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Sample records for tissue viability issues

  1. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  2. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  3. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  4. Determination of donor corneal tissue viability by 35S incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatarev, G.; Golijski, P.; Mechkarski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of various storage conditions on corneal tissue viability have been studied comparatively using swine eyeballs and recording the rate of 35 S-labelled sodium sulphate binding to polysaccharides. With 6% dextran solution (Hemodex) injected into the anterior bulbus chamber of the donor, the rate of labelled compound binding remaines unaltered within the first five days, whereas with humid preservation techniques at 4 deg C binding ability is almost halved. Advantages of the proposed method of preservation are discussed with a view to clinical testing. (A.B.)

  5. Tissue viability monitoring: a multi-sensor wearable platform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Davidson, Alan; Buis, Arjan; Glesk, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient's health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of tissue-engineered graft viability by oxygen-17 magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Samuel A; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Papas, Klearchos K; Garwood, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Transplantation of macroencapsulated tissue-engineered grafts (TEGs) is being investigated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, but there is a critical need to measure TEG viability both in vitro and in vivo. Oxygen deficiency is the most critical issue preventing widespread implementation of TEG transplantation and delivery of supplemental oxygen (DSO) has been shown to enhance TEG survival and function in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate the first use of oxygen-17 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 17 O-MRS) to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of TEGs and show that in addition to providing therapeutic benefits to TEGs, DSO with 17 O 2 can also enable measurements of TEG viability. Macroencapsulated TEGs containing βTC3 murine insulinoma cells were prepared with three fractional viabilities and provided with 17 O 2 . Cellular metabolism of 17 O 2 into nascent mitochondrial water (H 2 17 O) was monitored by 17 O-MRS and, from the measured data, OCR was calculated. For comparison, OCR was simultaneously measured on a separate, but equivalent sample of cells with a well-established stirred microchamber technique. OCR measured by 17 O-MRS agreed well with measurements made in the stirred microchamber device. These studies confirm that 17 O-MRS can quantify TEG viability noninvasively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1118-1121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Molecular assays for determining Mycobacterium leprae viability in tissues of experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Grace L; Ray, Nashone A; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Gillis, Thomas P; Krahenbuhl, James L; Williams, Diana L; Adams, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive molecular assay for determining M. leprae viability directly from infected tissues. Two M. leprae-specific quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays based on the expression levels of esxA, encoding the ESAT-6 protein, and hsp18, encoding the heat shock 18 kDa protein, were developed and tested using infected footpad (FP) tissues of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised (athymic nu/nu) mice. In addition, the ability of these assays to detect the effects of anti-leprosy drug treatment on M. leprae viability was determined using rifampin and rifapentine, each at 10 mg/kg for 1, 5, or 20 daily doses, in the athymic nu/nu FP model. Molecular enumeration (RLEP PCR) and viability determinations (qRT-PCR) were performed via Taqman methodology on DNA and RNA, respectively, purified from ethanol-fixed FP tissue and compared with conventional enumeration (microscopic counting of acid fast bacilli) and viability assays (radiorespirometry, viability staining) which utilized bacilli freshly harvested from the contralateral FP. Both molecular and conventional assays demonstrated growth and high viability of M. leprae in nu/nu FPs over a 4 month infection period. In contrast, viability was markedly decreased by 8 weeks in immunocompetent mice. Rifapentine significantly reduced bacterial viability after 5 treatments, whereas rifampin required up to 20 treatments for the same efficacy. Neither drug was effective after a single treatment. In addition, host gene expression was monitored with the same RNA preparations. hsp18 and esxA qRT-PCR are sensitive molecular indicators, reliably detecting viability of M. leprae in tissues without the need for bacterial isolation or immediate processing, making these assays applicable for in vivo drug screening and

  8. Noninvasive Real-Time Assessment of Cell Viability in a Three-Dimensional Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Seyed Hossein; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Doryab, Ali; Safiabadi-Tali, Seyed Hamid; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2018-04-01

    Maintaining cell viability within 3D tissue engineering scaffolds is an essential step toward a functional tissue or organ. Assessment of cell viability in 3D scaffolds is necessary to control and optimize tissue culture process. Monitoring systems based on respiration activity of cells (e.g., oxygen consumption) have been used in various cell cultures. In this research, an online monitoring system based on respiration activity was developed to monitor cell viability within acellular lung scaffolds. First, acellular lung scaffolds were recellularized with human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, and then, cell viability was monitored during a 5-day period. The real-time monitoring system generated a cell growth profile representing invaluable information on cell viability and proliferative states during the culture period. The cell growth profile obtained by the monitoring system was consistent with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide analysis and glucose consumption measurement. This system provided a means for noninvasive, real-time, and repetitive investigation of cell viability. Also, we showed the applicability of this monitoring system by introducing shaking as an operating parameter in a long-term culture.

