/skirt size, per 2 size increase, was associated with both tumor subtypes, even after adjustment for BMI (CIMP HR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43; non-CIMP HR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.28). Height per 5 cm was associated with both tumor sub-types, but HRs were attenuated when adjusted for body weight. BMI at age 20 was positively associated with increased risk of CIMP tumors and the association was significantly less pronounced for non-CIMP tumors (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Physical activity was inversely associated with both subtypes, but a dose-response association was observed only for non-CIMP tumors (P-trend = 0.02). Body size, especially central adiposity, may increase the risk of both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors. Body fat at young age may differentially influence risk. Physical activity appears to decrease the risk of CRC regardless of these molecular subtypes.

  12. Correlation of pathologic features with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) by quantitative DNA methylation analysis in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Odze, Robert D; Kawasaki, Takako; Brahmandam, Mohan; Kirkner, Gregory J; Laird, Peter W; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2006-09-01

    Extensive gene promoter methylation in colorectal carcinoma has been termed the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Previous studies on CIMP used primarily methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which, unfortunately, may detect low levels of methylation that has little or no biological significance. Utilizing quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), we measured DNA methylation in a panel of 5 CIMP-specific gene promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1) in 459 colorectal carcinomas obtained from 2 large prospective cohort studies. CIMP was defined as tumors that showed methylation in >or=4/5 promoters. CIMP was significantly associated with the presence of mucinous or signet ring cell morphology, marked Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, marked peritumoral lymphocytic reaction, tumor necrosis, tumor cell sheeting, and poor differentiation. All these features have previously been associated with microsatellite instability (MSI). Therefore, we divided the 459 colorectal carcinomas into 6 subtypes, namely, MSI-high (MSI-H)/CIMP, MSI-H/non-CIMP, MSI-low (MSI-L)/CIMP, MSI-L/non-CIMP, microsatellite stable/CIMP, and micro satellite sstable/non-CIMP. Compared with MSI-H/non-CIMP, MSI-H/CIMP was associated with marked tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor necrosis, sheeting, and poor differentiation (all PCIMP, MSI-L/CIMP was associated with tumors that had CIMP. Both MSI and CIMP appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of specific morphologic patterns of colorectal carcinoma.

  13. A CpG island methylator phenotype of colorectal cancer that is contiguous with conventional adenomas, but not serrated polyps.

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    Hokazono, Koji; Ueki, Takashi; Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Nishioka, Yasunobu; Hatae, Tatsunobu; Koga, Yutaka; Hirahashi, Minako; Oda, Yoshinao; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-11-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), with concurrent multiple promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes. A serrated pathway in which CIMP is developed from serrated polyps is proposed. The present study characterized CIMP and morphologically examined precursor lesions of CIMP. In total, 104 CRCs treated between January 1996 and December 2004 were examined. Aberrant promoter methylation of 15 cancer-related genes was analyzed. CIMP status was classified according to the number of methylated genes and was correlated with the clinicopathological features, including the concomitant polyps in and around the tumors. The frequency of aberrant methylation in each CRC showed a bimodal pattern, and the CRCs were classified as CIMP-high (CIMP-H), CIMP-low (CIMP-L) and CIMP-negative (CIMP-N). CIMP-H was associated with aberrant methylation of MLH1 (P=0.005) and with an improved recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate following curative resection compared with CIMP-L/N (five-year RFS rate, 93.8 vs. 67.1%; P=0.044), while CIMP-N tumors were associated with frequent distant metastases at diagnosis (P=0.023). No concomitant serrated lesions were present in the tumors, whereas conventional adenoma was contiguous with 11 (10.6%) of 104 CRCs, including four CIMP-H CRCs. CIMP-H was classified in CRCs by a novel CIMP marker panel and the presence of concomitant tumors revealed that certain CIMP-H CRCs may have arisen from conventional adenomas.

  14. Alterations of the spindle checkpoint pathway in clinicopathologically aggressive CpG island methylator phenotype clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Tian, Ying; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Ono, Masaya; Matsuda, Akio; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Chiku, Suenori; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kanai, Yae

    2015-12-01

    CpG-island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-positive clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are characterized by accumulation of DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands, clinicopathological aggressiveness and poor patient outcome. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular pathways participating in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis. Genome (whole-exome and copy number), transcriptome and proteome (two-dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) analyses were performed using tissue specimens of 87 CIMP-negative and 14 CIMP-positive clear cell RCCs and corresponding specimens of non-cancerous renal cortex. Genes encoding microtubule-associated proteins, such as DNAH2, DNAH5, DNAH10, RP1 and HAUS8, showed a 10% or higher incidence of genetic aberrations (non-synonymous single-nucleotide mutations and insertions/deletions) in CIMP-positive RCCs, whereas CIMP-negative RCCs lacked distinct genetic characteristics. MetaCore pathway analysis of CIMP-positive RCCs revealed that alterations of mRNA or protein expression were significantly accumulated in six pathways, all participating in the spindle checkpoint, including the "The metaphase checkpoint (p = 1.427 × 10(-6))," "Role of Anaphase Promoting Complex in cell cycle regulation (p = 7.444 × 10(-6))" and "Spindle assembly and chromosome separation (p = 9.260 × 10(-6))" pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression levels for genes included in such pathways, i.e., AURKA, AURKB, BIRC5, BUB1, CDC20, NEK2 and SPC25, were significantly higher in CIMP-positive than in CIMP-negative RCCs. All CIMP-positive RCCs showed overexpression of Aurora kinases, AURKA and AURKB, and this overexpression was mainly attributable to increased copy number. These data suggest that abnormalities of the spindle checkpoint pathway participate in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis, and that AURKA and AURKB may be potential therapeutic targets in more aggressive CIMP-positive RCCs.

  15. Are clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers with methylation in half of CpG island methylator phenotype panel markers different from those of CpG island methylator phenotype-high colorectal cancers?

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    Bae, Jeong Mo; Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Kyung Ju; Wen, Xianyu; Song, Young Seok; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high (CIMP-H) colorectal cancer (CRC) is defined when a tumor shows methylation at greater than or equal to 60% of CIMP panel markers. Although CRCs with methylation at 50% of panel markers are classified as CIMP-low/CIMP-0 tumors, little is known regarding the clinicopathological and molecular features of CRCs with methylation at 4/8 panel markers (4/8 methylated markers) and whether they are akin to CIMP-H or CIMP-low/CIMP-0 CRCs in terms of their clinicopathological or molecular features. A total of 1164 cases of surgically resected CRC were analyzed for their methylation status in 8 CIMP panel markers, and the frequencies of various clinicopathological and molecular features were compared between CRCs with 0/8, 1/8 to 3/8, 4/8, and 5/8 to 8/8 methylated markers. CRCs with 4/8 methylated markers were closer to CRCs with 5/8 to 8/8 methylated markers in terms of sex distribution, mucin production, serration, nodal metastasis, CK7 expression, CK20 loss, and CDX2 loss frequencies and overall survival rate. CRCs with methylation at 4/8 markers were closer to CRCs with 1/8 to 3/8 methylated markers in terms of less frequent right colon location and poor differentiation. CRCs with 4/8 methylated markers showed the shortest overall survival time compared with CRCs with 0/8, 1/8 to 3/8, 4/8, or 5/8 to 8/8 methylated markers. In terms of clinicopathological and molecular features, CRCs with 4/8 methylated markers appeared to be closer to CIMP-H than to CIMP-low/CIMP-0 and would thus be better classified as CIMP-H if the CRCs require classification into either CIMP-H or CIMP-low/CIMP-0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Up-regulation of expression and lack of 5' CpG island hypermethylation of p16 INK4a in HPV-positive cervical carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, Tatiana A; Golovina, Daria A; Zavalishina, Larisa E; Volgareva, Galina M; Katargin, Alexey N; Andreeva, Yulia Y; Frank, Georgy A; Kisseljov, Fjodor L; Kisseljova, Natalia P

    2007-01-01

    High risk type human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV) induce carcinomas of the uterine cervix by expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7. Oncogene E7 of HR-HPV disrupts the pRb/E2F interaction, which negatively regulates the S phase entry. Expression of tumor suppressor p16 ink4a drastically increases in majority of HR-HPV associated carcinomas due to removal of pRb repression. The p16 ink4a overexpression is an indicator of an aberrant expression of viral oncogenes and may serve as a marker for early diagnostic of cervical cancer. On the other hand, in 25–57% of cervical carcinomas hypermethylation of the p16 INK4a promoter has been demonstrated using a methylation-specific PCR, MSP. To evaluate a potential usage of the p16 INK4a 5' CpG island hypermethylation as an indicator of tumor cell along with p16 ink4a overexpression, we analyzed the methylation status of p16 INK4a in cervical carcinomas Methylation status of p16 INK4a was analyzed by MSP and by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing. The expression of p16 ink4a was analyzed by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemical technique. The extensive methylation within p16 INK4a 5' CpG island was not detected either in 13 primary cervical carcinomas or in 5 cancer cell lines by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing (including those that were positive by MSP in our hands). The number and distribution of rare partially methylated CpG sites did not differ considerably in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The levels of the p16 INK4a mRNA were increased in carcinomas compared to the normal tissues independently of the number of partially methylated CpGs within 5'CpG island. The transcriptional activation of p16 INK4a was accompanied by p16 ink4a cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the majority of tumor cells and presence of a varied number of the p16 positive nuclei in different tumors. Hypermethylaion of the p16INK4a 5' CpG island is not a frequent event in HR-HPV-positive cervical carcinomas and cannot be an effective

  17. Prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype among colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juo, Y Y; Johnston, F M; Zhang, D Y; Juo, H H; Wang, H; Pappou, E P; Yu, T; Easwaran, H; Baylin, S; van Engeland, M; Ahuja, N

    2014-12-01

    Divergent findings regarding the prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients exist in current literature. We aim to review data from published studies in order to examine the association between CIMP and CRC prognosis. A comprehensive search for studies reporting disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), or cancer-specific mortality of CRC patients stratified by CIMP is carried out. Study findings are summarized descriptively and quantitatively, using adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) as summary statistics. Thirty-three studies reporting survival in 10 635 patients are included for review. Nineteen studies provide data suitable for meta-analysis. The definition of CIMP regarding gene panel, marker threshold, and laboratory method varies across studies. Pooled analysis shows that CIMP is significantly associated with shorter DFS (pooled HR estimate 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.97, Q = 3.95, I(2) = 0%) and OS (pooled HR estimate 1.43; 95% CI 1.18-1.73, Q = 4.03, I(2) = 0%) among CRC patients irrespective of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Subgroup analysis of microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC patients also shows significant association between shorter OS (pooled HR estimate 1.37; 95% CI 1.12-1.68, Q = 4.45, I(2) = 33%) and CIMP. Seven studies have explored CIMP's value as a predictive factor on stage II and III CRC patient's DFS after receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy: of these, four studies showed that adjuvant chemotherapy conferred a DFS benefit among CIMP(+) patients, one concluded to the contrary, and two found no significant correlation. Insufficient data was present for statistical synthesis of CIMP's predictive value among CRC patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU therapy. CIMP is independently associated with significantly worse prognosis in CRC patients. However, CIMP's value as a predictive factor in assessing whether adjuvant 5-FU therapy will confer additional survival

  18. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-05-15

    To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival ( P CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation ( P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced "T" stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or systemic recurrence. We report a novel

  19. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS). In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically silenced gene is associated with the long term reversion of

  20. Clinical Significance of MLH1 Methylation and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Mori, Yoshiko; Yokomichi, Naosuke; Kawai, Takashi; Fuji, Tomokazu; Kimura, Keisuke; Umeda, Yuzo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Goel, Ajay; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the outcome of patients suffering from gastric cancer, a better understanding of underlying genetic and epigenetic events in this malignancy is required. Although CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and microsatellite instability (MSI) have been shown to play pivotal roles in gastric cancer pathogenesis, the clinical significance of these events on survival outcomes in patients with gastric cancer remains unknown. Methods This study included a patient cohort with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer who had surgical resections. A cohort of 68 gastric cancers was analyzed. CIMP and MSI statuses were determined by analyzing promoter CpG island methylation status of 28 genes/loci, and genomic instability at 10 microsatellite markers, respectively. A Cox’s proportional hazards model was performed for multivariate analysis including age, stage, tumor differentiation, KRAS mutation status, and combined CIMP/MLH1 methylation status in relation to overall survival (OS). Results By multivariate analysis, longer OS was significantly correlated with lower pathologic stage (P = 0.0088), better tumor differentiation (P = 0.0267) and CIMP-high and MLH1 3' methylated status (P = 0.0312). Stratification of CIMP status with regards to MLH1 methylation status further enabled prediction of gastric cancer prognosis. Conclusions CIMP and/or MLH1 methylation status may have a potential to be prognostic biomarkers for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26121593

  1. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype-High Colorectal Cancers and Their Prognostic Implications and Relationships with the Serrated Neoplasia Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2017-01-15

    The concept of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first introduced by Toyota and Issa to describe a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) with concurrent hypermethylation of multiple CpG island loci. The concept of CIMP as a molecular carcinogenesis mechanism was consolidated by the identification of the serrated neoplasia pathway, in which CIMP participates in the initiation and progression of serrated adenomas. Distinct clinicopathological and molecular features of CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRCs have been characterized, including proximal colon location, older age of onset, female preponderance, and frequent associations of high-level microsatellite instability and BRAF mutations. CIMP-H CRCs arise in sessile or traditional serrated adenomas and thus tend to display the morphological characteristics of serrated adenomas, including epithelial serration, vesicular nuclei, and abundant cytoplasm. Both the frequent association of CIMP and poor prognosis and different responses of CRCs to adjuvant therapy depending on CIMP status indicate clinical implications. In this review, we present an overview of the literature documenting the relevant findings of CIMP-H CRCs and their relationships with the serrated neoplasia pathway.

  2. Clinical Significance of MLH1 Methylation and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunitoshi Shigeyasu

    Full Text Available To improve the outcome of patients suffering from gastric cancer, a better understanding of underlying genetic and epigenetic events in this malignancy is required. Although CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI have been shown to play pivotal roles in gastric cancer pathogenesis, the clinical significance of these events on survival outcomes in patients with gastric cancer remains unknown.This study included a patient cohort with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer who had surgical resections. A cohort of 68 gastric cancers was analyzed. CIMP and MSI statuses were determined by analyzing promoter CpG island methylation status of 28 genes/loci, and genomic instability at 10 microsatellite markers, respectively. A Cox's proportional hazards model was performed for multivariate analysis including age, stage, tumor differentiation, KRAS mutation status, and combined CIMP/MLH1 methylation status in relation to overall survival (OS.By multivariate analysis, longer OS was significantly correlated with lower pathologic stage (P = 0.0088, better tumor differentiation (P = 0.0267 and CIMP-high and MLH1 3' methylated status (P = 0.0312. Stratification of CIMP status with regards to MLH1 methylation status further enabled prediction of gastric cancer prognosis.CIMP and/or MLH1 methylation status may have a potential to be prognostic biomarkers for patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Up-regulation of expression and lack of 5' CpG island hypermethylation of p16 INK4a in HPV-positive cervical carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Georgy A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High risk type human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV induce carcinomas of the uterine cervix by expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7. Oncogene E7 of HR-HPV disrupts the pRb/E2F interaction, which negatively regulates the S phase entry. Expression of tumor suppressor p16ink4a drastically increases in majority of HR-HPV associated carcinomas due to removal of pRb repression. The p16ink4a overexpression is an indicator of an aberrant expression of viral oncogenes and may serve as a marker for early diagnostic of cervical cancer. On the other hand, in 25–57% of cervical carcinomas hypermethylation of the p16 INK4a promoter has been demonstrated using a methylation-specific PCR, MSP. To evaluate a potential usage of the p16 INK4a 5' CpG island hypermethylation as an indicator of tumor cell along with p16ink4a overexpression, we analyzed the methylation status of p16 INK4a in cervical carcinomas Methods Methylation status of p16 INK4a was analyzed by MSP and by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing. The expression of p16ink4a was analyzed by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemical technique. Results The extensive methylation within p16 INK4a 5' CpG island was not detected either in 13 primary cervical carcinomas or in 5 cancer cell lines by bisulfite-modified DNA sequencing (including those that were positive by MSP in our hands. The number and distribution of rare partially methylated CpG sites did not differ considerably in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The levels of the p16 INK4a mRNA were increased in carcinomas compared to the normal tissues independently of the number of partially methylated CpGs within 5'CpG island. The transcriptional activation of p16 INK4a was accompanied by p16ink4a cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the majority of tumor cells and presence of a varied number of the p16 positive nuclei in different tumors. Conclusion Hypermethylaion of the p16INK4a 5' CpG island is not a frequent event in HR-HPV-positive cervical

  4. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amitava; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh K; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC) acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE) and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  5. The CpG island encompassing the promoter and first exon of human DNMT3L gene is a PcG/TrX response element (PRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Basu

    Full Text Available DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis.

  6. B vitamins, methionine and alcohol intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to BRAF mutation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Giovannucci, Edward; Baba, Yoshifumi; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism appears to play an important role in DNA methylation reaction. Evidence suggests that a low intake of B vitamins or high alcohol consumption increases colorectal cancer risk. How one-carbon nutrients affect the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) or BRAF mutation status in colon cancer remains uncertain. Utilizing incident colon cancers in a large prospective cohort of women (the Nurses' Health Study), we determined BRAF status (N = 386) and CIMP status (N = 375) by 8 CIMP-specific markers [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and 8 other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT-1, MINT-31, p14, and WRN). We examined the relationship between intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol and colon cancer risk, by BRAF mutation or CIMP status. Higher folate intake was associated with a trend towards low risk of CIMP-low/0 tumors [total folate intake ≥400 µg/day vs. CIMP-high tumor risks (P(heterogeneity) = 0.73). Neither vitamin B(6), methionine or alcohol intake appeared to differentially influence risks for CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 tumors. Using the 16-marker CIMP panel did not substantially alter our results. B vitamins, methionine or alcohol intake did not affect colon cancer risk differentially by BRAF status. This molecular pathological epidemiology study suggests that low level intake of folate may be associated with an increased risk of CIMP-low/0 colon tumors, but not that of CIMP-high tumors. However, the difference between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 cancer risks was not statistically significant, and additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism: associations with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer and the modifying effects of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bigler, Jeannette; Levin, Theodore R; Wolff, Roger K; Albertsen, Hans; Potter, John D; Samowitz, Wade S

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated associations between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) colon cancer and genetic polymorphisms relevant to one-carbon metabolism and thus, potentially the provision of methyl groups and risk of colon cancer. Data from a large, population-based case-control study (916 incident colon cancer cases and 1,972 matched controls) were used. Candidate polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS), transcobalamin II (TCNII), methionine synthase (MTR), reduced folate carrier (RFC), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) were evaluated. CIMP- or CIMP+ phenotype was based on five CpG island markers: MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and MLH1. The influence of specific dietary factors (folate, methionine, vitamin B(12) and alcohol) on these associations was also analyzed. We hypothesized that polymorphisms involved in the provision of methyl groups would be associated with CIMP+ tumors (two or more of five markers methylated), potentially modified by diet. Few associations specific to CIMP+ tumors were observed overall, which does not support the hypothesis that the provision of methyl groups is important in defining a methylator phenotype. However, our data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in MTHFR 1,298A > C, interacting with diet, may be involved in the development of highly CpG-methylated colon cancers. AC and CC genotypes in conjunction with a high-risk dietary pattern (low folate and methionine intake and high alcohol use) were associated with CIMP+ (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 versus AA/high risk; P-interaction = 0.03). These results provide only limited support for a role of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of CIMP colon cancer.

  8. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Lee, Won Hyeok; Min, Young Joo; Cha, Hee Jeong; Han, Myung Woul; Chang, Hyo Won; Kim, Sun-A; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation

  9. Comparison of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP frequency in colon cancer using different probe- and gene-specific scoring alternatives on recommended multi-gene panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. RESULTS: For 47 samples (71%, the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20% consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13% investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using 'the most stringent' as compared to 'the least stringent' criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; p<0.005 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: A statistical significant variation in the frequency of CIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition

  10. CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) in oral cancer: associated with a marked inflammatory response and less aggressive tumour biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard J; Hall, Gillian L; Lowe, Derek; Bowers, Naomi L; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K; Woolgar, Julia A; Risk, Janet M

    2007-10-01

    Studies in several tumour sites highlight the significance of the CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP), with distinct features of histology, biological aggression and outcome. We utilise pyrosequencing techniques of quantitative methylation analysis to investigate the presence of CIMP in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for the first time, and evaluate its correlation with allelic imbalance, pathology and clinical behaviour. Tumour tissue, control tissue and PBLs were obtained from 74 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse methylation patterns in 75-200 bp regions of the CpG rich gene promoters of 10 genes with a broad range of cellular functions. Allelic imbalance was investigated using a multiplexed panel of 11 microsatellite markers. Corresponding variables, histopathological staging and grading were correlated with these genetic and epigenetic aberrations. A cluster of tumours with a greater degree of promoter methylation than would be predicted by chance alone (P=0.001) were designated CIMP+ve. This group had less aggressive tumour biology in terms of tumour thickness (p=0.015) and nodal metastasis (P=0.012), this being apparently independent of tumour diameter. Further, it seems that these CIMP+ve tumours excited a greater host inflammatory response (P=0.019). The exact mechanisms underlying CIMP remain obscure but the association with a greater inflammatory host response supports existing theories relating these features in other tumour sites. As CIMP has significant associations with other well documented prognostic indicators, it may prove beneficial to include methylation analyses in molecular risk modelling of tumours.

  11. Comparison of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) frequency in colon cancer using different probe- and gene-specific scoring alternatives on recommended multi-gene panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marianne; Hagland, Hanne R; Søreide, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA), with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G) were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. For 47 samples (71%), the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20%) consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13%) investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using 'the most stringent' as compared to 'the least stringent' criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; pCIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition used.

  12. [Tissue-specific nucleoprotein complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadnova, I Iu; Shataeva, L K; Khavinson, V Kh

    2000-01-01

    A method of isolation of native nucleorprotein complexes from cattle cerebral cortex, thymus, and liver was developed. Compositions of these complexes were studied by means of gel-chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. These preparations were shown to consist of several fractions of proteins and their complexes differ by molecular mass and electro-chemical properties. Native nucleoprotein complexes revealed high tissue specific activity, which was not species-specific.

  13. B vitamins, methionine and alcohol intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to BRAF mutation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP.

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    Eva S Schernhammer

    Full Text Available One-carbon metabolism appears to play an important role in DNA methylation reaction. Evidence suggests that a low intake of B vitamins or high alcohol consumption increases colorectal cancer risk. How one-carbon nutrients affect the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or BRAF mutation status in colon cancer remains uncertain.Utilizing incident colon cancers in a large prospective cohort of women (the Nurses' Health Study, we determined BRAF status (N = 386 and CIMP status (N = 375 by 8 CIMP-specific markers [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and 8 other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT-1, MINT-31, p14, and WRN. We examined the relationship between intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol and colon cancer risk, by BRAF mutation or CIMP status.Higher folate intake was associated with a trend towards low risk of CIMP-low/0 tumors [total folate intake ≥400 µg/day vs. <200 µg/day; the multivariate relative risk = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53-1.02], whereas total folate intake had no influence on CIMP-high tumor risks (P(heterogeneity = 0.73. Neither vitamin B(6, methionine or alcohol intake appeared to differentially influence risks for CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 tumors. Using the 16-marker CIMP panel did not substantially alter our results. B vitamins, methionine or alcohol intake did not affect colon cancer risk differentially by BRAF status.This molecular pathological epidemiology study suggests that low level intake of folate may be associated with an increased risk of CIMP-low/0 colon tumors, but not that of CIMP-high tumors. However, the difference between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 cancer risks was not statistically significant, and additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations.

  14. Phase II study of nab-paclitaxel in refractory small bowel adenocarcinoma and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, M J; Adam, L; Raghav, K; Wang, J; Kee, B; Fogelman, D; Eng, C; Vilar, E; Shroff, R; Dasari, A; Wolff, R; Morris, J; Karunasena, E; Pisanic, R; Azad, N; Kopetz, S

    2018-01-01

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)] represents a unique pathway for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by lack of chromosomal instability and a low rate of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which have both been correlated with taxane resistance. Similarly, small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare tumor, also has a low rate of APC mutations. This phase II study evaluated taxane sensitivity in SBA and CIMP-high CRC. The primary objective was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 response rate. Eligibility included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1, refractory disease, and SBA or CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel was initially administered at a dose of 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks but was reduced to 220 mg/m2 owing to toxicity. A total of 21 patients with CIMP-high CRC and 13 with SBA were enrolled from November 2012 to October 2014. The efficacy-assessable population (patients who received at least three doses of the treatment) comprised 15 CIMP-high CRC patients and 10 SBA patients. Common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were fatigue (12%), neutropenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (9%), dehydration (6%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). No responses were seen in the CIMP-high CRC cohort and two partial responses were seen in the SBA cohort. Median progression-free survival was significantly greater in the SBA cohort than in the CIMP-high CRC cohort (3.2 months compared with 2.1 months, P = 0.03). Neither APC mutation status nor CHFR methylation status correlated with efficacy in the CIMP-high CRC cohort. In vivo testing of paclitaxel in an SBA patient-derived xenograft validated the activity of taxanes in this disease type. Although preclinical studies suggested taxane sensitivity was associated with chromosomal stability and wild-type APC, we found that nab-paclitaxel was inactive in CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel may represent a novel

  15. Cloning of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene: Identification of cDNAs associated with CpG islands mapped near translocation breakpoint in two female patients

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    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The gene for the X chromosomal developmental disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) has been mapped to Xq12-q13 by linkage analysis and is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving band Xq12-q13. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig (2.0 Mb) spanning two translocation breakpoints has been assembled by sequence-tagged site (STS)-based chromosomal walking. The two translocation breakpoints (X:autosome translocations from the affected female patients) have been mapped less than 60 kb apart within a YAC contig. Unique probes and intragenic STSs (mapped between the two translocations) have been developed and a somatic cell hybrid carrying the translocated X chromosome from the AK patient has been analyzed by isolating unique probes that span the breakpoint. Several STSs made from intragenic sequences have been found to be conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, but we have detected no mRNAs in a number of tissues tested. However, a probe and STS developed from the DNA spanning the AK breakpoint is conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, and we have detected expressed sequences in skin cells and cDNA libraries. In addition, unique sequences have been obtained from two CpG islands in the region that maps proximal to the breakpoints. cDNAs containing these sequences are being studied as candidates for the gene affected in the etiology of EDA.

  16. Tumors with unmethylated MLH1 and the CpG island methylator phenotype are associated with a poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kai; Wan, Weiwei; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Kerner, Zachary; Baylin, Stephen B; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-12-27

    We previously developed a novel tumor subtype classification model for duodenal adenocarcinomas based on a combination of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and MLH1 methylation status. Here, we tested the prognostic value of this model in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Tumors were assigned to CIMP+/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U), CIMP+/MLH1-methylated (MLH1-M), CIMP-/MLH1-U, or CIMP-/MLH1-M groups. Age, tumor location, lymphovascular invasion, and mucin production differed among the four patient subgroups, and CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors were more likely to have lymphovascular invasion and mucin production. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed differences in both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among the four groups. In a multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status was predictive of both DFS and OS, and DFS and OS were shortest in CIMP+/MLH1-U stage II CRC patients. These results suggest that tumor subtype classification based on the combination of CIMP and MLH1 methylation status is informative in stage II CRC patients, and that CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors exhibit aggressive features and are associated with poor clinical outcomes.

  17. Evaluation of markers for CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer by a large population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Kraft, Peter; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-07-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with extensive promoter methylation is a distinct phenotype in colorectal cancer. However, a choice of markers for CIMP has been controversial. A recent extensive investigation has selected five methylation markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1) as surrogate markers for epigenomic aberrations in tumor. The use of these markers as a CIMP-specific panel needs to be validated by an independent, large dataset. Using MethyLight assays on 920 colorectal cancers from two large prospective cohort studies, we quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific markers [the above five plus CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, and MLH1]. A CIMP-high cutoff was set at > or = 6/8 or > or = 5/8 methylated promoters, based on tumor distribution and BRAF/KRAS mutation frequencies. All but two very specific markers [MLH1 (98% specific) and SOCS1 (93% specific)] demonstrated > or = 85% sensitivity and > or = 80% specificity, indicating overall good concordance in methylation patterns and good performance of these markers. Based on sensitivity, specificity, and false positives and negatives, the eight markers were ranked in order as: RUNX3, CACNA1G, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, CRABP1, SOCS1, and CDKN2A. In conclusion, a panel of markers including at least RUNX3, CACNA1G, IGF2, and MLH1 can serve as a sensitive and specific marker panel for CIMP-high.

  18. Predictive value of CpG island methylator phenotype for tumor recurrence in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shu-Sen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, in which multiple genes concordantly methylated, has been demonstrated to be associated with progression, recurrence, as well as overall survival in some types of cancer. Methods We examined the promoter methylation status of seven genes including P16, CDH1, GSTP1, DAPK, XAF1, SOCS1 and SYK in 65 cases of HCC treated with LT by methylation-specific PCR. CIMP+ was defined as having three or more genes that are concordantly methylated. The relationship between CIMP status and clinicopathological parameters, as well as tumor recurrence was further analyzed. Results CIMP+ was more frequent in HCC with AFP > 400 ng/ml than those with AFP ≤ 400 ng/ml (P = 0.017. In addition, patients with CIMP+ were prone to have multiple tumor numbers than those with CIMP- (P = 0.007. Patients with CIMP+ tumors had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS than patients with CIMP-tumors by Kaplan-Meier estimates (P = 0.004. Multivariate analysis also revealed that CIMP status might be a novel independent prognostic factor of RFS for HCC patients treated with LT (HR: 3.581; 95% CI: 1.473-8.710, P = 0.005. Conclusion Our results suggested that CIMP could serve as a new prognostic biomarker to predict the risk of tumor recurrence in HCC after transplantation.

  19. Predictive value of CpG island methylator phenotype for tumor recurrence in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Ming; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Zhe; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), in which multiple genes concordantly methylated, has been demonstrated to be associated with progression, recurrence, as well as overall survival in some types of cancer. We examined the promoter methylation status of seven genes including P16, CDH1, GSTP1, DAPK, XAF1, SOCS1 and SYK in 65 cases of HCC treated with LT by methylation-specific PCR. CIMP+ was defined as having three or more genes that are concordantly methylated. The relationship between CIMP status and clinicopathological parameters, as well as tumor recurrence was further analyzed. CIMP+ was more frequent in HCC with AFP > 400 ng/ml than those with AFP ≤ 400 ng/ml (P = 0.017). In addition, patients with CIMP+ were prone to have multiple tumor numbers than those with CIMP- (P = 0.007). Patients with CIMP+ tumors had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) than patients with CIMP-tumors by Kaplan-Meier estimates (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis also revealed that CIMP status might be a novel independent prognostic factor of RFS for HCC patients treated with LT (HR: 3.581; 95% CI: 1.473-8.710, P = 0.005). Our results suggested that CIMP could serve as a new prognostic biomarker to predict the risk of tumor recurrence in HCC after transplantation

  20. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) in colorectal cancer: possible associations with male sex and KRAS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2006-11-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with extensive promoter methylation seems to be a distinct epigenotype of colorectal cancer. However, no study has comprehensively examined features of colorectal cancer with less extensive promoter methylation (designated as "CIMP-low"). Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight), we quantified DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1] in 840 relatively unbiased, population-based colorectal cancer samples, obtained from two large prospective cohort studies. CIMP-low (defined as 1/5 to 3/5 methylated promoters) colorectal cancers were significantly more common among men (38 versus 30% in women, P = 0.01) and among KRAS-mutated tumors (44 versus 30% in KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumors, P = 0.0003; 19% in BRAF-mutated tumors, P CIMP-low tumors (47%) than in CIMP-high tumors (with > or =4/5 methylated promoters, 12%, P CIMP-0 tumors (with 0/5 methylated promoters, 37%, P = 0.007). The associations of CIMP-low tumors with male sex and KRAS mutations still existed after tumors were stratified by microsatellite instability status. In conclusion, CIMP-low colorectal cancer is associated with male sex and KRAS mutations. The hypothesis that CIMP-low tumors are different from CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors needs to be tested further.

  1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 R132C mutation occurs exclusively in microsatellite stable colorectal cancers with the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehall, V L J; Dumenil, T D; McKeone, D M; Bond, C E; Bettington, M L; Buttenshaw, R L; Bowdler, L; Montgomery, G W; Wockner, L F; Leggett, B A

    2014-11-01

    The CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is fundamental to an important subset of colorectal cancer; however, its cause is unknown. CIMP is associated with microsatellite instability but is also found in BRAF mutant microsatellite stable cancers that are associated with poor prognosis. The isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene causes CIMP in glioma due to an activating mutation that produces the 2-hydroxyglutarate oncometabolite. We therefore examined IDH1 alteration as a potential cause of CIMP in colorectal cancer. The IDH1 mutational hotspot was screened in 86 CIMP-positive and 80 CIMP-negative cancers. The entire coding sequence was examined in 81 CIMP-positive colorectal cancers. Forty-seven cancers varying by CIMP-status and IDH1 mutation status were examined using Illumina 450K DNA methylation microarrays. The R132C IDH1 mutation was detected in 4/166 cancers. All IDH1 mutations were in CIMP cancers that were BRAF mutant and microsatellite stable (4/45, 8.9%). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis identified an IDH1 mutation-like methylation signature in approximately half of the CIMP-positive cancers. IDH1 mutation appears to cause CIMP in a small proportion of BRAF mutant, microsatellite stable colorectal cancers. This study provides a precedent that a single gene mutation may cause CIMP in colorectal cancer, and that this will be associated with a specific epigenetic signature and clinicopathological features.

  2. Simultaneous CXCL12 and ESR1 CpG island hypermethylation correlates with poor prognosis in sporadic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Edneia AS; Klassen, Giseli; Camargo, Anamaria A; Braun, Karin; Slowik, Renata; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Ribeiro, Enilze MSF; Pedrosa, Fábio de O; Souza, Emanuel M de; Costa, Fabrício F

    2010-01-01

    CXCL12 is a chemokine that is constitutively expressed in many organs and tissues. CXCL12 promoter hypermethylation has been detected in primary breast tumours and contributes to their metastatic potential. It has been shown that the oestrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene can also be silenced by DNA methylation. In this study, we used methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to analyse the methylation status in two regions of the CXCL12 promoter and ESR1 in tumour cell lines and in primary breast tumour samples, and correlated our results with clinicopathological data. First, we analysed CXCL12 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation for a specific region of CXCL12 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated CXCL12 and ESR1 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Finally, promoter hypermethylation of these genes was analysed using Fisher's exact test and correlated with clinicopathological data using the Chi square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis. CXCL12 promoter hypermethylation in the first region (island 2) and second region (island 4) was correlated with lack of expression of the gene in tumour cell lines. In the primary tumours, island 2 was hypermethylated in 14.5% of the samples and island 4 was hypermethylated in 54% of the samples. The ESR1 promoter was hypermethylated in 41% of breast tumour samples. In addition, the levels of ERα protein expression diminished with increased frequency of ESR1 methylation (p < 0.0001). This study also demonstrated that CXCL12 island 4 and ESR1 methylation occur simultaneously at a high frequency (p = 0.0220). This is the first study showing a simultaneous involvement of epigenetic regulation for both CXCL12 and ESR1 genes in Brazilian women. The methylation status of both genes was significantly correlated with histologically advanced

  3. Analysis of RET promoter CpG island methylation using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), pyrosequencing, and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM): impact on stage II colon cancer patient outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Jooste, Valérie; Tournier, Benjamin; Vervoort, Martijn; Ramaekers, Chantal; Chapusot, Caroline; Weijenberg, Matty P; van Engeland, Manon; Melotte, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Already since the 1990s, promoter CpG island methylation markers have been considered promising diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive cancer biomarkers. However, so far, only a limited number of DNA methylation markers have been introduced into clinical practice. One reason why the vast majority of methylation markers do not translate into clinical applications is lack of independent validation of methylation markers, often caused by differences in methylation analysis techniques. We recently described RET promoter CpG island methylation as a potential prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients of two independent series. In the current study, we analyzed the RET promoter CpG island methylation of 241 stage II colon cancer patients by direct methylation-specific PCR (MSP), nested-MSP, pyrosequencing, and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). All primers were designed as close as possible to the same genomic region. In order to investigate the effect of different DNA methylation assays on patient outcome, we assessed the clinical sensitivity and specificity as well as the association of RET methylation with overall survival for three and five years of follow-up. Using direct-MSP and nested-MSP, 12.0 % (25/209) and 29.6 % (71/240) of the patients showed RET promoter CpG island methylation. Methylation frequencies detected by pyrosequencing were related to the threshold for positivity that defined RET methylation. Methylation frequencies obtained by pyrosequencing (threshold for positivity at 20 %) and MS-HRM were 13.3 % (32/240) and 13.8 % (33/239), respectively. The pyrosequencing threshold for positivity of 20 % showed the best correlation with MS-HRM and direct-MSP results. Nested-MSP detected RET promoter CpG island methylation in deceased patients with a higher sensitivity (33.1 %) compared to direct-MSP (10.7 %), pyrosequencing (14.4 %), and MS-HRM (15.4 %). While RET methylation frequencies detected by nested

  4. A downstream CpG island controls transcript initiation and elongation and the methylation state of the imprinted Airn macro ncRNA promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V Koerner

    Full Text Available A CpG island (CGI lies at the 5' end of the Airn macro non-protein-coding (nc RNA that represses the flanking Igf2r promoter in cis on paternally inherited chromosomes. In addition to being modified on maternally inherited chromosomes by a DNA methylation imprint, the Airn CGI shows two unusual organization features: its position immediately downstream of the Airn promoter and transcription start site and a series of tandem direct repeats (TDRs occupying its second half. The physical separation of the Airn promoter from the CGI provides a model to investigate if the CGI plays distinct transcriptional and epigenetic roles. We used homologous recombination to generate embryonic stem cells carrying deletions at the endogenous locus of the entire CGI or just the TDRs. The deleted Airn alleles were analyzed by using an ES cell imprinting model that recapitulates the onset of Igf2r imprinted expression in embryonic development or by using knock-out mice. The results show that the CGI is required for efficient Airn initiation and to maintain the unmethylated state of the Airn promoter, which are both necessary for Igf2r repression on the paternal chromosome. The TDRs occupying the second half of the CGI play a minor role in Airn transcriptional elongation or processivity, but are essential for methylation on the maternal Airn promoter that is necessary for Igf2r to be expressed from this chromosome. Together the data indicate the existence of a class of regulatory CGIs in the mammalian genome that act downstream of the promoter and transcription start.