  9. Examination of viability and quality of ovarian tissue after cryopreservation using simple laboratory methods in ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerin Jean F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study is to assess viability tests and to evaluate follicle ovarian tissue quality after freezing-thawing procedures. Methods Ewe's ovaries were harvested at the slaughterhouse, after dissection each ovarian specimen was divided into two groups: fresh tissue (control group and frozen tissue. In the first part of the study, the follicles viability was assessed by trypan blue staining, calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, Molecular Probes and morphology in the two groups. In the second part of the study the quality of the whole ovarian tissue was evaluated by the quantification of the release of lactate dehydrogenase measurement (Cytotoxicity Detection kit ROCHE, DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL in primordial and primary follicles (ApopDETEK Kit system Enzo and morphology in the two groups. 100 Follicles (primordial and primary were counted on both fresh and frozen hemiovary to assess this various tests. Results Ovarian follicle viability assessment was similar using trypan blue or calcein/ethidium staining. Follicles showed a decreased viability after freezing-thawing. After cryopreservation, a significant correlation between the percentage of normal follicles and viability rate was found using trypan blue (r = 0.82, p Conclusion We suggest the use of trypan blue staining for the histological assessment of viability, the use of LDH assay for the cytotoxicity assessement and finally the use of DNA fragmentation assessment to valid different freezing-thawing protocols.

  10. Leading Change in Tissue Viability Best Practice: An Action Learning Programme for Link Nurse Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…

  11. Tissues viability and blood flow sensing based on a new nanophotonics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Inbar; Haddad, Menashe; Duadi, Hamootal; Motiei, Menachem; Fixler, Dror

    2018-02-01

    Extracting optical parameters of turbid medium (e.g. tissue) by light reflectance signals is of great interest and has many applications in the medical world, life science, material analysis and biomedical optics. The reemitted light from an irradiated tissue is affected by the light's interaction with the tissue components and contains the information about the tissue structure and physiological state. In this research we present a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, i.e., iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) based on reflectance measurements. The reflectance based IMOPE was applied for tissue viability examination, detection of gold nanorods (GNRs) within the blood circulation as well as blood flow detection using the GNRs presence within the blood vessels. The basics of the IMOPE combine a simple experimental setup for recording light intensity images with an iterative Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) algorithm for reconstructing the reflected light phase and computing its standard deviation (STD). Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. This work presents reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography) to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg).

  12. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  13. Storage effect on viability and biofunctionality of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Mizied; Rayan, Anwar; Srouji, Samer

    2015-09-01

    In our recent studies, the transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown promise for treatment of diseases related to bone and joint disorders. For the current clinical applications, ASCs were formulated and suspended in PlasmaLyte A supplemented with heparin, glucose and human serum albumin, balanced to pH 7.4 with sodium bicarbonate. This cell solution constitutes 20% of the overall transplanted mixture and is supplemented with hyaluronic acid (60%) and OraGraft particles (20%). We intended to investigate the effect of this transplantation mixture on the viability and biofunctionality of ASCs in bone formation. Freshly harvested cells were resuspended and incubated in the indicated mixture for up to 48 h at 4°C. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue and AlamarBlue, and cell functionality was determined by quantifying their adhesion rate in vitro and bone formation in an ectopic mouse model. More than 80% of the ASCs stored in the transplantation mixture were viable for up to 24 h. Cell viability beyond 24 h in storage decreased to approximately 50%. In addition, an equal degree of bone formation was observed between the cells transplanted following incubation in transplantation mixture for up to 24 h and zero-time non-incubated cells (control). The viability and functionality of ASCs stored in the presented formulation will make such cell therapy accessible to larger and more remote populations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (Pcell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell

  16. 201Tl scintigraphic evaluation of tumor mass and viability of bone and soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Kubota, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoru; Shibata, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Jun-ichi; Obata, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Toshikatsu; Usui, Masamichi; Ishii, Sei-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    To characterize 201 Tl uptake in patients with bone and soft-tissue tumor, we studied 49 patients with surgically proven tumors and one patient with a tumor diagnosed arteriographically. In 37 of our 50 patients, the tumor was evaluated with 201 Tl and arteriography. Moreover, in 14 of patients with pre-operative chemotherapy, pathologic changes were graded on the basis of percent tumor necrosis as defined histologically. The percent tumor necrosis histologically was compared with changes in the scintigraphic and conventional angiographic studies. Radiologic comparisons demonstrated a high degree of correlation with images of 201 Tl and both arterial and blood pool phase of 99m Tc-HMDP. Ninety-six percent of 28 malignant tumors had positive 201 Tl uptake. None of the patients showed any thallium accumulation in the soft tissues or skeleton adjacent to the lesion. Activity of 201 Tl was mainly dependent upon a tumor blood flow and a vascular density. In of 14 cases with the preoperative chemotherapeutic treatment, 201 Tl scintigraphic changes showed concordance with % tumor necrosis. Thallium-201 was superior to 99m Tc-HMDP in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. Interestingly, delayed images of 99m Tc-HMDP of 5 responders with >90% tumor necrosis showed decreased uptake in the adjacent bone to the tumor mass lesions. It seems to be quite all right to consider that a major determinant of 201 Tl uptake is intratumoral angiogenecity, which is closely connected with tumor viability. Therefore, 201 Tl is a sensitive radiopharmaceutical for detection of vascular rich bone and soft-tissue tumors, and appears to be a simple and an accurate test for evaluating the response to specific therapeutic regimens of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. (author)

  17. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  18. Current issue of tissue banking in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    The Bangkok Biomaterial Center processes bone and tissue allografts and services for clinical use as following; orthopaedic surgery, neurosurgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, ophthalmological surgery, ENT surgery and maxillo-facial surgery. A total of 1,575 patients were surgically treated, most of them (1,118 cases) were cases in orthopaedic surgery. There were 330 cases of massive bone allografts for bone loss, benign bone tumor and bone malignancy. 755 cases of freeze dried bone allograft for bone defect filling, bone loss. Twenty eight cases of freeze dried soft tissue allograft, 3 cases of fresh soft tissue and 2 cases of bone substitute. Innovation of deep frozen trachea allograft was initiated in the center in 1997. The tracheas were harvested from cadavers under aseptic condition, irradiated at dose of 25 kGy and stored at -70 degree C. These tracheas allografts were used in ENT surgery for subglottic-tracheal stenosis patients. In 1998 the center started a new project by autoclave the positive test of HIV, HCV and HBV and keep at -70 degree C for clinical use

  19. New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbar Yariv,1 Menashe Haddad,2,3 Hamootal Duadi,1 Menachem Motiei,1 Dror Fixler1 1Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Mayanei Hayeshua Medical Center, Benei Brak, Israel Abstract: Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD. Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg. Keywords: Gerchberg-Saxton, optical properties, gold nanorods, blood vessel, tissue viability

  20. Novel diffuse optics system for continuous tissue viability monitoring: extended recovery in vivo testing in a porcine flap model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup; Pakela, Julia M.; Hedrick, Taylor L.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Helton, Michael C.; Chung, Yooree; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Stapels, Christopher J.; McAdams, Daniel R.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Christian, James F.; O'Reilly, Jameson; Farkas, Dana; Ward, Brent B.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2017-02-01

    In reconstructive surgery, tissue perfusion/vessel patency is critical to the success of microvascular free tissue flaps. Early detection of flap failure secondary to compromise of vascular perfusion would significantly increase the chances of flap salvage. We have developed a compact, clinically-compatible monitoring system to enable automated, minimally-invasive, continuous, and quantitative assessment of flap viability/perfusion. We tested the system's continuous monitoring capability during extended non-recovery surgery using an in vivo porcine free flap model. Initial results indicated that the system could assess flap viability/perfusion in a quantitative and continuous manner. With proven performance, the compact form constructed with cost-effective components would make this system suitable for clinical translation.

  1. A combined approach for the assessment of cell viability and cell functionality of human fibrochondrocytes for use in tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Garzón

    Full Text Available Temporo-mandibular joint disc disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-established method for the treatment of several chondral defects. However, very few studies have been carried out using human fibrous chondrocytes from the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ. One of the main drawbacks associated to chondrocyte cell culture is the possibility that chondrocyte cells kept in culture tend to de-differentiate and to lose cell viability under in in-vitro conditions. In this work, we have isolated human temporo-mandibular joint fibrochondrocytes (TMJF from human disc and we have used a highly-sensitive technique to determine cell viability, cell proliferation and gene expression of nine consecutive cell passages to determine the most appropriate cell passage for use in tissue engineering and future clinical use. Our results revealed that the most potentially viable and functional cell passages were P5-P6, in which an adequate equilibrium between cell viability and the capability to synthesize all major extracellular matrix components exists. The combined action of pro-apoptotic (TRAF5, PHLDA1 and anti-apoptotic genes (SON, HTT, FAIM2 may explain the differential cell viability levels that we found in this study. These results suggest that TMJF should be used at P5-P6 for cell therapy protocols.