  5. JC Virus T-Antigen in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with p53 Expression and Chromosomal Instability, Independent of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype

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    Katsuhiko Nosho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available JC virus has a transforming gene encoding JC virus T-antigen (JCVT. JCVT may inactivate wild-type p53, cause chromosomal instability (CIN, and stabilize β-catenin. A link between JCVT and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP has been suggested. However, no large-scale study has examined the relations of JCVT with molecular alterations, clinical outcome, or prognosis in colon cancer. We detected JCVT expression (by immunohistochemistry in 271 (35% of 766 colorectal cancers. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters (CACNA1G, CDKN2A, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 and eight other loci (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, p14, WRN by MethyLight. We examined loss of heterozygosity in 2p, 5q, 17q, and 18q. JCVT was significantly associated with p53 expression (P < .0001, p21 loss (P < .0001, CIN (≥2 chromosomal segments with LOH; P < .0001, nuclear β-catenin (P = .006, LINE-1 hypomethylation (P = .002, and inversely with CIMP-high (P = .0005 and microsatellite instability (MSI (P < .0001, but not with PIK3CA mutation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations of JCVT with p53 [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 8.45; P < .0001], CIN (adjusted OR, 2.53; P = .003, cyclin D1 (adjusted OR, 1.57; P = .02, LINE-1 hypomethylation (adjusted OR, 1.97 for a 30% decline as a unit; P = .03, BRAF mutation (adjusted OR, 2.20; P = .04, and family history of colorectal cancer (adjusted OR, 0.64; P = .04 remained statistically significant. However, JCVT was no longer significantly associated with CIMP, MSI, β-catenin, or cyclooxygenase-2 expression in multivariate analysis. JCVT was unrelated with patient survival. In conclusion, JCVT expression in colorectal cancer is independently associated with p53 expression and CIN, which may lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

  6. Distinct features between MLH1-methylated and unmethylated colorectal carcinomas with the CpG island methylator phenotype: implications in the serrated neoplasia pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Bae, Jeong Mo; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2016-03-22

    The presence or absence of MLH1 methylation may critically affect the heterogeneity of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Here, we investigated the differential characteristics of CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRCs according to MLH1 methylation status. To further confirm the MLH1-dependent features in CIMP-H CRC, an independent analysis was performed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In our CIMP-H CRC samples, MLH1-methylated tumors were characterized by older patient age, proximal colonic location, mucinous histology, intense lymphoid reactions, RUNX3/SOCS1 promoter methylation, BRAF mutations, and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) status. By contrast, MLH1-unmethylated tumors were associated with earlier age of onset, increased distal colorectal localization, adverse pathologic features, and KRAS mutations. In the TCGA dataset, the MLH1-silenced CIMP-H CRC demonstrated proximal location, MSI-H status, hypermutated phenotype, and frequent BRAF mutations, but the MLH1-non-silenced CIMP-H CRC was significantly associated with high frequencies of KRAS and APC mutations. In conclusion, the differential nature of CIMP-H CRCs depends primarily on the MLH1 methylation status. Based on the current knowledge, the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp may be the major precursor of MLH1-methylated CIMP-H CRCs, whereas MLH1-unmethylated CIMP-H CRCs may develop predominantly from KRAS-mutated traditional serrated adenomas and less commonly from BRAF-mutated traditional serrated adenomas and/or sessile serrated adenomas/polyps.

  7. Combined Analysis of COX-2 and p53 Expressions Reveals Synergistic Inverse Correlations with Microsatellite Instability and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Colorectal Cancer

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    Shuji Ogino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 overexpression and mutations of p53 (a known COX-2 regulator are inversely associated with microsatellite instability—high (MSI-H and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, characterized by extensive promoter methylation, is associated with MSI-H. However, no studies have comprehensively examined interrelations between COX-2, p53, MSI, and CIMP. Using MethyLight, we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16/INK4A, CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1] in relatively unbiased samples of 751 colorectal cancer cases obtained from two large prospective cohorts; 115 (15% tumors were CIMP-high (≥ 4 of 5 methylated promoters, 251 (33% were CIMP-low (1 to 3 methylated promoters, and the remaining 385 (51% were CIMP-0 (no methylated promoters. CIMP-high tumors were much less frequent in COX-2+/p53+ tumors (4.6% than in COX-2+/p53- tumors (19%; P < .0001, COX-2-/p53+ tumors (17%; P = .04, and COX-2-/p53- tumors (28%; P < .0001. In addition, COX-2+/p53+ tumors were significantly less common in MSI-H CIMP-high tumors (9.7% than in non-MSI-H CIMP-low/CIMP-0 tumors (44–47%; P < .0001. In conclusion, COX-2 and p53 alterations were synergistically inversely correlated with both MSI-H and CIMP-high. Our data suggest that a combined analysis of COX-2 and p53 may be more useful for the molecular classification of colorectal cancer than either COX-2 or p53 analysis alone.

  8. The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Lee, Eui Jin; Yu, Hong Suk; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Cheol Keun; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%), and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100%) showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4%) (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results

  9. The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy

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    Park Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal carcinoma (CRC with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. Methods A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. Results CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%, and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100% showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4% (P = 0.022. Conclusions Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results.

  10. MicroRNA-31 expression in relation to BRAF mutation, CpG island methylation and colorectal continuum in serrated lesions.

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    Ito, Miki; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Naito, Takafumi; Yoshii, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Masahiro; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Takahashi, Taiga; Adachi, Yasushi; Nojima, Masanori; Sasaki, Yasushi; Tokino, Takashi; Baba, Yoshifumi; Maruyama, Reo; Suzuki, Hiromu; Imai, Kohzoh; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is a distinct form of epigenomic instability. Many CIMP-high colorectal cancers (CRCs) with BRAF mutation are considered to arise from serrated pathway. We recently reported that microRNA-31 (miR-31) is associated with BRAF mutation in colorectal tumors. Emerging new approaches have revealed gradual changes in BRAF mutation and CIMP-high throughout the colorectum in CRCs. Here, we attempted to identify a possible association between miR-31 and epigenetic features in serrated pathway, and hypothesized that miR-31 supports the "colorectal continuum" concept. We evaluated miR-31 expression, BRAF mutation and epigenetic features including CIMP status in 381 serrated lesions and 222 non-serrated adenomas and examined associations between them and tumor location (rectum; sigmoid, descending, transverse and ascending colon and cecum). A significant association was observed between high miR-31 expression and CIMP-high status in serrated lesions with BRAF mutation (p = 0.0001). In contrast, miR-31 was slightly but insignificantly associated with CIMP status in the cases with wild-type BRAF. miR-31 expression in sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) with cytological dysplasia was higher than that in SSAs, whereas, no significant difference was observed between traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) and TSAs with high-grade dysplasia. The frequency of miR-31, BRAF mutation CIMP-high and MLH1 methylation increased gradually from the rectum to cecum in serrated lesions. In conclusion, miR-31 expression was associated with CIMP-high status in serrated lesions with BRAF mutation. Our data also suggested that miR-31 plays an important role in SSA evolution and may be a molecule supporting the colorectal continuum. © 2014 UICC.

  11. The CpG island methylator phenotype may confer a survival benefit in patients with stage II or III colorectal carcinomas receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is recognized as a distinct subgroup of CRC, and CIMP status affects prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Identification of CIMP status in CRC is important for proper patient management. In Eastern countries, however, the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of CRCs with CIMP are still unclear. Methods A total of 245 patients who underwent their first surgical resection for sporadic CRC were enrolled and CIMP status of the CRCs was determined using the quantitative MethyLight assay. The clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics were reviewed and compared according to CIMP status. In addition, the three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 124 patients with stage II or stage III CRC was analyzed in order to assess the effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with respect to CIMP status. Results CIMP-high CRCs were identified in 34 cases (13.9%), and were significantly associated with proximal tumor location, poorly differentiated carcinoma, mucinous histology, and high frequencies of BRAF mutation, MGMT methylation, and MSI-high compared to CIMP-low/negative carcinomas. For patients with stage II or III CIMP-low/negative CRCs, no significant difference was found in RFS between those undergoing surgery alone and those receiving surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, for patients with CIMP-high CRCs, patients undergoing surgery with fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 17; three-year RFS: 100%) showed significantly better RFS than patients treated with surgery alone (n = 7; three-year RFS: 71.4%) (P = 0.022). Conclusions Our results suggest that selected patients with CIMP-high CRC may benefit from fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy with longer RFS. Further large scale-studies are required to confirm our results. PMID:21827707

  12. Comprehensive analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high, -low, and -negative colorectal cancers based on protein marker expression and molecular features.

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    Zlobec, Inti; Bihl, Michel; Foerster, Anja; Rufle, Alex; Lugli, Alessandro

    2011-11-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is being investigated for its role in the molecular and prognostic classification of colorectal cancer patients but is also emerging as a factor with the potential to influence clinical decision-making. We report a comprehensive analysis of clinico-pathological and molecular features (KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability, MSI) as well as of selected tumour- and host-related protein markers characterizing CIMP-high (CIMP-H), -low, and -negative colorectal cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis for 48 protein markers and molecular analysis of CIMP (CIMP-H: ≥ 4/5 methylated genes), MSI (MSI-H: ≥ 2 instable genes), KRAS, and BRAF were performed on 337 colorectal cancers. Simple and multiple regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. CIMP-H was found in 24 cases (7.1%) and linked (p CIMP-low or -negative cases. Of the 48 protein markers, decreased levels of RKIP (p = 0.0056), EphB2 (p = 0.0045), CK20 (p = 0.002), and Cdx2 (p CIMP-H, independently of MSI status. In addition to the expected clinico-pathological and molecular associations, CIMP-H colorectal cancers are characterized by a loss of protein markers associated with differentiation, and metastasis suppression, and have increased CD8+ T-lymphocytes regardless of MSI status. In particular, Cdx2 loss seems to strongly predict CIMP-H in both microsatellite-stable (MSS) and MSI-H colorectal cancers. Cdx2 is proposed as a surrogate marker for CIMP-H. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CpG island methylator phenotype, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, and microsatellite instability and prognosis in gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Liang Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in gastric cancer persists, despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on its relation with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and microsatellite instability (MSI and prognosis. To drive a more precise estimate of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed based on existing relevant studies. METHODS: We combined individual patient data from 12 studies which involved 1000 patients with gastric cancer, which met the criteria. We tabulated and analyzed parameters from each study, including H. pylori, EBV, MSI, and clinical information of patients. RESULTS: The overall OR for H. pylori infection in CIMP positive group vs. negative group revealed that significantly elevated risks of positive H. pylori infection in the former were achieved (OR 2.23 95% CI, 1.25-4.00; P = 0.007, Pheterogeneity = 0.05. Similarly, strong relation between EBV infection and CIMP was achieved by OR 51.27 (95% CI, 9.39-279.86; P<0.00001, Pheterogeneity = 0.39. The overall OR for MSI in CIMP positive group vs. negative group was 4.44 (95% CI, 1.17-16.88; P = 0.03, Pheterogeneity = 0.01. However, there did not appear to be any correlations with clinical parameters such as tumor site, pathological type, cell differentiation, TNM stage, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and 5-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis highlights the strong relation of CIMP with H. pylori, EBV, and MSI, but CIMP can not be used as a prognostic marker for gastric cancer.

  14. Correlation of beta-catenin localization with cyclooxygenase-2 expression and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Dehari, Reiko; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    The WNT/beta-catenin (CTNNB1) pathway is commonly activated in the carcinogenic process. Cross-talks between the WNT and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 or PTGS2)/prostaglandin pathways have been suggested. The relationship between beta-catenin activation and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer has been controversial. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, which is associated with MSI-high. However, no study has examined the relationship between beta-catenin activation and CIMP status. Using 832 population-based colorectal cancer specimens, we assessed beta-catenin localization by immunohistochemistry. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A(p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight). MSI-high, CIMP-high, and BRAF mutation were associated inversely with cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin expressions (i.e., beta-catenin activation) and associated positively with membrane expression. The inverse relation between beta-catenin activation and CIMP was independent of MSI. COX-2 overexpression correlated with cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression (even after tumors were stratified by CIMP status), but did not correlate significantly with nuclear or membrane expression. In conclusion, beta-catenin activation is inversely associated with CIMP-high independent of MSI status. Cytoplasmic beta-catenin is associated with COX-2 overexpression, supporting the role of cytoplasmic beta-catenin in stabilizing PTGS2 (COX-2) mRNA.

  15. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) of colorectal cancer is best characterised by quantitative DNA methylation analysis and prospective cohort studies.

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    Ogino, S; Cantor, M; Kawasaki, T; Brahmandam, M; Kirkner, G J; Weisenberger, D J; Campan, M; Laird, P W; Loda, M; Fuchs, C S

    2006-07-01

    The concept of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is not universally accepted. Even if specific clinicopathological features have been associated with CIMP, investigators often failed to demonstrate a bimodal distribution of the number of methylated markers, which would suggest CIMP as a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer. Previous studies primarily used methylation specific polymerase chain reaction which might detect biologically insignificant low levels of methylation. To demonstrate a distinct genetic profile of CIMP colorectal cancer using quantitative DNA methylation analysis that can distinguish high from low levels of DNA methylation. We developed quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight) assays and measured DNA methylation (percentage of methylated reference) of five carefully selected loci (promoters of CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1) in 460 colorectal cancers from large prospective cohorts. There was a clear bimodal distribution of 80 microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumours according to the number of methylated promoters, with no tumours showing 3/5 methylated loci. Thus we defined CIMP as having >or=4/5 methylated loci, and 17% (78) of the 460 tumours were classified as CIMP. CIMP was significantly associated with female sex, MSI, BRAF mutations, and wild-type KRAS. Both CIMP MSI-H tumours and CIMP microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours showed much higher frequencies of BRAF mutations (63% and 54%) than non-CIMP counterparts (non-CIMP MSI-H (0%, pCIMP MSS tumours (6.6%, pCIMP is best characterised by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. CIMP is a distinct epigenotype of colorectal cancer and may be less frequent than previously reported.

  16. CpG island methylator phenotype is an independent predictor of survival after curative resection for colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

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    Kim, Chang Hyun; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2017-08-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is found in approximately 30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. However, the role of CIMP status in predicting oncologic outcomes in curatively resected CRC is still unclear. Between January 2006 and December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 157 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for CRC. Prognostic significance of CIMP status was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CIMP-high (H) and CIMP-none/low (N/L) tumors were found in 50 cases (31.8%) and 107 cases (68.2%), respectively. CIMP-H tumors were significantly associated with female sex, colonic location, poorly/mucinous histologic type, higher T category, perineural invasion, and MSI-high status (P = 0.001). During a median of 64.5 months, tumor recurrence developed in 47 (29.9%) patients. The 5-year disease-free survival for CIMP-H and CIMP-N/L was 61.4% and 76.3% (P = 0.018). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that CIMP-H was also a significant prognostic factor (P = 0.042). When analysis was performed according to anatomical location, more marked survival differences were observed in patients with colon cancer (P = 0.026) than in patients with rectal cancer (P = 0.210). Similarly, the role of CIMP status as a prognostic indicator was more prominent in patients with stage I/II (P = 0.006) than in patients with stage III/IV CRC (P = 0.65). DNA methylation status can be considered as a useful predictor of survival after CRC surgery, particularly for patients with stage I/II disease or colon cancer. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Correlation of β-Catenin Localization with Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP in Colorectal Cancer

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    Takako Kawasaki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The WNT/β-catenin (CTNNB1 pathway is commonly activated in the carcinogenic process. Cross-talks between the WNT and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 or PTGS2/prostaglandin pathways have been suggested. The relationship between (3-catenin activation and microsatellite instability (MSI in colorectal cancer has been controversial. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, which is associated with MSI-high. However, no study has examined the relationship between (β-catenin activation and CIMP status. Using 832 population-based colorectal cancer specimens, we assessed (3-catenin localization by immunohistochemistry. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A(p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. MSI-high, CIMP-high, and BRAF mutation were associated inversely with cytoplasmic and nuclear (β-catenin expressions (i.e., β-catenin activation and associated positively with membrane expression. The inverse relation between (β-catenin activation and CIMP was independent of MSI. COX-2 overexpression correlated with cytoplasmic (β-catenin expression (even after tumors were stratified by CIMP status, but did not correlate significantly with nuclear or membrane expression. In conclusion, β-catenin activation is inversely associated with CIMP-high independent of MSI status. Cytoplasmic β-catenin is associated with COX-2 overexpression, supporting the role of cytoplasmic β-catenin in stabilizing PTGS2(COX-2 mRNA.

  18. A CpG island methylator phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia independent of IDH mutations and associated with a favorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A D; Kroeger, H; Yamazaki, J; Taby, R; Neumann, F; Yu, S; Lee, J T; Patel, B; Li, Y; He, R; Liang, S; Lu, Y; Cesaroni, M; Pierce, S A; Kornblau, S M; Bueso-Ramos, C E; Ravandi, F; Kantarjian, H M; Jelinek, J; Issa, J-Pj

    2017-10-01

    Genetic changes are infrequent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with other malignancies and often involve epigenetic regulators, suggesting that an altered epigenome may underlie AML biology and outcomes. In 96 AML cases including 65 pilot samples selected for cured/not-cured, we found higher CpG island (CGI) promoter methylation in cured patients. Expanded genome-wide digital restriction enzyme analysis of methylation data revealed a CGI methylator phenotype independent of IDH1/2 mutations we term AML-CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP) (A-CIMP + ). A-CIMP was associated with longer overall survival (OS) in this data set (median OS, years: A-CIMP + =not reached, CIMP - =1.17; P=0.08). For validation we used 194 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas interrogated with Illumina 450k methylation arrays where we confirmed longer OS in A-CIMP (median OS, years: A-CIMP + =2.34, A-CIMP - =1.00; P=0.01). Hypermethylation in A-CIMP + favored CGIs (OR: CGI/non-CGI=5.21), and while A-CIMP + was enriched in CEBPA (P=0.002) and WT1 mutations (P=0.02), 70% of cases lacked either mutation. Hypermethylated genes in A-CIMP + function in pluripotency maintenance, and a gene expression signature of A-CIMP was associated with outcomes in multiple data sets. We conclude that CIMP in AML cannot be explained solely by gene mutations (for example, IDH1/2, TET2), and that curability in A-CIMP + AML should be validated prospectively.

  19. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype Positive Tumors in the Absence of MLH1 Methylation Constitute a Distinct Subset of Duodenal Adenocarcinomas and Are Associated with Poor Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Pappou, Emmanouil P.; Guzzetta, Angela A.; Jeschke, Jana; Kwak, Ruby; Dave, Pujan; Hooker, Craig M.; Morgan, Richard; Baylin, Stephen B.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Ahuja, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little information is available on genetic and epigenetic changes in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The purpose was to identify possible subsets of duodenal adenocarcinomas based on microsatellite instability (MSI), DNA methylation, mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes, clinicopathologic features, and prognosis. Experimental Design Demographics, tumor characteristics and survival were available for 99 duodenal adenocarcinoma patients. Testing for KRAS and BRAF mutations, MSI, MLH1 methylation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status was performed. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to predict survival. Results CIMP+ was detected in 27 of 99 (27.3%) duodenal adenocarcinomas, and was associated with MSI (P = 0.011) and MLH1 methylation (P CIMP− tumors. No BRAF V600E mutation was detected. Among the CIMP+ tumors, 15 (55.6%) were CIMP+/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed tumors classified by CIMP, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status or CIMP/MSI status could predict overall survival (OS; P = 0.047, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively), while CIMP/MLH1 methylation status could also predict time-to-recurrence (TTR; P = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status showed a significant prognostic value regarding both OS (P CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors had the worst OS and TTR. Conclusions Our results demonstrate existence of CIMP in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The combination of CIMP+/MLH1-U appears to be independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with duodenal adenocarcinomas. This study also suggests that BRAF mutations are not involved in duodenal tumorigenesis, MSI or CIMP development. PMID:22825585

  20. Relation of DNA methylation of 5'-CpG island of ACSL3 to transplacental exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

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    Frederica Perera

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal cohort of approximately 700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25% is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5'-CpG island(s (5'-CGI. Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3 exhibited the highest concordance between the extent of methylation of its 5'-CGI in UCWBCs and the level of gene expression in matched fetal placental tissues in the initial 20 cohort children. ACSL3 was therefore chosen for further investigation in a larger sample of 56 cohort children. Methylation of the ACSL3 5'-CGI was found to be significantly associated with maternal airborne PAH exposure exceeding 2.41 ng/m(3 (OR = 13.8; p<0.001; sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 82% and with a parental report of asthma symptoms in children prior to age 5 (OR = 3.9; p<0.05. Thus, if validated, methylated ACSL3 5'CGI in UCWBC DNA may be a surrogate endpoint for transplacental PAH exposure and/or a potential biomarker for environmentally-related asthma. This exploratory report provides a new blueprint for the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers relevant to other exposure assessments and/or investigations of exposure-disease relationships in birth cohorts. The results support the emerging theory of

  1. Subsets of microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers exhibit discordance between the CpG island methylator phenotype and MLH1 methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung H; Rhee, Ye-Y; Bae, Jeong-M; Kwon, Hyeong-J; Cho, Nam-Y; Kim, Mi J; Kang, Gyeong H

    2013-07-01

    Although the presence of MLH1 methylation in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer generally indicates involvement of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in the development of the tumor, these two conditions do not always correlate. A minority of microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers exhibit discordance between CIMP and MLH1 methylation statuses. However, the clinicopathological features of such microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers with discrepant MLH1 methylation and CIMP statuses remain poorly studied. Microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers (n=220) were analyzed for CIMP and MLH1 methylation statuses using the MethyLight assay. Based on the combinatorial CIMP and MLH1 methylation statuses, the microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers were grouped into four subtypes (CIMP-high (CIMP-H) MLH1 methylation-positive (MLH1m+), CIMP-H MLH1 methylation-negative, CIMP-low/0 (CIMP-L/0) MLH1m+, and CIMP-L/0 MLH1 methylation-negative), which were compared in terms of their associations with clinicopathological and molecular features. The CIMP-L/0 MLH1 methylation-negative and CIMP-H MLH1m+ subtypes were predominant, comprising 63.6 and 24.1% of total microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers, respectively. The discordant subtypes, CIMP-H MLH1 methylation-negative and CIMP-L/0 MLH1m+, were found in 5 and 7% of microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers, respectively. The CIMP-H MLH1 methylation-negative subtype exhibited elevated incidence rates in male patients and was associated with larger tumor size, more frequent loss of MSH2 expression, increased frequency of KRAS mutation, and advanced cancer stage. The CIMP-L/0 MLH1m+ subtype was associated with onset at an earlier age, a predominance of MLH1 loss, and earlier cancer stage. None of the CIMP-L/0 MLH1m+ subtype patients succumbed to death during the follow-up. Our findings suggest that the discordant subtypes of colorectal cancers exhibit distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

  2. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype is Associated With Response to Adjuvant Irinotecan-Based Therapy for Stage 3 Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz, Stacey; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Renfro, Lindsay A.; Nam, Eunmi; Foster, Nathan R.; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Monnat, Raymond J.; Emond, Mary J.; Maizels, Nancy; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Venook, Alan; Warren, Robert S.; Grady, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined by a high frequency of aberrantly methylated genes, is a characteristic of a subclass of colon tumors with distinct clinical and molecular features. Cohort studies have produced conflicting results on responses of CIMP-positive tumors to chemotherapy. We assessed the association between tumor CIMP status and survival of patients receiving adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin alone or with irinotecan (IFL) METHODS We analyzed data from patients with stage 3 colon adenocarcinoma randomly assigned to groups given fluorouracil and leucovorin or IFL following surgery, from April 1999 through April 2001. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was disease-free survival. DNA isolated from available tumor samples (n=615) was used to determine CIMP status based on methylation patterns at the CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 loci. The effects of CIMP on survival were modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards; interactions with treatment and BRAF, KRAS, and mismatch repair (MMR) status were also investigated. RESULTS Of the tumor samples characterized for CIMP status, 145 were CIMP positive (23%). Patients with CIMP-positive tumors had shorter overall survival times than patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio [HR]=1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.84). Treatment with IFL showed a trend toward increased overall survival for patients with CIMP-positive tumors, compared to treatment with fluorouracil and leucovorin (HR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.37–1.05; P=.07), but not for patients with CIMP-negative tumors (HR=1.38; 95% CI, 1.00–1.89; P=.049). In a 3-way interaction analysis, patients with CIMP-positive, MMR-intact tumors benefited most from the addition of irinotecan to fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy (for the interaction, P=.01). CIMP was more strongly associated with response to IFL than MMR status. Results for disease

  3. Tracking the Correlation Between CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Other Molecular Features and Clinicopathological Features in Human Colorectal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Abe, Masanobu; Ji, Jiafu; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Yu, Duonan

    2016-03-10

    The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancers (CRCs) persists, despite many studies that have been conducted on its correlation with molecular and clinicopathological features. To drive a more precise estimate of the strength of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. A comprehensive search for studies reporting molecular and clinicopathological features of CRCs stratified by CIMP was performed within the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. CIMP was defined by either one of the three panels of gene-specific CIMP markers (Weisenberger panel, classic panel, or a mixture panel of the previous two) or the genome-wide DNA methylation profile. The associations of CIMP with outcome parameters were estimated using odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study using a fixed effects or random effects model. A total of 29 studies involving 9,393 CRC patients were included for analysis. We observed more BRAF mutations (OR 34.87; 95% CI, 22.49-54.06) and microsatellite instability (MSI) (OR 12.85 95% CI, 8.84-18.68) in CIMP-positive vs. -negative CRCs, whereas KRAS mutations were less frequent (OR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.75). Subgroup analysis showed that only the genome-wide methylation profile-defined CIMP subset encompassed all BRAF-mutated CRCs. As expected, CIMP-positive CRCs displayed significant associations with female (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56-0.72), older age at diagnosis (WMD 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15-4.38), proximal location (OR 6.91; 95% CI, 5.17-9.23), mucinous histology (OR 3.81; 95% CI, 2.93-4.95), and poor differentiation (OR 4.22; 95% CI, 2.52-7.08). Although CIMP did not show a correlation with tumor stage (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82-1.46), it was associated with shorter overall survival (HR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.27-2.37). The meta-analysis highlights that CIMP-positive CRCs take their own molecular feature, especially overlapping with BRAF mutations

  4. CpG island methylator phenotype is associated with response to adjuvant irinotecan-based therapy for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz, Stacey; Bertagnolli, Monica M; Renfro, Lindsay A; Nam, Eunmi; Foster, Nathan R; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Monnat, Raymond J; Emond, Mary J; Maizels, Nancy; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M; Saltz, Leonard B; Venook, Alan; Warren, Robert S; Grady, William M

    2014-09-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined by a high frequency of aberrantly methylated genes, is a characteristic of a subclass of colon tumors with distinct clinical and molecular features. Cohort studies have produced conflicting results on responses of CIMP-positive tumors to chemotherapy. We assessed the association between tumor CIMP status and survival of patients receiving adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin alone or with irinotecan (IFL). We analyzed data from patients with stage III colon adenocarcinoma randomly assigned to groups given fluorouracil and leucovorin or IFL after surgery, from April 1999 through April 2001. The primary end point of the trial was overall survival and the secondary end point was disease-free survival. DNA isolated from available tumor samples (n = 615) was used to determine CIMP status based on methylation patterns at the CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1 loci. The effects of CIMP on survival were modeled using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards; interactions with treatment and BRAF, KRAS, and mismatch repair (MMR) status were also investigated. Of the tumor samples characterized for CIMP status, 145 were CIMP positive (23%). Patients with CIMP-positive tumors had shorter overall survival times than patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio = 1.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.84). Treatment with IFL showed a trend toward increased overall survival for patients with CIMP-positive tumors, compared with treatment with fluorouracil and leucovorin (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.37-1.05; P = .07), but not for patients with CIMP-negative tumors (hazard ratio = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.00-1.89; P = .049). In a 3-way interaction analysis, patients with CIMP-positive, MMR-intact tumors benefited most from the addition of irinotecan to fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy (for the interaction, P = .01). CIMP was more strongly associated with response to IFL than MMR status. Results for disease

  5. Molecular correlates with MGMT promoter methylation and silencing support CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Suemoto, Yuko; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-11-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer. In contrast, a phenotype with less widespread promoter methylation (CIMP-low) has not been well characterised. O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and silencing have been associated with G>A mutations and microsatellite instability-low (MSI-low). To examine molecular correlates with MGMT methylation/silencing in colorectal cancer. Utilising MethyLight technology, we quantified DNA methylation in MGMT and eight other markers (a CIMP-diagnostic panel; CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1) in 920 population-based colorectal cancers. Tumours with both MGMT methylation and loss were correlated positively with MSI-low (p = 0.02), CIMP-high (>or=6/8 methylated CIMP markers, p = 0.005), CIMP-low (1/8-5/8 methylated CIMP markers, p = 0.002, compared to CIMP-0 with 0/8 methylated markers), KRAS G>A mutation (p = 0.02), and inversely with 18q loss of heterozygosity (p = 0.0002). Tumours were classified into nine MSI/CIMP subtypes. Among the CIMP-low group, tumours with both MGMT methylation and loss were far more frequent in MSI-low tumours (67%, 12/18) than MSI-high tumours (5.6%, 1/18; p = 0.0003) and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours (33%, 52/160; p = 0.008). However, no such relationship was observed among the CIMP-high or CIMP-0 groups. The relationship between MGMT methylation/silencing and MSI-low is limited to only CIMP-low tumours, supporting the suggestion that CIMP-low in colorectal cancer may be a different molecular phenotype from CIMP-high and CIMP-0. Our data support a molecular difference between MSI-low and MSS in colorectal cancer, and a possible link between CIMP-low, MSI-low, MGMT methylation/loss and KRAS mutation.

  6. A minimal set of tissue-specific hypomethylated CpGs constitute epigenetic signatures of developmental programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Colaneri

    Full Text Available Cell specific states of the chromatin are programmed during mammalian development. Dynamic DNA methylation across the developing embryo guides a program of repression, switching off genes in most cell types. Thus, the majority of the tissue specific differentially methylated sites (TS-DMS must be un-methylated CpGs.Comparison of expanded Methyl Sensitive Cut Counting data (eMSCC among four tissues (liver, testes, brain and kidney from three C57BL/6J mice, identified 138,052 differentially methylated sites of which 23,270 contain CpGs un-methylated in only one tissue (TS-DMS. Most of these CpGs were located in intergenic regions, outside of promoters, CpG islands or their shores, and up to 20% of them overlapped reported active enhancers. Indeed, tissue-specific enhancers were up to 30 fold enriched in TS-DMS. Testis showed the highest number of TS-DMS, but paradoxically their associated genes do not appear to be specific to the germ cell functions, but rather are involved in organism development. In the other tissues the differentially methylated genes are associated with tissue-specific physiological or anatomical functions. The identified sets of TS-DMS quantify epigenetic distances between tissues, generated during development. We applied this concept to measure the extent of reprogramming in the liver of mice exposed to in utero or early postnatal nutritional stress. Different protocols of food restriction reprogrammed the liver methylome in different but reproducible ways.Thus, each identified set of differentially methylated sites constituted an epigenetic signature that traced the developmental programing or the early nutritional reprogramming of each exposed mouse. We propose that our approach has the potential to outline a number of disease-associated epigenetic states. The composition of differentially methylated CpGs may vary with each situation, behaving as a composite variable, which can be used as a pre-symptomatic marker for

  7. Revised genomic consensus for the hypermethylated CpG island region of the human L1 transposon and integration sites of full length L1 elements from recombinant clones made using methylation-tolerant host strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowther, P J; Doherty, J P; Linsenmeyer, M E

    1991-01-01

    preferentially from L1 members which have accumulated mutations that have removed sites of methylation. We present a revised consensus from the 5' presumptive control region of these elements. This revised consensus contains a consensus RNA polymerase III promoter which would permit the synthesis of transcripts......Efficient recovery of clones from the 5' end of the human L1 dispersed repetitive elements necessitates the use of deletion mcr- host strains since this region contains a CpG island which is hypermethylated in vivo. Clones recovered with conventional mcr+ hosts seem to have been derived...... from the 5' end of full length L1 elements. Such potential transcripts are likely to exhibit a high degree of secondary structure. In addition, we have determined the flanking sequences for 6 full length L1 elements. The majority of full length L1 clones show no convincing evidence for target site...

  8. The application of methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE to DNA methylation analysis of the 5' CpG island of mucin in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Seiya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of CpG sites in genomic DNA plays an important role in gene regulation and especially in gene silencing. We have reported mechanisms of epigenetic regulation for expression of mucins, which are markers of malignancy potential and early detection of human neoplasms. Epigenetic changes in promoter regions appear to be the first step in expression of mucins. Thus, detection of promoter methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of tumor behavior, and evaluating the response of tumors to targeted therapy. However, conventional analytical methods for DNA methylation require a large amount of DNA and have low sensitivity. Methods Here, we report a modified version of the bisulfite-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using a nested PCR approach. We designated this method as methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE. The MSE method is comprised of the following steps: (a bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA, (b amplification of the target DNA by a nested PCR approach and (c applying to DGGE. To examine whether the MSE method is able to analyze DNA methylation of mucin genes in various samples, we apply it to DNA obtained from state cell lines, ethanol-fixed colonic crypts and human pancreatic juices. Result The MSE method greatly decreases the amount of input DNA. The lower detection limit for distinguishing different methylation status is Conclusions The MSE method can provide a qualitative information of methylated sequence profile. The MSE method allows sensitive and specific analysis of the DNA methylation pattern of almost any block of multiple CpG sites. The MSE method can be applied to analysis of DNA methylation status in many different clinical samples, and this may facilitate identification of new risk markers.

  9. The application of methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE) to DNA methylation analysis of the 5' CpG island of mucin in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Yonezawa, Suguru; Kitamoto, Sho; Yamada, Norishige; Houjou, Izumi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Takaori, Kyoichi; Higashi, Michiyo

    2012-01-01

    Methylation of CpG sites in genomic DNA plays an important role in gene regulation and especially in gene silencing. We have reported mechanisms of epigenetic regulation for expression of mucins, which are markers of malignancy potential and early detection of human neoplasms. Epigenetic changes in promoter regions appear to be the first step in expression of mucins. Thus, detection of promoter methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of tumor behavior, and evaluating the response of tumors to targeted therapy. However, conventional analytical methods for DNA methylation require a large amount of DNA and have low sensitivity. Here, we report a modified version of the bisulfite-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using a nested PCR approach. We designated this method as methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE). The MSE method is comprised of the following steps: (a) bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA, (b) amplification of the target DNA by a nested PCR approach and (c) applying to DGGE. To examine whether the MSE method is able to analyze DNA methylation of mucin genes in various samples, we apply it to DNA obtained from state cell lines, ethanol-fixed colonic crypts and human pancreatic juices. The MSE method greatly decreases the amount of input DNA. The lower detection limit for distinguishing different methylation status is < 0.1% and the detectable minimum amount of DNA is 20 pg, which can be obtained from only a few cells. We also show that MSE can be used for analysis of challenging samples such as human isolated colonic crypts or human pancreatic juices, from which only a small amount of DNA can be extracted. The MSE method can provide a qualitative information of methylated sequence profile. The MSE method allows sensitive and specific analysis of the DNA methylation pattern of almost any block of multiple CpG sites. The MSE method can be applied to analysis of DNA methylation status in many different clinical

  10. Transcription of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA is regulated by CpG methylation during chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available The persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is maintained by the nuclear viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA, which serves as transcription template for viral mRNAs. Previous studies suggested that cccDNA contains methylation-prone CpG islands, and that the minichromosome structure of cccDNA is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation. However, the regulatory effect of each CpG island methylation on cccDNA activity remains elusive. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution of CpG methylation within cccDNA in patient samples and investigated the impact of CpG island methylation on cccDNA-driven virus replication. Our study revealed the following observations: 1 Bisulfite sequencing of cccDNA from chronic hepatitis B patients indicated that CpG island I was seldom methylated, 2 CpG island II methylation was correlated to the low level of serum HBV DNA in patients, and in vitro methylation studies confirmed that CpG island II methylation markedly reduced cccDNA transcription and subsequent viral core DNA replication, 3 CpG island III methylation was associated with low serum HBsAg titers, and 4 Furthermore, we found that HBV genotype, HBeAg positivity, and patient age and liver fibrosis stage were also relevant to cccDNA CpG methylation status. Therefore, we clearly demonstrated that the status of cccDNA methylation is connected to the biological behavior of HBV. Taken together, our study provides a complete profile of CpG island methylation within HBV cccDNA and new insights for the function of CpG methylation in regulating HBV cccDNA transcription.

  11. CpG island methylator phenotype is associated with the efficacy of sequential oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy and EGFR-related gene mutation in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Shimodaira, Hideki; Soeda, Hiroshi; Komine, Keigo; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Ouchi, Kota; Inoue, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shin; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2016-12-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with multiple promoter methylated loci has been observed in a subset of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. CIMP status, which is closely associated with specific clinicopathological and molecular characteristics, is considered a potential predictive biomarker for efficacy of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between the effect of standard chemotherapy, including cytotoxic drugs and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies, and CIMP status has not been elucidated. In 125 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, we investigated how clinical outcome of chemotherapy was related to CIMP status as detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and to genetic status in five EGFR-related genes (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, and AKT1) as detected by direct sequencing. CIMP-positive status was significantly associated with proximal tumor location and peritoneum metastasis (all P values CIMP-positive tumors receiving sequential therapy with FOLFOX as the first-line treatment followed by irinotecan-based therapy as the second-line treatment (median = 6.6 months) was inferior to that of such patients receiving the reverse sequence (median = 15.2 months; P = 0.043). Furthermore, CIMP-positive tumors showed higher mutation frequencies for the five EGFR-related genes (74.1 %) than the CIMP-negative tumors did (50.0 %). Among the KRAS wild-type tumors, CIMP-positive tumors were associated with a worse clinical outcome than CIMP-negative tumors following anti-EGFR antibody therapy. Sequential FOLFOX followed by an irinotecan-based regimen is unfavorable in patients with CIMP-positive tumors. High frequencies of mutation in EGFR-related genes in CIMP-positive tumors may cause the lower response to anti-EGFR antibody therapy seen in patients with wild-type KRAS and CIMP-positive tumors.

  12. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  13. Zinc sulfate contributes to promote telomere length extension via increasing telomerase gene expression, telomerase activity and change in the TERT gene promoter CpG island methylation status of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Raheleh Farahzadi

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for cell therapy and regenerative medicine has received widespread attention over the past few years, but their application can be complicated by factors such as reduction in proliferation potential, the senescent tendency of the MSCs upon expansion and their age-dependent decline in number and function. It was shown that all the mentioned features were accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity and telomere shortening. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic changes in aging, especially changes in promoter methylation, was reported. In this study, MSCs were isolated from the adipose tissue with enzymatic digestion. In addition, immunocytochemistry staining and flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate the cell-surface markers. In addition, alizarin red-S, sudan III, toluidine blue, and cresyl violet staining were performed to evaluate the multi-lineage differentiation of hADSCs. In order to improve the effective application of MSCs, these cells were treated with 1.5 × 10-8 and 2.99 × 10-10 M of ZnSO4 for 48 hours. The length of the absolute telomere, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene expression, telomerase activity, the investigation of methylation status of the hTERT gene promoter and the percentage of senescent cells were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR, PCR-ELISA TRAP assay, methylation specific PCR (MSP, and beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining, respectively. The results showed that the telomere length, the hTERT gene expression, and the telomerase activity had significantly increased. In addition, the percentage of senescent cells had significantly decreased and changes in the methylation status of the CpG islands in the hTERT promoter region under treatment with ZnSO4 were seen. In conclusion, it seems that ZnSO4 as a proper antioxidant could improve the aging-related features due to lengthening of the telomeres, increasing the telomerase gene expression

  14. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0) and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-05-02

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation) in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation) and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative), determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR), we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487) and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with > or = 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with > or = 3 informative markers and no LOH). CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002) than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138), while CIMP-low/high (1/8-8/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common (56%) in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%). These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry), or KRAS/BRAF mutation. 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in colorectal cancer.

  15. Down-regulation of p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1) is inversely associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, S; Kawasaki, T; Kirkner, G J; Ogawa, A; Dorfman, I; Loda, M; Fuchs, C S

    2006-10-01

    p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1/WAF1), one of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle and is transcriptionally regulated by p53. Down-regulation of p21 is caused by TP53 mutations in colorectal cancer. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) appears to be a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer with concordant methylation of multiple gene promoters and is associated with a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. However, no study to date has evaluated the relationship between p21 expression and CIMP in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between p21, p53, CIMP, MSI and KRAS/BRAF status in colorectal cancer. We utilized 737 relatively unbiased samples of colorectal cancers from two large prospective cohort studies. Using quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16/INK4A), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1]. CIMP-high (>or=4/5 methylated promoters) was diagnosed in 118 (16%) of the 737 tumours. We also assessed expression of p21 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Among the 737 tumours, 371 (50%) showed p21 loss. Both p21 loss and p53 positivity were inversely associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations. The associations of p21 with these molecular features were still present after tumours were stratified by p53 status. In contrast, the associations of p53 positivity with the molecular features were no longer present after tumours were stratified by p21 status. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumours were stratified by MSI or KRAS/BRAF status, CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still inversely associated with p21 loss. In conclusion, down-regulation of p21 is inversely correlated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer, independent of TP53 and BRAF status.

  16. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein electrophoresis was used to study the distributions and tissue specificity of gene expression of enzymes encoded by 42 loci in Rhinolophus clivosus and R. landeri, the genetically most divergent of the ten species of southern African horseshoe bats. No differences in gene expression were found between R.

  17. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  18. Hypermethylation of the 5′ CpG island of the p14ARF flanking exon 1β in human colorectal cancer displaying a restricted pattern of p53 overexpression concomitant with increased MDM2 expression

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    Nyiraneza Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that inactivation of p14ARF, a tumor suppressor central to regulating p53 protein stability through interaction with the MDM2 oncoprotein, abrogates p53 activity in human tumors retaining the wild-type TP53 gene. Differences in expression of tumor suppressor genes are frequently associated with cancer. We previously reported on a pattern of restricted p53 immunohistochemical overexpression significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI, low TP53 mutation frequency, and MDM2 overexpression in colorectal cancers (CRCs. In this study, we investigated whether p14ARF alterations could be a mechanism for disabling the p53 pathway in this subgroup of CRCs. Results Detailed maps of the alterations in the p14ARF gene were determined in a cohort of 98 CRCs to detect both nucleotide and copy-number changes. Methylation-specific PCR combined with bisulfite sequencing was used to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF methylation. p14ARF alterations were then correlated with MSI status, TP53 mutations, and immunohistochemical expression of p53 and MDM2. The frequency of p14ARF mutations was extremely low (1/98; 1%, whereas coexistence of methylated and unmethylated alleles in both tumors and normal colon mucosa was common (91/98; 93%. Only seven of ninety-eight tumors (7% had a distinct pattern of methylation compared with normal colon mucosa. Evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF promoter methylation in a region containing 27 CpG sites in 35 patients showed a range of methylated CpG sites in tumors (0 to 25 (95% CI 1 to 13 versus 0 to 17 (95% CI 0 to 2 in adjacent colon mucosa (P = 0.004. Hypermethylation of the p14ARF promoter was significantly correlated with the restricted p53 overexpression pattern (P = 0.03, and MDM2 overexpression (P = 0.02, independently of MSI phenotype. Although no significant correlation between p14ARF methylation and TP53 mutational

  19. Deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes and tissue specific mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L

    2010-06-01

    Adequate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies are required for normal mitochondria function and reductions in mtDNA copy number due to genetic alterations cause tissue-specific mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). There are eight nuclear genes, directly or indirectly involved in mtDNA replication and mtDNA precursor synthesis, which have been identified as the cause of MDS. However, the tissue specific pathology of these nuclear gene mutations is not well understood. Here, mtDNA synthesis, mtDNA copy number control, and mtDNA turnover, as well as the synthesis of mtDNA precursors in relation to the levels of salvage enzymes are discussed. The question why MDS caused by TK2 and p53R2 mutations are predominantly muscle specific while dGK deficiency affected mainly liver will be addressed.

  20. Heritability and tissue specificity of expression quantitative trait loci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petretto, E.; Mangion, J.; Dickens, N. J.; Cook, S.A.; Kumaran, M. K.; Lu, H.; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Křen, Vladimír; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 10 (2006), s. 1625-1633 ISSN 1553-7390 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : expression QTL * heritability * tissue specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.671, year: 2006

  1. Predicting Tissue-Specific Enhancers in the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2006-07-01

    Determining how transcriptional regulatory signals areencoded in vertebrate genomes is essential for understanding the originsof multi-cellular complexity; yet the genetic code of vertebrate generegulation remains poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate thiscode, we synergistically combined genome-wide gene expression profiling,vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding siteanalysis to define sequence signatures characteristic of candidatetissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this strategyto microarray-based gene expression profiles from 79 human tissues andidentified 7,187 candidate enhancers that defined their flanking geneexpression, the majority of which were located outside of knownpromoters. We cross-validated this method for its ability to de novopredict tissue-specific gene expression and confirmed its reliability in57 of the 79 available human tissues, with an average precision inenhancer recognition ranging from 32 percent to 63 percent, and asensitivity of 47 percent. We used the sequence signatures identified bythis approach to assign tissue-specific predictions to ~;328,000human-mouse conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. Byoverlapping these genome-wide predictions with a large in vivo dataset ofenhancers validated in transgenic mice, we confirmed our results with a28 percent sensitivity and 50 percent precision. These results indicatethe power of combining complementary genomic datasets as an initialcomputational foray into the global view of tissue-specific generegulation in vertebrates.

  2. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung; Ryu, Tae Woo; Heo, Hyoungsam; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Doheon; Hur, Cheolgoo

    2011-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  3. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung

    2011-04-30

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  4. Methylated site display (MSD)-AFLP, a sensitive and affordable method for analysis of CpG methylation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Toshiki; Saito, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Akiko; Sato, Shinji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Maruyama, Toru; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Kurita, Hisaka; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2017-03-09

    It has been pointed out that environmental factors or chemicals can cause diseases that are developmental in origin. To detect abnormal epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation, convenient and cost-effective methods are required for such research, in which multiple samples are processed simultaneously. We here present methylated site display (MSD), a unique technique for the preparation of DNA libraries. By combining it with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, we developed a new method, MSD-AFLP. Methylated site display libraries consist of only DNAs derived from DNA fragments that are CpG methylated at the 5' end in the original genomic DNA sample. To test the effectiveness of this method, CpG methylation levels in liver, kidney, and hippocampal tissues of mice were compared to examine if MSD-AFLP can detect subtle differences in the levels of tissue-specific differentially methylated CpGs. As a result, many CpG sites suspected to be tissue-specific differentially methylated were detected. Nucleotide sequences adjacent to these methyl-CpG sites were identified and we determined the methylation level by methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MSRE)-PCR analysis to confirm the accuracy of AFLP analysis. The differences of the methylation level among tissues were almost identical among these methods. By MSD-AFLP analysis, we detected many CpGs showing less than 5% statistically significant tissue-specific difference and less than 10% degree of variability. Additionally, MSD-AFLP analysis could be used to identify CpG methylation sites in other organisms including humans. MSD-AFLP analysis can potentially be used to measure slight changes in CpG methylation level. Regarding the remarkable precision, sensitivity, and throughput of MSD-AFLP analysis studies, this method will be advantageous in a variety of epigenetics-based research.

  5. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  6. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D.; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types. PMID:27166839

  7. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-21

    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types.

  8. Detection of neuronal tissue in meat using tissue specific DNA modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed to differentiate between non-muscle tissues such as liver, kidney and heart and that of muscle in meat samples using tissue specific DNA detection. Only muscle tissue is considered meat from the point of view of labelling (Food Labelling [Amendment] (England Regulations 2003 and Quantitative Ingredient Declaration (QUID, and also certain parts of the carcass are prohibited to be used in raw meat products (Meat Products [England] Regulations 2003. Included in the prohibited offal are brain and spinal cord. The described methodology has therefore been developed primarily to enforce labelling rules but also to contribute to the enforcement of BSE legislation on the detection of Central Nervous System (CNS tissue. The latter requires the removal of Specified Risk Material (SRM, such as bovine and ovine brain and spinal cord, from the food chain. Current methodologies for detection of CNS tissue include histological examination, analysis of cholesterol content and immunodetection. These can potentially be time consuming, less applicable to processed samples and may not be readily adapted to high throughput sample analysis. The objective of this work was therefore to develop a DNAbased detection assay that exploits the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and is potentially applicable to more highly processed food samples. For neuronal tissue, the DNA target selected was the promoter for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP, a gene whose expression is restricted to astroglial cells within CNS tissue. The promoter fragments from both cattle and sheep have been isolated and key differences in the methylation patterns of certain CpG dinucleotides in the sequences from bovine and sheep brain and spinal cord and the corresponding skeletal muscle identified. These have been used to design a PCR assay exploiting Methylation Specific PCR (MSP to specifically amplify the neuronal tissue derived sequence and therefore identify the

  9. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  10. Parvovirus b19 DNA CpG dinucleotide methylation and epigenetic regulation of viral expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bonvicini

    Full Text Available CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression.The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections.The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19.

  11. Parvovirus B19 DNA CpG Dinucleotide Methylation and Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Di Furio, Francesca; De Falco, Luisa; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression. The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections. The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19. PMID:22413013

  12. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone.

  13. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone

  14. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  15. Dualism of gene GC content and CpG pattern in regard to expression in the human genome: magnitude versus breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I show that, in the human genome, the GC content in genes (but not the CpG island in the promoter) is related to the maximum level of gene expression among tissues, whereas the promoter CpG island and gene CpG level are more strongly related to the breadth of expression among tissues. The relevance of gene GC content to expression cannot be a consequence (i.e. a byproduct) of transcription because it does not correlate with expression in the germline. The variation of GC content and CpG level can determine the characteristics of gene expression in a synergistic interplay with transcription-factor-binding sites (mediated by chromatin condensation).

  16. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  17. Tissue-specific RNA expression marks distant-acting developmental enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short non-coding transcripts can be transcribed from distant-acting transcriptional enhancer loci, but the prevalence of such enhancer RNAs (eRNAs within the transcriptome, and the association of eRNA expression with tissue-specific enhancer activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression dynamics of tissue-specific non-coding RNAs in embryonic mouse tissues via deep RNA sequencing. Overall, approximately 80% of validated in vivo enhancers show tissue-specific RNA expression that correlates with tissue-specific enhancer activity. Globally, we identified thousands of tissue-specifically transcribed non-coding regions (TSTRs displaying various genomic hallmarks of bona fide enhancers. In transgenic mouse reporter assays, over half of tested TSTRs functioned as enhancers with reproducible activity in the predicted tissue. Together, our results demonstrate that tissue-specific eRNA expression is a common feature of in vivo enhancers, as well as a major source of extragenic transcription, and that eRNA expression signatures can be used to predict tissue-specific enhancers independent of known epigenomic enhancer marks.

  18. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  19. Tissue-specific functional networks for prioritizing phenotype and disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfang Guan

    Full Text Available Integrated analyses of functional genomics data have enormous potential for identifying phenotype-associated genes. Tissue-specificity is an important aspect of many genetic diseases, reflecting the potentially different roles of proteins and pathways in diverse cell lineages. Accounting for tissue specificity in global integration of functional genomics data is challenging, as "functionality" and "functional relationships" are often not resolved for specific tissue types. We address this challenge by generating tissue-specific functional networks, which can effectively represent the diversity of protein function for more accurate identification of phenotype-associated genes in the laboratory mouse. Specifically, we created 107 tissue-specific functional relationship networks through integration of genomic data utilizing knowledge of tissue-specific gene expression patterns. Cross-network comparison revealed significantly changed genes enriched for functions related to specific tissue development. We then utilized these tissue-specific networks to predict genes associated with different phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that prediction performance is significantly improved through using the tissue-specific networks as compared to the global functional network. We used a testis-specific functional relationship network to predict genes associated with male fertility and spermatogenesis phenotypes, and experimentally confirmed one top prediction, Mbyl1. We then focused on a less-common genetic disease, ataxia, and identified candidates uniquely predicted by the cerebellum network, which are supported by both literature and experimental evidence. Our systems-level, tissue-specific scheme advances over traditional global integration and analyses and establishes a prototype to address the tissue-specific effects of genetic perturbations, diseases and drugs.

  20. Association of Tissue-Specific DNA Methylation Alterations with α-Thalassemia Southeast Asian Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapat Pangeson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wild-type allele, DNA methylation levels of 10 consecutive CpG sites adjacent to the upstream 5′-breakpoint of α-thalassemia Southeast Asian (SEA deletion are not different between placenta and leukocytes. However, no previous study has reported the map of DNA methylation in the SEA allele. This report aims to show that the SEA mutation is associated with DNA methylation changes, resulting in differential methylation between placenta and leukocytes. Methylation-sensitive high-resolution analysis was used to compare DNA methylation among placenta, leukocytes, and unmethylated control DNA. The result indicates that the DNA methylation between placenta and leukocyte DNA is different and shows that the CpG status of both is not fully unmethylated. Mapping of individual CpG sites was performed by targeted bisulfite sequencing. The DNA methylation level of the 10 consecutive CpG sites was different between placenta and leukocyte DNA. When the 10th CpG of the mutation allele was considered as a hallmark for comparing DNA methylation level, it was totally different from the unmethylated 10th CpG of the wild-type allele. Finally, the distinct DNA methylation patterns between both DNA were extracted. In total, 24 patterns were found in leukocyte samples and 9 patterns were found in placenta samples. This report shows that the large deletion is associated with DNA methylation change. In further studies for clinical application, the distinct DNA methylation pattern might be a potential marker for detecting cell-free fetal DNA.

  1. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bopp, D; Jamet, E; Baumgartner, S; Burri, M; Noll, M

    1989-01-01

    Two new paired domain genes of Drosophila, Pox meso and Pox neuro, are described. In contrast to the previously isolated paired domain genes, paired and gooseberry, which contain both a paired and a homeo-domain (PHox genes), Pox meso and Pox neuro possess no homeodomain. Evidence suggesting that the new genes encode tissue-specific transcriptional factors and belong to the same regulatory cascade as the other paired domain genes includes (i) tissue-specific expression of Pox meso in the soma...

  2. TiGER: a database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yu, Xueping; Zack, Donald J; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2008-06-09

    Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation). The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM) detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  3. TiGER: A database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Donald J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. Results The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding sites, enables us to perform a large-scale analysis of tissue-specific gene regulation in human tissues. The results are stored in a web database called TiGER (Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation. The database contains three types of data including tissue-specific gene expression profiles, combinatorial gene regulations, and cis-regulatory module (CRM detections. At present the database contains expression profiles for 19,526 UniGene genes, combinatorial regulations for 7,341 transcription factor pairs and 6,232 putative CRMs for 2,130 RefSeq genes. Conclusion We have developed and made publicly available a database, TiGER, which summarizes and provides large scale data sets for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation in a variety of human tissues. This resource is available at 1.

  4. Prediction of tissue-specific cis-regulatory modules using Bayesian networks and regression trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoyu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, a large part of gene transcriptional regulation is operated by cis-regulatory modules. These modules are believed to be regulating much of the tissue-specificity of gene expression. Results We develop a Bayesian network approach for identifying cis-regulatory modules likely to regulate tissue-specific expression. The network integrates predicted transcription factor binding site information, transcription factor expression data, and target gene expression data. At its core is a regression tree modeling the effect of combinations of transcription factors bound to a module. A new unsupervised EM-like algorithm is developed to learn the parameters of the network, including the regression tree structure. Conclusion Our approach is shown to accurately identify known human liver and erythroid-specific modules. When applied to the prediction of tissue-specific modules in 10 different tissues, the network predicts a number of important transcription factor combinations whose concerted binding is associated to specific expression.

  5. Strengths and weaknesses of EST-based prediction of tissue-specific alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing contributes significantly to the complexity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms are usually based on EST sequences that also allow to approximate the expression pattern of the related transcripts. However, the limited number of tissues represented in the EST data as well as the different cDNA construction protocols may influence the predictive capacity of ESTs to unravel tissue-specifically expressed transcripts. Methods We predict tissue and tumor specific splice isoforms based on the genomic mapping (SpliceNest of the EST consensus sequences and library annotation provided in the GeneNest database. We further ascertain the potentially rare tissue specific transcripts as the ones represented only by ESTs derived from normalized libraries. A subset of the predicted tissue and tumor specific isoforms are then validated via RT-PCR experiments over a spectrum of 40 tissue types. Results Our strategy revealed 427 genes with at least one tissue specific transcript as well as 1120 genes showing tumor specific isoforms. While our experimental evaluation of computationally predicted tissue-specific isoforms revealed a high success rate in confirming the expression of these isoforms in the respective tissue, the strategy frequently failed to detect the expected restricted expression pattern. The analysis of putative lowly expressed transcripts using normalized cDNA libraries suggests that our ability to detect tissue-specific isoforms strongly depends on the expression level of the respective transcript as well as on the sensitivity of the experimental methods. Especially splice isoforms predicted to be disease-specific tend to represent transcripts that are expressed in a set of healthy tissues rather than novel isoforms. Conclusions We propose to combine the computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms with experimental validation for

  6. Tissue specific MR contrast media role in the differential diagnosis of cirrhotic liver nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana Gabriela; Capsa, Razvan A; Gheorghe, Liana; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2008-09-01

    State-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using tissue specific contrast media facilitates detection and characterization in most cases of hepatic nodules. According to the currently used nomenclature, in liver cirrhosis there are only two major types of hepatocellular nodular lesions: regenerative lesions and dysplastic or neoplastic lesions. The purpose of this clinical imaging review is to provide information on the properties of tissue-specific MR contrast agents and on their usefulness in the demonstration of the pathologic changes that take place at the level of the hepatobiliary and reticuloendothelial systems during the carcinogenesis in liver cirrhosis.

  7. Tissue-specific regulation of mouse MicroRNA genes in endoderm-derived tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yan; Schug, Jonathan; McKenna, Lindsay B.; Le Lay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs fine-tune the activity of hundreds of protein-coding genes. The identification of tissue-specific microRNAs and their promoters has been constrained by the limited sensitivity of prior microRNA quantification methods. Here, we determine the entire microRNAome of three endoderm-derived tissues, liver, jejunum and pancreas, using ultra-high throughput sequencing. Although many microRNA genes are expressed at comparable levels, 162 microRNAs exhibited striking tissue-specificity. After...

  8. Concordance of gene expression in human protein complexes reveals tissue specificity and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnigen, Daniela; Pers, Tune Hannes; Thorrez, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing variants in human genes usually lead to phenotypes specific to only a few tissues. Here, we present a method for predicting tissue specificity based on quantitative deregulation of protein complexes. The underlying assumption is that the degree of coordinated expression among prot...

  9. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  10. Tissue Specific Roles of Dynein Light Chain 1 in Regulating Germ Cell Apoptosis in Ceanorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Tine Hørning

    2015-01-01

    in the etiology of many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Several of the first genes found to regulate apoptosis were discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this project, two different and tissue specific roles of C. elegans dynein light chain 1...

  11. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    -specific phosphorylation sites were identified in tissue-specific enzymes such as those encoded by HMGCS2, BDH1, PCK2, CPS1, and OTC in liver mitochondria, and CKMT2 and CPT1B in heart and skeletal muscle. Kinase prediction showed an important role for PKA and PKC in all tissues but also for proline-directed kinases......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...... of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including...

  12. Analysis of tissue-specific region in sericin 1 gene promoter of Bombyx mori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lian, Yu [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xiuyang, Guo [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Tingqing, Guo [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shengpeng, Wang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Changde, Lu [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2006-03-31

    The gene encoding sericin 1 (Ser1) of silkworm (Bombyx mori) is specifically expressed in the middle silk gland cells. To identify element involved in this transcription-dependent spatial restriction, truncation of the 5' terminal from the sericin 1 (Ser1) promoter is studied in vivo. A 209 bp DNA sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site (-586 to -378) is found to be responsible for promoting tissue-specific transcription. Analysis of this 209 bp region by overlapping deletion studies showed that a 25 bp region (-500 to -476) suppresses the ectopic expression of the Ser1 promoter. An unknown factor abundant in fat body nuclear extracts is shown to bind to this 25 bp fragment. These results suggest that this 25 bp region and the unknown factor are necessary for determining the tissue-specificity of the Ser1 promoter.

  13. Tissue-Specific Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Expression and Metabolic Effects of Telmisartan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2013), s. 829-835 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : telmisartan * metabolic effects * tissue-specific Pparg knockout mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.402, year: 2013

  14. Species and tissues specific differentiation of processed animal proteins in aquafeeds using proteomics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, J D; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Fumière, O; Mauro, S; Palmblad, M; Raes, M; Berntssen, M H G

    2016-09-16

    The rapidly growing aquaculture industry drives the search for sustainable protein sources in fish feed. In the European Union (EU) since 2013 non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAP) are again permitted to be used in aquafeeds. To ensure that commercial fish feeds do not contain PAP from prohibited species, EU reference methods were established. However, due to the heterogeneous and complex nature of PAP complementary methods are required to guarantee the safe use of this fish feed ingredient. In addition, there is a need for tissue specific PAP detection to identify the sources (i.e. bovine carcass, blood, or meat) of illegal PAP use. In the present study, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols on different proteomics platforms for the detection and differentiation of prohibited PAP. In addition, we assessed if tissue specific PAP detection was feasible using proteomics tools. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation gel-based proteomics tools were inappropriate when working with PAP. Gel-free shotgun proteomics approaches in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to provide quality species and tissue specific data to complement and refine current methods of PAP detection and identification. To guarantee the safe use of processed animal protein (PAP) in aquafeeds efficient PAP detection and monitoring tools are required. The present study investigated and compared various proteomics workflows and shows that the application of shotgun proteomics in combination with direct comparison of spectral libraries provides for the desired species and tissue specific classification of this heat sterilized and pressure treated (≥133°C, at 3bar for 20min) protein feed ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  16. Pyrosequencing data reveals tissue-specific expression of lineage-specific transcripts in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a very important crop legume plant, which provides a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets and has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Despite its economic importance, the functional genomic resources for chickpea are very limited. Recently, we reported the complete transcriptome of chickpea using next generation sequencing technologies. We analyzed the tissue-specific expression of chickpea transcripts based on RNA-seq data. In addition, we identified two sets of lin...

  17. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  20. Thyroid Hormone Effects on Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis and Tissue-Specific Fatty Acid Uptake in Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, Lars P.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (TH) status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific substrate supply in vivo are incompletely understood. To study the effects of TH status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific fatty acid (FA) fluxes, we used metabolic cages as well as C-14-labeled FA and

  1. CpG Methylation Analysis—Current Status of Clinical Assays and Potential Applications in Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Jones, Dan; Ogino, Shuji; Samowitz, Wade; Gulley, Margaret L.; Edwards, Robin; Levenson, Victor; Pratt, Victoria M.; Yang, Bin; Nafa, Khedoudja; Yan, Liying; Vitazka, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in gene promoter regions is a major molecular mechanism of gene silencing and underlies both cancer development and progression. In molecular oncology, testing for the CpG methylation of tissue DNA has emerged as a clinically useful tool for tumor detection, outcome prediction, and treatment selection, as well as for assessing the efficacy of treatment with the use of demethylating agents and monitoring for tumor recurrence. In addition, because CpG methylation occurs early in pre-neoplastic tissues, methylation tests may be useful as markers of cancer risk in patients with either infectious or inflammatory conditions. The Methylation Working Group of the Clinical Practice Committee of the Association of Molecular Pathology has reviewed the current state of clinical testing in this area. We report here our summary of both the advantages and disadvantages of various methods, as well as the needs for standardization and reporting. We then conclude by summarizing the most promising areas for future clinical testing in cancer molecular diagnostics. PMID:19541921

  2. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Deik, Amy; Fossale, Elisa; Weston, Rory M.; Guide, Jolene R.; Arjomand, Jamshid; Kwak, Seung; Clish, Clary B.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2015-01-01

    The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington’s Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue), using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219) in the striatum to 12% (25/212) in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219) of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224) in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and most evident

  3. Diet-induced obesity alters protein synthesis: Tissue-specific effects in fasted vs. fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stephanie R.; Gilge, Danielle A.; Steiber, Alison L.; Previs, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of obesity on protein dynamics is not clearly understood. We have designed experiments to test the hypothesis that obesity impairs the stimulation of tissue-specific protein synthesis following nutrient ingestion. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into two groups: group 1 (control, n = 16) were fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and group 2 (experimental, n = 16) were fed a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet ad libitum for 9 weeks. On the experiment day, all mice were fasted for 6 h...

  4. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Carroll

    Full Text Available The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington's Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue, using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219 in the striatum to 12% (25/212 in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219 of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224 in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and

  5. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  6. Poliovirus intrahost evolution is required to overcome tissue-specific innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghong; Dolan, Patrick Timothy; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Li, Min; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2017-08-29

    RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, have a great evolutionary capacity, allowing them to quickly adapt and overcome challenges encountered during infection. Here we show that poliovirus infection in immune-competent mice requires adaptation to tissue-specific innate immune microenvironments. The ability of the virus to establish robust infection and virulence correlates with its evolutionary capacity. We further identify a region in the multi-functional poliovirus protein 2B as a hotspot for the accumulation of minor alleles that facilitate a more effective suppression of the interferon response. We propose that population genetic dynamics enables poliovirus spread between tissues through optimization of the genetic composition of low frequency variants, which together cooperate to circumvent tissue-specific challenges. Thus, intrahost virus evolution determines pathogenesis, allowing a dynamic regulation of viral functions required to overcome barriers to infection.RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, have a great evolutionary capacity and can adapt quickly during infection. Here, the authors show that poliovirus infection in mice requires adaptation to innate immune microenvironments encountered in different tissues.

  7. Comparative analysis of chromatin landscape in regulatory regions of human housekeeping and tissue specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Dipayan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global regulatory mechanisms involving chromatin assembly and remodelling in the promoter regions of genes is implicated in eukaryotic transcription control especially for genes subjected to spatial and temporal regulation. The potential to utilise global regulatory mechanisms for controlling gene expression might depend upon the architecture of the chromatin in and around the gene. In-silico analysis can yield important insights into this aspect, facilitating comparison of two or more classes of genes comprising of a large number of genes within each group. Results In the present study, we carried out a comparative analysis of chromatin characteristics in terms of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions, nucleosome formation potential and the occurrence of repetitive sequences, in the upstream regulatory regions of housekeeping and tissue specific genes. Our data show that putative scaffold/matrix attachment regions are more abundant and nucleosome formation potential is higher in the 5' regions of tissue specific genes as compared to the housekeeping genes. Conclusion The differences in the chromatin features between the two groups of genes indicate the involvement of chromatin organisation in the control of gene expression. The presence of global regulatory mechanisms mediated through chromatin organisation can decrease the burden of invoking gene specific regulators for maintenance of the active/silenced state of gene expression. This could partially explain the lower number of genes estimated in the human genome.

  8. Screening in larval zebrafish reveals tissue-specific distribution of fifteen fluorescent compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish is a prominent vertebrate model for low-cost in vivo whole organism screening. In our recent screening of the distribution patterns of fluorescent compounds in live zebrafish larvae, fifteen compounds with tissue-specific distributions were identified. Several compounds were observed to accumulate in tissues where they were reported to induce side-effects, and compounds with similar structures tended to be enriched in the same tissues, with minor differences. In particular, we found three novel red fluorescent bone-staining dyes: purpurin, lucidin and 3-hydroxy-morindone; purpurin can effectively label bones in both larval and adult zebrafish, as well as in postnatal mice, without significantly affecting bone mass and density. Moreover, two structurally similar chemotherapeutic compounds, doxorubicin and epirubicin, were observed to have distinct distribution preferences in zebrafish. Epirubicin maintained a relatively higher concentration in the liver, and performed better in inhibiting hepatic hyperplasia caused by the over-expression of krasG12V. In total, our study suggests that the transparent zebrafish larvae serve as valuable tools for identifying tissue-specific distributions of fluorescent compounds.

  9. Laminar shear stress modulates endothelial luminal surface stiffness in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merna, Nick; Wong, Andrew K; Barahona, Victor; Llanos, Pierre; Kunar, Balvir; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2018-04-17

    Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm 2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness. Lung endothelial cells aligned parallel to flow, while cardiac endothelial cells did not. This rapid alignment was accompanied by increased cell stiffness. The addition of arachidonic acid to cardiac endothelial cells increased alignment and stiffness in response to shear stress. Inhibition of arachidonic acid in lung endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells prevented cellular alignment and decreased cell stiffness. Our findings suggest that increased endothelial luminal surface stiffness in microvascular cells may facilitate mechanotransduction and alignment in response to laminar shear stress. Furthermore, the arachidonic acid pathway may mediate this tissue-specific process. An improved understanding of this response will aid in the treatment of organ-specific vascular disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  11. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  12. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

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    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  13. Tissue-specific regulation of BMP signaling by Drosophila N-glycanase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Antonio; Han, Seung Yeop; Huang, Chengcheng; Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2017-08-04

    Mutations in the human N- glycanase 1 ( NGLY1 ) cause a rare, multisystem congenital disorder with global developmental delay. However, the mechanisms by which NGLY1 and its homologs regulate embryonic development are not known. Here we show that Drosophila Pngl encodes an N -glycanase and exhibits a high degree of functional conservation with human NGLY1. Loss of Pngl results in developmental midgut defects reminiscent of midgut-specific loss of BMP signaling. Pngl mutant larvae also exhibit a severe midgut clearance defect, which cannot be fully explained by impaired BMP signaling. Genetic experiments indicate that Pngl is primarily required in the mesoderm during Drosophila development. Loss of Pngl results in a severe decrease in the level of Dpp homodimers and abolishes BMP autoregulation in the visceral mesoderm mediated by Dpp and Tkv homodimers. Thus, our studies uncover a novel mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway by an N -glycanase enzyme.

  14. Synovium-derived stem cells: a tissue-specific stem cell for cartilage engineering and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendan A; Pei, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Articular cartilage is difficult to heal once injury or disease occurs. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation is a biological treatment with good prognosis, but donor site morbidity and limited cell source are disadvantages. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising approach for cartilage regeneration. Despite there being various sources, the best candidate for cartilage regeneration is the one with the greatest chondrogenic potential and the least hypertrophic differentiation. These properties are able to insure that the regenerated tissue is hyaline cartilage of high quality. This review article will summarize relevant literature to justify synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) as a tissue-specific stem cell for chondrogenesis by comparing synovium and cartilage with respect to anatomical location and functional structure, comparing the growth characterization and chondrogenic capacity of SDSCs and MSCs, evaluating the application of SDSCs in regenerative medicine and diseases, and discussing potential future directions.

  15. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes...... involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LOTS). We integrated the LOTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LOTS protein...... network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy...

  16. Co-expression networks reveal the tissue-specific regulation of transcription and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ashis; Kim, Yungil; Gewirtz, Ariel D H; Jo, Brian; Gao, Chuan; McDowell, Ian C; Engelhardt, Barbara E; Battle, Alexis

    2017-11-01

    Gene co-expression networks capture biologically important patterns in gene expression data, enabling functional analyses of genes, discovery of biomarkers, and interpretation of genetic variants. Most network analyses to date have been limited to assessing correlation between total gene expression levels in a single tissue or small sets of tissues. Here, we built networks that additionally capture the regulation of relative isoform abundance and splicing, along with tissue-specific connections unique to each of a diverse set of tissues. We used the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project v6 RNA sequencing data across 50 tissues and 449 individuals. First, we developed a framework called Transcriptome-Wide Networks (TWNs) for combining total expression and relative isoform levels into a single sparse network, capturing the interplay between the regulation of splicing and transcription. We built TWNs for 16 tissues and found that hubs in these networks were strongly enriched for splicing and RNA binding genes, demonstrating their utility in unraveling regulation of splicing in the human transcriptome. Next, we used a Bayesian biclustering model that identifies network edges unique to a single tissue to reconstruct Tissue-Specific Networks (TSNs) for 26 distinct tissues and 10 groups of related tissues. Finally, we found genetic variants associated with pairs of adjacent nodes in our networks, supporting the estimated network structures and identifying 20 genetic variants with distant regulatory impact on transcription and splicing. Our networks provide an improved understanding of the complex relationships of the human transcriptome across tissues. © 2017 Saha et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Successful adaptation to ketosis by mice with tissue-specific deficiency of ketone body oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Schugar, Rebecca C; Wentz, Anna E; d'Avignon, D André; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-02-15

    During states of low carbohydrate intake, mammalian ketone body metabolism transfers energy substrates originally derived from fatty acyl chains within the liver to extrahepatic organs. We previously demonstrated that the mitochondrial enzyme coenzyme A (CoA) transferase [succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), encoded by nuclear Oxct1] is required for oxidation of ketone bodies and that germline SCOT-knockout (KO) mice die within 48 h of birth because of hyperketonemic hypoglycemia. Here, we use novel transgenic and tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice to demonstrate that ketone bodies do not serve an obligate energetic role within highly ketolytic tissues during the ketogenic neonatal period or during starvation in the adult. Although transgene-mediated restoration of myocardial CoA transferase in germline SCOT-KO mice is insufficient to prevent lethal hyperketonemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, mice lacking CoA transferase selectively within neurons, cardiomyocytes, or skeletal myocytes are all viable as neonates. Like germline SCOT-KO neonatal mice, neonatal mice with neuronal CoA transferase deficiency exhibit increased cerebral glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and, while these neonatal mice exhibit modest hyperketonemia, they do not develop hypoglycemia. As adults, tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice tolerate starvation, exhibiting only modestly increased hyperketonemia. Finally, metabolic analysis of adult germline Oxct1(+/-) mice demonstrates that global diminution of ketone body oxidation yields hyperketonemia, but hypoglycemia emerges only during a protracted state of low carbohydrate intake. Together, these data suggest that, at the tissue level, ketone bodies are not a required energy substrate in the newborn period or during starvation, but rather that integrated ketone body metabolism mediates adaptation to ketogenic nutrient states.

  18. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  19. Depleted uranium induces sex- and tissue-specific methylation patterns in adult zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kewin; Pereira, Sandrine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalie, Isabelle; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to different concentrations (2 and 20 μg L"−"1) of environmentally relevant waterborne depleted uranium (DU) on the DNA methylation patterns both at HpaII restriction sites (5′-CCGG-3′) and across the whole genome in the zebrafish brain, gonads, and eyes. We first identified sex-dependent differences in the methylation level of HpaII sites after exposure. In males, these effects were present as early as 7 days after exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU, and were even more pronounced in the brain, gonads, and eyes after 24 days. However, in females, hypomethylation was only observed in the gonads after exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU for 24 days. Sex-specific effects of DU were also apparent at the whole-genome level, because in males, exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU for 24 days resulted in cytosine hypermethylation in the brain and eyes and hypomethylation in the gonads. In contrast, in females, hypermethylation was observed in the brain after exposure to both concentrations of DU for 7 days. Based on our current knowledge of uranium toxicity, several hypotheses are proposed to explain these findings, including the involvement of oxidative stress, alteration of demethylation enzymes and the calcium signaling pathway. This study reports, for the first time, the sex- and tissue-specific epigenetic changes that occur in a nonhuman organism after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium, which could induce transgenerational epigenetic effects. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates a sex-related effect of DU exposure on DNA methylation patterns. • Impacts on DNA methylation patterns revealed a tissue-specific effect of DU exposure. • The MS–AFLP and HPLC–MS/MS sensitively and complementarily demonstrated the responses to environmental concentrations of DU.

  20. Tissue- Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars

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    Sha Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan73, a teinturier (dyer grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73 or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3′5′H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3′5′-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.

  1. Tissue specificity of the hormonal response in sex accessory tissues is associated with nuclear matrix protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzenberg, R H; Coffey, D S

    1990-09-01

    The DNA of interphase nuclei have very specific three-dimensional organizations that are different in different cell types, and it is possible that this varying DNA organization is responsible for the tissue specificity of gene expression. The nuclear matrix organizes the three-dimensional structure of the DNA and is believed to be involved in the control of gene expression. This study compares the nuclear structural proteins between two sex accessory tissues in the same animal responding to the same androgen stimulation by the differential expression of major tissue-specific secretory proteins. We demonstrate here that the nuclear matrix is tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, and undergoes characteristic alterations in its protein composition upon androgen withdrawal. Three types of nuclear matrix proteins were observed: 1) nuclear matrix proteins that are different and tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, 2) a set of nuclear matrix proteins that either appear or disappear upon androgen withdrawal, and 3) a set of proteins that are common to both the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle and do not change with the hormonal state of the animal. Since the nuclear matrix is known to bind androgen receptors in a tissue- and steroid-specific manner, we propose that the tissue specificity of the nuclear matrix arranges the DNA in a unique conformation, which may be involved in the specific interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences, resulting in tissue-specific patterns of secretory protein expression.

  2. Development of a GAL4-VP16/UAS trans-activation system for tissue specific expression in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Sevin-Pujol

    Full Text Available Promoters with tissue-specific activity are very useful to address cell-autonomous and non cell autonomous functions of candidate genes. Although this strategy is widely used in Arabidopsis thaliana, its use to study tissue-specific regulation of root symbiotic interactions in legumes has only started recently. Moreover, using tissue specific promoter activity to drive a GAL4-VP16 chimeric transcription factor that can bind short upstream activation sequences (UAS is an efficient way to target and enhance the expression of any gene of interest. Here, we developed a collection of promoters with different root cell layers specific activities in Medicago truncatula and tested their abilities to drive the expression of a chimeric GAL4-VP16 transcription factor in a trans-activation UAS: β-Glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene system. By developing a binary vector devoted to modular Golden Gate cloning together with a collection of adapted tissue specific promoters and coding sequences we could test the activity of four of these promoters in trans-activation GAL4/UAS systems and compare them to "classical" promoter GUS fusions. Roots showing high levels of tissue specific expression of the GUS activity could be obtained with this trans-activation system. We therefore provide the legume community with new tools for efficient modular Golden Gate cloning, tissue specific expression and a trans-activation system. This study provides the ground work for future development of stable transgenic lines in Medicago truncatula.