  2. A combined approach for the assessment of cell viability and cell functionality of human fibrochondrocytes for use in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Ingrid; Carriel, Victor; Marín-Fernández, Ana Belén; Oliveira, Ana Celeste; Garrido-Gómez, Juan; Campos, Antonio; Sánchez-Quevedo, María Del Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Temporo-mandibular joint disc disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-established method for the treatment of several chondral defects. However, very few studies have been carried out using human fibrous chondrocytes from the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). One of the main drawbacks associated to chondrocyte cell culture is the possibility that chondrocyte cells kept in culture tend to de-differentiate and to lose cell viability under in in-vitro conditions. In this work, we have isolated human temporo-mandibular joint fibrochondrocytes (TMJF) from human disc and we have used a highly-sensitive technique to determine cell viability, cell proliferation and gene expression of nine consecutive cell passages to determine the most appropriate cell passage for use in tissue engineering and future clinical use. Our results revealed that the most potentially viable and functional cell passages were P5-P6, in which an adequate equilibrium between cell viability and the capability to synthesize all major extracellular matrix components exists. The combined action of pro-apoptotic (TRAF5, PHLDA1) and anti-apoptotic genes (SON, HTT, FAIM2) may explain the differential cell viability levels that we found in this study. These results suggest that TMJF should be used at P5-P6 for cell therapy protocols.

  3. Evaluation of heart tissue viability under redox-magnetohydrodynamics conditions: toward fine-tuning flow in biological microfluidics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Lih Tyng; Fritsch, Ingrid; Haswell, Stephen J; Greenman, John

    2012-07-01

    A microfluidic system containing a chamber for heart tissue biopsies, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing glucose and antibiotic (KHGB) using peristaltic pumps and continuously stimulated, was used to evaluate tissue viability under redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) conditions. Redox-MHD possesses unique capabilities to control fluid flow using ionic current from oxidation and reduction processes at electrodes in a magnetic field, making it attractive to fine-tune fluid flow around tissues for "tissue-on-a-chip" applications. The manuscript describes a parallel setup to study two tissue samples simultaneously, and 6-min static incubation with Triton X100. Tissue viability was subsequently determined by assaying perfusate for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, where LDH serves as an injury marker. Incubation with KHGB containing 5 mM hexaammineruthenium(III) (ruhex) redox species with and without a pair of NdFeB magnets (∼ 0.39 T, placed parallel to the chamber) exhibited no additional tissue insult. MHD fluid flow, viewed by tracking microbeads with microscopy, occurred only when the magnet was present and stimulating electrodes were activated. Pulsating MHD flow with a frequency similar to the stimulating waveform was superimposed over thermal convection (from a hotplate) for Triton-KHGB, but fluid speed was up to twice as fast for ruhex-Triton-KHGB. A large transient ionic current, achieved when switching on the stimulating electrodes, generates MHD perturbations visible over varying peristaltic flow. The well-controlled flow methodology of redox-MHD is applicable to any tissue type, being useful in various drug uptake and toxicity studies, and can be combined equally with on- or off-device analysis modalities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fluorescein diacetate for determination of cell viability in tissue-engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Alexis D; Powell, Heather M; Boyce, Steven T

    2008-03-01

    Assurance of the quality of cultured skin substitutes (CSSs) currently relies on representative histology and determination of surface hydration, which provide limited sampling at selected points. To evaluate uniformity of cell density on the collagen matrices before clinical use, a field assessment of cell viability is advantageous. This study aimed to develop a field measure of cell viability in CSSs in vitro using fluorescein diacetate (FdA). CSSs were stained 3 days after keratinocyte inoculation using 0.04 mg/mL FdA followed by exposure to 366 nm of ultraviolet light. CSS fluorescence quantified using Metamorph image analysis was correlated with inoculation density, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) values and histology of corresponding biopsies. CSS fluorescence correlated significantly with inoculation density (p < 0.001) and MTT values (p < 0.001) of biopsies collected immediately after FdA staining. Fluorescence at day 3 also predicted day 10 MTT values. No toxicity was detected in CSSs, and normal in vitro and in vivo histology was demonstrated after FdA exposure. In conclusion, measurement of intracellular fluorescence with FdA allows for the early, comprehensive measurement of cellular distributions and viability in engineered skin and may therefore facilitate quality assurance.