  3. CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.; Lioznova, Anna V.; Artemov, Artem V.; Ramensky, Vasily; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in regulation of gene expression. Although modern methods profile DNA methylation at single CpG sites, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream analyses. In this study we demonstrate that single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression compared to average promoter / gene body methylation. CpG positions with significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby (named CpG traffic lights) are evolutionary conserved and enriched for exact TSS positions and active enhancers. Among all promoter types, CpG traffic lights are especially enriched in poised promoters. Genes that harbor CpG traffic lights are associated with development and signal transduction. Methylation levels of individual CpG traffic lights vary between cell types dramatically with the increased frequency of intermediate methylation levels, indicating cell population heterogeneity in CpG methylation levels. Being in line with the concept of the inherited stochastic epigenetic variation, methylation of such CpG positions might contribute to transcriptional regulation. Alternatively, one can hypothesize that traffic lights are markers of absent gene expression resulting from inactivation of their regulatory elements. The CpG traffic lights provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to expression.

  4. CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2016-12-29

    DNA methylation is involved in regulation of gene expression. Although modern methods profile DNA methylation at single CpG sites, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream analyses. In this study we demonstrate that single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression compared to average promoter / gene body methylation. CpG positions with significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby (named CpG traffic lights) are evolutionary conserved and enriched for exact TSS positions and active enhancers. Among all promoter types, CpG traffic lights are especially enriched in poised promoters. Genes that harbor CpG traffic lights are associated with development and signal transduction. Methylation levels of individual CpG traffic lights vary between cell types dramatically with the increased frequency of intermediate methylation levels, indicating cell population heterogeneity in CpG methylation levels. Being in line with the concept of the inherited stochastic epigenetic variation, methylation of such CpG positions might contribute to transcriptional regulation. Alternatively, one can hypothesize that traffic lights are markers of absent gene expression resulting from inactivation of their regulatory elements. The CpG traffic lights provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to expression.

  5. Immortalization of T-Cells Is Accompanied by Gradual Changes in CpG Methylation Resulting in a Profile Resembling a Subset of T-Cell Leukemias

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    Sofie Degerman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs, islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis.

  6. Immortalization of T-cells is accompanied by gradual changes in CpG methylation resulting in a profile resembling a subset of T-cell leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerman, Sofie; Landfors, Mattias; Siwicki, Jan Konrad; Revie, John; Borssén, Magnus; Evelönn, Emma; Forestier, Erik; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Rydén, Patrik; Keith, W Nicol; Roos, Göran

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs), islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endometrial natural killer (NK) cells reveal a tissue-specific receptor repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyaerts, D; Kuret, T; van Cranenbroek, B; van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, S; van der Heijden, O W H; van der Meer, A; Joosten, I; van der Molen, R G

    2018-02-13

    Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific? The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus. NK cells are important for successful pregnancy. After implantation, NK cells encounter extravillous trophoblast cells and regulate trophoblast invasion. NK cell activity is amongst others regulated by C-type lectin heterodimer (CD94/NKG2) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors. KIR expression on decidual NK cells is affected by the presence of maternal HLA-C and biased towards KIR2D expression. However, little is known about NKR expression on eNK cells prior to pregnancy. In this study, matched peripheral and menstrual blood (a source of endometrial cells) was obtained from 25 healthy females with regular menstrual cycles. Menstrual blood was collected during the first 36 h of menstruation using a menstrual cup, a non-invasive technique to obtain endometrial cells. KIR and NKG2 receptor expression on eNK cells was characterized by 10-color flow cytometry, and compared to matched pbNK cells of the same female. KIR and HLA-C genotypes were determined by PCR-SSOP techniques. Anti-CMV IgG antibodies in plasma were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. KIR expression patterns of eNK cells collected from the same female do not differ over consecutive menstrual cycles. The percentage of NK cells expressing KIR2DL2/L3/S2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL1, LILRB1 and/or NKG2A was significantly higher in eNK cells compared to pbNK cells, while no significant difference was observed for NKG2C, KIR2DL1/S1, and KIR3DL1. The NKR repertoire of eNK cells was clearly different from pbNK cells, with eNK cells co-expressing more than three NKR simultaneously. In addition, outlier analysis revealed 8 and 15 NKR

  8. Tissue-specific MR contrast agents. Impact on imaging diagnosis and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Kakihara, Daisuke; Irie, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Asayama, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Honda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) is the only tissue-specific MR agent currently available in Japan. It is quickly taken up by Kupffer cells at the first pass (either arterial or portal) and becomes clustered in the lysosome, providing characteristic T2 * and T2 shortening effects that suppresses the signal of normal or non-tumorous liver tissue. SPIO has dramatically changed the diagnostic algorithm of liver metastasis in clinical practice, now serving as the gold standard instead of CT during arterial portography (CTAP). Its role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, is somewhat complicated, owing to its heterogeneous uptake by the background cirrhotic liver, as well as by some of the HCCs themselves. It has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of pseudolesions (arterioportal shunts) and some benign hepatocellular lesions (focal nodular hyperplasia or adenoma) by their complete or partial uptake of SPIO, in contrast to an absence of uptake by true liver lesions. It has also been suggested that the histological grade of HCC affects the degree of SPIO uptake. Thus, SPIO serves as a complementary tool to the primary modalities of vascular survey, namely, dynamic CT/MR and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA)/CTAP, in the diagnosis of HCC. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a novel hepatobiliary contrast agent that is not yet available but is supposed to be approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan in the near future. It is taken up by hepatocytes and excreted into the bile, providing a T1-shortening effect that enhances the normal or non-tumorous liver tissue. It has also been shown to have the effect of positive enhancement of hypervascular liver tumors on the arterial phase, just like the usual extracellular contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine: Gd-DTPA). Thus, Gd-EOB-DTPA was once thought to be an ideal contrast agent for liver tumors, providing information on both

  9. Whole-organ isolation approach as a basis for tissue-specific analyses in Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Steffen Hahnel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, second only to malaria. Schistosomes exhibit an exceptional reproductive biology since the sexual maturation of the female, which includes the differentiation of the reproductive organs, is controlled by pairing. Pathogenicity originates from eggs, which cause severe inflammation in their hosts. Elucidation of processes contributing to female maturation is not only of interest to basic science but also considering novel concepts combating schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To get direct access to the reproductive organs, we established a novel protocol using a combined detergent/protease-treatment removing the tegument and the musculature of adult Schistosoma mansoni. All steps were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and bright-field microscopy (BF. We focused on the gonads of adult schistosomes and demonstrated that isolated and purified testes and ovaries can be used for morphological and structural studies as well as sources for RNA and protein of sufficient amounts for subsequent analyses such as RT-PCR and immunoblotting. To this end, first exemplary evidence was obtained for tissue-specific transcription within the gonads (axonemal dynein intermediate chain gene SmAxDynIC; aquaporin gene SmAQP as well as for post-transcriptional regulation (SmAQP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presented method provides a new way of getting access to tissue-specific material of S. mansoni. With regard to many still unanswered questions of schistosome biology, such as elucidating the molecular processes involved in schistosome reproduction, this protocol provides opportunities for, e.g., sub-transcriptomics and sub-proteomics at the organ level. This will promote the characterisation of gene-expression profiles, or more specifically to complete knowledge of signalling pathways contributing to differentiation processes, so discovering involved

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of tissue specific transcriptomes in the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Troy J; Place, Sean P

    2013-11-20

    The notothenioids comprise a diverse group of fishes that rapidly radiated after isolation by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current approximately 14-25 million years ago. Given that evolutionary adaptation has led to finely tuned traits with narrow physiological limits in these organisms, this system provides a unique opportunity to examine physiological trade-offs and limits of adaptive responses to environmental perturbation. As such, notothenioids have a rich history with respect to studies attempting to understand the vulnerability of polar ecosystems to the negative impacts associated with global climate change. Unfortunately, despite being a model system for understanding physiological adaptations to extreme environments, we still lack fundamental molecular tools for much of the Nototheniidae family. Specimens of the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii, were acclimated for 28 days in flow-through seawater tanks maintained near ambient seawater temperatures (-1.5°C) or at +4°C. Following acclimation, tissue specific cDNA libraries for liver, gill and brain were created by pooling RNA from n = 5 individuals per temperature treatment. The tissue specific libraries were bar-coded and used for 454 pyrosequencing, which yielded over 700 thousand sequencing reads. A de novo assembly and annotation of these reads produced a functional transcriptome library of T. bernacchii containing 30,107 unigenes, 13,003 of which possessed significant homology to a known protein product. Digital gene expression analysis of these extremely cold adapted fish reinforced the loss of an inducible heat shock response and allowed the preliminary exploration into other elements of the cellular stress response. Preliminary exploration of the transcriptome of T. bernacchii under elevated temperatures enabled a semi-quantitative comparison to prior studies aimed at characterizing the thermal response of this endemic fish whose size, abundance and distribution has established it as a

  11. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, Jana; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Gondois-Rey, F.; Halfon, P.; Philibert, P.; Guiguen, A.; Verdin, E.; Olive, D.; Van Lint, C.; Hejnar, Jiří; Hirsch, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2009), e1000554-e1000554 E-ISSN 1553-7374 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0939; GA ČR GP204/08/P616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 * proviral latency * CpG methylation * histone modifications * HAART * epigenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.978, year: 2009

  12. Regulating expressin of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, Roger N. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Dai, Shunhong [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Our research supported by this program has led to the identification of rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 that play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV) through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter. RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants and to improve biofuel feedstock.

  13. Tissue-Specific Ablation of Prkar1a Causes Schwannomas by Suppressing Neurofibromatosis Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette N. Jones

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling events leading to Schwann cell tumor initiation have been extensively characterized in the context of neurofibromatosis (NF. Similar tumors are also observed in patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are not well characterized. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a in neural crest precursor cells (TEC3KO mice causes schwannomas with nearly 80% penetrance by 10 months. These heterogeneous neoplasms were clinically characterized as genetically engineered mouse schwannomas, grades II and III. At the molecular level, analysis of the tumors revealed almost complete loss of both NF proteins, despite the fact that transcript levels were increased, implying posttranscriptional regulation. Although Erk and Akt signaling are typically enhanced in NF-associated tumors, we observed no activation of either of these pathways in TEC3KO tumors. Furthermore, the small G proteins Ras, Rac1, and RhoA are all known to be involved with NF signaling. In TEC3KO tumors, all three molecules showed modest increases in total protein, but only Rac1 showed significant activation. These data suggest that dysregulated protein kinase A activation causes tumorigenesis through pathways that overlap but are distinct from those described in NF tumorigenesis.

  14. Knowledge Enrichment Analysis for Human Tissue- Specific Genes Uncover New Biological Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiu-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression and regulation of genes in different tissues are fundamental questions to be answered in biology. Knowledge enrichment analysis for tissue specific (TS and housekeeping (HK genes may help identify their roles in biological process or diseases and gain new biological insights.In this paper, we performed the knowledge enrichment analysis for 17,343 genes in 84 human tissues using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and Hypergeometric Analysis (HA against three biological ontologies: Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways and Disease Ontology (DO respectively.The analyses results demonstrated that the functions of most gene groups are consistent with their tissue origins. Meanwhile three interesting new associations for HK genes and the skeletal muscle tissuegenes are found. Firstly, Hypergeometric analysis against KEGG database for HK genes disclosed that three disease terms (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease are intensively enriched.Secondly, Hypergeometric analysis against the KEGG database for Skeletal Muscle tissue genes shows that two cardiac diseases of “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM” and “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC” are heavily enriched, which are also considered as no relationship with skeletal functions.Thirdly, “Prostate cancer” is intensively enriched in Hypergeometric analysis against the disease ontology (DO for the Skeletal Muscle tissue genes, which is a much unexpected phenomenon.

  15. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Sanchez, Angélica B; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR) and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  16. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  17. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  18. Tissue-specific 5' heterogeneity of PPARα transcripts and their differential regulation by leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S Garratt

    Full Text Available The genes encoding nuclear receptors comprise multiple 5'untranslated exons, which give rise to several transcripts encoding the same protein, allowing tissue-specific regulation of expression. Both human and mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α genes have multiple promoters, although their function is unknown. Here we have characterised the rat PPARα promoter region and have identified three alternative PPARα transcripts, which have different transcription start sites owing to the utilisation of distinct first exons. Moreover these alternative PPARα transcripts were differentially expressed between adipose tissue and liver. We show that while the major adipose (P1 and liver (P2 transcripts were both induced by dexamethasone, they were differentially regulated by the PPARα agonist, clofibric acid, and leptin. Leptin had no effect on the adipose-specific P1 transcript, but induced liver-specific P2 promoter activity via a STAT3/Sp1 mechanism. Moreover in Wistar rats, leptin treatment between postnatal day 3-13 led to an increase in P2 but not P1 transcription in adipose tissue which was sustained into adulthood. This suggests that the expression of the alternative PPARα transcripts are in part programmed by early life exposure to leptin leading to persistent change in adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism through specific activation of a quiescent PPARα promoter. Such complexity in the regulation of PPARα may allow the expression of PPARα to be finely regulated in response to environmental factors.

  19. Tissue-Specific 5′ Heterogeneity of PPARα Transcripts and Their Differential Regulation by Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Emma S.; Vickers, Mark H.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Hanson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The genes encoding nuclear receptors comprise multiple 5′untranslated exons, which give rise to several transcripts encoding the same protein, allowing tissue-specific regulation of expression. Both human and mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α genes have multiple promoters, although their function is unknown. Here we have characterised the rat PPARα promoter region and have identified three alternative PPARα transcripts, which have different transcription start sites owing to the utilisation of distinct first exons. Moreover these alternative PPARα transcripts were differentially expressed between adipose tissue and liver. We show that while the major adipose (P1) and liver (P2) transcripts were both induced by dexamethasone, they were differentially regulated by the PPARα agonist, clofibric acid, and leptin. Leptin had no effect on the adipose-specific P1 transcript, but induced liver-specific P2 promoter activity via a STAT3/Sp1 mechanism. Moreover in Wistar rats, leptin treatment between postnatal day 3–13 led to an increase in P2 but not P1 transcription in adipose tissue which was sustained into adulthood. This suggests that the expression of the alternative PPARα transcripts are in part programmed by early life exposure to leptin leading to persistent change in adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism through specific activation of a quiescent PPARα promoter. Such complexity in the regulation of PPARα may allow the expression of PPARα to be finely regulated in response to environmental factors. PMID:23825665

  20. Fusarium oxysporum Triggers Tissue-Specific Transcriptional Reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Rusu, Anca; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most devastating agricultural diseases are caused by root-infecting pathogens, yet the majority of studies on these interactions to date have focused on the host responses of aerial tissues rather than those belowground. Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting pathogen that causes wilt disease on several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. To investigate and compare transcriptional changes triggered by F. oxysporum in different Arabidopsis tissues, we infected soil-grown plants with F. oxysporum and subjected root and leaf tissue harvested at early and late timepoints to RNA-seq analyses. At least half of the genes induced or repressed by F. oxysporum showed tissue-specific regulation. Regulators of auxin and ABA signalling, mannose binding lectins and peroxidases showed strong differential expression in root tissue. We demonstrate that ARF2 and PRX33, two genes regulated in the roots, promote susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In the leaves, defensins and genes associated with the response to auxin, cold and senescence were strongly regulated while jasmonate biosynthesis and signalling genes were induced throughout the plant. PMID:25849296

  1. Fusarium oxysporum triggers tissue-specific transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lyons

    Full Text Available Some of the most devastating agricultural diseases are caused by root-infecting pathogens, yet the majority of studies on these interactions to date have focused on the host responses of aerial tissues rather than those belowground. Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting pathogen that causes wilt disease on several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. To investigate and compare transcriptional changes triggered by F. oxysporum in different Arabidopsis tissues, we infected soil-grown plants with F. oxysporum and subjected root and leaf tissue harvested at early and late timepoints to RNA-seq analyses. At least half of the genes induced or repressed by F. oxysporum showed tissue-specific regulation. Regulators of auxin and ABA signalling, mannose binding lectins and peroxidases showed strong differential expression in root tissue. We demonstrate that ARF2 and PRX33, two genes regulated in the roots, promote susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In the leaves, defensins and genes associated with the response to auxin, cold and senescence were strongly regulated while jasmonate biosynthesis and signalling genes were induced throughout the plant.

  2. Nuclear factor 1 regulates adipose tissue-specific expression in the mouse GLUT4 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Shinji; Tsunoda, Nobuyo; Ikeda, Shinobu; Kai, Yuko; Cooke, David W.; Lane, M. Daniel; Ezaki, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that an adipose tissue-specific element(s) (ASE) of the murine GLUT4 gene is located between -551 and -506 in the 5'-flanking sequence and that a high-fat responsive element(s) for down-regulation of the GLUT4 gene is located between bases -701 and -552. A binding site for nuclear factor 1 (NF1), that mediates insulin and cAMP-induced repression of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is located between bases -700 and -688. To examine the role of NF1 in the regulation of GLUT4 gene expression in white adipose tissues (WAT) in vivo, we created two types of transgenic mice harboring mutated either 5' or 3' half-site of NF1-binding sites in GLUT4 minigene constructs. In both cases, the GLUT4 minigene was not expressed in WAT, while expression was maintained in brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart. This was an unexpected finding, since a -551 GLUT4 minigene that did not have the NF1-binding site was expressed in WAT. We propose a model that explains the requirement for both the ASE and the NF1-binding site for expression of GLUT4 in WAT

  3. ChIP-seq Accurately Predicts Tissue-Specific Activity of Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Blow, Matthew J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-01

    A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover since they are scattered amongst the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300, followed by massively-parallel sequencing, to map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain, and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases revealed reproducible enhancer activity in those tissues predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities and suggest that such datasets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.

  4. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  5. Profound Tissue Specificity in Proliferation Control Underlies Cancer Drivers and Aneuploidy Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Laura Magill; Davoli, Teresa; Li, Mamie Z; Li, Yuyang; Xu, Qikai; Naxerova, Kamila; Wooten, Eric C; Bernardi, Ronald J; Martin, Timothy D; Chen, Ting; Leng, Yumei; Liang, Anthony C; Scorsone, Kathleen A; Westbrook, Thomas F; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Elledge, Stephen J

    2018-04-05

    Genomics has provided a detailed structural description of the cancer genome. Identifying oncogenic drivers that work primarily through dosage changes is a current challenge. Unrestrained proliferation is a critical hallmark of cancer. We constructed modular, barcoded libraries of human open reading frames (ORFs) and performed screens for proliferation regulators in multiple cell types. Approximately 10% of genes regulate proliferation, with most performing in an unexpectedly highly tissue-specific manner. Proliferation drivers in a given cell type showed specific enrichment in somatic copy number changes (SCNAs) from cognate tumors and helped predict aneuploidy patterns in those tumors, implying that tissue-type-specific genetic network architectures underlie SCNA and driver selection in different cancers. In vivo screening confirmed these results. We report a substantial contribution to the catalog of SCNA-associated cancer drivers, identifying 147 amplified and 107 deleted genes as potential drivers, and derive insights about the genetic network architecture of aneuploidy in tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Nixon, Susan J; Lo, Harriet P; Abankwa, Daniel; Luetterforst, Robert; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel; Breen, Michael R; Gygi, Steven P; Vinten, Jorgen; Walser, Piers J; North, Kathryn N; Hancock, John F; Pilch, Paul F; Parton, Robert G

    2009-06-29

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein.

  7. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% of expressed genes were constitutively active in all tissues. In contrast, deficit-responsive genes (1915) were consistently regulated in all tissues, while >75% (1501 genes) were specifically regulated in a single root tissue. Water deficit-responsive genes were most numerous in the cortex of the mature root zone and in the elongation zone. The most prominent functional categories among differentially expressed genes in all tissues were 'transcriptional regulation' and 'hormone metabolism', indicating global reprogramming of cellular metabolism as an adaptation to water deficit. Additionally, the most significant transcriptomic changes in the root tip were associated with cell wall reorganization, leading to continued root growth despite water deficit conditions. This study provides insight into tissue-specific water deficit responses and will be a resource for future genetic analyses and breeding strategies to develop more drought-tolerant maize cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-06

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body.

  9. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  10. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Michaela; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. PMID:26134165

  11. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  12. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  13. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  14. Tissue-Specific Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporters during Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Wege, Nicole; Stangl, Gabriele I.; König, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1–4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms. PMID:25390336

  15. Tissue-specific metabolic activation and mutagenicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone in MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guosheng; Gingerich, John; Soper, Lynda; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2008-10-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagen and suspected human carcinogen detected in diesel exhaust, airborne particulate matter, and urban soil. We investigated the tissue specific mutagenicity of 3-NBA at the lacZ locus of transgenic MutaMouse following acute single dose or 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. In the acute high dose (50 mg/kg) exposure, increased lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and colonic epithelium, but not in liver and bladder. In the repeated-dose study, a dose-dependent increase in lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and liver (2- and 4-fold increase above control), but not in lung or intestinal epithelium. In addition, a concentration-dependent increase in mutant frequency (8.5-fold above control) was observed for MutaMouse FE1 lung epithelial cells exposed in vitro. 1-Nitropyrene reductase, 3-NBA reductase, and acetyltransferase activities were measured in a variety of MutaMouse specimens in an effort to link metabolic activation and mutagenicity. High 3-NBA nitroreductase activities were observed in lung, liver, colon and bladder, and detectable N-acetyltransferase activities were found in all tissues except bone marrow. The relatively high 3-NBA nitroreductase activity in MutaMouse tissues, as compared with those in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, suggests that 3-NBA is readily reduced and activated in vivo. High 3-NBA nitroreductase levels in liver and colon are consistent with the elevated lacZ mutant frequency values, and previously noted inductions of hepatic DNA adducts. Despite an absence of induced lacZ mutations, the highest 3-NBA reductase activity was detected in lung. Further studies are warranted, especially following inhalation or intratracheal exposures. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A tissue-specific approach to the analysis of metabolic changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hench

    Full Text Available The majority of metabolic principles are evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. Caenorhabditis elegans has widely accelerated the discovery of new genes important to maintain organismic metabolic homeostasis. Various methods exist to assess the metabolic state in worms, yet they often require large animal numbers and tend to be performed as bulk analyses of whole worm homogenates, thereby largely precluding a detailed studies of metabolic changes in specific worm tissues. Here, we have adapted well-established histochemical methods for the use on C. elegans fresh frozen sections and demonstrate their validity for analyses of morphological and metabolic changes on tissue level in wild type and various mutant strains. We show how the worm presents on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections and demonstrate their usefulness in monitoring and the identification of morphological abnormalities. In addition, we demonstrate how Oil-Red-O staining on frozen worm cross-sections permits quantification of lipid storage, avoiding the artifact-prone fixation and permeabilization procedures of traditional whole-mount protocols. We also adjusted standard enzymatic stains for respiratory chain subunits (NADH, SDH, and COX to monitor metabolic states of various C. elegans tissues. In summary, the protocols presented here provide technical guidance to obtain robust, reproducible and quantifiable tissue-specific data on worm morphology as well as carbohydrate, lipid and mitochondrial energy metabolism that cannot be obtained through traditional biochemical bulk analyses of worm homogenates. Furthermore, analysis of worm cross-sections overcomes the common problem with quantification in three-dimensional whole-mount specimens.

  17. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  18. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. PMID:26902207

  19. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of Plutella xylostella third instar larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416 bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10(-5). Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense.As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  20. Tissue-specific methylation of human insulin gene and PCR assay for monitoring beta cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I Husseiny

    Full Text Available The onset of metabolic dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D occurs after autoimmune destruction of the majority of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. We previously demonstrated that the DNA encoding the insulin gene is uniquely unmethylated in these cells and then developed a methylation-specific PCR (MSP assay to identify circulating beta cell DNA in streptozotocin-treated mice prior to the rise in blood glucose. The current study extends to autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and humans, showing in NOD mice that beta cell death occurs six weeks before the rise in blood sugar and coincides with the onset of islet infiltration by immune cells, demonstrating the utility of MSP for monitoring T1D. We previously reported unique patterns of methylation of the human insulin gene, and now extend this to other human tissues. The methylation patterns of the human insulin promoter, intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 were determined in several normal human tissues. Similar to our previous report, the human insulin promoter was unmethylated in beta cells, but methylated in all other tissues tested. In contrast, intron 1, exon 2 and intron 2 did not exhibit any tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern. Subsequently, a human MSP assay was developed based on the methylation pattern of the insulin promoter and human islet DNA was successfully detected in circulation of T1D patients after islet transplantation therapy. Signal levels of normal controls and pre-transplant samples were shown to be similar, but increased dramatically after islet transplantation. In plasma the signal declines with time but in whole blood remains elevated for at least two weeks, indicating that association of beta cell DNA with blood cells prolongs the signal. This assay provides an effective method to monitor beta cell destruction in early T1D and in islet transplantation therapy.

  1. Tissue-specific expression and regulatory networks of pig microRNAome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the economic and medical importance of the pig, knowledge about its genome organization, gene expression regulation, and molecular mechanisms involved in physiological processes is far from that achieved for mouse and rat, the two most used model organisms in biomedical research. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a wide class of molecules that exert a recognized role in gene expression modulation, but only 280 miRNAs in pig have been characterized to date. RESULTS: We applied a novel computational approach to predict species-specific and conserved miRNAs in the pig genome, which were then subjected to experimental validation. We experimentally identified candidate miRNAs sequences grouped in high-confidence (424 and medium-confidence (353 miRNAs according to RNA-seq results. A group of miRNAs was also validated by PCR experiments. We established the subtle variability in expression of isomiRs and miRNA-miRNA star couples supporting a biological function for these molecules. Finally, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles produced from the same sample of 20 different tissue of the animal were combined, using a correlation threshold to filter miRNA-target predictions, to identify tissue-specific regulatory networks. CONCLUSIONS: Our data represent a significant progress in the current understanding of miRNAome in pig. The identification of miRNAs, their target mRNAs, and the construction of regulatory circuits will provide new insights into the complex biological networks in several tissues of this important animal model.

  2. Construction and Development of a Cardiac Tissue-Specific and Hypoxia-Inducible Expression Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Ghaderi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular gene therapy is a sophisticated approach, thanks to the safety of vectors, stable transgene expression, delivery method, and different layers of the heart. To date, numerous expression vectors have been introduced in biotechnology and biopharmacy industries in relation to genetic manipulation. Despite the rapid growth of these modalities, they must be intelligently designed, addressing the cardiac-specific transgene expression and less side effects. Herein, we conducted a pilot project aiming to design a cardiac-specific hypoxia-inducible expression cassette. Methods: We explored a new approach to design an expression cassette containing cardiac specific enhancer, hypoxia response elements (HRE, cardiac specific promoter, internal ribosome entry site (IRES, and beta globin poly A sequence to elicit specific and inducible expression of the gene of interest. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP was sub-cloned by BglII and NotI into the cassette. The specificity and inducible expression of the cassette was determined in both mouse myoblast C2C12 and mammary glandular tumor 4T1 as ‘twin’ cells. eGFP expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscope and flow cytometry at 520 nm emission peak. Results: Our data revealed that the designed expression cassette provided tissue specific and hypoxia inducible (O2<1% transgene expression. Conclusion: It is suggested that cardiac-specific enhancer combined with cardiac-specific promoter are efficient for myoblast specific gene expression. As well, this is for the first time that HRE are derived from three well known hypoxia-regulated promoters. Therefore, there is no longer need to overlap PCR process for one repeated sequence just in one promoter.

  3. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Profiling of Plutella Xylostella Third Instar Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10-5. Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis indentified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense. As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  4. Reprimo tissue-specific expression pattern is conserved between zebrafish and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Figueroa

    Full Text Available Reprimo (RPRM, a member of the RPRM gene family, is a tumor-suppressor gene involved in the regulation of the p53-mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M. RPRM has been associated with malignant tumor progression and proposed as a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. However, the expression and role of RPRM, as well as its family, are poorly understood and their physiology is as yet unstudied. In this scenario, a model system like the zebrafish could serve to dissect the role of the RPRM family members in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that RPRM and RPRML have been differentially retained by most species throughout vertebrate evolution, yet RPRM3 has been retained only in a small group of distantly related species, including zebrafish. Herein, we characterized the spatiotemporal expression of RPRM (present in zebrafish as an infraclass duplication rprma/rprmb, RPRML and RPRM3 in the zebrafish. By whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, we demonstrate that rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml show a similar spatiotemporal expression profile during zebrafish development. At early developmental stages rprmb is expressed in somites. After one day post-fertilization, rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml are expressed in the notochord, brain, blood vessels and digestive tube. On the other hand, rprm3 shows the most unique expression profile, being expressed only in the central nervous system (CNS. We assessed the expression patterns of RPRM gene transcripts in adult zebrafish and human RPRM protein product in tissue samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining, respectively. Strikingly, tissue-specific expression patterns of the RPRM transcripts and protein are conserved between zebrafish and humans. We propose the zebrafish as a powerful tool to elucidate the both physiological and pathological roles of the RPRM gene family.

  5. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  6. Tissue-Specific Gain of RTK Signalling Uncovers Selective Cell Vulnerability during Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Fan

    Full Text Available The successive events that cells experience throughout development shape their intrinsic capacity to respond and integrate RTK inputs. Cellular responses to RTKs rely on different mechanisms of regulation that establish proper levels of RTK activation, define duration of RTK action, and exert quantitative/qualitative signalling outcomes. The extent to which cells are competent to deal with fluctuations in RTK signalling is incompletely understood. Here, we employ a genetic system to enhance RTK signalling in a tissue-specific manner. The chosen RTK is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor Met, an appropriate model due to its pleiotropic requirement in distinct developmental events. Ubiquitously enhanced Met in Cre/loxP-based Rosa26(stopMet knock-in context (Del-R26(Met reveals that most tissues are capable of buffering enhanced Met-RTK signalling thus avoiding perturbation of developmental programs. Nevertheless, this ubiquitous increase of Met does compromise selected programs such as myoblast migration. Using cell-type specific Cre drivers, we genetically showed that altered myoblast migration results from ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme rather than in migrating myoblasts themselves. qRT-PCR analyses show that ectopic Met in limbs causes molecular changes such as downregulation in the expression levels of Notum and Syndecan4, two known regulators of morphogen gradients. Molecular and functional studies revealed that ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme does not alter HGF expression patterns and levels, but impairs HGF bioavailability. Together, our findings show that myoblasts, in which Met is endogenously expressed, are capable of buffering increased RTK levels, and identify mesenchymal cells as a cell type vulnerable to ectopic Met-RTK signalling. These results illustrate that embryonic cells are sensitive to alterations in the spatial distribution of RTK action, yet resilient to fluctuations in signalling levels of an

  7. A large-scale analysis of tissue-specific pathology and gene expression of human disease genes and complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Karlberg, Erik, Olof, Linnart

    2008-01-01

    to be overexpressed in the normal tissues where defects cause pathology. In contrast, cancer genes and complexes were not overexpressed in the tissues from which the tumors emanate. We specifically identified a complex involved in XY sex reversal that is testis-specific and down-regulated in ovaries. We also......Heritable diseases are caused by germ-line mutations that, despite tissuewide presence, often lead to tissue-specific pathology. Here, we make a systematic analysis of the link between tissue-specific gene expression and pathological manifestations in many human diseases and cancers. Diseases were...

  8. Depletion of CpG Dinucleotides in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses: A Role for Divergent Evolutionary Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small ds-DNA viruses infecting a wide-range of vertebrate hosts. Evidence supporting co-evolution of the virus with the host does not fully explain the evolutionary path of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. Studies analyzing CpG dinucleotide frequencies in virus genomes have provided interesting insights on virus evolution. CpG dinucleotide depletion has not been extensively studied among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We sought to analyze the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the relative roles of evolutionary pressures in papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We studied 127 full-length sequences from papillomaviruses and 56 full-length sequences from polyomaviruses. We analyzed the relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), differences in synonymous codon usage. We examined the association, if any, between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We also investigated the contribution of mutational pressure and translational selection to the evolution of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. All papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are CpG depleted. Interestingly, the evolutionary lineage of the infected host determines the extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. CpG dinucleotide depletion was more pronounced among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses infecting human and other mammals as compared to those infecting birds. Our findings demonstrate that CpG depletion among papillomaviruses is linked to mutational pressure; while CpG depletion among polyomaviruses is linked to translational selection. We also present evidence that suggests methylation of CpG dinucleotides may explain, at least in part, the depletion of CpG dinucleotides among papillomaviruses but not polyomaviruses. The extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses is linked to the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. Our

  9. Andrographis paniculata transcriptome provides molecular insights into tissue-specific accumulation of medicinal diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anchal; Agrawal, Lalit; Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sharma, Shubha; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-09-02

    Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) has been widely exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and health disorders. Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e., secondary) metabolites of kalmegh such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, are known for variety of pharmacological activities. However, due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic information, underlying molecular basis of ent-LRDs biosynthesis has remained largely unknown. To identify candidate genes of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis using leaf and root tissues that differentially accumulate ent-LRDs. De novo assembly of Illumina HiSeq2000 platform-generated paired-end sequencing reads resulted into 69,011 leaf and 64,244 root transcripts which were assembled into a total of 84,628 unique transcripts. Annotation of these transcripts to the Uniprot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) databases identified candidate transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. These included transcripts that encode enzymes of the plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway which provides C5 isoprenoid precursors for the ent-LRDs biosynthesis, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, class II diterpene synthase (diTPS), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and glycosyltransferase. Three class II diTPSs (ApCPS1, ApCPS2 and ApCPS3) that showed distinct tissue-specific expression profiles and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledon ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases, are identified. ApCPS1, ApCPS2 and ApCPS3 encode for 832-, 817- and 797- amino acids proteins of 55-63 % identity, respectively. Spatio-temporal patterns of transcripts and ent-LRDs accumulation are consistent with the involvement of ApCPS1 in general (i.e., primary) metabolism for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin, ApCPS2 in leaf specialized ent

  10. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  11. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  12. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  13. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....

  14. Consolidated Recovered Materials Advisory Notice (RMAN) for the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG) designates recycled content products that government agencies should buy. EPA publishes purchasing guidance and...

  15. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Semen M; Artemov, Gleb N; Sharakhov, Igor V; Stegniy, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO-a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells.

  16. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blazkova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation of retroviral promoters and enhancers localized in the provirus 5' long terminal repeat (LTR is considered to be a mechanism of transcriptional suppression that allows retroviruses to evade host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs. However, the role of DNA methylation in the control of HIV-1 latency has never been unambiguously demonstrated, in contrast to the apparent importance of transcriptional interference and chromatin structure, and has never been studied in HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we show in an in vitro model of reactivable latency and in a latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected patients that CpG methylation of the HIV-1 5' LTR is an additional epigenetic restriction mechanism, which controls resistance of latent HIV-1 to reactivation signals and thus determines the stability of the HIV-1 latency. CpG methylation acts as a late event during establishment of HIV-1 latency and is not required for the initial provirus silencing. Indeed, the latent reservoir of some aviremic patients contained high proportions of the non-methylated 5' LTR. The latency controlled solely by transcriptional interference and by chromatin-dependent mechanisms in the absence of significant promoter DNA methylation tends to be leaky and easily reactivable. In the latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected individuals without detectable plasma viremia, we found HIV-1 promoters and enhancers to be hypermethylated and resistant to reactivation, as opposed to the hypomethylated 5' LTR in viremic patients. However, even dense methylation of the HIV-1 5'LTR did not confer complete resistance to reactivation of latent HIV-1 with some histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, TNF-alpha, and their combinations with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine: the densely methylated HIV-1 promoter was most efficiently reactivated in virtual absence of T cell activation by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by CpG

  17. Prediction of disease-related genes based on weighted tissue-specific networks by using DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Predicting disease-related genes is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics and systems biology. With the advances in high-throughput techniques, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which make it possible to identify disease-related genes at the network level. However, network-based identification of disease-related genes is still a challenge as the considerable false-positives are still existed in the current available protein interaction networks (PIN). Considering the fact that the majority of genetic disorders tend to manifest only in a single or a few tissues, we constructed tissue-specific networks (TSN) by integrating PIN and tissue-specific data. We further weighed the constructed tissue-specific network (WTSN) by using DNA methylation as it plays an irreplaceable role in the development of complex diseases. A PageRank-based method was developed to identify disease-related genes from the constructed networks. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we constructed PIN, weighted PIN (WPIN), TSN, WTSN for colon cancer and leukemia, respectively. The experimental results on colon cancer and leukemia show that the combination of tissue-specific data and DNA methylation can help to identify disease-related genes more accurately. Moreover, the PageRank-based method was effective to predict disease-related genes on the case studies of colon cancer and leukemia. Tissue-specific data and DNA methylation are two important factors to the study of human diseases. The same method implemented on the WTSN can achieve better results compared to those being implemented on original PIN, WPIN, or TSN. The PageRank-based method outperforms degree centrality-based method for identifying disease-related genes from WTSN.

  18. Acquisition and evolution of plant pathogenesis-associated gene clusters and candidate determinants of tissue-specificity in xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lu

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown.To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage.Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small

  19. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    bone cofactor was identified as a lipid containing a ceramide phosphate, a single chained glycerol lipid and a linker. Tendon uses a different cofactor made up of two fatty acid chains linked directly to the phosphate yielding a molecule about half the size. Moreover, adding the tendon factor/cofactor to osteosarcoma cells causes them to stop growing, which is opposite to its role with tendon cells. Thus, the cofactor is cell type specific both in composition and in the triggered response. Further support of its proposed role came from frozen sections from 5 week old mice where an antibody to the factor stained strongly at the growing ends of the tendon as predicted. In conclusion, the molecule needed for cell density signaling is a small protein bound to a unique, tissue-specific phospholipid yielding a membrane associated but diffusible molecule. Signal transduction is postulated to occur by an increased ordering of the plasma membrane as the concentration of this protein/lipid increases with cell density.

  20. Tissue specific promoters improve the localization of radiation-inducible gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis; Kataoka, Yasushi; Kuchibhotla, Jaya; Virudachalam, Subbu; Weichselbaum, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    expression was quantified in vascular endothelial cells from large vessel (HUVEC) and small vessels (HMEC). We found cell-type specificity of radiation-induction. The promoter region from the ELAM gene gave no expression in cells that were not of endothelial cell origin and x-ray-induction of ELAM in the endothelium required the NFkB binding cis-acting element. ELAM induction was achieved at doses as low as 1 Gy, whereas induction of other radiation inducible genes required 5 to 10 Gy. Cells transfected with the minimal promoter (plasmid pTK-CAT) demonstrated no radiation induction. Expression of the CMV-LacZ genetic construct that was used as a negative control in each transfection was not altered by x-irradiation. Moreover, intravenous administration of liposomes containing a reporter gene linked to the ELAM promoter and a transcriptional amplification system were induced specifically at sites of x-irradiation in an animal model. Conclusions: Activation of transcription of the ELAM-1 promoter by ionizing radiation is a means of activating gene therapy within the vascular endothelium and demonstrates the feasibility of treating vascular lesions with noninvasive procedures. Tissue specific promoters (e. g., ELAM-1) combined with radiation inducible gene therapy improves the localization of gene therapy expression. These results have applications in intravascular brachytherapy for the prevention of blood vessel restenosis

  1. Reproducibility of methylated CpG typing with the Illumina MiSeq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Meyer, Olivia Strunge; Greby Schmidt, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns may be used for identification of body fluids and for age estimation of human individuals. We evaluated some of the challenges and pitfalls of studying methylated CpG sites. We compared the methylated CpG analysis of two different methods 1) massively parallel sequencing...