  5. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  7. The effect of pressure and shear on tissue viability of human skin in relation to the development of pressure ulcers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, Iris; Reenalda, Jasper; Koopman, Bart F J M; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a significant problem in health care, due to high costs and large impact on patients' life. In general, pressure ulcers develop as tissue viability decreases due to prolonged mechanical loading. The relation between load and tissue viability is highly influenced by individual characteristics. It is proposed that measurements of skin blood flow regulation could provide good assessment of the risk for pressure ulcer development, as skin blood flow is essential for tissue viability. . Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to gain insight in the relation between mechanical load and the response of the skin and underlying tissue to this loading measured in-vivo with non-invasive techniques. A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles analysing the relation between mechanical load (pressure and/or shear) and tissue viability measured in-vivo. Two independent reviewers scored the methodological quality of the 22 included studies. Methodological information as well as tissue viability parameters during load application and after load removal were extracted from the included articles and used in a meta-analysis. Pressure results in a decrease in skin blood flow parameters, compared to baseline; showing a larger decrease with higher magnitudes of load. The steepness of the decrease is mostly dependent on the anatomical location. After load removal the magnitude of the post-reactive hyperaemic peak is related to the magnitude of pressure. Lastly, shear in addition to pressure, shows an additional negative effect, but the effect is less apparent than pressure on skin viability. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Redefining the issues of risk and public acceptance. The social viability of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK). School of Independent Studies

    1983-02-01

    A conceptual framework is proposed within which the notion of risk as normally used in risk assessment (RA) could be enlarged in line with the real substance of social issues of technology policy, to help avoid RA's threatened irrelevance to social decision making. It is argued that the frequent organizational incoherence and thus the unviability of modern technology arises from 'social alienation' between the innovation-commitment phase and the implementation of the technology in society. The roles of technical elites and of particular concepts of technology in this alienation are emphasized. One of the case studies deals with 'Nuclear power - myths of scientific and organizational realism' and discusses the UK nuclear 'programme' and the Three Mile Island accident.

  9. Redefining the issues of risk and public acceptance. The social viability of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B. (Lancaster Univ. (UK). School of Independent Studies)

    1983-02-01

    A conceptual framework is proposed within which the notion of risk as normally used in risk assessment (RA) could be enlarged in line with the real substance of social issues of technology policy, to help avoid RA's threatened irrelevance to social decision making. It is argued that the frequent organizational incoherence and thus the unviability of modern technology arises from 'social alienation' between the innovation-commitment phase and the implementation of the technology in society. The roles of technical elites and of particular concepts of technology in this alienation are emphasized. One of the case studies deals with 'Nuclear power - myths of scientific and organizational realism' and discusses the UK nuclear 'programme' and the Three Mile Island accident.

  10. Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli (Turkey); Cemal Aygit, A. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Candan, L. [Department of Pathology, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Sarikaya, A.; Berkarda, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Tuerkyilmaz, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Trakya University Faculty of Science, Edirne (Turkey)

    2000-01-01

    Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used for this investigation. The right hind limb of the rabbits was immersed to the ankle joint in a container filled with 90% ethanol at -25 C for 10 min. Frostbitten limbs were allowed to thaw in air at room temperature. Imaging and pathological examination of the affected limbs were performed 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after freezing. In 2-h images, initial hypoperfusion was seen that corresponded to circulatory collapse. In 24-h images, there was hyperperfusion (so-called period of temporary reperfusion), corresponding to circulatory restoration. In 48-h images, a second hypoperfusion corresponded to viable but ischaemic tissue. In 72-h images, there was non-perfusion of the limb that correlated with the pathologically determined diagnosis of necrosis. All scintigraphic patterns correlated with pathological findings. We suggest that these scintigraphic patterns in soft tissue may be helpful in distinguishing between frank infarction and reversible ischemia and therefore may be useful in selecting early therapeutic or surgical interventions to salvage bone and soft tissue. Further studies are needed to show the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi scintigraphy in clinical frostbite cases. (orig.)

  11. Effects of compression injury on brain mitochondrial and tissue viability evaluated by a multiparametric monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Bachbut, Galit; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2008-02-01

    Neurosurgical procedures involve brain compression created by retractors. Although it is clear that retractors are causing damage to the brain tissue, the pathophysiology of the retraction was not investigated in details. In the present study we used the multiparametric monitoring approach for real time evaluation of mitochondrial function, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical activities monitored contralaterally to the retractor placement on the brain. The aims of the study were to test the effects of retractor size and severity of the compression on the degree of damage to the cerebral tissue. A special probe was lowered towards the cerebral cortex, (2mm and 4mm in depth) using a micromanipulator. Compression lasted for 30 minutes, than the retractor was elevated back to its initial position and monitoring continued for two hours. Additionally, two sizes of retractors were used 6mm and 3mm in diameter, the 3mm retractor included an intracranial pressure (ICP) probe. The results show that the combination of a large retractor with the depth of 4mm yielded high mortality rate (62%) of the rats while the use of a smaller retractor decreased significantly the percentage of mortality. Also, compression to the depth of 4mm increased tissue injury as compared to 2mm depth. In conclusion, the present study raises the importance and significance of multiparametric monitoring, and not only ICP and cerebral blood flow of the areas nearby the retractor position and not only the retraction site, as well as the effect of the retractor size on the damage induced to the cerebral tissue.