  2. CpG dinucleotide frequencies reveal the role of host methylation capabilities in parvovirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish; Vasaikar, Suhas; Biswas, Banhi; Gomes, James; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Parvoviruses are rapidly evolving viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Extensive methylation of the parvovirus genome has been recently demonstrated. A global pattern of methylation of CpG dinucleotides is seen in vertebrate genomes, compared to "fractional" methylation patterns in invertebrate genomes. It remains unknown if the loss of CpG dinucleotides occurs in all viruses of a given DNA virus family that infect host species spanning across vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the link between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion among autonomous parvoviruses and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We demonstrate major differences in the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides among autonomous parvoviruses which share similar genome organization and common ancestry, depending on the infected host species. Parvoviruses infecting vertebrate hosts had significantly lower relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides than parvoviruses infecting invertebrate hosts. The strong correlation of CpG dinucleotide depletion with the gain in TpG/CpA dinucleotides and the loss of TpA dinucleotides among parvoviruses suggests a major role for CpG methylation in the evolution of parvoviruses. Our data present evidence that links the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides in parvoviruses to the methylation capabilities of the infected host. In sum, our findings support a novel perspective of host-driven evolution among autonomous parvoviruses.

  3. Endogenous sunk costs and the geographic differences in the market structures of CPG Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Dhar, S.; Dube, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the industrial market structure of CPG categories. The analysis uses a unique database spanning 31 consumer package goods (CPG) categories, 39 months, and the 50 largest US metropolitan markets. We organize our description of market structure around the notion that firms can improve

  4. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  5. Tissue-specifically regulated site-specific excision of selectable marker genes in bivalent insecticidal, genetically-modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan; Ding, Xuezhi; Hu, Shengbiao; Sun, Yunjun; Xia, Liqiu

    2013-12-01

    Marker-free, genetically-modified rice was created by the tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system, in which the Cre recombinase gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were flanked by two directly oriented loxP sites. Cre expression was activated by the tissue-specific promoter OsMADS45 in flower or napin in seed, resulting in simultaneous excision of the recombinase and marker genes. Segregation of T1 progeny was performed to select recombined plants. The excision was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and sequence analyses indicating that efficiency varied from 10 to 53 % for OsMADS45 and from 12 to 36 % for napin. The expression of cry1Ac and vip3A was detected by RT-PCR analysis in marker-free transgenic rice. These results suggested that our tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system could auto-excise marker genes from transgenic rice and alleviate public concerns about the security of GM crops.

  6. Expression analysis of five tobacco EIN3 family members in relation to tissue-specific ethylene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, I; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene induces different sets of genes in different tissues and at different stages of development. To investigate whether these differential responses are caused by differential expression of members of the EIN3 family transcription factors, five tobacco family members were isolated. They can be divided into three subgroups, which is probably due to the amphidiploid nature of tobacco. In phylogenetic analysis, each of the subgroups clustered with one of the three tomato EIL proteins and all NtEILs proved to be most homologous to Arabidopsis EIN3 and EIL1. Although organ-specific ethylene responses have been observed before, northern blot analysis showed that all NtEILs were expressed in all organs. To study differential NtEIL expression at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was used on the tobacco ovary. It was found that different ovary tissues displayed variable ethylene-induced expression of two ethylene-responsive marker genes. By contrast, no differences were found in expression level or tissue-specificity for any of the NtEILs in the ovary, before or after ethylene treatment. This indicates that the organ and tissue-specific ethylene responses are not caused by differential expression of NtEIL family members. These results support a model in which the developmental signals that regulate the tissue-specific responses are integrated with the ethylene signal downstream of a common primary ethylene-signalling pathway.

  7. Predicting tissue specific cis-regulatory modules in the human genome using pairs of co-occurring motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Hani Z

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers seeking to unlock the genetic basis of human physiology and diseases have been studying gene transcription regulation. The temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression are controlled by mainly non-coding elements known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs and epigenetic factors. CRMs modulating related genes share the regulatory signature which consists of transcription factor (TF binding sites (TFBSs. Identifying such CRMs is a challenging problem due to the prohibitive number of sequence sets that need to be analyzed. Results We formulated the challenge as a supervised classification problem even though experimentally validated CRMs were not required. Our efforts resulted in a software system named CrmMiner. The system mines for CRMs in the vicinity of related genes. CrmMiner requires two sets of sequences: a mixed set and a control set. Sequences in the vicinity of the related genes comprise the mixed set, whereas the control set includes random genomic sequences. CrmMiner assumes that a large percentage of the mixed set is made of background sequences that do not include CRMs. The system identifies pairs of closely located motifs representing vertebrate TFBSs that are enriched in the training mixed set consisting of 50% of the gene loci. In addition, CrmMiner selects a group of the enriched pairs to represent the tissue-specific regulatory signature. The mixed and the control sets are searched for candidate sequences that include any of the selected pairs. Next, an optimal Bayesian classifier is used to distinguish candidates found in the mixed set from their control counterparts. Our study proposes 62 tissue-specific regulatory signatures and putative CRMs for different human tissues and cell types. These signatures consist of assortments of ubiquitously expressed TFs and tissue-specific TFs. Under controlled settings, CrmMiner identified known CRMs in noisy sets up to 1:25 signal-to-noise ratio. CrmMiner was

  8. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide nanomedicines for the prophylaxis or treatment of cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), which are synthetic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), activate humoral and cellular immunity and are being developed as vaccine adjuvants to prevent or treat cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies. Free CpG ODNs have been used in many clinical trials implemented to verify their effects. However, recent research has reported that self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes demonstrate higher adjuvant effects than free CpG ODNs, owing to their improved uptake efficiency into cells expressing TLR9. Moreover, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes are able to deliver CpG ODNs and antigens (or allergens) to the same types of cells, which enables a higher degree of prophylaxis or therapeutic effect. In this review, the author describes recent trends in the research and development of CpG ODN nanomedicines containing self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes, focusing mainly on the results of preclinical and clinical studies.

  9. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides as a Future Vaccine for Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Sano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An astounding feature of the DNA sequences termed CpG motifs is the induction of immune and inflammatory responses in a senseless manner. CpG motifs exist abundantly in microbes and evoke innate immunity that constitutes the first line of defense against microbial infections in vertebrates. CpG motifs that essentially work in an antigen-nonspecific fashion, however, turn into novel immunomodulators that can manipulate acquired immunity in an antigen-specific manner if oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs are directly conjugated to the antigen. CpG ODNs with potent polyclonal Th1-inducing ability show promise for application in immunotherapy whereby neutralization of dominant allergy-prone Th2 cells is achieved by inducing allergen-specific Th1 cells. The underlying mechanisms include an unexpected enhancement of dendritic cell function as a linker between innate and acquired immunity. In the foreseeable future the mainstream therapeutic role of corticosteroids in anti-inflammatory therapy for allergic diseases could possibly be replaced by immunotherapy using CpG ODN-conjugated antigens.

  10. Label free detection of 5′ hydroxymethylcytosine within CpG Islands using optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Rasheeda M.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant research has been invested in correlating genetic variations with different disease probabilities. Recently, it has become apparent that other DNA modifications, such as the addition of a methyl or hydroxymethyl group to cytosine, can also play a role. While these modifications do not change the sequence, they can negatively impact the function. Therefore, it is critical to be able to both read the genetic code and identify these modifications. Currently, the detection of hydroxymethylated cytosine (5′hmC) and the two closely related variants, cytosine (C) and 5′methylcytosine (5′mC), relies on a combination of nucleotide modification steps, followed by PCR and gene sequencing. However, this approach is not ideal because transcription errors which are inherent to the PCR process can be misinterpreted as fluctuations in the relative C:5′mC:5′hmC concentrations. As such, an alternative method which does not rely on PCR or nucleotide modification is desirable. One approach is based on label-free optical resonant cavity sensors. In the present work, toroidal resonant cavity sensors are functionalized with antibodies to enable label-free detection and discrimination between C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC in real-time without PCR. Specifically, epoxide chemistry is used to covalently attach the 5′hmC antibody to the surface of the cavity. Subsequently, to thoroughly characterize the sensor platform, detection of C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC is performed over a concentration range from pM to nM. At low (pM) concentrations, the hydroxymethylated cytosine produces a significantly larger signal than the structurally similar epigenetic markers; thus demonstrating the applicability of this platform. PMID:25461158

  11. High CpG island methylation of p16 gene and loss of p16 protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study subjects consisted of 75 healthy ... that p16 protein expression was significantly lower in ToF group compared to ... in p16 promoters in ToF patients was negatively correlated with p16 protein ... studies, human foetal ventricular cardiomyocytes (HFCs) are ..... oral epithelial dysplasia: a prospective cohort study.

  12. Identification and validation of highly frequent CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Thorsen, Kasper; Lamy, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    ), in carcinomas only (ABHD9, AOX1 and RERG), or in MSI but not MSS carcinomas (RAMP2, DSC3 and MLH1) were validated using MS-HRM. Four of these genes (MLH1, AOX1, EYA4 and TWIST1) had previously been reported to be hypermethylated in CRC. Eleven genes, not previously known to be affected by CRC specific...

  13. Evaluating the Application of Tissue-Specific Dose Kernels Instead of Water Dose Kernels in Internal Dosimetry : A Monte Carlo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghadam, Maryam Khazaee; Asl, Alireza Kamali; Geramifar, Parham; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the application of tissue-specific dose kernels instead of water dose kernels to improve the accuracy of patient-specific dosimetry by taking tissue heterogeneities into consideration. Materials and Methods: Tissue-specific dose point kernels (DPKs) and

  14. Structural modeling of tissue-specific mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS2 defects predicts differential effects on aminoacylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya eEuro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of mitochondrial protein synthesis is dependent on the coordinated action of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtARSs and the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNAs. The recent advances in whole-exome sequencing have revealed the importance of the mtARS proteins for mitochondrial pathophysiology since nearly every nuclear gene for mtARS (out of 19 is now recognized as a disease gene for mitochondrial disease. Typically, defects in each mtARS have been identified in one tissue-specific disease, most commonly affecting the brain, or in one syndrome. However, mutations in the AARS2 gene for mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mtAlaRS have been reported both in patients with infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and in patients with childhood to adulthood-onset leukoencephalopathy. We present here an investigation of the effects of the described mutations on the structure of the synthetase, in an effort to understand the tissue-specific outcomes of the different mutations.The mtAlaRS differs from the other mtARSs because in addition to the aminoacylation domain, it has a conserved editing domain for deacylating tRNAs that have been mischarged with incorrect amino acids. We show that the cardiomyopathy phenotype results from a single allele, causing an amino acid change p.R592W in the editing domain of AARS2, whereas the leukodystrophy mutations are located in other domains of the synthetase. Nevertheless, our structural analysis predicts that all mutations reduce the aminoacylation activity of the synthetase, because all mtAlaRS domains contribute to tRNA binding for aminoacylation. According to our model, the cardiomyopathy mutations severely compromise aminoacylation whereas partial activity is retained by the mutation combinations found in the leukodystrophy patients. These predictions provide a hypothesis for the molecular basis of the distinct tissue-specific phenotypic outcomes.

  15. Physiological, anatomical and genetic identification of CPG neurons in the developing mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Butt, Simon J.B.

    2003-01-01

    . These latter experiments have defined EphA4 as a molecular marker for mammalian excitatory hindlimb CPG neurons. We also review genetic approaches that can be applied to the mouse spinal cord. These include methods for identifying sub-populations of neurons by genetically encoded reporters, techniques to trace...... network connectivity with cell-specific genetically encoded tracers, and ways to selectively ablate or eliminate neuron populations from the CPG. We propose that by applying a multidisciplinary approach it will be possible to understand the network structure of the mammalian locomotor CPG...

  16. mtDNA depletion myopathy: elucidation of the tissue specificity in the mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Ann; Shaag, Avraham; Elpeleg, Orly

    2003-05-01

    Decreased mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) activity is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction and is manifested by isolated, fatal skeletal myopathy. Other tissues such as liver, brain, heart, and skin remain unaffected throughout the patients' life. In order to elucidate the mechanism of tissue specificity in the disease we have investigated the expression of the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier, the mtDNA content and the activity of TK2 in mitochondria of various tissues. Our results suggest that low basal TK2 activity combined with a high requirement for mitochondrial encoded proteins in muscle predispose this tissue to the devastating effect of TK2 deficiency.

  17. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  18. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  19. A novel multi-network approach reveals tissue-specific cellular modulators of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Jaclyn N; Greene, Casey S; Martyanov, Viktor; Wood, Tammara A; Christmann, Romy B; Farber, Harrison W; Lafyatis, Robert A; Denton, Christopher P; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Pioli, Patricia A; Mahoney, J Matthew; Whitfield, Michael L

    2017-03-23

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis. Internal organ involvement is heterogeneous. It is unknown whether disease mechanisms are common across all involved affected tissues or if each manifestation has a distinct underlying pathology. We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues. We used this signature to query tissue-specific functional genomic networks. We performed novel network analyses to contrast the skin and lung microenvironments and to assess the functional role of the inflammatory and fibrotic genes in each organ. Lastly, we tested the expression of macrophage activation state-associated gene sets for enrichment in skin and lung using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. We identified a common pathogenic gene expression signature-an immune-fibrotic axis-indicative of pro-fibrotic macrophages (MØs) in multiple tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells) affected by SSc. While the co-expression of these genes is common to all tissues, the functional consequences of this upregulation differ by organ. We used this disease-associated signature to query tissue-specific functional genomic networks to identify common and tissue-specific pathologies of SSc and related conditions. In contrast to skin, in the lung-specific functional network we identify a distinct lung-resident MØ signature associated with lipid stimulation and alternative activation. In keeping with our network results, we find distinct MØ alternative activation transcriptional programs in SSc-associated PF lung and in the skin of patients with an "inflammatory" SSc gene expression signature. Our results suggest that the innate immune

  20. CpG methylation of APC promoter 1A in sporadic and familial breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouki-Joudi, Saoussen; Trifa, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Frikha, Mounir; Daoud, Jamel; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Tumour suppressor gene (TSG) silencing through promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in cancer initiation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of methylation of APC gene promoter in 91 sporadic and 44 familial cases of Tunisian patients with breast cancer (BC) in. The frequency of APC promoter methylation is somewhat similar for sporadic and familial breast cancer cases, (52.1%, and 54.5% respectively). For sporadic breast cancer patients, there was a significant correlation of APC promoter hypermethylation with TNM stage (p = 0.024) and 3-year survival (p = 0.025). Regarding the hormonal status (HR), we found significant association between negativity to PR and unmethylated APC (p= 0.005) while ER and Her2/neu are not correlated. Moreover, unmethylated APC promoter is more frequent in tumours expressing at least one out the 3 proteins compared to triple negative cases (p= 0.053). On the other hand, aberrant methylation of APC was associated with tumour size (p = 0.036), lymph node (p = 0.028), distant metastasis (p = 0.031), and 3-year survival (p = 0.046) in the group of patients with familial breast cancer. Moreover, patients with sporadic breast cancer displaying the unmethylated profile have a significant prolonged overall survival compared to those with the methylated pattern of APC promoter (p log rank = 0.008). Epigenetic change at the CpG islands in the APC promoter was associated with the silence of its transcript and the loss of protein expression suggesting that this event is the main mechanism regulating the APC expression in breast cancer. In conclusion, our data showed that the loss of APC through aberrant methylation is associated with the aggressive behavior of both sporadic and familial breast cancer in Tunisian patients.

  1. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  2. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F.; Born, Erik W.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). PCB, OH-PCB, MeSO 2 -PCB and PBDE congener patterns showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) mainly in the liver and the brain relative to the adipose tissue and the blood. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were not detected in the brain and liver, but had different patterns in blood versus the adipose tissue. Novel OH-polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), one tri- and two tetra-brominated OH-PBBs were detected in all tissues and blood. Congener pattern differences among tissues and blood are likely due to a combination of factors, e.g., biotransformation and retention in the liver, retention in the blood and blood-brain barrier transport. Our findings suggest that different congener pattern exposures to these classes of contaminants should be considered with respect to potential target tissue-specific effects in East Greenland polar bears. - Tissues-specific (adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood) differences exist for the congener patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites/degradation products in East Greenland polar bears

  3. Tissue-Specific Contributions of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 in Lactation and Maternal Care of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Frey

    Full Text Available Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3 is an imprinted gene that controls milk letdown and maternal-caring behaviors. In this study, a conditional knockout allele has been developed in Mus musculus to further characterize these known functions of Peg3 in a tissue-specific manner. The mutant line was first crossed with a germline Cre. The progeny of this cross displayed growth retardation phenotypes. This is consistent with those seen in the previous mutant lines of Peg3, confirming the usefulness of the new mutant allele. The mutant line was subsequently crossed individually with MMTV- and Nkx2.1-Cre lines to test Peg3's roles in the mammary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. According to the results, the milk letdown process was impaired in the nursing females with the Peg3 mutation in the mammary gland, but not in the hypothalamus. This suggests that Peg3's roles in the milk letdown process are more critical in the mammary gland than in the hypothalamus. In contrast, one of the maternal-caring behaviors, nest-building, was interrupted in the females with the mutation in both MMTV- and Nkx2.1-driven lines. Overall, this is the first study to introduce a conditional knockout allele of Peg3 and to further dissect its contribution to mammalian reproduction in a tissue-specific manner.

  4. Tissue-specific extracellular matrix coatings for the promotion of cell proliferation and maintenance of cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Yujiang; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Hammam, Nevin; Carnagey, Kristen; Myers, Regina; Atala, Anthony; Van Dyke, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) substitutes can have a dramatic impact on cell growth, differentiation and function. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be developed for specific cell types. In this study, we developed tissue-specific ECM-based coating substrates for skin, skeletal muscle and liver cell cultures. Cellular components were removed from adult skin, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues, and the resulting acellular matrices were homogenized and dissolved. The ECM solutions were used to coat culture dishes. Tissue matched and non-tissue matched cell types were grown on these coatings to assess adhesion, proliferation, maintenance of phenotype and cell function at several time points. Each cell type showed better proliferation and differentiation in cultures containing ECM from their tissue of origin. Although subtle compositional differences in the three ECM types were not investigated in this study, these results suggest that tissue-specific ECMs provide a culture microenvironment that is similar to the in vivo environment when used as coating substrates, and this new culture technique has the potential for use in drug development and the development of cell-based therapies.

  5. A robust approach to identifying tissue-specific gene expression regulatory variants using personalized human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hyuk Lee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal variation in gene expression due to regulatory polymorphisms is often masked by biological and experimental noise. In addition, some regulatory polymorphisms may become apparent only in specific tissues. We derived human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells from adult skin primary fibroblasts and attempted to detect tissue-specific cis-regulatory variants using in vitro cell differentiation. We used padlock probes and high-throughput sequencing for digital RNA allelotyping and measured allele-specific gene expression in primary fibroblasts, lymphoblastoid cells, iPS cells, and their differentiated derivatives. We show that allele-specific expression is both cell type and genotype-dependent, but the majority of detectable allele-specific expression loci remains consistent despite large changes in the cell type or the experimental condition following iPS reprogramming, except on the X-chromosome. We show that our approach to mapping cis-regulatory variants reduces in vitro experimental noise and reveals additional tissue-specific variants using skin-derived human iPS cells.

  6. Contrasting effects of exercise and NOS inhibition on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Bracy, Deanna; Malabanan, Carlo; Yue, Zou; Clanton, Jeff; Wasserman, David H

    2002-07-01

    Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

  7. Tissue Discrimination by Uncorrected Autofluorescence Spectra: A Proof-of-Principle Study for Tissue-Specific Laser Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tangermann-Gerk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser surgery provides a number of advantages over conventional surgery. However, it implies large risks for sensitive tissue structures due to its characteristic non-tissue-specific ablation. The present study investigates the discrimination of nine different ex vivo tissue types by using uncorrected (raw autofluorescence spectra for the development of a remote feedback control system for tissue-selective laser surgery. Autofluorescence spectra (excitation wavelength 377 ± 50 nm were measured from nine different ex vivo tissue types, obtained from 15 domestic pig cadavers. For data analysis, a wavelength range between 450 nm and 650 nm was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA were used to discriminate the tissue types. ROC analysis showed that PCA, followed by QDA, could differentiate all investigated tissue types with AUC results between 1.00 and 0.97. Sensitivity reached values between 93% and 100% and specificity values between 94% and 100%. This ex vivo study shows a high differentiation potential for physiological tissue types when performing autofluorescence spectroscopy followed by PCA and QDA. The uncorrected autofluorescence spectra are suitable for reliable tissue discrimination and have a high potential to meet the challenges necessary for an optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery.

  8. Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3 and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

  9. Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Cao, Donghui; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xiaoping; Geng, Shujuan; Liu, Bao; Shi, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

  10. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  11. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  12. Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity Against Biothreat Agents Using CPG-Based Oglionucleotides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinman, Dennise

    2001-01-01

    .... Additional studies examining the ability of these CpG ODN to act as adjuvants when co-administered with vaccines being developed to prevent infection by biowarfare pathogens are also being pursued...

  13. Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity Against Biothreat Agents Using CPG-Based Oglionucleotides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinman, Dennise

    2001-01-01

    This research project examines the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory 'CpG motifs' to trigger the innate immune system, thereby improving the host's ability to survive infection by biowarfare agents...

  14. Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity Against Biothreat Agents Using CPG-Based Oligonucleotides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinman, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    This research project examines the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory "CpG motifs' to trigger the innate immune system, thereby improving the host's ability to survive infection by biowarfare agents...

  15. Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity Against Biothreat Agens Using CPG-Based Oglionucleotides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klinman, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    This research project examines the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory 'CpG' motifs to trigger the innate immune system, thereby improving the host's ability to survive infection by biowarfare agents...

  16. Reinforcement learning for a biped robot based on a CPG-actor-critic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Mori, Takeshi; Sato, Masa-aki; Ishii, Shin

    2007-08-01

    Animals' rhythmic movements, such as locomotion, are considered to be controlled by neural circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), which generate oscillatory signals. Motivated by this biological mechanism, studies have been conducted on the rhythmic movements controlled by CPG. As an autonomous learning framework for a CPG controller, we propose in this article a reinforcement learning method we call the "CPG-actor-critic" method. This method introduces a new architecture to the actor, and its training is roughly based on a stochastic policy gradient algorithm presented recently. We apply this method to an automatic acquisition problem of control for a biped robot. Computer simulations show that training of the CPG can be successfully performed by our method, thus allowing the biped robot to not only walk stably but also adapt to environmental changes.

  17. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of radio- and chemoresponses of murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathryn A.; Neal, Robert; Hunter, Nancy; Ariga, Hisanori; Ang, Kian; Milas, Luka

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motifs bind to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and stimulate both innate and adaptive immune reactions and possess anti-tumor activity. We recently reported that CpG ODN 1826 strongly enhances radioresponse of both immunogenic [Milas L, Mason K, Ariga H, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances tumor response to radiation. Cancer Res 2004;64:5074-7] and non-immunogenic [Mason KA, Ariga H, Neal R, et al. Targeting toll-like receptor-9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhances tumor response to fractionated radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:361-9] murine tumors. Using two immunogenic murine tumors, a fibrosarcoma (FSa) and a mammary carcinoma (MCa-K), the present study explored whether CpG ODN 1826 also improves the response of murine tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel (DOC). Materials and methods: CpG ODN 1826 (100 μg) was given sc three times: when leg tumors were 6 mm, when they grew to 8 mm and again 1 week later. DOC (33 mg/kg iv) and local tumor radiation (10 Gy) were given when tumors were 8 mm. Effects of the treatments were assayed by tumor growth delay, defined as days for tumors to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter. Results: Treatment with CpG ODN 1826 resulted in strongly enhanced response of FSa tumors to radiation and MCa-K tumors to the chemotherapeutic agent DOC. Enhancement of tumor treatment response was demonstrated by a strong prolongation in the primary tumor treatment endpoint, tumor growth delay. Coincidentally, this treatment also resulted in a higher rate of tumor cure than that observed after tumor radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. When all three agents were combined the effect was comparable to that of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with radiation in the case of FSa or of the combination of CpG ODN 1826 with DOC in the case of MCa-K. Conclusion: Overall results show that CpG ODN 1826 can markedly improve tumor response

  18. Non-CpG island promoter hypomethylation and miR-149 regulate the expression of SRPX2 in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster, Bodil; Linnet, Lene; Christensen, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Gene silencing by DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands is a well-characterized phenomenon in cancer. The effect of hypomethylation in particular of non-CpG island genes is much less well described. By genome-wide screening, we identified 105 genes in microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal adenocar......Gene silencing by DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands is a well-characterized phenomenon in cancer. The effect of hypomethylation in particular of non-CpG island genes is much less well described. By genome-wide screening, we identified 105 genes in microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal...... of non-CpG island-associated promoters deregulate gene expression nearly as frequent as do CpG-island hypermethylation. The hypomethylation of SRPX2 is focal and not part of a large block. Furthermore, it often translates to an increased expression level, which may be modulated by miR-149....

  19. Identification of a boron nitride nanosphere-binding peptide for the intracellular delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Zhi, Chunyi; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2012-09-01

    CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which results in the induction of immunostimulatory cytokines. We delivered CpG ODNs intracellularly using boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS). To enhance the loading capacity of CpG ODNs on BNNS, we used a phage display technique to identify a 12-amino acid peptide designated as BP7, with specific affinity for BNNS, and used it as a linker to load CpG ODNs on BNNS. The tyrosine residue (Y) at the eighth position from the N-terminus played a crucial role in the affinity of BP7 to BNNS. BNNS that bound BP7 (BNNS-BP7) were taken up by cells and showed no cytotoxicity, and CpG ODNs were successfully crosslinked with BP7 to create BP7-CpG ODN conjugates. Using BP7 as a linker, the loading efficiency of CpG ODNs on BNNS increased 5-fold compared to the direct binding of CpG ODNs to BNNS. Furthermore, the BP7-CpG ODN conjugate-loaded BNNS had a greater capacity to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than that of CpG ODNs directly loaded on BNNS. The higher amount of cytokine induction by BP7-CpG ODN conjugate-loaded BNNS may be attributed to a higher loading capacity and stronger binding to BNNS of the linker BP7. The greater functionality of BP7-conjugated CpG ODNs on BNNS expands the potential of BNNS for drug delivery applications.CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which results in the induction of immunostimulatory cytokines. We delivered CpG ODNs intracellularly using boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS). To enhance the loading capacity of CpG ODNs on BNNS, we used a phage display technique to identify a 12-amino acid peptide designated as BP7, with specific affinity for BNNS, and used it as a linker to load CpG ODNs on BNNS. The tyrosine residue (Y) at the eighth position from the N-terminus played a crucial role in the affinity of BP7 to BNNS. BNNS that bound BP7

  20. The Genetics of PTPN1 and Obesity: Insights from Mouse Models of Tissue-Specific PTP1B Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Tsou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of both insulin and leptin signaling and is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure. Due to its prominent role in regulating metabolism, PTP1B is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. The PTP1B protein is encoded by the PTPN1 gene on human chromosome 20q13, a region that shows linkage with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity in human populations. In this paper, we summarize the genetics of the PTPN1 locus and associations with metabolic disease. In addition, we discuss the tissue-specific functions of PTP1B as gleaned from genetic mouse models.

  1. Gambogic Acid Is a Tissue-Specific Proteasome Inhibitor In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambogic acid (GA is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbs that has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials in cancer patients; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that GA inhibits tumor proteasome activity, with potency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. First, GA acts as a prodrug and only gains proteasome-inhibitory function after being metabolized by intracellular CYP2E1. Second, GA-induced proteasome inhibition is a prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and anticancer effect without off-targets. Finally, because expression of the CYP2E1 gene is very high in tumor tissues but low in many normal tissues, GA could therefore produce tissue-specific proteasome inhibition and tumor-specific toxicity, with clinical significance for designing novel strategies for cancer treatment.

  2. Human protein secretory pathway genes are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern to match processing demands of the secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Gatto, Francesco; Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretory pathway in eukaryal cells is responsible for delivering functional secretory proteins. The dysfunction of this pathway causes a range of important human diseases from congenital disorders to cancer. Despite the piled-up knowledge on the molecular biology and biochemistry level...... in specific gene families of the secretory pathway. We also inspected the potential functional link between detected extreme genes and the corresponding tissues enriched secretome. As a result, the detected extreme genes showed correlation with the enrichment of the nature and number of specific post......-translational modifications in each tissue's secretome. Our findings conciliate both the housekeeping and tissue-specific nature of the protein secretory pathway, which we attribute to a fine-tuned regulation of defined gene families to support the diversity of secreted proteins and their modifications....

  3. Tissue-specific down-regulation of RIPK 2 in Mycobacterium leprae-infected nu/nu mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gue-Tae Chae

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available RIPK 2 is adapter molecule in the signal pathway involved in Toll-like receptors. However, there has been no reported association between receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK 2 expression and the infectious diseases involving mycobacterial infection. This study found that its expression was down-regulated in the footpads and skin but was up-regulated in the liver of Mycobacterium leprae-infected nu/nu mice compared with those of the M. leprae non-infected nu/nu mice. It was observed that the interlukin-12p40 and interferon-γ genes involved in the susceptibility of M. leprae were down-regulated in the skin but were up-regulated in the liver. Overall, this suggests that regulation of RIPK 2 expression is tissue-specifically associated with M. leprae infection.

  4. Adiponectin receptor 2 is regulated by nutritional status, leptin and pregnancy in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen Ruth; Caminos, Jorge Eduardo; Gallego, Rosalía; Tovar, Sulay; Vázquez, María Jesús; Garcés, María Fernanda; Lopez, Miguel; García-Caballero, Tomás; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2010-01-12

    The aim of the present work was to study the regulation of circulating adiponectin levels and the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (Adipo-R2) in several rat tissues in relation to fasting, leptin challenge, pregnancy, and chronic undernutrition. Using real-time PCR, we found Adipo-R2 mRNA expression in the liver, stomach, white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) of adult rats. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed protein expression in the same tissues. Adipo-R2 mRNA levels were decreased in liver after fasting, with no changes in the other tissues. Leptin decreased Adipo-R2 expression in liver and stomach, but increased its expression in WAT and BAT. Chronic caloric restriction in normal rats increased Adipo-R2 gene expression in stomach, while it decreased hepatic Adipo-R2 levels in pregnant rats. Using radioimmunoassay, we found that plasma adiponectin levels were diminished by fasting and leptin. Conversely, circulating adiponectin was increased in food-restricted rats, whereas its levels decreased in food-restricted pregnant rats by the end of gestation. In conclusion our findings provide the first evidence that (a) Adipo-R2 mRNA is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by fasting, but leptin is not responsible for those changes; (b) chronic caloric restriction in normal and pregnant rats also regulate Adipo-R2 mRNA in a tissue-specific manner; and (c) Adipo-R2 mRNA does not show a clear correlation with plasma adiponectin levels.

  5. BaP-metals co-exposure induced tissue-specific antioxidant defense in marine mussels Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Qu, Mengjie; Ding, Jiawei; Zhang, Yifei; Wang, Yi; Di, Yanan

    2018-04-18

    Both benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) and metals are frequently found in marine ecosystem and can cause detrimental effects in marine organism, especially the filter feeder-marine mussels. Although the biological responses in mussels have been well-studied upon the single metal or BaP exposure, the information about antioxidant defense, especially in different tissues of mussels, are still limited. Considering the variety of contaminants existing in the actual marine environment, single BaP (56 μg/L) and the co-exposure with Cu, Cd and Pb (50 μg/L, 50 μg/L and 3 mg/L respectively) were applied in a 6 days exposure followed by 6 days depuration experiment. The alterations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were assessed in haemolymph, gills and digestive glands of marine mussels, Mytilus coruscus. An unparalleled change in antioxidant biomarkers was observed in all cells/tissues, with the SOD activity showing higher sensitivity to exposure. A tissue-specific response showing unique alteration in gill was investigated, indicating the different function of tissues during stress responses. Depressed antioxidant effects were induced by BaP-metals co-exposure, indicating the interaction may alter the intact properties of BaP. To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the antioxidant defense induced by combined exposure of BaP-metals regarding to tissue-specific responses in marine mussels. The results and experimental model will provide valuable information and can be utilized in the investigation of stress response mechanisms, especially in relation to tissue functions in marine organism in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

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    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

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    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  8. Regulation of the number of cell division rounds by tissue-specific transcription factors and Cdk inhibitor during ascidian embryogenesis.

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    Mami Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that regulate the number of cell division rounds during embryogenesis have remained largely elusive. To investigate this issue, we used the ascidian, which develops into a tadpole larva with a small number of cells. The embryonic cells divide 11.45 times on average from fertilization to hatching. The number of cell division rounds varies depending on embryonic lineages. Notochord and muscle consist of large postmitotic cells and stop dividing early in developing embryos. Here we show that conversion of mesenchyme to muscle cell fates by inhibition of inductive FGF signaling or mis-expression of a muscle-specific key transcription factor for muscle differentiation, Tbx6, changed the number of cell divisions in accordance with the altered fate. Tbx6 likely activates a putative mechanism to halt cell division at a specific stage. However, precocious expression of Tbx6 has no effect on progression of the developmental clock itself. Zygotic expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CKI-b, is initiated in muscle and then in notochord precursors. CKI-b is possibly downstream of tissue-specific key transcription factors of notochord and muscle. In the two distinct muscle lineages, postmitotic muscle cells are generated after 9 and 8 rounds of cell division depending on lineage, but the final cell divisions occur at a similar developmental stage. CKI-b gene expression starts simultaneously in both muscle lineages at the 110-cell stage, suggesting that CKI-b protein accumulation halts cell division at a similar stage. The difference in the number of cell divisions would be due to the cumulative difference in cell cycle length. These results suggest that muscle cells do not count the number of cell division rounds, and that accumulation of CKI-b protein triggered by tissue-specific key transcription factors after cell fate determination might act as a kind of timer that measures elapsed time before cell division termination.

  9. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

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    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Human Vav1 expression in hematopoietic and cancer cell lines is regulated by c-Myb and by CpG methylation.

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    Lena Ilan

    Full Text Available Vav1 is a signal transducer protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho/Rac GTPases in the hematopoietic system where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in several human malignancies including neuroblastoma, lung cancer, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA. Although some factors that affect vav1 expression are known, neither the physiological nor pathological regulation of vav1 expression is completely understood. We demonstrate herein that mutations in putative transcription factor binding sites at the vav1 promoter affect its transcription in cells of different histological origin. Among these sites is a consensus site for c-Myb, a hematopoietic-specific transcription factor that is also found in Vav1-expressing lung cancer cell lines. Depletion of c-Myb using siRNA led to a dramatic reduction in vav1 expression in these cells. Consistent with this, co-transfection of c-Myb activated transcription of a vav1 promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct in lung cancer cells devoid of Vav1 expression. Together, these results indicate that c-Myb is involved in vav1 expression in lung cancer cells. We also explored the methylation status of the vav1 promoter. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the vav1 promoter was completely unmethylated in human lymphocytes, but methylated to various degrees in tissues that do not normally express vav1. The vav1 promoter does not contain CpG islands in proximity to the transcription start site; however, we demonstrated that methylation of a CpG dinucleotide at a consensus Sp1 binding site in the vav1 promoter interferes with protein binding in vitro. Our data identify two regulatory mechanisms for vav1 expression: binding of c-Myb and CpG methylation of 5' regulatory sequences. Mutation of other putative transcription factor binding sites suggests that additional factors regulate vav1 expression as well.

  11. Anxiety Associated Increased CpG Methylation in the Promoter of Asb1: A Translational Approach Evidenced by Epidemiological and Clinical Studies and a Murine Model.

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    Emeny, Rebecca T; Baumert, Jens; Zannas, Anthony S; Kunze, Sonja; Wahl, Simone; Iurato, Stella; Arloth, Janine; Erhardt, Angelika; Balsevich, Georgia; Schmidt, Mathias V; Weber, Peter; Kretschmer, Anja; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Kruse, Johannes; Strauch, Konstantin; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette; Binder, Elisabeth B; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450K BeadChip), and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation. DNA methylation was measured using the same instrument in a study of patients with anxiety disorders recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (MPIP, 131 non-medicated cases and 169 controls). To expand our mechanistic understanding, these findings were reverse translated in a mouse model of acute social defeat stress. In the KORA study, participants were classified according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of anxiety (29.4%/6.0%/1.5%, respectively). Severe anxiety was associated with 48.5% increased methylation at a single CpG site (cg12701571) located in the promoter of the gene encoding Asb1 (β-coefficient=0.56 standard error (SE)=0.10, p (Bonferroni)=0.005), a protein hypothetically involved in regulation of cytokine signaling. An interaction between IL-18 and severe anxiety with methylation of this CpG cite showed a tendency towards significance in the total population (p=0.083) and a significant interaction among women (p=0.014). Methylation of the same CpG was positively associated with Panic and Agoraphobia scale (PAS) scores (β=0.005, SE=0.002, p=0.021, n=131) among cases in the MPIP study. In a murine model of acute social defeat stress, Asb1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in a tissue-specific manner (p=0.006), which correlated with upregulation of the neuroimmunomodulating cytokine interleukin 1 beta. Our findings suggest epigenetic regulation of the stress

  12. CPG-based Locomotion Controller Design for a Boxfish-like Robot

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    Wei Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a Central Pattern Generator (CPG-based locomotion controller design for a boxfish-like robot. The bio-inspired controller is aimed at flexible switching in multiple 3D swimming patterns and exact attitude control of yaw and roll such that the robot will swim more like a real boxfish. The CPG network comprises two layers, the lower layer is the network of coupled linear oscillators and the upper is the transition layer where the lower-dimensional locomotion stimuli are transformed into the higher-dimensional control parameters serving for all the oscillators. Based on such a two-layer framework, flexible switching between multiple three-dimensional swimming patterns, such as swimming forwards/backwards, turning left/right, swimming upwards/downwards and rolling clockwise/counter-clockwise, can be simply realized by inputting different stimuli. Moreover, the stability of the CPG network is strictly proved to guarantee the intrinsic stability of the swimming patterns. As to exact attitude control, based on this open-loop CPG network and the sensory feedback from the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, a closed-loop CPG controller is advanced for yaw and roll control of the robotic fish for the first time. This CPG-based online attitude control for a robotic fish will greatly facilitate high-level practical underwater applications. A series of relevant experiments with the robotic fish are conducted systematically to validate the effectiveness and stability of the open-loop and closed-loop CPG controllers.

  13. A CpG oligonucleotide can protect mice from a low aerosol challenge dose of Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, David M; McCluskie, Michael J; Zhang, Ningli; Krieg, Arthur M

    2006-03-01

    Treatment with an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CPG motifs (CpG ODN 7909) was found to protect BALB/c mice from lung infection or death after aerosol challenge with Burkholderia mallei. Protection was associated with enhanced levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible protein 10, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IFN-gamma, and IL-6. Preexposure therapy with CpG ODNs may protect victims of a biological attack from glanders.

  14. Temporal, Diagnostic, and Tissue-Specific Regulation of NRG3 Isoform Expression in Human Brain Development and Affective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Clare; Wang, Yanhong; Hyde, Thomas M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Law, Amanda J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Genes implicated in schizophrenia are enriched in networks differentially regulated during human CNS development. Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a brain-enriched neurotrophin, undergoes alternative splicing and is implicated in several neurological disorders with developmental origins. Isoform-specific increases in NRG3 are observed in schizophrenia and associated with rs10748842, a NRG3 risk polymorphism, suggesting NRG3 transcriptional dysregulation as a molecular mechanism of risk. The authors quantitatively mapped the temporal trajectories of NRG3 isoforms (classes I–IV) in the neocortex throughout the human lifespan, examined whether tissue-specific regulation of NRG3 occurs in humans, and determined if abnormalities in NRG3 transcriptomics occur in mood disorders and are genetically determined. Method NRG3 isoform classes I–IV were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in human postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from 286 nonpsychiatric control individuals, from gestational week 14 to 85 years old, and individuals diagnosed with either bipolar disorder (N=34) or major depressive disorder (N=69). Tissue-specific mapping was investigated in several human tissues. rs10748842 was genotyped in individuals with mood disorders, and association with NRG3 isoform expression examined. Results NRG3 classes displayed individually specific expression trajectories across human neocortical development and aging; classes I, II, and IV were significantly associated with developmental stage. NRG3 class I was increased in bipolar and major depressive disorder, consistent with observations in schizophrenia. NRG3 class II was increased in bipolar disorder, and class III was increased in major depression. The rs10748842 risk genotype predicted elevated class II and III expression, consistent with previous reports in the brain, with tissue-specific analyses suggesting that classes II and III are brain-specific isoforms of NRG3. Conclusions

  15. The impact of intragenic CpG content on gene expression.

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    Bauer, Asli Petra; Leikam, Doris; Krinner, Simone; Notka, Frank; Ludwig, Christine; Längst, Gernot; Wagner, Ralf

    2010-07-01

    The development of vaccine components or recombinant therapeutics critically depends on sustained expression of the corresponding transgene. This study aimed to determine the contribution of intragenic CpG content to expression efficiency in transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. Based upon a humanized version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing 60 CpGs within its coding sequence, a CpG-depleted variant of the GFP reporter was established by carefully modulating the codon usage. Interestingly, GFP reporter activity and detectable protein amounts in stably transfected CHO and 293 cells were significantly decreased upon CpG depletion and independent from promoter usage (CMV, EF1 alpha). The reduction in protein expression associated with CpG depletion was likewise observed for other unrelated reporter genes and was clearly reflected by a decline in mRNA copy numbers rather than translational efficiency. Moreover, decreased mRNA levels were neither due to nuclear export restrictions nor alternative splicing or mRNA instability. Rather, the intragenic CpG content influenced de novo transcriptional activity thus implying a common transcription-based mechanism of gene regulation via CpGs. Increased high CpG transcription correlated with changed nucleosomal positions in vitro albeit histone density at the two genes did not change in vivo as monitored by ChIP.

  16. Tissue-specific B-cell dysfunction and generalized memory B-cell loss during acute SIV infection.

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    Sandrine Peruchon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary HIV-infected patients display severe and irreversible damage to different blood B-cell subsets which is not restored by highly efficient anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Because longitudinal investigations of primary HIV-infection is limited by the availability of lymphoid organs, we studied the tissue-specific B-cell dysfunctions in acutely simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV mac251-infected Cynomolgus macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on three groups of macaques infected for 14, 21 or 28 days and on three groups of animals treated with HAART for two-weeks either initiated at 4 h, 7 or 14 days post-infection (p.i.. We have simultaneously compared changes in B-cell phenotypes and functions and tissue organization of B-cell areas in various lymphoid organs. We showed that SIV induced a steady decline in SIgG-expressing memory (SIgD(-CD27(+ B-cells in spleen and lymph nodes during the first 4 weeks of infection, concomitant to selective homing/sequestration of B-cells to the small intestine and spleen. SIV non-specific Ig production was transiently increased before D14p.i., whereas SIV-specific Ig production was only detectable after D14p.i., coinciding with the presence of CD8(+ T-cells and IgG-expressing plasma cells within germinal centres. Transient B-cell apoptosis on D14p.i. and commitment to terminal differentiation contributed to memory B-cell loss. HAART abrogated B-cell apoptosis, homing to the small intestine and SIV-specific Ig production but had minimal effect on early Ig production, increased B-cell proportions in spleen and loss of memory B-cells. Therefore, virus-B-cell interactions and SIV-induced inflammatory cytokines may differently contribute to early B-cell dysfunction and impaired SIV/HIV-specific antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish tissue-specific impairments in B-cell trafficking and functions and a generalized and steady memory B-cell loss in secondary lymphoid

  17. Mouse Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster sequence and expression analyses reveal conservation of tissue-specific MHC-independent immunosurveillance.

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    Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available The Nkrp1 (Klrb1-Clr (Clec2 genes encode a receptor-ligand system utilized by NK cells as an MHC-independent immunosurveillance strategy for innate immune responses. The related Ly49 family of MHC-I receptors displays extreme allelic polymorphism and haplotype plasticity. In contrast, previous BAC-mapping and aCGH studies in the mouse suggest the neighboring and related Nkrp1-Clr cluster is evolutionarily stable. To definitively compare the relative evolutionary rate of Nkrp1-Clr vs. Ly49 gene clusters, the Nkrp1-Clr gene clusters from two Ly49 haplotype-disparate inbred mouse strains, BALB/c and 129S6, were sequenced. Both Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster sequences are highly similar to the C57BL/6 reference sequence, displaying the same gene numbers and order, complete pseudogenes, and gene fragments. The Nkrp1-Clr clusters contain a strikingly dissimilar proportion of repetitive elements compared to the Ly49 clusters, suggesting that certain elements may be partly responsible for the highly disparate Ly49 vs. Nkrp1 evolutionary rate. Focused allelic polymorphisms were found within the Nkrp1b/d (Klrb1b, Nkrp1c (Klrb1c, and Clr-c (Clec2f genes, suggestive of possible immune selection. Cell-type specific transcription of Nkrp1-Clr genes in a large panel of tissues/organs was determined. Clr-b (Clec2d and Clr-g (Clec2i showed wide expression, while other Clr genes showed more tissue-specific expression patterns. In situ hybridization revealed specific expression of various members of the Clr family in leukocytes/hematopoietic cells of immune organs, various tissue-restricted epithelial cells (including intestinal, kidney tubular, lung, and corneal progenitor epithelial cells, as well as myocytes. In summary, the Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster appears to evolve more slowly relative to the related Ly49 cluster, and likely regulates innate immunosurveillance in a tissue-specific manner.

  18. TargetMiner: microRNA target prediction with systematic identification of tissue-specific negative examples.

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    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Mitra, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-15

    Prediction of microRNA (miRNA) target mRNAs using machine learning approaches is an important area of research. However, most of the methods suffer from either high false positive or false negative rates. One reason for this is the marked deficiency of negative examples or miRNA non-target pairs. Systematic identification of non-target mRNAs is still not addressed properly, and therefore, current machine learning approaches are compelled to rely on artificially generated negative examples for training. In this article, we have identified approximately 300 tissue-specific negative examples using a novel approach that involves expression profiling of both miRNAs and mRNAs, miRNA-mRNA structural interactions and seed-site conservation. The newly generated negative examples are validated with pSILAC dataset, which elucidate the fact that the identified non-targets are indeed non-targets.These high-throughput tissue-specific negative examples and a set of experimentally verified positive examples are then used to build a system called TargetMiner, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier. In addition to assessing the prediction accuracy on cross-validation experiments, TargetMiner has been validated with a completely independent experimental test dataset. Our method outperforms 10 existing target prediction algorithms and provides a good balance between sensitivity and specificity that is not reflected in the existing methods. We achieve a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 67.8% based on a pool of 90 feature set and 76.5% and 66.1% using a set of 30 selected feature set on the completely independent test dataset. In order to establish the effectiveness of the systematically generated negative examples, the SVM is trained using a different set of negative data generated using the method in Yousef et al. A significantly higher false positive rate (70.6%) is observed when tested on the independent set, while all other factors are kept the

  19. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, Nikolay B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B.; Korneenko, Tatyana V.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Modyanov, Nikolai N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. ► ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. ► Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. ► Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. ► In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2 gene radiated from ATP2C1 (encoding SPCA1) during adaptation of tetrapod ancestors to terrestrial habitats.

  20. Tissue specific distribution of pyrimidine deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes shed light on the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA depletion.

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    Wang, L; Eriksson, S

    2010-06-01

    Deficiency in thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) activity due to genetic alterations caused tissue specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome with symptoms resembling these of AIDS patients treated with nucleoside analogues. Mechanisms behind this mitochondrial effects is still not well understood. With rat as a model we isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from major organs and studied enzymes involved in thymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) phosphorylation by using ionic exchange column chromatography. A cytosolic form of TK2 was identified in all tested tissues in addition to mitochondrial TK2. TK1 was detected in liver and spleen cytosolic extracts while dCK was found in liver, spleen and lung cytosolic extracts. Thus, the nature of dT and dC salvage enzymes in each tissue type was determined. In most tissues TK2 is the only salvage enzyme present except liver and spleen. These results may help to explain the mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogues and mtDNA depletion caused by TK2 deficiency.

  1. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end

  2. Statistically based splicing detection reveals neural enrichment and tissue-specific induction of circular RNA during human fetal development.

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    Szabo, Linda; Morey, Robert; Palpant, Nathan J; Wang, Peter L; Afari, Nastaran; Jiang, Chuan; Parast, Mana M; Murry, Charles E; Laurent, Louise C; Salzman, Julia

    2015-06-16

    The pervasive expression of circular RNA is a recently discovered feature of gene expression in highly diverged eukaryotes, but the functions of most circular RNAs are still unknown. Computational methods to discover and quantify circular RNA are essential. Moreover, discovering biological contexts where circular RNAs are regulated will shed light on potential functional roles they may play. We present a new algorithm that increases the sensitivity and specificity of circular RNA detection by discovering and quantifying circular and linear RNA splicing events at both annotated and un-annotated exon boundaries, including intergenic regions of the genome, with high statistical confidence. Unlike approaches that rely on read count and exon homology to determine confidence in prediction of circular RNA expression, our algorithm uses a statistical approach. Using our algorithm, we unveiled striking induction of general and tissue-specific circular RNAs, including in the heart and lung, during human fetal development. We discover regions of the human fetal brain, such as the frontal cortex, with marked enrichment for genes where circular RNA isoforms are dominant. The vast majority of circular RNA production occurs at major spliceosome splice sites; however, we find the first examples of developmentally induced circular RNAs processed by the minor spliceosome, and an enriched propensity of minor spliceosome donors to splice into circular RNA at un-annotated, rather than annotated, exons. Together, these results suggest a potentially significant role for circular RNA in human development.

  3. Tissue-specific Calibration of Real-time PCR Facilitates Absolute Quantification of Plasmid DNA in Biodistribution Studies

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    Joan K Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tissue distribution of plasmid DNA after administration of nonviral gene delivery systems is best accomplished using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, although published strategies do not allow determination of the absolute mass of plasmid delivered to different tissues. Generally, data is expressed as the mass of plasmid relative to the mass of genomic DNA (gDNA in the sample. This strategy is adequate for comparisons of efficiency of delivery to a single site but it does not allow direct comparison of delivery to multiple tissues, as the mass of gDNA extracted per unit mass of each tissue is different. We show here that by constructing qPCR standard curves for each tissue it is possible to determine the dose of intact plasmid remaining in each tissue, which is a more useful parameter when comparing the fates of different formulations of DNA. We exemplify the use of this tissue-specific qPCR method by comparing the delivery of naked DNA, cationic DNA complexes, and neutral PEGylated DNA complexes after intramuscular injection. Generally, larger masses of intact plasmid were present 24 hours after injection of DNA complexes, and neutral complexes resulted in delivery of a larger mass of intact plasmid to the spleen.

  4. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  5. Life-long Maternal Cafeteria Diet Promotes Tissue-Specific Morphological Changes in Male Offspring Adult Rats

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    CAROLYNE D.S. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT, Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT, and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation. After birth, only male offspring (F1 were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.

  6. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner.

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    de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-06

    Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.

  7. Tissue-specific expression of silkmoth chorion genes in vivo using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a transducing vector.

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    Iatrou, K; Meidinger, R G

    1990-01-01

    A pair of silkmoth chorion chromosomal genes, HcA.12-HcB.12, was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, pBmp2, derived from the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Bombyx mori. This vector, which permits the insertion of foreign genetic material in the vicinity of a mutationally inactivated polyhedrin gene, was used to acquire the corresponding recombinant virus. Injection of mutant silkmoth pupae that lack all Hc chorion genes with the recombinant virus resulted in the infection of all internal organs including follicular tissue. Analysis of RNA from infected tissues has demonstrated that the two chorion genes present in the viral genome are correctly transcribed under the control of their own promoter in follicular cells, the tissue in which chorion genes are normally expressed. The chorion primary transcripts are also correctly processed in the infected follicular cells and yield mature mRNAs indistinguishable from authentic chorion mRNAs present in wild-type follicles. These results demonstrate that recombinant nuclear polyhedrosis viruses can be used as transducing vectors for introducing genetic material of host origin into the cells of the organism and that the transduced genes are transiently expressed in a tissue-specific manner under the control of their resident regulatory sequences. Thus we show the in vivo expression of cloned genes under cellular promoter control in an insect other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach should be applicable to all insect systems that are subject to nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. Images PMID:2187186

  8. Adipocyte dysfunction in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS: evidence of adipocyte hypertrophy and tissue-specific inflammation.

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    Joseph S Marino

    Full Text Available Clinical research shows an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and chronic inflammation, a pathological state thought to contribute to insulin resistance. The underlying pathways, however, have not been defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inflammatory state of a novel mouse model of PCOS. Female mice lacking leptin and insulin receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons (IR/LepR(POMC mice and littermate controls were evaluated for estrous cyclicity, ovarian and adipose tissue morphology, and body composition by QMR and CT scan. Tissue-specific macrophage infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression were measured, as well as circulating cytokine levels. Finally, glucose regulation during pregnancy was evaluated as a measure of risk for diabetes development. Forty-five percent of IR/LepR(POMC mice showed reduced or absent ovulation. IR/LepR(POMC mice also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production in perigonadal adipose tissue, liver, and ovary. These mice also exhibited gestational hyperglycemia as predicted. This report is the first to show the presence of inflammation in IR/LepR(POMC mice, which develop a PCOS-like phenotype. Thus, IR/LepR(POMC mice may serve as a new mouse model to clarify the involvement of adipose and liver tissue in the pathogenesis and etiology of PCOS, allowing more targeted research on the development of PCOS and potential therapeutic interventions.

  9. Tissue-specific expression of transfected human insulin genes in pluripotent clonal rat insulinoma lines induced during passage in vivo

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    Madsen, O.D.; Andersen, L.C.; Michelsen, B.; Owerbach, D.; Larsson, L.I.; Lernmark, A.; Steiner, D.F. (Hagedorn Research Laboratory, Gentofte (Denmark))

    1988-09-01

    The pluripotent rat islet tumor cell line MSL-G2 expresses primarily glucagon or cholecystokinin and not insulin in vitro but changes phenotype completely after prolonged in vivo cultivation to yield small-sized hypoglycemic tumors composed almost entirely of insulin-producing beta cells. When a genomic DNA fragment containing the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the human insulin gene was stably transfected into MSL-G2 cells no measurable amounts of insulin or insulin mRNA were detected in vitro. However, successive transplantation of two transfected clones resulted in hypoglycemic tumors that efficiently coexpressed human and rat insulin as determined by human C-peptide-specific immunoreagents. These results demonstrate that cis-acting tissue-specific insulin gene enhancer elements are conserved between rat and human insulin genes. The authors propose that the in vivo differentiation of MSL-G2 cells and transfected subclones into insulin-producing cells reflects processes of natural beta-cell ontogeny leading to insulin gene expression.

  10. Tissue-specific expression of transfected human insulin genes in pluripotent clonal rat insulinoma lines induced during passage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, O.D.; Andersen, L.C.; Michelsen, B.; Owerbach, D.; Larsson, L.I.; Lernmark, A.; Steiner, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The pluripotent rat islet tumor cell line MSL-G2 expresses primarily glucagon or cholecystokinin and not insulin in vitro but changes phenotype completely after prolonged in vivo cultivation to yield small-sized hypoglycemic tumors composed almost entirely of insulin-producing beta cells. When a genomic DNA fragment containing the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the human insulin gene was stably transfected into MSL-G2 cells no measurable amounts of insulin or insulin mRNA were detected in vitro. However, successive transplantation of two transfected clones resulted in hypoglycemic tumors that efficiently coexpressed human and rat insulin as determined by human C-peptide-specific immunoreagents. These results demonstrate that cis-acting tissue-specific insulin gene enhancer elements are conserved between rat and human insulin genes. The authors propose that the in vivo differentiation of MSL-G2 cells and transfected subclones into insulin-producing cells reflects processes of natural beta-cell ontogeny leading to insulin gene expression

  11. Tissue-Specific Control of the Endocycle by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Inhibitors UVI4 and DEL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Jefri; Polyn, Stefanie; Eekhout, Thomas; De Veylder, Lieven

    2017-09-01

    The endocycle represents a modified mitotic cell cycle that in plants is often coupled to cell enlargement and differentiation. Endocycle onset is controlled by activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting cell-cycle factors for destruction. CELL CYCLE SWITCH52 (CCS52) proteins represent rate-limiting activator subunits of the APC/C. In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), mutations in either CCS52A1 or CCS52A2 activators result in a delayed endocycle onset, whereas their overexpression triggers increased DNA ploidy levels. Here, the relative contribution of the APC/C CCS52A1 and APC/C CCS52A2 complexes to different developmental processes was studied through analysis of their negative regulators, being the ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 protein and the DP-E2F-Like1 transcriptional repressor, respectively. Our data illustrate cooperative activity of the APC/C CCS52A1 and APC/C CCS52A2 complexes during root and trichome development, but functional interdependency during leaf development. Furthermore, we found APC/C CCS52A1 activity to control CCS52A2 expression. We conclude that interdependency of CCS52A-controlled APC/C activity is controlled in a tissue-specific manner. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Effect of the assignment of ancestral CpG state on the estimation of nucleotide substitution rates in mammals

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    Keightley Peter D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies in mammals often estimate nucleotide substitution rates within and outside CpG dinucleotides separately. Frequently, in alignments of two sequences, the division of sites into CpG and non-CpG classes is based simply on the presence or absence of a CpG dinucleotide in either sequence, a procedure that we refer to as CpG/non-CpG assignment. Although it likely that this procedure is biased, it is generally assumed that the bias is negligible if species are very closely related. Results Using simulations of DNA sequence evolution we show that assignment of the ancestral CpG state based on the simple presence/absence of the CpG dinucleotide can seriously bias estimates of the substitution rate, because many true non-CpG changes are misassigned as CpG. Paradoxically, this bias is most severe between closely related species, because a minimum of two substitutions are required to misassign a true ancestral CpG site as non-CpG whereas only a single substitution is required to misassign a true ancestral non-CpG site as CpG in a two branch tree. We also show that CpG misassignment bias differentially affects fourfold degenerate and noncoding sites due to differences in base composition such that fourfold degenerate sites can appear to be evolving more slowly than noncoding sites. We demonstrate that the effects predicted by our simulations occur in a real evolutionary setting by comparing substitution rates estimated from human-chimp coding and intronic sequence using CpG/non-CpG assignment with estimates derived from a method that is largely free from bias. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a common method of assigning sites into CpG and non CpG classes in pairwise alignments is seriously biased and recommends against the adoption of ad hoc methods of ancestral state assignment.

  13. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A R; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A.R.; Sondel, Paul M.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy. PMID:25829245

  15. Protective immunity against Megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following CpG ODN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-06-27

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10 7 ) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10 6 ) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10 4 and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10 7 ) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10 4 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood as a surrogate marker for tissue-specific DNA methylation and changes due to folate depletion in post-partum female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jill A; Xie, Long; Harris, Sarah; Wong, Yi K; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C

    2011-07-01

    DNA methylation patterns are tissue specific and may influence tissue-specific gene regulation. Human studies investigating DNA methylation in relation to environmental factors primarily use blood-derived DNA as a surrogate for DNA from target tissues. It is therefore important to know if DNA methylation changes in blood in response to environmental changes reflect those in target tissues. Folate intake can influence DNA methylation, via altered methyl donor supply. Previously, manipulations of maternal folate intake during pregnancy altered the patterns of DNA methylation in offspring but, to our knowledge, the consequences for maternal DNA methylation are unknown. Given the increased requirement for folate during pregnancy, mothers may be susceptible to aberrant DNA methylation due to folate depletion. Female mice were fed folate-adequate (2 mg folic acid/kg diet) or folate-deplete (0.4 mg folic acid/kg diet) diets prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Following weaning, dams were killed and DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing® in blood, liver, and kidney at the Esr1, Igf2 differentially methylated region (DMR)1, Igf2 DMR2, Slc39a4CGI1, and Slc39a4CGI2 loci. We observed tissue-specific differences in methylation at all loci. Folate depletion reduced Igf2 DMR1 and Slc39a4CGI1 methylation across all tissues and altered Igf2 DMR2 methylation in a tissue-specific manner (pmethylation measurements may not always reflect methylation within other tissues. Further measurements of blood-derived and tissue-specific methylation patterns are warranted to understand the complexity of tissue-specific responses to altered nutritional exposure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dissecting Tissue-Specific Transcriptomic Responses from Leaf and Roots under Salt Stress in Petunia hybrida Mitchell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Gonzalo H.; Hu, Qiwen; Scanlon, Michael J.; Mueller, Lukas; Mattson, Neil S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of plant biotechnology is to increase resistance to abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Salinity is a major abiotic stress and increasing crop resistant to salt continues to the present day as a major challenge. Salt stress disturbs cellular environment leading to protein misfolding, affecting normal plant growth and causing agricultural losses worldwide. The advent of state-of-the-art technologies such as high throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized whole-transcriptome analysis by allowing, with high precision, to measure changes in gene expression. In this work, we used tissue-specific RNA-seq to gain insight into the Petunia hybrida transcriptional responses under NaCl stress using a controlled hydroponic system. Roots and leaves samples were taken from a continuum of 48 h of acute 150 mM NaCl. This analysis revealed a set of tissue and time point specific differentially expressed genes, such as genes related to transport, signal transduction, ion homeostasis as well as novel and undescribed genes, such as Peaxi162Scf00003g04130 and Peaxi162Scf00589g00323 expressed only in roots under salt stress. In this work, we identified early and late expressed genes in response to salt stress while providing a core of differentially express genes across all time points and tissues, including the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1), a glycosyltransferase reported in salt tolerance in other species. To test the function of the novel petunia TPS1 allele, we cloned and showed that TPS1 is a functional plant gene capable of complementing the trehalose biosynthesis pathway in a yeast tps1 mutant. The list of candidate genes to enhance salt tolerance provided in this work constitutes a major effort to better understand the detrimental effects of salinity in petunia with direct implications for other economically important Solanaceous species. PMID:28771200

  18. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

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    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  19. Endogenous collagen peptide activation of CD1d-restricted NKT cells ameliorates tissue-specific inflammation in mice.

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    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Anna; Mondoc, Emma; Ibrahim, Saleh; Holmdahl, Rikard; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2011-01-01

    NKT cells in the mouse recognize antigen in the context of the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d and play an important role in peripheral tolerance and protection against autoimmune and other diseases. NKT cells are usually activated by CD1d-presented lipid antigens. However, peptide recognition in the context of CD1 has also been documented, although no self-peptide ligands have been reported to date. Here, we have identified an endogenous peptide that is presented by CD1d to activate mouse NKT cells. This peptide, the immunodominant epitope from mouse collagen type II (mCII707-721), was not associated with either MHC class I or II. Activation of CD1d-restricted mCII707-721-specific NKT cells was induced via TCR signaling and classical costimulation. In addition, mCII707-721-specific NKT cells induced T cell death through Fas/FasL, in an IL-17A-independent fashion. Moreover, mCII707-721-specific NKT cells suppressed a range of in vivo inflammatory conditions, including delayed-type hypersensitivity, antigen-induced airway inflammation, collagen-induced arthritis, and EAE, which were all ameliorated by mCII707-721 vaccination. The findings presented here offer new insight into the intrinsic roles of NKT cells in health and disease. Given the results, endogenous collagen peptide activators of NKT cells may offer promise as novel therapeutics in tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Acute Sleep Loss Induces Tissue-Specific Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations to Circadian Clock Genes in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Osler, Megan E; Voisin, Sarah; Broman, Jan-Erik; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Zierath, Juleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Shift workers are at increased risk of metabolic morbidities. Clock genes are known to regulate metabolic processes in peripheral tissues, eg, glucose oxidation. This study aimed to investigate how clock genes are affected at the epigenetic and transcriptional level in peripheral human tissues following acute total sleep deprivation (TSD), mimicking shift work with extended wakefulness. In a randomized, two-period, two-condition, crossover clinical study, 15 healthy men underwent two experimental sessions: x sleep (2230-0700 h) and overnight wakefulness. On the subsequent morning, serum cortisol was measured, followed by skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for DNA methylation and gene expression analyses of core clock genes (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1). Finally, baseline and 2-h post-oral glucose load plasma glucose concentrations were determined. In adipose tissue, acute sleep deprivation vs sleep increased methylation in the promoter of CRY1 (+4%; P = .026) and in two promoter-interacting enhancer regions of PER1 (+15%; P = .036; +9%; P = .026). In skeletal muscle, TSD vs sleep decreased gene expression of BMAL1 (-18%; P = .033) and CRY1 (-22%; P = .047). Concentrations of serum cortisol, which can reset peripheral tissue clocks, were decreased (2449 ± 932 vs 3178 ± 723 nmol/L; P = .039), whereas postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after TSD (7.77 ± 1.63 vs 6.59 ± 1.32 mmol/L; P = .011). Our findings demonstrate that a single night of wakefulness can alter the epigenetic and transcriptional profile of core circadian clock genes in key metabolic tissues. Tissue-specific clock alterations could explain why shift work may disrupt metabolic integrity as observed herein.

  1. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

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    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  2. Combinatorial binding leads to diverse regulatory responses: Lmd is a tissue-specific modulator of Mef2 activity.

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    Paulo M F Cunha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how complex patterns of temporal and spatial expression are regulated is central to deciphering genetic programs that drive development. Gene expression is initiated through the action of transcription factors and their cofactors converging on enhancer elements leading to a defined activity. Specific constellations of combinatorial occupancy are therefore often conceptualized as rigid binding codes that give rise to a common output of spatio-temporal expression. Here, we assessed this assumption using the regulatory input of two essential transcription factors within the Drosophila myogenic network. Mutations in either Myocyte enhancing factor 2 (Mef2 or the zinc-finger transcription factor lame duck (lmd lead to very similar defects in myoblast fusion, yet the underlying molecular mechanism for this shared phenotype is not understood. Using a combination of ChIP-on-chip analysis and expression profiling of loss-of-function mutants, we obtained a global view of the regulatory input of both factors during development. The majority of Lmd-bound enhancers are co-bound by Mef2, representing a subset of Mef2's transcriptional input during these stages of development. Systematic analyses of the regulatory contribution of both factors demonstrate diverse regulatory roles, despite their co-occupancy of shared enhancer elements. These results indicate that Lmd is a tissue-specific modulator of Mef2 activity, acting as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, which has important implications for myogenesis. More generally, this study demonstrates considerable flexibility in the regulatory output of two factors, leading to additive, cooperative, and repressive modes of co-regulation.

  3. Tissue-Specific Reduction in Splicing Efficiency of IKBKAP Due to the Major Mutation Associated with Familial Dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuajungco, Math P.; Leyne, Maire; Mull, James; Gill, Sandra P.; Lu, Weining; Zagzag, David; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Maayan, Channa; Gusella, James F.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    We recently identified a mutation in the I-κB kinase associated protein (IKBKAP) gene as the major cause of familial dysautonomia (FD), a recessive sensory and autonomic neuropathy. This alteration, located at base pair 6 of the intron 20 donor splice site, is present on >99.5% of FD chromosomes and results in tissue-specific skipping of exon 20. A second FD mutation, a missense change in exon 19 (R696P), was seen in only four patients heterozygous for the major mutation. Here, we have further characterized the consequences of the major mutation by examining the ratio of wild-type to mutant (WT:MU) IKBKAP transcript in EBV-transformed lymphoblast lines, primary fibroblasts, freshly collected blood samples, and postmortem tissues from patients with FD. We consistently found that WT IKBKAP transcripts were present, albeit to varying extents, in all cell lines, blood, and postmortem FD tissues. Further, a corresponding decrease in the level of WT protein is seen in FD cell lines and tissues. The WT:MU ratio in cultured lymphoblasts varied with growth phase but not with serum concentration or inclusion of antibiotics. Using both densitometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that relative WT:MU IKBKAP RNA levels were highest in cultured patient lymphoblasts and lowest in postmortem central and peripheral nervous tissues. These observations suggest that the relative inefficiency of WT IKBKAP mRNA production from the mutant alleles in the nervous system underlies the selective degeneration of sensory and autonomic neurons in FD.Therefore, exploration of methods to increase the WT:MU IKBKAP transcript ratio in the nervous system offers a promising approach for developing an effective therapy for patients with FD. PMID:12577200

  4. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3 μg g -1 ), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16 μg g -1 ) and gills (0.27-2.74 μg g -1 ). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals.

  5. Sex- and Tissue-Specific Expression Profiles of Odorant Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes in Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia odoriphaga is an agricultural pest insect affecting the production of Chinese chive and other liliaceous vegetables in China, and it is significantly attracted by sex pheromones and the volatiles derived from host plants. Despite verification of this chemosensory behavior, however, it is still unknown how B. odoriphaga recognizes these volatile compounds on the molecular level. Many of odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs play crucial roles in olfactory perception. Here, we identified 49 OBP and 5 CSP genes from the antennae and body transcriptomes of female and male adults of B. odoriphaga, respectively. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis among Dipteran OBPs and CSPs were analyzed. The sex- and tissue-specific expression profiles of 54 putative chemosensory genes among different tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR analysis results suggested that 22 OBP and 3 CSP genes were enriched in the antennae, indicating they might be essential for detection of general odorants and pheromones. Among these antennae-enriched genes, nine OBPs (BodoOBP2/4/6/8/12/13/20/28/33 were enriched in the male antennae and may play crucial roles in the detection of sex pheromones. Moreover, some OBP and CSP genes were enriched in non-antennae tissues, such as in the legs (BodoOBP3/9/19/21/34/35/38/39/45 and BodoCSP1, wings (BodoOBP17/30/32/37/44, abdomens and thoraxes (BodoOBP29/36, and heads (BodoOBP14/23/31 and BodoCSP2, suggesting that these genes might be involved in olfactory, gustatory, or other physiological processes. Our findings provide a starting point to facilitate functional research of these chemosensory genes in B. odoriphaga at the molecular level.

  6. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja S Strauss

    Full Text Available Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi.In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp. RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration.We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant-derived compounds and

  7. Dissecting Tissue-Specific Transcriptomic Responses from Leaf and Roots under Salt Stress in Petunia hybrida Mitchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H. Villarino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of plant biotechnology is to increase resistance to abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Salinity is a major abiotic stress and increasing crop resistant to salt continues to the present day as a major challenge. Salt stress disturbs cellular environment leading to protein misfolding, affecting normal plant growth and causing agricultural losses worldwide. The advent of state-of-the-art technologies such as high throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq has revolutionized whole-transcriptome analysis by allowing, with high precision, to measure changes in gene expression. In this work, we used tissue-specific RNA-seq to gain insight into the Petunia hybrida transcriptional responses under NaCl stress using a controlled hydroponic system. Roots and leaves samples were taken from a continuum of 48 h of acute 150 mM NaCl. This analysis revealed a set of tissue and time point specific differentially expressed genes, such as genes related to transport, signal transduction, ion homeostasis as well as novel and undescribed genes, such as Peaxi162Scf00003g04130 and Peaxi162Scf00589g00323 expressed only in roots under salt stress. In this work, we identified early and late expressed genes in response to salt stress while providing a core of differentially express genes across all time points and tissues, including the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1, a glycosyltransferase reported in salt tolerance in other species. To test the function of the novel petunia TPS1 allele, we cloned and showed that TPS1 is a functional plant gene capable of complementing the trehalose biosynthesis pathway in a yeast tps1 mutant. The list of candidate genes to enhance salt tolerance provided in this work constitutes a major effort to better understand the detrimental effects of salinity in petunia with direct implications for other economically important Solanaceous species.

  8. Transcription elongation rate has a tissue-specific impact on alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochuan; Freitas, Jaime; Zheng, Dinghai; Oliveira, Marta S; Hoque, Mainul; Martins, Torcato; Henriques, Telmo; Tian, Bin; Moreira, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a mechanism that generates multiple mRNA isoforms with different 3'UTRs and/or coding sequences from a single gene. Here, using 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), we have systematically mapped cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in Drosophila melanogaster , expanding the total repertoire of PASs previously identified for the species, especially those located in A-rich genomic sequences. Cis -element analysis revealed distinct sequence motifs around fly PASs when compared to mammalian ones, including the greater enrichment of upstream UAUA elements and the less prominent presence of downstream UGUG elements. We found that over 75% of mRNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster undergo APA. The head tissue tends to use distal PASs when compared to the body, leading to preferential expression of APA isoforms with long 3'UTRs as well as with distal terminal exons. The distance between the APA sites and intron location of PAS are important parameters for APA difference between body and head, suggesting distinct PAS selection contexts. APA analysis of the RpII215 C4 mutant strain, which harbors a mutant RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with a slower elongation rate, revealed that a 50% decrease in transcriptional elongation rate leads to a mild trend of more usage of proximal, weaker PASs, both in 3'UTRs and in introns, consistent with the "first come, first served" model of APA regulation. However, this trend was not observed in the head, suggesting a different regulatory context in neuronal cells. Together, our data expand the PAS collection for Drosophila melanogaster and reveal a tissue-specific effect of APA regulation by RNAPII elongation rate. © 2017 Liu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Tissue-specific regulation of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines in keratinocytes: Implications for oral inflammatory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marshall

    Full Text Available The IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 play a key role in many inflammatory conditions, particularly those mediated by T cells. Therefore, the production of these chemokines in peripheral tissues could be instrumental in the pathophysiology of tissue-specific immunological diseases such as oral lichen planus (OLP. In the present study, we assessed the production of keratinocyte-derived CXCL9/10/11 under basal and inflammatory conditions and investigated whether these chemokines were involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. We used semi-quantitative PCR, ELISA, chemotaxis assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS to assess the expression and functional role of CXCL9/10/11 in oral keratinocytes (three strains of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK, and the H357 oral cancer cell line in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. CXCL9/10/11 were also assessed in tissues from normal patients and those with oral lichen planus (OLP. The time course study in oral keratinocytes treated with IFN-γ showed that expression of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines was significantly enhanced by IFN-γ in a time-dependent manner. In particular, CXCL10, a prominent chemokine that was overexpressed by IFN-γ-stimulated NHOK, was able to effectively recruit CD4 lymphocytes, mainly CD4+CD45RA- cells. Significantly higher levels of CXCL9/10/11 were found in tissues from patients with OLP compared to normal oral mucosa. Taken together, the results demonstrate that normal oral keratinocytes produce chemotactic molecules that mediate T cell recruitment. This study furthers understanding of chemokine production in oral keratinocytes and their role in the pathophysiology of oral mucosa, with particular relevance to OLP.

  10. Modulation of differentiation and self-renewal of tissue specific stem cells for effective mitigation of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, Mayuri; Patwardhan, R.S.; Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Bhilwade, Hari N.; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine for the treatment of various human diseases is one of the active research areas. The aim of regenerative medicine is to restore normal tissue functions by replenishing injured tissues using either cell-based therapy or by inducing certain factors that can aid endogenous repair and regeneration. The approach for inducing endogenous repair and regeneration requires in vivo modulation of tissue-specific stem cells by therapeutic agents and enhance their abundance through activation, proliferation, differentiation, or reprogramming. Here we describe three different approaches to enhance the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo for mitigation of radiation induced toxicity. Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from Chinese and Indian medicinal plants like Scutellaria baicalensis and Terminalia ariuna enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through activation of Nrf-2 in the lineage negative cells. Another anti-oxidant, chlorophyllin derived from green plant pigment, chlorophyll also enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through modulation of cell cycle in cells of the bone marrow. Treatment of mice with Cobaltus chloride (CoCl_2), a well-known activator of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIP-1α), also led to increase in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Whereas chlorophyllin offered up to 100 % protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 8 Gy) induced mortality in mice, baicalein offered up to70%protection. Cobaltus chloride treatment offered 40% protection against 8 Gy of WBI. These studies indicate potential use of stem cell modulating agents as effective mitigators of radiation induced toxicity in vivo. (author)

  11. Topological and organizational properties of the products of house-keeping and tissue-specific genes in protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsien; Liu, Wei-Chung; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2009-03-11

    Human cells of various tissue types differ greatly in morphology despite having the same set of genetic information. Some genes are expressed in all cell types to perform house-keeping functions, while some are selectively expressed to perform tissue-specific functions. In this study, we wished to elucidate how proteins encoded by human house-keeping genes and tissue-specific genes are organized in human protein-protein interaction networks. We constructed protein-protein interaction networks for different tissue types using two gene expression datasets and one protein-protein interaction database. We then calculated three network indices of topological importance, the degree, closeness, and betweenness centralities, to measure the network position of proteins encoded by house-keeping and tissue-specific genes, and quantified their local connectivity structure. Compared to a random selection of proteins, house-keeping gene-encoded proteins tended to have a greater number of directly interacting neighbors and occupy network positions in several shortest paths of interaction between protein pairs, whereas tissue-specific gene-encoded proteins did not. In addition, house-keeping gene-encoded proteins tended to connect with other house-keeping gene-encoded proteins in all tissue types, whereas tissue-specific gene-encoded proteins also tended to connect with other tissue-specific gene-encoded proteins, but only in approximately half of the tissue types examined. Our analysis showed that house-keeping gene-encoded proteins tend to occupy important network positions, while those encoded by tissue-specific genes do not. The biological implications of our findings were discussed and we proposed a hypothesis regarding how cells organize their protein tools in protein-protein interaction networks. Our results led us to speculate that house-keeping gene-encoded proteins might form a core in human protein-protein interaction networks, while clusters of tissue-specific gene

  12. [Analysis of tissue-specific differentially methylated genes with differential gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L G; Zou, Z Q; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, C L; Shen, J G; Qi, L; Qi, M; Xue, Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are two subtypes of non-small cell lung carcinomas which are regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related malignancy worldwide. The aim of this study is to detect the differentially methylated loci (DMLs) and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) of these two tumor sets, and then to illustrate the different expression level of specific methylated genes. Using TCGA database and Illumina HumanMethylation 27 arrays, we first screened the DMGs and DMLs in tumor samples. Then, we explored the BiologicalProcess terms of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes using Functional Gene Ontology (GO) catalogues. Hypermethylation intensively occurred in CpG-island, whereas hypomethylation was located in non-CpG-island. Most SCC and ADC hypermethylated genes involved GO function of DNA dependenit regulation of transcription, and hypomethylated genes mainly 'enriched in the term of immune responses. Additionally, the expression level of specific differentially methylated genesis distinctbetween ADC and SCC. It is concluded that ADC and SCC have different methylated status that might play an important role in carcinogenesis.