  12. Relative cerebral blood volume as a marker of durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Elisa; Calleja, Ana Isabel; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Mulero, Patricia; Pérez-Fernández, Santiago; Reyes, Javier; Muñoz, Ma Fe; Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Selection of best responders to reperfusion therapies could be aided by predicting the duration of tissue-at-risk viability, which may be dependant on collateral circulation status. We aimed to identify the best predictor of good collateral circulation among perfusion computed tomography (PCT) parameters in middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke and to analyze how early MCA response to intravenous thrombolysis and PCT-derived markers of good collaterals interact to determine stroke outcome. We prospectively studied patients with acute MCA ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis who underwent PCT before treatment showing a target mismatch profile. Collateral status was assessed using a PCT source image-based score. PCT maps were quantitatively analyzed. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow, and Tmax were calculated within the hypoperfused volume and in the equivalent region of unaffected hemisphere. Occluded MCAs were monitored by transcranial Duplex to assess early recanalization. Main outcome variables were brain hypodensity volume and modified Rankin scale score at day 90. One hundred patients with MCA ischemic stroke imaged by PCT received intravenous thrombolysis, and 68 met all inclusion criteria. A relative CBV (rCBV) >0.93 emerged as the only predictor of good collaterals (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-55.9; P=0.001). Early MCA recanalization was associated with better long-term outcome and lower infarct volume in patients with rCBV<0.93, but not in patients with high rCBV. None of the patients with rCBV<0.93 achieved good outcome in absence of early recanalization. High rCBV was the strongest marker of good collaterals and may characterize durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke.

  13. Comparison of the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Tissue in Accordance with the Thawing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdipose tissue damage of cryopreserved fat after autologous fat transfer is inevitable in several processes of re-transplantation. This study aims to compare and analyze the survivability of adipocytes after thawing fat cryopreserved at -20℃ by using thawing methods used in clinics.MethodsThe survival rates of adipocytes in the following thawing groups were measured: natural thawing at 25℃ for 15 minutes; natural thawing at 25℃ for 5 minutes, followed by rapid thawing at 37℃ in a water bath for 5 minutes; and rapid thawing at 37℃ for 10 minutes in a water bath. The survival rates of adipocytes were assessed by measuring the volume of the fat layer in the top layers separated after centrifugation, counting the number of live adipocytes after staining with trypan blue, and measuring the activity of mitochondria in the adipocytes.ResultsIn the group with rapid thawing for 10 minutes in a water bath, it was observed that the cell count of live adipocytes and the activity of the adipocyte mitochondria were significantly higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05. The volume of the fat layer separated by centrifugation was also measured to be higher, which was, however, not statistically significant.ConclusionsIt was shown that the survival rate of adipocytes was higher when the frozen fat tissue was thawed rapidly at 37℃. It can thus be concluded that if fats thawed with this method are re-transplanted, the survival rate of cryopreserved fats in transplantation will be improved, and thus, the effect of autologous fat transfer will increase.

  14. Multimodal optical measurement for study of lower limb tissue viability in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Viktor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Makovik, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zharkikh, Elena V.; Potapova, Elena V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Doronin, Alexander A.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-08-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, the challenge of early stage diagnosis and treatment effectiveness monitoring in diabetes is currently one of the highest priorities in modern healthcare. The potential of combined measurements of skin fluorescence and blood perfusion by the laser Doppler flowmetry method in diagnostics of low limb diabetes complications was evaluated. Using Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling, the diagnostic volume and depth of the diagnosis were evaluated. The experimental study involved 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These patients were divided into two groups depending on the degree of complications. The control group consisted of 48 healthy volunteers. The local thermal stimulation was selected as a stimulus on the blood microcirculation system. The experimental studies have shown that diabetic patients have elevated values of normalized fluorescence amplitudes, as well as a lower perfusion response to local heating. In the group of people with diabetes with trophic ulcers, these parameters also significantly differ from the control and diabetes only groups. Thus, the intensity of skin fluorescence and level of tissue blood perfusion can act as markers for various degrees of complications from the beginning of diabetes to the formation of trophic ulcers.