  13. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  14. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome fromtransposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG bindingdomain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind tomethylated ...

  15. 78 FR 28904 - CPG Carlyle Private Equity Fund, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... as Delaware limited liability companies. The Feeder Fund operates as a feeder fund in a master-feeder..., and mezzanine). 2. The Adviser, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly- owned subsidiary of... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30512; 812-14089] CPG...

  16. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-13

    Jan 13, 2017 ... 13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but the molecular/biological functions of most of these ... AtMBD5, AtMBD6 and AtMBD7 are more similar to those .... prey were able to grow on -AHLW (-Ade, -His, -Leu, -Trp).

  17. CpG methylation differences between neurons and glia are highly conserved from mouse to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Noah J; Van Baak, Timothy E; Baker, Maria S; Laritsky, Eleonora; Coarfa, Cristian; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-01-15

    Understanding epigenetic differences that distinguish neurons and glia is of fundamental importance to the nascent field of neuroepigenetics. A recent study used genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to survey differences in DNA methylation between these two cell types, in both humans and mice. That study minimized the importance of cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, claiming these are restricted to localized genomic regions, and instead emphasized that widespread and highly conserved differences in non-CpG methylation distinguish neurons and glia. We reanalyzed the data from that study and came to markedly different conclusions. In particular, we found widespread cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, with a genome-wide tendency for neuronal CpG-hypermethylation punctuated by regions of glia-specific hypermethylation. Alarmingly, our analysis indicated that the majority of genes identified by the primary study as exhibiting cell type-specific CpG methylation differences were misclassified. To verify the accuracy of our analysis, we isolated neuronal and glial DNA from mouse cortex and performed quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing at nine loci. The pyrosequencing results corroborated our analysis, without exception. Most interestingly, we found that gene-associated neuron vs. glia CpG methylation differences are highly conserved across human and mouse, and are very likely to be functional. In addition to underscoring the importance of independent verification to confirm the conclusions of genome-wide epigenetic analyses, our data indicate that CpG methylation plays a major role in neuroepigenetics, and that the mouse is likely an excellent model in which to study the role of DNA methylation in human neurodevelopment and disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mining tissue specificity, gene connectivity and disease association to reveal a set of genes that modify the action of disease causing genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reverter Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue specificity of gene expression has been linked to a number of significant outcomes including level of expression, and differential rates of polymorphism, evolution and disease association. Recent studies have also shown the importance of exploring differential gene connectivity and sequence conservation in the identification of disease-associated genes. However, no study relates gene interactions with tissue specificity and disease association. Methods We adopted an a priori approach making as few assumptions as possible to analyse the interplay among gene-gene interactions with tissue specificity and its subsequent likelihood of association with disease. We mined three large datasets comprising expression data drawn from massively parallel signature sequencing across 32 tissues, describing a set of 55,606 true positive interactions for 7,197 genes, and microarray expression results generated during the profiling of systemic inflammation, from which 126,543 interactions among 7,090 genes were reported. Results Amongst the myriad of complex relationships identified between expression, disease, connectivity and tissue specificity, some interesting patterns emerged. These include elevated rates of expression and network connectivity in housekeeping and disease-associated tissue-specific genes. We found that disease-associated genes are more likely to show tissue specific expression and most frequently interact with other disease genes. Using the thresholds defined in these observations, we develop a guilt-by-association algorithm and discover a group of 112 non-disease annotated genes that predominantly interact with disease-associated genes, impacting on disease outcomes. Conclusion We conclude that parameters such as tissue specificity and network connectivity can be used in combination to identify a group of genes, not previously confirmed as disease causing, that are involved in interactions with disease causing

  19. Protection of Balb/c mice against infection with FMDV by immunostimulation with CpG oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene

    2006-01-01

    disease virus (FMDV). Susceptibility of Balb/c mice to infection with isolates from the different serotypes of FMDV was investigated, and, at the same time, the capacity of CpG ODN to modulate the infection was evaluated. Treatment with CpG significantly reduced viremia, disease and death in five of six...... serotypes, when compared to no treatment or treatment with a control ODN. The effect was observed when ODN was administered simultaneously with, or up to 12 h after, infection with FMDV, and lasted for 14 days post treatment. The potential application of CpG ODN for control of FMDV during an outbreak...

  20. CpG promoter methylation of the ALKBH3 alkylation repair gene in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Olafur Andri; Hermanowicz, Stefan; van der Horst, Jasper; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Staszczak, Zuzanna; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Sigurdsson, Stefan

    2017-07-05

    DNA repair of alkylation damage is defective in various cancers. This occurs through somatically acquired inactivation of the MGMT gene in various cancer types, including breast cancers. In addition to MGMT, the two E. coli AlkB homologs ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 have also been linked to direct reversal of alkylation damage. However, it is currently unknown whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated in cancer. Methylome datasets (GSE52865, GSE20713, GSE69914), available through Omnibus, were used to determine whether ALKBH2 or ALKBH3 are found inactivated by CpG promoter methylation. TCGA dataset enabled us to then assess the impact of CpG promoter methylation on mRNA expression for both ALKBH2 and ALKBH3. DNA methylation analysis for the ALKBH3 promoter region was carried out by pyrosequencing (PyroMark Q24) in 265 primary breast tumours and 30 proximal normal breast tissue samples along with 8 breast-derived cell lines. ALKBH3 mRNA and protein expression were analysed in cell lines using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. DNA alkylation damage assay was carried out in cell lines based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. Data on clinical parameters and survival outcomes in patients were obtained and assessed in relation to ALKBH3 promoter methylation. The ALKBH3 gene, but not ALKBH2, undergoes CpG promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing in breast cancer. We developed a quantitative alkylation DNA damage assay based on immunofluorescence and confocal imaging revealing higher levels of alkylation damage in association with epigenetic inactivation of the ALKBH3 gene (P = 0.029). In our cohort of 265 primary breast cancer, we found 72 cases showing aberrantly high CpG promoter methylation over the ALKBH3 promoter (27%; 72 out of 265). We further show that increasingly higher degree of ALKBH3 promoter methylation is associated with reduced breast-cancer specific survival times in patients. In this analysis, ALKBH3 promoter methylation at >20

  1. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-09-01

    BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple POU-binding motifs, recognized by tissue-specific nuclear factors, are important for Dll1 gene expression in neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kohzo; Nagase, Kazuko; Tokutake, Yuriko; Koh, Chang-Sung; Hiratochi, Masahiro; Ohkawara, Takeshi; Nakayama, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the mouse homolog of the Delta gene (Dll1) and demonstrated that the sequence between nucleotide position -514 and -484 in the 5'-flanking region of Dll1 played a critical role in the regulation of its tissue-specific expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Further, we showed that multiple POU-binding motifs, located within this short sequence of 30 bp, were essential for transcriptional activation of Dll1 and also that multiple tissue-specific nuclear factors recognized these POU-binding motifs in various combinations through differentiation of NSCs. Thus, POU-binding factors may play an important role in Dll1 expression in developing NSCs

  3. CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides protect mice from Burkholderia pseudomallei but not Francisella tularensis Schu S4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozak, David A; Gelhaus, Herbert C; Smith, Mark; Zadeh, Mojgan; Huzella, Louis; Waag, David; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2010-02-05

    Studies have shown that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) protect mice from various bacterial pathogens, including Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), when administered before parenteral challenge. Given the potential to develop CpG ODN as a pre-treatment for multiple bacterial biological warfare agents, we examined survival, histopathology, and cytokine data from CpG ODN-treated C57BL/6 mice to determine whether previously-reported protection extended to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b and highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 infections. We found that, although CpG ODN protected mice from aerosolized B. pseudomallei challenges, the immunostimulant failed to benefit the animals exposed to F. tularensis Schu S4 aerosols. Our results, which contrast with earlier F. tularensis LVS studies, highlight potential differences in Francisella species pathogenesis and underscore the need to evaluate immunotherapies against human pathogenic species.

  4. Intratracheal synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide causes acute lung injury with systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial genome is characterized by frequent unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG motifs. Deleterious effects can occur when synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN with unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN are administered in a systemic fashion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of intratracheal CpG-ODN on lung inflammation and systemic inflammatory response. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal administration of CpG-ODN (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 μM or control ODN without CpG motif. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was obtained 3 or 6 h or 1, 2, 7, or 14 days after the instillation and subjected to a differential cell count and cytokine measurement. Lung permeability was evaluated as the BAL fluid-to-plasma ratio of the concentration of human serum albumin that was injected 1 h before euthanasia. Nuclear factor (NF-κB DNA binding activity was also evaluated in lung homogenates. Intratracheal administration of 10 μM or higher concentration of CpG-ODN induced significant inflammatory cell accumulation into the airspace. The peak accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred 1 and 2 days after the CpG-ODN administration, respectively. Lung permeability was increased 1 day after the 10 μM CpG-ODN challenge. CpG-ODN also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid and plasma. Histopathology of the lungs and liver revealed acute lung injury and liver damage with necrosis, respectively. Control ODN without CpG motif did not induce any inflammatory change. Since intratracheal CpG-ODN induced acute lung injury as well as systemic inflammatory response, therapeutic strategies to neutralize bacterial DNA that is released after administration of bactericidal agents should be considered.

  5. The effect of TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on the intestinal immune response of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadgi, Omkar; Puteri, Dinda; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chu, Chun-Yen; Cheng, Ta-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B) was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1 β . Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB) and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds) and B (30 folds) isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668) and MyD88 (21 folds) at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395). Subsequently, IL-1 β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  6. The Effect of TLR9 Agonist CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides on the Intestinal Immune Response of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Byadgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN motifs of bacterial DNA are recognized through toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 and are potent activators of innate immunity. However, the interaction between TLR9 and CpG ODN in aquatic species has not been well characterized. Hence, cobia TLR9 isoform B (RCTLR9B was cloned and its expression and induction in intestine were investigated. RCTLR9B cDNA consists of 3113bp encoding 1009 amino acids containing three regions, leucine rich repeats, transmembrane domain, and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. Intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN 2395 upregulated RCTLR9 A and B and MyD88 and also induced the expressions of Mx, chemokine CC, and interleukin IL-1β. Cobia intraperitoneally injected with CpG ODN 1668 and 2395 had increased survival rates after challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. In addition, formulation of CpG ODN with formalin-killed bacteria (FKB and aluminum hydroxide gel significantly increased expressions of RCTLR9 A (50 folds and B (30 folds isoforms at 10 dpi (CpG ODN 1668 and MyD88 (21 folds at 6 dpv (CpG ODN 2395. Subsequently, IL-1β increased at 6 dpv in 1668 group. No histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the injected cobia. Altogether, these results facilitate CpG ODNs as an adjuvant to increase bacterial disease resistance and efficacy of vaccines in cobia.

  7. Dynamic Modelling of a CPG-Controlled Amphibious Biomimetic Swimming Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modelling and control problems of a self-propelled, multimodal amphibious robot. Inspired by the undulatory body motions of fish and dolphins, the amphibious robot propels itself underwater by oscillations of several modular fish-like propelling units coupled with a pair of pectoral fins capable of non-continuous 360 degree rotation. In order to mimic fish-like undulating propulsion, a control architecture based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG is applied to the amphibious robot for robust swimming gaits, including forward and backward swimming and turning, etc. With the simplification of the robot as a multi-link serial mechanism, a Lagrangian function is employed to establish the hydrodynamic model for steady swimming. The CPG motion control law is then imported into the Lagrangian-based dynamic model, where an associated system of kinematics and dynamics is formed to solve real-time movements and, further, to guide the exploration of the CPG parameters and steady locomotion gaits. Finally, comparative results between the simulations and experiments are provided to show the effectiveness of the built control models.

  8. CpG plus radiotherapy: a review of preclinical works leading to clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathy A.; Hunter, Nancy R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies performed three decades ago in our laboratory supported the hypothesis that radiation efficacy may be augmented by bacterial extracts that stimulate non-specific systemic antitumor immune responses. Application to the clinic was halted by unacceptable side effects and toxicities resulting from exposure to whole bacterial pathogens. Later scientific advances demonstrated that DNA isolated from bacteria was immunostimulatory and could be reproduced with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), thus fueling the transition from bugs to drugs. Unmethylated CpG motifs within bacterial DNA induce activation of Toll-like receptor 9 and subsequently activate antigen-specific cellular immune responses. CpG ODNs have demonstrated favorable toxicity profiles in phase I clinical trials. We showed that this potent immunoadjuvant can be used in combination with radiation therapy to enhance local and systemic responses of several murine tumors. Studies demonstrated that enhanced tumor response is mediated in part by the host immune system. Antitumor efficacy was diminished in immunocompromised mice. Animals cured by combination of radiation and CpG ODN were resistant to subsequent tumor rechallenge. This body of work contributes to our understanding of the dynamic interplay between tumor irradiation and the host immune system and may facilitate translation to clinical trials.

  9. CpG plus radiotherapy: a review of preclinical works leading to clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Kathy A.; Hunter, Nancy R., E-mail: kmason@mdanderson.org [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Studies performed three decades ago in our laboratory supported the hypothesis that radiation efficacy may be augmented by bacterial extracts that stimulate non-specific systemic antitumor immune responses. Application to the clinic was halted by unacceptable side effects and toxicities resulting from exposure to whole bacterial pathogens. Later scientific advances demonstrated that DNA isolated from bacteria was immunostimulatory and could be reproduced with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), thus fueling the transition from bugs to drugs. Unmethylated CpG motifs within bacterial DNA induce activation of Toll-like receptor 9 and subsequently activate antigen-specific cellular immune responses. CpG ODNs have demonstrated favorable toxicity profiles in phase I clinical trials. We showed that this potent immunoadjuvant can be used in combination with radiation therapy to enhance local and systemic responses of several murine tumors. Studies demonstrated that enhanced tumor response is mediated in part by the host immune system. Antitumor efficacy was diminished in immunocompromised mice. Animals cured by combination of radiation and CpG ODN were resistant to subsequent tumor rechallenge. This body of work contributes to our understanding of the dynamic interplay between tumor irradiation and the host immune system and may facilitate translation to clinical trials.

  10. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn’t affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase. PMID:26464832

  11. Smooth transition for CPG-based body shape control of a snake-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, Norzalilah Mohamad; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a locomotion control based on central pattern generator (CPG) of a snake-like robot. The main point addressed in this paper is a method that produces a smooth transition of the body shape of a snake-like robot. Body shape transition is important for snake-like robot locomotion to adapt to different space widths and also for obstacle avoidance. By manipulating the phase difference of the CPG outputs instantly, it will results in a sharp point or discontinuity which lead to an unstable movement of the snake-like robot. To tackle the problem, we propose a way of controlling the body shape: by incorporating activation function in the phase oscillator CPG model. The simplicity of the method promises an easy implementation and simple control. Simulation results and torque analysis confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method and thus, can be used as a locomotion control in various potential applications of a snake-like robot. (paper)

  12. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value.

  13. Humanoids Learning to Walk: a Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI eLI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much researchfor some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system.In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic. In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference (LSTD based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator (SI that adapts to the environment.The results obtained are analyzed and explained by using a novel DST embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating sensorimotor levels and value.

  14. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  15. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants.

  16. The SET1 Complex Selects Actively Transcribed Target Genes via Multivalent Interaction with CpG Island Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David A; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Feldmann, Angelika; Ahn, Jaewoo; Ito, Shinsuke; Blackledge, Neil P; Nakayama, Manabu; McClellan, Michael; Dimitrova, Emilia; Turberfield, Anne H; Long, Hannah K; King, Hamish W; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Schermelleh, Lothar; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Koseki, Haruhiko; Klose, Robert J

    2017-09-05

    Chromatin modifications and the promoter-associated epigenome are important for the regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin-modifying complexes are targeted to the appropriate gene promoters in vertebrates and how they influence gene expression have remained poorly defined. Here, using a combination of live-cell imaging and functional genomics, we discover that the vertebrate SET1 complex is targeted to actively transcribed gene promoters through CFP1, which engages in a form of multivalent chromatin reading that involves recognition of non-methylated DNA and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). CFP1 defines SET1 complex occupancy on chromatin, and its multivalent interactions are required for the SET1 complex to place H3K4me3. In the absence of CFP1, gene expression is perturbed, suggesting that normal targeting and function of the SET1 complex are central to creating an appropriately functioning vertebrate promoter-associated epigenome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The SET1 Complex Selects Actively Transcribed Target Genes via Multivalent Interaction with CpG Island Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications and the promoter-associated epigenome are important for the regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin-modifying complexes are targeted to the appropriate gene promoters in vertebrates and how they influence gene expression have remained poorly defined. Here, using a combination of live-cell imaging and functional genomics, we discover that the vertebrate SET1 complex is targeted to actively transcribed gene promoters through CFP1, which engages in a form of multivalent chromatin reading that involves recognition of non-methylated DNA and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3. CFP1 defines SET1 complex occupancy on chromatin, and its multivalent interactions are required for the SET1 complex to place H3K4me3. In the absence of CFP1, gene expression is perturbed, suggesting that normal targeting and function of the SET1 complex are central to creating an appropriately functioning vertebrate promoter-associated epigenome.

  18. Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Yuta; Wu, Jun; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Martinez-Redondo, Paloma; Li, Mo; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Min-Zu; Herná ndez-Bení tez, Reyna; Hishida, Tomoaki; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2017-01-01

    that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation

  19. Identification of an atypical etiological head and neck squamous carcinoma subtype featuring the CpG island methylator phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Further distinguishing features of this ‘CIMP-Atypical’ subtype include an antiviral gene expression profile associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and CD8+ T cell infiltration, CASP8 mutations, and a well-differentiated state corresponding to normal SOX2 copy number and SOX2OT hypermethylation. We developed a gene expression classifier for the CIMP-Atypical subtype that could classify atypical disease features in two independent patient cohorts, demonstrating the reproducibility of this subtype. Taken together, these findings provide unprecedented evidence that atypical HNSCC is molecularly distinct, and postulates the CIMP-Atypical subtype as a distinct clinical entity that may be caused by chronic inflammation.

  20. Genetic variants of methyl metabolizing enzymes and epigenetic regulators: Associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.; Engeland, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation affects carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Folate metabolizing enzymes may influence the bioavailability of methyl groups, whereas DNA and histone methyltransferases are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We studied associations of genetic variants of

  1. A Distinct DNA Methylation Shift in a Subset of Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotypes during Tumor Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Ferreira; Sabedot, Thais S; Malta, Tathiane M; Stetson, Lindsay; Morozova, Olena; Sokolov, Artem; Laird, Peter W; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Iavarone, Antonio; Snyder, James; deCarvalho, Ana; Sanborn, Zachary; McDonald, Kerrie L; Friedman, William A; Tirapelli, Daniela; Poisson, Laila; Mikkelsen, Tom; Carlotti, Carlos G; Kalkanis, Steven; Zenklusen, Jean; Salama, Sofie R; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Noushmehr, Houtan

    2018-04-10

    Glioma diagnosis is based on histomorphology and grading; however, such classification does not have predictive clinical outcome after glioblastomas have developed. To date, no bona fide biomarkers that significantly translate into a survival benefit to glioblastoma patients have been identified. We previously reported that the IDH mutant G-CIMP-high subtype would be a predecessor to the G-CIMP-low subtype. Here, we performed a comprehensive DNA methylation longitudinal analysis of diffuse gliomas from 77 patients (200 tumors) to enlighten the epigenome-based malignant transformation of initially lower-grade gliomas. Intra-subtype heterogeneity among G-CIMP-high primary tumors allowed us to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of malignant recurrence at early stages of disease. G-CIMP-low recurrence appeared in 9.5% of all gliomas, and these resembled IDH-wild-type primary glioblastoma. G-CIMP-low recurrence can be characterized by distinct epigenetic changes at candidate functional tissue enhancers with AP-1/SOX binding elements, mesenchymal stem cell-like epigenomic phenotype, and genomic instability. Molecular abnormalities of longitudinal G-CIMP offer possibilities to defy glioblastoma progression. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Distinct DNA Methylation Shift in a Subset of Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotypes during Tumor Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira de Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioma diagnosis is based on histomorphology and grading; however, such classification does not have predictive clinical outcome after glioblastomas have developed. To date, no bona fide biomarkers that significantly translate into a survival benefit to glioblastoma patients have been identified. We previously reported that the IDH mutant G-CIMP-high subtype would be a predecessor to the G-CIMP-low subtype. Here, we performed a comprehensive DNA methylation longitudinal analysis of diffuse gliomas from 77 patients (200 tumors to enlighten the epigenome-based malignant transformation of initially lower-grade gliomas. Intra-subtype heterogeneity among G-CIMP-high primary tumors allowed us to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of malignant recurrence at early stages of disease. G-CIMP-low recurrence appeared in 9.5% of all gliomas, and these resembled IDH-wild-type primary glioblastoma. G-CIMP-low recurrence can be characterized by distinct epigenetic changes at candidate functional tissue enhancers with AP-1/SOX binding elements, mesenchymal stem cell-like epigenomic phenotype, and genomic instability. Molecular abnormalities of longitudinal G-CIMP offer possibilities to defy glioblastoma progression. : IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma glioblastoma often progresses to a more aggressive phenotype upon recurrence. de Souza et al. examines the intra-subtype heterogeneity of initial G-CIMP-high and use this information to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. Keywords: longitudinal gliomas, DNA methylation, IDH mutation, G-CIMP-high, intra-subtype heterogeneity, malignant transformation and recurrence, G-CIMP-low, stem cell-like glioblastoma, predictive biomarkers

  3. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Taghizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+.We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone.The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  4. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Shih, Tsung-Mu; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2010-12-17

    SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM) and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  5. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  6. Simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues from GWAS data via Bayesian integration of multiple tissue-specific gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Lin, Zhixiang; Ma, Shining; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui; Wong, Wing Hung

    2017-12-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of genomic loci associated with hundreds of complex traits in the past decade, the debate about such problems as missing heritability and weak interpretability has been appealing for effective computational methods to facilitate the advanced analysis of the vast volume of existing and anticipated genetic data. Towards this goal, gene-level integrative GWAS analysis with the assumption that genes associated with a phenotype tend to be enriched in biological gene sets or gene networks has recently attracted much attention, due to such advantages as straightforward interpretation, less multiple testing burdens, and robustness across studies. However, existing methods in this category usually exploit non-tissue-specific gene networks and thus lack the ability to utilize informative tissue-specific characteristics. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a Bayesian approach called SIGNET (Simultaneously Inference of GeNEs and Tissues) to integrate GWAS data and multiple tissue-specific gene networks for the simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues. Through extensive simulation studies, we showed the effectiveness of our method in finding both associated genes and relevant tissues for a phenotype. In applications to real GWAS data of 14 complex phenotypes, we demonstrated the power of our method in both deciphering genetic basis and discovering biological insights of a phenotype. With this understanding, we expect to see SIGNET as a valuable tool for integrative GWAS analysis, thereby boosting the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human inherited diseases and eventually facilitating precision medicine.

  7. Green tissue-specific co-expression of chitinase and oxalate oxidase 4 genes in rice for enhanced resistance against sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhasis; Molla, Kutubuddin Ali; Chanda, Palas K; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Green tissue-specific simultaneous overexpression of two defense-related genes ( OsCHI11 & OsOXO4 ) in rice leads to significant resistance against sheath blight pathogen ( R. solani ) without distressing any agronomically important traits. Overexpressing two defense-related genes (OsOXO4 and OsCHI11) cloned from rice is effective at enhancing resistance against sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. These genes were expressed under the control of two different green tissue-specific promoters, viz. maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter, PEPC, and rice cis-acting 544-bp DNA element, immediately upstream of the D54O translational start site, P D54O-544 . Putative T0 transgenic rice plants were screened by PCR and integration of genes was confirmed by Southern hybridization of progeny (T1) rice plants. Successful expression of OsOXO4 and OsCHI11 in all tested plants was confirmed. Expression of PR genes increased significantly following pathogen infection in overexpressing transgenic plants. Following infection, transgenic plants exhibited elevated hydrogen peroxide levels, significant changes in activity of ROS scavenging enzymes and reduced membrane damage when compared to their wild-type counterpart. In a Rhizoctonia solani toxin assay, a detached leaf inoculation test and an in vivo plant bioassay, transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to non-transgenic control plants. This is the first report of overexpression of two different PR genes driven by two green tissue-specific promoters providing enhanced sheath blight resistance in transgenic rice.

  8. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  9. Tissue-specific signatures in the transcriptional response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eAlberdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum

  10. Glutamatergic mechanisms for speed control and network operation in the rodent locomotor CPG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Kiehn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in mammals have produced conflicting results regarding the necessity and role of the different ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the CPG function. Here, we use electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques in the in vitro neonatal mouse lumbar spinal cord to investigate the role of a broad...... mechanisms acting at various network levels. AMPA and kainate receptors are necessary for generating the highest locomotor frequencies. For coordination, NMDARs are more important than non-NMDARs for conveying the rhythmic signal from the network to the motor neurons during long-lasting and steady locomotor...

  11. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  12. Direct Lymph Node Vaccination of Lentivector/Prostate-Specific Antigen is Safe and Generates Tissue-Specific Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Au

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer immunotherapy is emerging from a nadir and demonstrating tangible benefits to patients. A variety of approaches are now employed. We are invoking antigen (Ag-specific responses through direct injections of recombinant lentivectors (LVs that encode sequences for tumor-associated antigens into multiple lymph nodes to optimize immune presentation/stimulation. Here we first demonstrate the effectiveness and antigen-specificity of this approach in mice challenged with prostate-specific antigen (PSA-expressing tumor cells. Next we tested the safety and efficacy of this approach in two cohorts of rhesus macaques as a prelude to a clinical trial application. Our vector encodes the cDNA for rhesus macaque PSA and a rhesus macaque cell surface marker to facilitate vector titering and tracking. We utilized two independent injection schemas demarcated by the timing of LV administration. In both cohorts we observed marked tissue-specific responses as measured by clinical evaluations and magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland. Tissue-specific responses were sustained for up to six months—the end-point of the study. Control animals immunized against an irrelevant Ag were unaffected. We did not observe vector spread in test or control animals or perturbations of systemic immune parameters. This approach thus offers an “off-the-shelf” anti-cancer vaccine that could be made at large scale and injected into patients—even on an out-patient basis.

  13. Small RNA analysis in Petunia hybrida identifies unusual tissue-specific expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and of a 24mer RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Philip; Zubko, Elena; Westhead, David R.; Meyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two pools of small RNAs were cloned from inflorescences of Petunia hybrida using a 5′-ligation dependent and a 5′-ligation independent approach. The two libraries were integrated into a public website that allows the screening of individual sequences against 359,769 unique clones. The library contains 15 clones with 100% identity and 53 clones with one mismatch to miRNAs described for other plant species. For two conserved miRNAs, miR159 and miR390, we find clear differences in tissue-specific distribution, compared with other species. This shows that evolutionary conservation of miRNA sequences does not necessarily include a conservation of the miRNA expression profile. Almost 60% of all clones in the database are 24-nucleotide clones. In accordance with the role of 24mers in marking repetitive regions, we find them distributed across retroviral and transposable element sequences but other 24mers map to promoter regions and to different transcript regions. For one target region we observe tissue-specific variation of matching 24mers, which demonstrates that, as for 21mers, 24mer concentrations are not necessarily identical in different tissues. Asymmetric distribution of a putative novel miRNA in the two libraries suggests that the cloning method can be selective for the representation of certain small RNAs in a collection. PMID:19369427

  14. Direct Lymph Node Vaccination of Lentivector/Prostate-Specific Antigen is Safe and Generates Tissue-Specific Responses in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Bryan C; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Lopez-Perez, Orlay; Foltz, Warren; Felizardo, Tania C; Wang, James C M; Huang, Ju; Fan, Xin; Madden, Melissa; Goldstein, Alyssa; Jaffray, David A; Moloo, Badru; McCart, J Andrea; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-19

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is emerging from a nadir and demonstrating tangible benefits to patients. A variety of approaches are now employed. We are invoking antigen (Ag)-specific responses through direct injections of recombinant lentivectors (LVs) that encode sequences for tumor-associated antigens into multiple lymph nodes to optimize immune presentation/stimulation. Here we first demonstrate the effectiveness and antigen-specificity of this approach in mice challenged with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-expressing tumor cells. Next we tested the safety and efficacy of this approach in two cohorts of rhesus macaques as a prelude to a clinical trial application. Our vector encodes the cDNA for rhesus macaque PSA and a rhesus macaque cell surface marker to facilitate vector titering and tracking. We utilized two independent injection schemas demarcated by the timing of LV administration. In both cohorts we observed marked tissue-specific responses as measured by clinical evaluations and magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland. Tissue-specific responses were sustained for up to six months-the end-point of the study. Control animals immunized against an irrelevant Ag were unaffected. We did not observe vector spread in test or control animals or perturbations of systemic immune parameters. This approach thus offers an "off-the-shelf" anti-cancer vaccine that could be made at large scale and injected into patients-even on an out-patient basis.

  15. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides containing GACGTT motifs enhance the immune responses elicited by a goose parvovirus vaccine in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yen, Ting-Ying; Yang, Wen-Jen; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2010-11-23

    Recombinant parvovirus VP2 (rVP2) was formulated with different types of adjuvant, including aluminum adjuvant and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and the immunological responses after vaccination in ducks were examined. In comparison with the control group, production of rVP2-specific antibodies, expression of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by rVP2, and percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells in PBMC were significantly increased in ducks immunized with rVP2 formulated with CpG ODNs containing 3 copies of GACGTT motif. CpG ODNs with GACGTT motifs might be used to improve the efficacy of vaccines for ducks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MPT-51/CpG DNA vaccine protects mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruna Daniella de Souza; da Silva, Ediane Batista; do Nascimento, Ivan Pereira; Dos Reis, Michelle Cristina Guerreiro; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2009-07-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a severe infectious disease that kills approximately two million people worldwide every year. Because BCG protection is variable and does not protects adults, there is a great need for a new vaccine against TB that does not represent a risk for immunocompromised patients and that is also capable of protecting adult individuals. MPT-51 is a protein found in the genome of mycobacteria and binds to the fibronectin of the extracellular matrix, which may have a role in host tissue attachment and virulence. In order to test the usefulness of MPT-51 as a subunit vaccine, BALB/c were vaccinated and challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection of BALB/c with M. tuberculosis increased the number of IFN-gamma(+) T lymphocytes specific to MPT-51 in the spleen and lungs. Inoculation with rMPT-51/FIA and with rMPT-51/CpG DNA in non-infected BALB/c increased the amounts of IFN-gamma(+) T lymphocytes. Inoculation with rMPT-51/FIA also induced a humoral response specific to MPT-51. CFU counts of lung tissues done 60 days after infection showed a reduction of about 2 log in the bacteria load in the group of animals inoculated with rMPT-51/CpG DNA. These results make MPT-51 a valuable component to be further evaluated in the development of other subunit vaccines.

  17. FPGA implementation of a configurable neuromorphic CPG-based locomotion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-09-01

    Neuromorphic engineering is a discipline devoted to the design and development of computational hardware that mimics the characteristics and capabilities of neuro-biological systems. In recent years, neuromorphic hardware systems have been implemented using a hybrid approach incorporating digital hardware so as to provide flexibility and scalability at the cost of power efficiency and some biological realism. This paper proposes an FPGA-based neuromorphic-like embedded system on a chip to generate locomotion patterns of periodic rhythmic movements inspired by Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). The proposed implementation follows a top-down approach where modularity and hierarchy are two desirable features. The locomotion controller is based on CPG models to produce rhythmic locomotion patterns or gaits for legged robots such as quadrupeds and hexapods. The architecture is configurable and scalable for robots with either different morphologies or different degrees of freedom (DOFs). Experiments performed on a real robot are presented and discussed. The obtained results demonstrate that the CPG-based controller provides the necessary flexibility to generate different rhythmic patterns at run-time suitable for adaptable locomotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency Modulation and Spatiotemporal Stability of the sCPG in Preterm Infants with RDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnutritive suck (NNS is an observable and accessible motor behavior which is often used to make inference about brain development and pre-feeding skill in preterm and term infants. The purpose of this study was to model NNS burst compression pressure dynamics in the frequency and time domain among two groups of preterm infants, including those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, N=15 and 17 healthy controls. Digitized samples of NNS compression pressure waveforms recorded at a 1-week interval were collected 15 minutes prior to a scheduled feed. Regression analysis and ANOVA revealed that healthy preterm infants produced longer NNS bursts and the mean burst initiation cycle frequencies were higher when compared to the RDS group. Moreover, the initial 5 cycles of the NNS burst manifest a frequency modulated (FM segment which is a significant feature of the suck central pattern generator (sCPG, and differentially expressed in healthy and RDS infants. The NNS burst structure revealed significantly lower spatiotemporal index values for control versus RDS preterm infants during FM, and provides additional information on the microstructure of the sCPG which may be used to gauge the developmental status and progression of oromotor control systems among these fragile infants.

  19. A four step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eMurakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  20. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue-specific

  1. α-Fetoprotein promoter-driven Cre/LoxP-switched RNA interference for hepatocellular carcinoma tissue-specific target therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fei Peng

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment.Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1 was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3 and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116 were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5 was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay in vitro and tumorigenesis assay in vivo.The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1 but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1 in vivo while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth suppression in vivo.An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA was successfully established. The system provides a usable tool for HCC-specific RNAi

  2. DMPD: Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways media

  3. [Influence of tissue-specific superoxide dismutase genes expression in brain cells on Drosophila melanogaster sensitivity to oxidative stress and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitushynska, M V; Matiytsiv, N P; Chernyk, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study has shown that both functional gene knockout Sodl and Sod2 and their overexpression in neurons and glial tissue increase the sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster to oxidative stress (OS) conditions. The lowest survival rate was only 20.5% in insects with Sod2 knockout in neurons. Comparative analysis of the survival curves showed that adults with altered tissue-specific expression of the studied genes had reduced average and maximum life span. Under OS conditions induced by 5% hydrogen peroxide the life spans of wild type Oregon R and transgenic insects were significantly reduced. Altered Sod gene expression in glial tissue leads to degenerative changes in Drosophila brain at the young age. During the aging of insects and the action of pro-oxidants increasing of neurodegenerative phenotype is observed.

  4. Bromodomain protein 4 discriminates tissue-specific super-enhancers containing disease-specific susceptibility loci in prostate and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuber, Verena; Bettella, Francesco; Witoelar, Aree

    2017-01-01

    progression. Although previous approaches have been tried to explain risk associated with SNPs in regulatory DNA elements, so far epigenetic readers such as bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4) and super-enhancers have not been used to annotate SNPs. In prostate cancer (PC), androgen receptor (AR) binding......Background: Epigenetic information can be used to identify clinically relevant genomic variants single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of functional importance in cancer development. Super-enhancers are cell-specific DNA elements, acting to determine tissue or cell identity and driving tumor...... the differential enrichment of SNPs mapping to specific categories of enhancers. We find that BRD4 is the key discriminant of tissue-specific enhancers, showing that it is more powerful than AR binding information to capture PC specific risk loci, and can be used with similar effect in breast cancer (BC...

  5. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    -rich plasma, in which the wide dynamic range of the native protein complement hinders classical proteomic investigations. We employed an ex vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using Langendorff buffer perfusion. Nonrecirculating perfusate was collected over a temporal profile...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified...... release using ex vivo buffer perfused tissue to limit the presence of obfuscating plasma proteins may identify candidates for further study in humans....

  6. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chronic exposure to waterborne copper and nickel in binary mixture on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Jamwal, Ankur; Niyogi, Som

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fish trios (1 male: 2 female; n = 5-6) were exposed for 21 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Ni), (ii) waterborne Cu (45 μg/L), (iii) waterborne Ni (270 μg/L), and (iv) binary mixture of waterborne Cu and Ni (45 and 270 μg/L, respectively). Fish fecundity (cumulative egg production) was found to be the most sensitive reproductive endpoint, and the interaction of Cu and Ni elicited an additive effect on egg production. Tissue-specific accumulation of both metals was not influenced by the interaction of Cu and Ni, except an increased Cu and Ni burden in the carcass and ovary, respectively, were recorded. The expressions of hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) and the circulating estradiol level in females were also not affected by the metal-mixture treatment. However, co-exposure to waterborne Cu and Ni resulted in a significant downregulation of the hepatic vitellogenin gene in females, which was associated with the maximum upregulation of the hepatic metallothionein gene. In addition, a significant alteration of ovarian histopathology (decreased abundance of post-vitellogenic follicles, and increased follicular atresia) was also observed only in females exposed to Cu and Ni in mixture. Collectively, these observations suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu and Ni in binary mixture may impair fish reproductive capacity by inducing histopathological damage in ovarian tissue, and disrupting of energy homeostasis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of tissue-specific cortisol activity with regard to degeneration of the suspensory ligaments in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofberger, Sina C; Gauff, Felicia; Thaller, Denise; Morgan, Ruth; Keen, John A; Licka, Theresia F

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify signs of tissue-specific cortisol activity in samples of suspensory ligament (SL) and neck skin tissue from horses with and without pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). SAMPLE Suspensory ligament and neck skin tissue samples obtained from 26 euthanized horses with and without PPID. PROCEDURES Tissue samples were collected from 12 horses with and 14 horses without PPID (controls). Two control horses had received treatment with dexamethasone; data from those horses were not used in statistical analyses. The other 12 control horses were classified as old horses (≥ 14 years old) and young horses (≤ 9 years old). Standard histologic staining, staining for proteoglycan accumulation, and immunostaining of SL and neck skin tissue sections for glucocorticoid receptors, insulin, 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 were performed. Findings for horses with PPID were compared with findings for young and old horses without PPID. RESULTS Compared with findings for old and young control horses, there were significantly more cells stained for glucocorticoid receptors in SL samples and for 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in SL and skin tissue samples from horses with PPID. Insulin could not be detected in any of the SL or skin tissue samples. Horses with PPID had evidence of SL degeneration with significantly increased proteoglycan accumulation. Neck skin tissue was found to be significantly thinner in PPID-affected horses than in young control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism may contribute to the SL degeneration associated with PPID in horses.