  15. Assessment of residual tissue viability by exercise testing in recent myocardial infarction: comparison of the electrocardiogram and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonato, A; Ballarotto, C; Bonetti, F; Cappelletti, A; Sciammarella, M; Cianflone, D; Chierchia, S L

    1992-04-01

    The assessment of residual myocardial viability in infarcted areas is relevant for subsequent management and prognosis but requires expensive technology. To evaluate the possibility that simple, easily obtainable clinical markers may detect the presence of within-infarct viable tissue, the significance of exercise-induced ST elevation occurring in leads exploring the area of a recent Q wave myocardial infarction was assessed. Twenty-five patients with recent (less than 6 months) myocardial infarction were studied. All had angiographically documented coronary artery disease, diagnostic Q waves (n = 24) or negative T waves (n = 25) on the rest 12-lead electrocardiogram and exhibited during exercise greater than or equal to 1.5 mm ST segment elevation (n = 17) or isolated T wave pseudonormalization (n = 8) in the infarct-related leads. ST-T wave changes were reproduced in all patients during thallium-201 exercise myocardial scintigraphy. A fixed perfusion defect was observed in 24 of the 25 patients. A reversible defect was seen in 16 (94%) of 17 patients who exhibited transient ST elevation during exercise but in only 4 (50%) of the 8 patients who had only T wave pseudonormalization. In conclusion, in patients with recent myocardial infarction, analysis of simple ST segment variables obtained during exercise testing may allow a first-line discrimination of those who may potentially benefit from a revascularization procedure.

  16. Viability of permanent PMMA spacer with combined free fasciocutaneous tissue transfer for failed charcot reconstruction: A 38 month prospective case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammer Elmarsafi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Charcot Neuroarthropathy is a complex lower extremity pathology which predisposes the afflicted limb to ulcerations, osteomyelitis, and risk of major amputation. Charcot Neuroarthropathy often requires osseous reconstruction, which can be complicated with osteomyelitis and hardware infection. When soft tissue and osseous deficits must be concomitantly addressed, the use of PMMA spacers can be combined with free tissue transfers. Presentation of case: 71 year old Caucasian male with Diabetic Charcot Neuroarthopathy underwent osseous reconstruction with internal hardware. The surgical site was complicated by acute infection, osteomyelitis, exposed hardware requiring removal, and multiple surgical débridement. The degree of soft tissue and osseous deficit post-débridement required complex reconstruction. Discussion: The osseous deficit was addressed with the use of a permanent PMMA cement spacer. The soft tissue deficit was reconstructed with a free tissue transfer. This case report demonstrates the long term viability and utility of the use of permanent cement spacers when combined with free tissue transfer for closure of complex diabetic foot wounds. This case is an example of a multidisciplinary team approach to limb salvage with successful long term outcome; a plantigrade stable functional foot in an ambulatory highly active patient. Follow up time since initial intervention was 38 months. Conclusion: The use of a permanent PMMA cement spacer does not preclude free tissue transfer in complex host lower extremity reconstruction. A multidisciplinary team approach is a vital component to successful salvage outcomes. Keywords: Diabetes, Charcot neuroarthropathy, Ulcer, Cement spacer, Free tissue transfer, Osteomyelitis

  17. Early assessment of tissue viability with radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid in reperfused canine myocardium: Comparison with thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappuis, F.; Meier, B.; Belenger, J.; Blaeuenstein, P.L.; Lerch, R.

    1990-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with heptadecanoic acid labeled with iodine-123 (123I-HDA) may allow early noninvasive delineation of viable myocardium after reperfusion. In this study myocardial uptake of 123I-HDA was compared with that of thallium-201 in six closed-chest dogs after 5 hours of occlusion followed by 1 hour of reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow was measured with microspheres, and myocardial viability was assessed by means of triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. In viable areas of the reperfused region, 123I-HDA uptake, thallium-201 uptake, and myocardial blood flow were similar to those measured in the control circumflex region. However, in infarcted areas they were reduced to 48 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001), 59 +/- 3% (p less than 0.001), and 74 +/- 5% (p less than 0.001) of control values, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that thallium-201 uptake primarily reflected the level of flow during reperfusion, whereas 123I-HDA uptake was dependent on both myocardial blood flow and viability. At each level of flow, 123I-HDA uptake was significantly lower in infarcted than in viable myocardium. By means of discriminant analysis, 123I-HDA uptake was found to be the single most important predictor of viability, whereas thallium-201 was only of limited importance. Myocardial 123I-HDA uptake greater than or equal to 71% or myocardial thallium-201 uptake greater than or equal to 73% best differentiated viable from infarcted myocardium. According to these criteria, 123I-HDA predicted myocardial viability with a sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 84% and a predictive accuracy of 81%

  18. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  19. MMP-13 regulates growth of wound granulation tissue and modulates gene expression signatures involved in inflammation, proteolysis, and cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Toriseva