  9. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Galland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality.

  10. FUN-LDA: A Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model for Predicting Tissue-Specific Functional Effects of Noncoding Variation: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenroth, Daniel; He, Zihuai; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Boeva, Valentina; Pethukova, Lynn; Khurana, Ekta; Christiano, Angela; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana

    2018-05-03

    We describe a method based on a latent Dirichlet allocation model for predicting functional effects of noncoding genetic variants in a cell-type- and/or tissue-specific way (FUN-LDA). Using this unsupervised approach, we predict tissue-specific functional effects for every position in the human genome in 127 different tissues and cell types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our predictions by using several validation experiments. Using eQTL data from several sources, including the GTEx project, Geuvadis project, and TwinsUK cohort, we show that eQTLs in specific tissues tend to be most enriched among the predicted functional variants in relevant tissues in Roadmap. We further show how these integrated functional scores can be used for (1) deriving the most likely cell or tissue type causally implicated for a complex trait by using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies and (2) estimating a tissue-based correlation matrix of various complex traits. We found large enrichment of heritability in functional components of relevant tissues for various complex traits, and FUN-LDA yielded higher enrichment estimates than existing methods. Finally, using experimentally validated functional variants from the literature and variants possibly implicated in disease by previous studies, we rigorously compare FUN-LDA with state-of-the-art functional annotation methods and show that FUN-LDA has better prediction accuracy and higher resolution than these methods. In particular, our results suggest that tissue- and cell-type-specific functional prediction methods tend to have substantially better prediction accuracy than organism-level prediction methods. Scores for each position in the human genome and for each ENCODE and Roadmap tissue are available online (see Web Resources). Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of laser ablation on optical soft tissue differentiation for tissue specific laser surgery-an experimental ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzle Florian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical diffuse reflectance can remotely differentiate various bio tissues. To implement this technique in an optical feedback system to guide laser surgery in a tissue-specific way, the alteration of optical tissue properties by laser ablation has to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the general feasibility of optical soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy under the influence of laser ablation, comparing the tissue differentiation results before and after laser intervention. Methods A total of 70 ex vivo tissue samples (5 tissue types were taken from 14 bisected pig heads. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded before and after Er:YAG-laser ablation. The spectra were analyzed and differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA. To assess the potential of tissue differentiation, area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity was computed for each pair of tissue types before and after laser ablation, and compared to each other. Results Optical tissue differentiation showed good results before laser exposure (total classification error 13.51%. However, the tissue pair nerve and fat yielded lower AUC results of only 0.75. After laser ablation slightly reduced differentiation results were found with a total classification error of 16.83%. The tissue pair nerve and fat showed enhanced differentiation (AUC: 0.85. Laser ablation reduced the sensitivity in 50% and specificity in 80% of the cases of tissue pair comparison. The sensitivity of nerve–fat differentiation was enhanced by 35%. Conclusions The observed results show the general feasibility of tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy even under conditions of tissue alteration by laser ablation. The contrast enhancement for the differentiation between nerve and fat tissue after ablation is assumed to be due to laser removal of the

  12. Identification of CTLA2A, DEFB29, WFDC15B, SERPINA1F and MUP19 as Novel Tissue-Specific Secretory Factors in Mouse.

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    Jibin Zhang

    Full Text Available Secretory factors in animals play an important role in communication between different cells, tissues and organs. Especially, the secretory factors with specific expression in one tissue may reflect important functions and unique status of that tissue in an organism. In this study, we identified potential tissue-specific secretory factors in the fat, muscle, heart, lung, kidney and liver in the mouse by analyzing microarray data from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository and searching and predicting their subcellular location in GeneCards and WoLF PSORT, and then confirmed tissue-specific expression of the genes using semi-quantitative PCR reactions. With this approach, we confirmed 11 lung, 7 liver, 2 heart, 1 heart and muscle, 7 kidney and 2 adipose and liver-specific secretory factors. Among these genes, 1 lung-specific gene--CTLA2A (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 2 alpha, 3 kidney-specific genes--SERPINA1F (serpin peptidase inhibitor, Clade A, member 1F, WFDC15B (WAP four-disulfide core domain 15B and DEFB29 (defensin beta 29 and 1 liver-specific gene--MUP19 (major urinary protein 19 have not been reported as secretory factors. These genes were tagged with hemagglutinin at the 3'end and then transiently transfected to HEK293 cells. Through protein detection in cell lysate and media using Western blotting, we verified secretion of the 5 genes and predicted the potential pathways in which they may participate in the specific tissue through data analysis of GEO profiles. In addition, alternative splicing was detected in transcripts of CTLA2A and SERPINA1F and the corresponding proteins were found not to be secreted in cell culture media. Identification of novel secretory factors through the current study provides a new platform to explore novel secretory factors and a general direction for further study of these genes in the future.

  13. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

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    Monika Stimac

    Full Text Available Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET (TS plasmid, in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid, in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  14. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Monika; Dolinsek, Tanja; Lampreht, Ursa; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET) (TS plasmid), in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid), in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET) of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  15. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  16. Protection of CpG ODN 1826 against radiation pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuan; Qiao Tiankui; Zhuang Xibing; Zhang Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protectional function of CpG ODN 1826 against radiation pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods: The rat left lung was exposed to 20 Gy of 6 MV X-rays for establishing a radiation pulmonary fibrosis model. SD rats were randomly divided into control group, irradiated group and intervention group, with 30 rats in each group. CpG ODN 1826 was intraperitoneally injected into rats at 0, 1, 2, 5 and 7 d post-irradiation. The rats were terminated at 5, 15, 30 and 90 d post-irradiation, and the lung indexes were recorded. Paraffin sections of the radiated lung were conducted with HE staining and Masson staining, the pulmonary fibrosis scores were recorded. The serum concentrations of TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were measured. Results: The radiation pulmonary fibrosis rat model was successfully established. The lung indexes of the control group were lower than those of the irradiated and intervention groups at 5 d post-irradiation (t = 3.046, 2.252, P < 0.05). The lung indexes of the intervention group were lower than those of the irradiated group (t = 4.120, 5.226, 5.719, P < 0.05). Pulmonary fibrosis scores of intervention group were lower than those of irradiated group (t = 3.212, 4.959, P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TGF-β1 of irradiated group were higher than those of the intervention group (t = 4.138, 5.924, 4.138, 5.924, P < 0.05). The Hyp in the lung of irradiated group was higher than that of intervention group (t = 7.527, 8.416, P < 0.05). Conclusions: CpG ODN1826 will not worse the radiation pulmonary fibrosis, on the contrary, it could reduce the serum concentrations of TGF-β1 and the lung content of Hyp in radiation pulmonary fibrosis, and protects rat against radiation pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  17. Effects of CPG ODN on biological behavior of PANC-1 and expression of TLR9 in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Qing; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Shi-Kai; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Wu, He-Shui

    2011-02-28

    To determine the expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in pancreatic tumor and the effects of cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides 2216 (CPG ODN2216) on biological behavior of pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 and explore their clinical significance. The immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to determine the expression of TLR9 protein in pancreatic cancer tissues, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the TLR9 protein expression in pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. To assess the effects of CPG ODN2216 on the invasive property of Panc-1 cells, in vitro cell adhesion, wound-healing scrape, and invasion and cell colony formation were evaluated. TLR9 was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and PANC-1 cells. The percentage of positive cells expressing TLR9 protein in human pancreatic tissues, paracancerous tissues and normal tissues were 73.3%, 33.3% and 20.0%, respectively, and the protein expression level of TLR9 was gradually descending (P PANC-1 cells in CPG ODN 2216 treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group (P PANC-1 cells in treatment group was significantly decreased and CPG ODN2216 had an inhibitive effect in the growth of Panc-1 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner (P Panc-1 cells.

  18. Inhibitory effects of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on MHC class I-deficient and -proficient HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2006), s. 1836-1842 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * immunotherapy * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.693, year: 2006

  19. A crucial role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in antiviral protection by CpG ODN–based vaginal microbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2006-01-01

    Topical microbicides represent a promising new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. TLR agonists are ideal candidates for microbicides, as they trigger a multitude of antiviral genes effective against a broad range of viruses. Although vaginal application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C has been shown to protect mice from genital herpes infection, the mechanism by which these agents provide protection remains unclear. Here, we show that plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are required for CpG ODN–mediated protection against lethal vaginal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Moreover, we demonstrate that cells of both the hematopoietic and stromal compartments must respond to CpG ODN via TLR9 and to type I IFNs through IFN-αβ receptor (IFN-αβR) for protection. Thus, crosstalk between pDCs and vaginal stromal cells provides for optimal microbicide efficacy. Our results imply that temporally and spatially controlled targeting of CpG ODN to pDCs and epithelial cells can potentially maximize their effectiveness as microbicides while minimizing the associated inflammatory responses. PMID:16878177

  20. CPG-Based Locomotion Control of a Robotic Fish : Using Linear Oscillators and Reducing Control Parameters via PSO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Xie, G.; Wang, L.; Cao, M.

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the locomotion control of a robotic fish. To achieve this goal, we design a control architecture based on a novel central pattern generator (CPG) and implement it as a system of coupled linear oscillators. This design differs significantly from the

  1. CpG Type A Induction of an Early Protective Environment in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis

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    James Crooks

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS that mimics human multiple sclerosis (MS, and it is thought to be driven by Th1 and Th17 myelin-reactive cells. Although adaptive immunity is clearly pivotal in the pathogenesis of EAE, with an essential role of CD4+ T cells, little is known of early, innate responses in this experimental setting. CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, typically found in microbial genomes, are potent activators of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. In this study, we compared the effects of two types of CpG, namely, type A and type B, on EAE. We found that treatment with CpG type A ODN (CpG-A, known to induce high amounts of IFN-α in pDCs, significantly reduced disease severity in EAE, relative to controls (12.63±1.86 versus 23.49±1.46, resp.; p=0.001. Treatment also delayed onset of neurological deficits and reduced spinal cord demyelination, while increasing the percentage of splenic regulatory (Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. CpG-A likewise reduced the levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in the CNS. Mechanistic insight into those events showed that CpG-A promoted a regulatory phenotype in pDCs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of pDCs isolated from CpG-A-treated mice inhibited CNS inflammation and induced disease remission in acute-phase EAE. Our data thus identify a link between TLR9 activation by specific ligands and the induction of tolerance via innate immunity mechanisms.

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and promoter CpG modifications throughout the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Suwansirikul, Songkiet; Jutavijittum, Prapan; Mériaux, Sophie B; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2013-11-01

    Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants, and the overall GC response in the brain. No detailed analysis of GR first exons or GR transcript variants throughout the human brain has been reported. Therefore we investigated post mortem tissues from 28 brain regions of 5 individuals. GR first exons were expressed throughout the healthy human brain with no region-specific usage patterns. First exon levels were highly inter-correlated suggesting that they are co-regulated. GR 3' splice variants (GRα and GR-P) were equally distributed in all regions, and GRβ expression was always low. GR/MR ratios showed significant differences between the 28 tissues with the highest ratio in the pituitary gland. Modification levels of individual CpG dinucleotides, including 5-mC and 5-hmC, in promoters 1D, 1E, 1F, and 1H were low, and diffusely clustered; despite significant heterogeneity between the donors. In agreement with this clustering, sum modification levels rather than individual CpG modifications correlated with GR expression. Two-way ANOVA showed that this sum modification was both promoter and brain region specific, but that there was however no promoter*tissue interaction. The heterogeneity between donors may however hide such an interaction. In both promoters 1F and 1H modification levels correlated with GRα expression suggesting that 5-mC and 5-hmC play an important role in fine tuning GR expression levels throughout the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural evolution and tissue-specific expression of tetrapod-specific second isoform of secretory pathway Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B., E-mail: korn@mail.ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Kostina, Maria B. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Korneenko, Tatyana V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shakhparonov, Mikhail I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117871 (Russian Federation); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2) cloned from rat duodenum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP2C2 gene (encoding SPCA2) exists only in genomes of Tetrapoda. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rat and pig SPCA2 are expressed in intestines, lung and some secretory glands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcellular localization of SPCA2 may depend on tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In rat duodenum, SPCA2 is localized in plasma membrane-associated compartments. -- Abstract: Secretory pathway Ca-ATPases are less characterized mammalian calcium pumps than plasma membrane Ca-ATPases and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPases. Here we report analysis of molecular evolution, alternative splicing, tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of the second isoform of the secretory pathway Ca-ATPase (SPCA2), the product of the ATP2C2 gene. The primary structure of SPCA2 from rat duodenum deduced from full-length transcript contains 944 amino acid residues, and exhibits 65% sequence identity with known SPCA1. The rat SPCA2 sequence is also highly homologous to putative human protein KIAA0703, however, the latter seems to have an aberrant N-terminus originating from intron 2. The tissue-specificity of SPCA2 expression is different from ubiquitous SPCA1. Rat SPCA2 transcripts were detected predominantly in gastrointestinal tract, lung, trachea, lactating mammary gland, skin and preputial gland. In the newborn pig, the expression profile is very similar with one remarkable exception: porcine bulbourethral gland gave the strongest signal. Upon overexpression in cultured cells, SPCA2 shows an intracellular distribution with remarkable enrichment in Golgi. However, in vivo SPCA2 may be localized in compartments that differ among various tissues: it is intracellular in epidermis, but enriched in plasma membranes of the intestinal epithelium. Analysis of SPCA2 sequences from various vertebrate species argue that ATP2C2

  4. Engineering high Zn in tomato shoots through expression of AtHMA4 involves tissue-specific modification of endogenous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorek, Maria; Klimecka, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Borg, Sören; Rudzka, Justyna; Szczęsny, Paweł; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2016-08-12

    To increase the Zn level in shoots, AtHMA4 was ectopically expressed in tomato under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. However, the Zn concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants failed to increase at all tested Zn levels in the medium. Modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in tomato expressing 35S::AtHMA4 depended on the concentration of Zn in the medium, thus indicating involvement of unknown endogenous metal-homeostasis mechanisms. To determine these mechanisms, those metal-homeostasis genes that were expressed differently in transgenic and wild-type plants were identified by microarray and RT-qPCR analysis using laser-assisted microdissected RNA isolated from two root sectors: (epidermis + cortex and stele), and leaf sectors (upper epidermis + palisade parenchyma and lower epidermis + spongy parenchyma). Zn-supply-dependent modification of Zn root/shoot distribution in AtHMA4-tomato (increase at 5 μM Zn, no change at 0.5 μM Zn) involved tissue-specific, distinct from that in the wild type, expression of tomato endogenous genes. First, it is suggested that an ethylene-dependent pathway underlies the detected changes in Zn root/shoot partitioning, as it was induced in transgenic plants in a distinct way depending on Zn exposure. Upon exposure to 5 or 0.5 μM Zn, in the epidermis + cortex of the transgenics' roots the expression of the Strategy I Fe-uptake system (ethylene-dependent LeIRT1 and LeFER) was respectively lower or higher than in the wild type and was accompanied by respectively lower or higher expression of the identified ethylene genes (LeNR, LeACO4, LeACO5) and of LeChln. Second, the contribution of LeNRAMP2 expression in the stele is shown to be distinct for wild-type and transgenic plants at both Zn exposures. Ethylene was also suggested as an important factor in a pathway induced in the leaves of transgenic plants by high Zn in the apoplast, which results in the initiation of loading of the excess Zn into the

  5. Tissue specificity for incorporation of [3H]thymidine by the 10- to 12-somite mouse embryo: alteration by acute exposure to hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.A.; Runner, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    Radioautograms from 10- to 12-somite mouse embryos labelled for 30 min in vitro with [ 3 H]thymidine were examined for frequency and intensity of incorporation. Results from ten tissues showed that values ranged from 82% of nuclei with a mean of 16.6 grains for visceral yolk sac to 17% of nuclei labelled with a mean of 4.4 grains for epithelium of the anterior gut tube. Labelling in the ten tissues indicated (1) a tissue-specific spectrum of incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine, (2) close correlation between frequency and intensity of labelling within a tissue and (3) asymmetrical quantities of incorporation between right and left somatopleure. Treatment with hydroxyurea in vitro reduced the frequency of labelled nuclei by 85% to 17% of control values. Mean numbers of grains over treated nuclei, 3.3 to 4.6 grains, were well above background but were clustered below the low end of the control range. Tissues exposed to hydroxyurea showed (1) labelling of significant numbers of nuclei, (2) inhibition of labelling in selected tissues and (3) equalization of bilateral asymmetry in quantity (frequency and intensity) of incorporation in somatopleure. The selective reduction of thymidine incorporation and equalization of asymmetrical rates of proliferation may constitute mechanisms by which hydroxyurea causes abnormal morphogenesis. (author)

  6. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded secretory proteins via the ER-associated degradation pathway. This functional diversity of p97 depends on its association with various cofactors, and to further our understanding of p97 function it is important that these cofactors are identified and analyzed. Here, we isolate and characterize the human protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8 is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p97 to the ER membrane for efficient ER-associated degradation.

  7. Characterization of intravitreally delivered capsid mutant AAV2-Cre vector to induce tissue-specific mutations in murine retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J; Yang, Zhiyong; Polisetti, Sraavya M; Welsbie, Derek S; Hauswirth, William W; Zack, Donald J; Merbs, Shannath L; Enke, Raymond A

    2016-10-01

    Targeted expression of Cre recombinase in murine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by viral vector is an effective strategy for creating tissue-specific gene knockouts for investigation of genetic contribution to RGC degeneration associated with optic neuropathies. Here we characterize dosage, efficacy and toxicity for sufficient intravitreal delivery of a capsid mutant Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding Cre recombinase. Wild type and Rosa26 (R26) LacZ mice were intravitreally injected with capsid mutant AAV2 viral vectors. Murine eyes were harvested at intervals ranging from 2 weeks to 15 weeks post-injection and were assayed for viral transduction, transgene expression and RGC survival. 10(9) vector genomes (vg) were sufficient for effective in vivo targeting of murine ganglion cell layer (GCL) retinal neurons. Transgene expression was observed as early as 2 weeks post-injection of viral vectors and persisted to 11 weeks. Early expression of Cre had no significant effect on RGC survival, while significant RGC loss was detected beginning 5 weeks post-injection. Early expression of viral Cre recombinase was robust, well-tolerated and predominantly found in GCL neurons suggesting this strategy can be effective in short-term RGC-specific mutation studies in experimental glaucoma models such as optic nerve crush and transection experiments. RGC degeneration with Cre expression for more than 4 weeks suggests that Cre toxicity is a limiting factor for targeted mutation strategies in RGCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  9. Alternative Splicing and Tissue-specific Elastin Misassembly Act as Biological Modifiers of Human Elastin Gene Frameshift Mutations Associated with Dominant Cutis Laxa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Hideki; Hirano, Eiichi; Knutsen, Russell H.; Shifren, Adrian; Wagenseil, Jessica E.; Ciliberto, Christopher; Kozel, Beth A.; Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is the extracellular matrix protein in vertebrates that provides elastic recoil to blood vessels, the lung, and skin. Because the elastin gene has undergone significant changes in the primate lineage, modeling elastin diseases in non-human animals can be problematic. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying a class of elastin gene mutations leading to autosomal dominant cutis laxa, we engineered a cutis laxa mutation (single base deletion) into the human elastin gene contained in a bacterial artificial chromosome. When expressed as a transgene in mice, mutant elastin was incorporated into elastic fibers in the skin and lung with adverse effects on tissue function. In contrast, only low levels of mutant protein incorporated into aortic elastin, which explains why the vasculature is relatively unaffected in this disease. RNA stability studies found that alternative exon splicing acts as a modifier of disease severity by influencing the spectrum of mutant transcripts that survive nonsense-mediated decay. Our results confirm the critical role of the C-terminal region of tropoelastin in elastic fiber assembly and suggest tissue-specific differences in the elastin assembly pathway. PMID:22573328

  10. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  11. Human apolipoprotein CIII gene expression is regulated by positive and negative cis-acting elements and tissue-specific protein factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reue, K.; Leff, T.; Breslow, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is a major protein constituent of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and is synthesized primarily in the liver. Cis-acting DNA elements required for liver-specific apoCIII gene transcription were identified with transient expression assays in the human hepatoma (HepG2) and epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. In liver cells, 821 nucleotides of the human apoCIII gene 5'-flanking sequence were required for maximum levels of gene expression, while the proximal 110 nucleotides alone were sufficient. No expression was observed in similar studies with HeLa cells. The level of expression was modulated by a combination of positive and negative cis-acting sequences, which interact with distinct sets of proteins from liver and HeLa cell nuclear extracts. The proximal positive regulatory region shares homology with similarly located sequences of other genes strongly expressed in the liver, including α 1 -antitrypsin and other apolipoprotein genes. The negative regulatory region is striking homologous to the human β-interferon gene regulatory element. The distal positive region shares homology with some viral enhancers and has properties of a tissue-specific enhancer. The regulation of the apoCIII gene is complex but shares features with other genes, suggesting shuffling of regulatory elements as a common mechanism for cell type-specific gene expression

  12. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in the cucumber line TMG-1: tissue-specific expression and relationship to zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, T; Grumet, R

    1995-09-01

    The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.

  13. Quasispecies evolution of the prototypical genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus early during in vivo infection is rapid and tissue specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zen H; Wang, Xinglong; Wilson, Alison D; Dorey-Robinson, Daniel L W; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major infectious threat to the pig industry worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microevolution within a quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV; potentially impacting the pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report on micro-evolutionary events taking place within the viral quasispecies population in lung and lymph node 3 days post infection (dpi) following experimental in vivo infection with the prototypical Lelystad PRRSV (LV). Sequence analysis revealed 16 high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNV) or differences from the reference LV genome which are assumed to be representative of the consensus inoculum genome. Additionally, 49 other low frequency SNVs were also found in the inoculum population. At 3 dpi, a total of 9 and 10 SNVs of varying frequencies could already be detected in the LV population infecting the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged independently in the two respective tissues when compared to the inoculum. The remaining variants, though already present at lower frequencies in the inoculum, were positively selected and their frequency increased within the quasispecies population. Hence, we were able to determine directly from tissues infected with PRRSV the repertoire of genetic variants within the viral quasispecies population. Our data also suggest that microevolution of these variants is rapid and some may be tissue-specific.

  14. Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

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    Juan M Pacheco

    Full Text Available Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95% and dorsal soft palate (71.43%. FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT. Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198, IFN-β (RE = 0.269, IL-12 (RE = 0.275, and IL-2 (RE = 0.312. Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065. Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

  15. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Lages Lino Vala, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p......The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded...... protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8...

  16. Genome-wide identification and tissue-specific expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat gene family in Cicer arietinum (kabuli chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Rawat, Vimal; Suresh, C G

    2017-12-01

    The nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins play an important role in the defense mechanisms against pathogens. Using bioinformatics approach, we identified and annotated 104 NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Phylogenetic analysis points to their diversification into two families namely TIR-NBS-LRR and non-TIR-NBS-LRR. Gene architecture revealed intron gain/loss events in this resistance gene family during their independent evolution into two families. Comparative genomics analysis elucidated its evolutionary relationship with other fabaceae species. Around 50% NBS-LRRs reside in macro-syntenic blocks underlining positional conservation along with sequence conservation of NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Transcriptome sequencing data provided evidence for their transcription and tissue-specific expression. Four cis -regulatory elements namely WBOX, DRE, CBF, and GCC boxes, that commonly occur in resistance genes, were present in the promoter regions of these genes. Further, the findings will provide a strong background to use candidate disease resistance NBS-encoding genes and identify their specific roles in chickpea.

  17. Temporal and tissue specific regulation of RP-associated splicing factor genes PRPF3, PRPF31 and PRPC8--implications in the pathogenesis of RP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibi Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations in several ubiquitously expressed RNA splicing genes such as PRPF3, PRP31 and PRPC8, have been found to cause retina-specific diseases in humans. To understand this intriguing phenomenon, most studies have been focused on testing two major hypotheses. One hypothesis assumes that these mutations interrupt retina-specific interactions that are important for RNA splicing, implying that there are specific components in the retina interacting with these splicing factors. The second hypothesis suggests that these mutations have only a mild effect on the protein function and thus affect only the metabolically highly active cells such as retinal photoreceptors.We examined the second hypothesis using the PRPF3 gene as an example. We analyzed the spatial and temporal expression of the PRPF3 gene in mice and found that it is highly expressed in retinal cells relative to other tissues and its expression is developmentally regulated. In addition, we also found that PRP31 and PRPC8 as well as snRNAs are highly expressed in retinal cells.Our data suggest that the retina requires a relatively high level of RNA splicing activity for optimal tissue-specific physiological function. Because the RP18 mutation has neither a debilitating nor acute effect on protein function, we suggest that retinal degeneration is the accumulative effect of decades of suboptimal RNA splicing due to the mildly impaired protein.

  18. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  19. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Xie, Jianghui; Duan, Yajie; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-27

    Dwarfism is one of the most valuable traits in banana breeding because semi-dwarf cultivars show good resistance to damage by wind and rain. Moreover, these cultivars present advantages of convenient cultivation, management, and so on. We obtained a dwarf mutant '8818-1' through EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) mutagenesis of Williams banana 8818 (Musa spp. AAA group). Our research have shown that gibberellins (GAs) content in 8818-1 false stems was significantly lower than that in its parent 8818 and the dwarf type of 8818-1 could be restored by application of exogenous GA3. Although GA exerts important impacts on the 8818-1 dwarf type, our understanding of the regulation of GA metabolism during banana dwarf mutant development remains limited. Genome-wide screening revealed 36 candidate GA metabolism genes were systematically identified for the first time; these genes included 3 MaCPS, 2 MaKS, 1 MaKO, 2 MaKAO, 10 MaGA20ox, 4 MaGA3ox, and 14 MaGA2ox genes. Phylogenetic tree and conserved protein domain analyses showed sequence conservation and divergence. GA metabolism genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Early GA biosynthesis genes were constitutively expressed but presented differential regulation in different tissues in Williams banana. GA oxidase family genes were mainly transcribed in young fruits, thus suggesting that young fruits were the most active tissue involved in GA metabolism, followed by leaves, bracts, and finally approximately mature fruits. Expression patterns between 8818 and 8818-1 revealed that MaGA20ox4, MaGA20ox5, and MaGA20ox7 of the MaGA20ox gene family and MaGA2ox7, MaGA2ox12, and MaGA2ox14 of the MaGA2ox gene family exhibited significant differential expression and high-expression levels in false stems. These genes are likely to be responsible for the regulation of GAs content in 8818-1 false stems. Overall, phylogenetic evolution, tissue specificity and differential expression analyses of GA metabolism genes can provide a

  1. Tissue-specific differential induction of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by the peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Ananda B

    2012-07-01

    RNAs for both the duplicated copies of fabp1a/fabp1b.1, and fabp7a/fabp7b, but in different tissues. Clofibrate also increased the steady-state level of fabp10a and fabp11a mRNAs and hnRNAs in liver, but not for fabp10b and fabp11b. Conclusion Some duplicated fabp genes have, most likely, retained PPREs, but induction by clofibrate is over-ridden by an, as yet, unknown tissue-specific mechanism(s. Regardless of the tissue-specific mechanism(s, transcriptional control of duplicated zebrafish fabp genes by clofibrate has markedly diverged since the WGD event.

  2. Tissue-specific expression and regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3 of chick protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, G S; Henry, H L

    1997-02-01

    The heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) protein is a specific and potent competitive inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Previously, it has been shown that vitamin D status affects chick kidney PKI activity: a 5- to 10-fold increase in PKI activity was observed in kidneys of chronically vitamin D-deficient chicks and treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) in cultured kidney cells resulted in a 95% decrease in PKI activity. The authors have recently cloned the cDNA for chick kidney PKI and have used the coding sequence to study the regulation of PKI mRNA. Northern analysis showed the expression of two PKI messages, which are 2.7 and 3.3 kb in size. These mRNAs are expressed in brain, muscle, testis, and kidney, but not in pancreas, liver, or intestine. PKI mRNA steady-state levels are downregulated by 47% in kidneys from vitamin D-replete chicks as compared to vitamin D-deficient chicks. PKI mRNA levels in brain, muscle, and testis are not affected by vitamin D status. Treatment of primary chick kidney cultures treated with 10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3 for 24h resulted in a 20-30% decrease in PKI mRNA. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment does not affect the stability of PKI mRNA as determined by treatment of cell cultures with actinomycin D. This study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 directly and tissue-specifically downregulates PKI mRNA in the chick kidney.

  3. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  4. Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H M; Catron, K M; van Wijnen, A J; McCabe, L R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1994-12-20

    The OC box of the rat osteocalcin promoter (nt -99 to -76) is the principal proximal regulatory element contributing to both tissue-specific and developmental control of osteocalcin gene expression. The central motif of the OC box includes a perfect consensus DNA binding site for certain homeodomain proteins. Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that direct proper development by regulating specific temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. We therefore addressed the role of the homeodomain binding motif in the activity of the OC promoter. In this study, by the combined application of mutagenesis and site-specific protein recognition analysis, we examined interactions of ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cell nuclear proteins and purified Msx-1 homeodomain protein with the OC box. We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain. Our results show that the sequence requirements for binding the Msx-1 or Msx-2 homeodomain closely parallel those necessary for osteocalcin gene promoter activity in vivo. This functional relationship was demonstrated by transient expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells of a series of osteocalcin promoter (nt -1097 to +24)-reporter gene constructs containing mutations within and flanking the homeodomain binding site of the OC box. Northern blot analysis of several bone-related cell types showed that all of the cells expressed msx-1, whereas msx-2 expression was restricted to cells transcribing osteocalcin. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Msx-1 and -2 or related homeodomain proteins in transcription of the osteocalcin gene.

  5. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  6. Bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF/Pangolin is remarkably flexible and contributes to transcriptional responsiveness and tissue specificity of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary C Archbold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The T-cell factor (TCF family of transcription factors are major mediators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in metazoans. All TCFs contain a High Mobility Group (HMG domain that possesses specific DNA binding activity. In addition, many TCFs contain a second DNA binding domain, the C-clamp, which binds to DNA motifs referred to as Helper sites. While HMG and Helper sites are both important for the activation of several Wnt dependent cis-regulatory modules (W-CRMs, the rules of what constitutes a functional HMG-Helper site pair are unknown. In this report, we employed a combination of in vitro binding, reporter gene analysis and bioinformatics to address this question, using the Drosophila family member TCF/Pangolin (TCF/Pan as a model. We found that while there were constraints for the orientation and spacing of HMG-Helper pairs, the presence of a Helper site near a HMG site in any orientation increased binding and transcriptional response, with some orientations displaying tissue-specific patterns. We found that altering an HMG-Helper site pair from a sub-optimal to optimal orientation/spacing dramatically increased the responsiveness of a W-CRM in several fly tissues. In addition, we used the knowledge gained to bioinformatically identify two novel W-CRMs, one that was activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the prothoracic gland, a tissue not previously connected to this pathway. In sum, this work extends the importance of Helper sites in fly W-CRMs and suggests that the type of HMG-Helper pair is a major factor in setting the threshold for Wnt activation and tissue-responsiveness.

  7. High Quality Unigenes and Microsatellite Markers from Tissue Specific Transcriptome and Development of a Database in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, L. Taub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukam C. Rawal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub, is an important industrial, vegetable and forage crop. This crop owes its commercial importance to the presence of guar gum (galactomannans in its endosperm which is used as a lubricant in a range of industries. Despite its relevance to agriculture and industry, genomic resources available in this crop are limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate RNA-Seq based transcriptome from leaf, shoot, and flower tissues. A total of 145 million high quality Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity into 127,706 transcripts and 48,007 non-redundant high quality (HQ unigenes. We annotated 79% unigenes against Plant Genes from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Swiss-Prot, Pfam, gene ontology (GO and KEGG databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 30,020 were assigned with 116,964 GO terms, 9984 with EC and 6111 with 137 KEGG pathways. At different fragments per kilobase of transcript per millions fragments sequenced (FPKM levels, genes were found expressed higher in flower tissue followed by shoot and leaf. Additionally, we identified 8687 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs with an average frequency of one SSR per 8.75 kb. A total of 28 amplified SSRs in 21 clusterbean genotypes resulted in polymorphism in 13 markers with average polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.21. We also constructed a database named ‘ClustergeneDB’ for easy retrieval of unigenes and the microsatellite markers. The tissue specific genes identified and the molecular marker resources developed in this study is expected to aid in genetic improvement of clusterbean for its end use.

  8. Mammalian transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes and are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha

    2014-12-30

    Transcriptional hotspots are defined as genomic regions bound by multiple factors. They have been identified recently as cell type specific enhancers regulating developmentally essential genes in many species such as worm, fly and humans. The in-depth analysis of hotspots across multiple cell types in same species still remains to be explored and can bring new biological insights. We therefore collected 108 transcription-related factor (TF) ChIP sequencing data sets in ten murine cell types and classified the peaks in each cell type in three groups according to binding occupancy as singletons (low-occupancy), combinatorials (mid-occupancy) and hotspots (high-occupancy). The peaks in the three groups clustered largely according to the occupancy, suggesting priming of genomic loci for mid occupancy irrespective of cell type. We then characterized hotspots for diverse structural functional properties. The genes neighbouring hotspots had a small overlap with hotspot genes in other cell types and were highly enriched for cell type specific function. Hotspots were enriched for sequence motifs of key TFs in that cell type and more than 90% of hotspots were occupied by pioneering factors. Though we did not find any sequence signature in the three groups, the H3K4me1 binding profile had bimodal peaks at hotspots, distinguishing hotspots from mono-modal H3K4me1 singletons. In ES cells, differentially expressed genes after perturbation of activators were enriched for hotspot genes suggesting hotspots primarily act as transcriptional activator hubs. Finally, we proposed that ES hotspots might be under control of SetDB1 and not DNMT for silencing. Transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes. In ES cells, they are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs and might be under SetDB1 control for silencing.

  9. An extensive allelic series of Drosophila kae1 mutants reveals diverse and tissue-specific requirements for t6A biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Jung; Smibert, Peter; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Hu, Jennifer F.; Ramroop, Johnny; Kellner, Stefanie M.; Benton, Matthew A.; Govind, Shubha; Dedon, Peter C.; Sternglanz, Rolf; Lai, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenosine (t6A) is one of the few RNA modifications that is universally present in life. This modification occurs at high frequency at position 37 of most tRNAs that decode ANN codons, and stabilizes cognate anticodon–codon interactions. Nearly all genetic studies of the t6A pathway have focused on single-celled organisms. In this study, we report the isolation of an extensive allelic series in the Drosophila ortholog of the core t6A biosynthesis factor Kae1. kae1 hemizygous larvae exhibit decreases in t6A that correlate with allele strength; however, we still detect substantial t6A-modified tRNAs even during the extended larval phase of null alleles. Nevertheless, complementation of Drosophila Kae1 and other t6A factors in corresponding yeast null mutants demonstrates that these metazoan genes execute t6A synthesis. Turning to the biological consequences of t6A loss, we characterize prominent kae1 melanotic masses and show that they are associated with lymph gland overgrowth and ectopic generation of lamellocytes. On the other hand, kae1 mutants exhibit other phenotypes that reflect insufficient tissue growth. Interestingly, whole-tissue and clonal analyses show that strongly mitotic tissues such as imaginal discs are exquisitely sensitive to loss of kae1, whereas nonproliferating tissues are less affected. Indeed, despite overt requirements of t6A for growth of many tissues, certain strong kae1 alleles achieve and sustain enlarged body size during their extended larval phase. Our studies highlight tissue-specific requirements of the t6A pathway in a metazoan context and provide insights into the diverse biological roles of this fundamental RNA modification during animal development and disease. PMID:26516084

  10. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  11. The neuropeptides and protein hormones of the agricultural pest fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis: What do we learn from the genome sequencing and tissue-specific transcriptomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are very important signaling molecules, and are involved in the regulation and coordination of various physiological processes in invertebrates and vertebrates. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome and six tissue-specific transcriptome databases (central nervous system, fat body, ovary, testes, male accessory glands, antennae) of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit. Thirty-nine candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or protein hormones. These include most of the known insect neuropeptides and protein hormones, with the exception of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-related peptide, allatropin, diuretic hormone 34, diuretic hormone 45, IMFamide, inotocin, and sex peptide. Our results showed the neuropeptides and protein hormones of Diptera insects appear to have a reduced repertoire compared to some other insects. Moreover, there are also differences between B. dorsalis and the super-model of Drosophila melanogaster. Interesting features of the oriental fruit fly are the absence of genes coding for sex peptide and the presence of neuroparsin and two genes coding neuropeptide F. The majority of the identified neuropeptides and protein hormones is present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of these in the other tissues. Moreover, we predicted their physiological functions via comparing with data of FlyBase and FlyAtlas. Taken together, owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference about structure, tissue distribution and physiological functions for comparative studies in other model and important pest insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rhox8 Ablation in the Sertoli Cells Using a Tissue-Specific RNAi Approach Results in Impaired Male Fertility in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, Joshua P; Davis, Matthew G; Ebers, Steven D; Stodden, Genna R; Hayashi, Kanako; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Rao, Manjeet K; MacLean, James A

    2015-07-01

    The reproductive homeobox X-linked, Rhox, genes encode transcription factors that are selectively expressed in reproductive tissues. While there are 33 Rhox genes in mice, only Rhox and Rhox8 are expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that they may regulate the expression of somatic-cell gene products crucial for germ cell development. We previously characterized Rhox5-null mice, which are subfertile, exhibiting excessive germ cell apoptosis and compromised sperm motility. To assess the role of Rhox8 in Sertoli cells, we used a tissue-specific RNAi approach to knockdown RHOX8 in vivo, in which the Rhox5 promoter was used to drive Rhox8-siRNA transgene expression in the postnatal Sertoli cells. Western and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed Sertoli-specific knockdown of RHOX8. However, other Sertoli markers, Gata1 and Rhox5, maintained normal expression patterns, suggesting that the knockdown was specific. Interestingly, male RHOX8-knockdown animals showed significantly reduced spermatogenic output, increased germ cell apoptosis, and compromised sperm motility, leading to impaired fertility. Importantly, our results revealed that while some RHOX5-dependent factors were also misregulated in Sertoli cells of RHOX8-knockdown animals, the majority were not, and novel putative RHOX8-regulated genes were identified. This suggests that while reduction in levels of RHOX5 and RHOX8 in Sertoli cells elicits similar phenotypes, these genes are not entirely redundant. Taken together, our study underscores the importance of Rhox genes in male fertility and suggests that Sertoli cell-specific expression of Rhox5 and Rhox8 is critical for complete male fertility. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Rhox8 Ablation in the Sertoli Cells Using a Tissue-Specific RNAi Approach Results in Impaired Male Fertility in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, Joshua P.; Davis, Matthew G.; Ebers, Steven D.; Stodden, Genna R.; Hayashi, Kanako; Cheatwood, Joseph L.; Rao, Manjeet K.; MacLean, James A.</