    Full Text Available Proteinases play a pivotal role in wound healing by regulating cell-matrix interactions and availability of bioactive molecules. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13(-/- and wild type (WT mice. The tissue samples were harvested at time points day 7, 14 and 21 and subjected to histological analysis and gene expression profiling. Granulation tissue growth was significantly reduced (42% at day 21 in Mmp13(-/- mice. Granulation tissue in Mmp13(-/- mice showed delayed organization of myofibroblasts, increased microvascular density at day 14, and virtual absence of large vessels at day 21. Gene expression profiling identified differentially expressed genes in Mmp13(-/- mouse granulation tissue involved in biological functions including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation and proteolysis. Among genes linked to angiogenesis, Adamts4 and Npy were significantly upregulated in early granulation tissue in Mmp13(-/- mice, and a set of genes involved in leukocyte motility including Il6 were systematically downregulated at day 14. The expression of Pdgfd was downregulated in Mmp13(-/- granulation tissue in all time points. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9 was also significantly downregulated in granulation tissue of Mmp13(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Mmp13(-/- mouse skin fibroblasts displayed altered cell morphology and impaired ability to contract collagen gel and decreased production of MMP-2. These results provide evidence for an important role for MMP-13 in wound healing by coordinating cellular activities important in the growth and maturation of granulation tissue, including myofibroblast function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proteolysis.

  20. Comparative investigation of viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability of tissue-engineered bone preserved in sealed osteogenic media at 37 0C and 4 0C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengjian; Liu Guangpeng; Zhou Guangdong; Cen Lian; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin

    2010-01-01

    Preservation of tissue-engineered (TE) bone is one of the key problems needed to be solved for its clinic application and industrialization. Traditional cryopreservation has been restricted because of the damages caused by ice formation and solution. Hypothermic preservation at 4 0 C has been widely used for the preservation of transplanted organ despite potential negative effects on viability of cells and tissue. 37 0 C is the best temperature for maintaining cellular bioactivities. However, 37 0 C also has a potential negative effect on preserved cells due to consumption of nutrients and accumulation of by-products. No studies have reported which temperature is more suitable for the preservation of TE bone constructs. The current study explored the feasibility of preservation of TE bone constructs in sealed osteogenic media at 37 0 C and 4 0 C. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded into partially demineralized bone matrix (pDBM) scaffolds and cultured for 7 days to form TE bone constructs. The constructs were preserved in sealed osteogenic media at either 37 0 C or 4 0 C for 5, 7, 9 and 11 days, respectively. Growth kinetics, viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability were evaluated to explore the feasibility of preservation at 37 0 C and 4 0 C. The constructs cultured in osteogenic media at humidified 37 0 C/5%CO 2 served as the positive control. The results demonstrated that all the constructs preserved at 4 0 C showed negative osteogenic capability at all time points with a much lower level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism compared to the positive control. However, the constructs preserved at 37 0 C showed good osteogenic capability within 7 days with a certain level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism, although an obvious decrease in osteogenic capability was observed in the constructs preserved at 37 0 C over 9 days. These results indicate that the preservation of TE bone constructs is feasible at 37 0 C within 7 days

  1. Personalising pancreas cancer treatment: When tissue is the issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; O'Connor, Chelsie; Hemmings, Chris; Chang, David K; Chou, Angela; Pajic, Marina; Johns, Amber L; Nagrial, Adnan M; Biankin, Andrew V; Yip, Desmond

    2014-06-28

    The treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer has not moved much beyond single agent gemcitabine until recently when protocols such as FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine have demonstrated some improved outcomes. Advances in technology especially in massively parallel genome sequencing has progressed our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer especially the candidate signalling pathways that are involved in tumourogenesis and disease course. This has allowed identification of potentially actionable mutations that may be targeted by new biological agents. The heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer makes tumour tissue collection important with the aim of being able to personalise therapies for the individual as opposed to a one size fits all approach to treatment of the condition. This paper reviews the developments in this area of translational research and the ongoing clinical studies that will attempt to move this into the everyday oncology practice.

  2. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sun; Chan Ra, Jeong; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. ► Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. ► AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. ► AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. ► AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  3. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung [Department of Microbiology, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Eun-Sun [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chan Ra, Jeong [Stem Cell Research Center, RNL BIO, Seoul 153-768 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung-Ha, E-mail: ykh@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  4. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther; Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  5. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism

  6. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich, E-mail: Guenther.Eissner@med.uni-muenchen.d [Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  7. Viability of acid-fast bacilli from γ- and UV-irradiated lepromatous armadillo tissues infected with mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastidar, S.G.; Chakraborty, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    γ-irradiated splenic homogenates of armadillos infected with M. leprae proved sterile by conventional tests and media. However, on media for chemoautotrophy, these could repeatedly grow as a single type of acid-fast nocardioform bacterium like the unirradiated specimens, although with a much reduced count. In the slide culture, transition from the initial acid-fast bacilli (AFB)/coccoid bodies, to sporulating mycelia and granules in the final stage, could be observed sequentially. The γ-irradiated tissue specimens failed to yield any other mycobacterium/corynebacterium tested according to standard protocols. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M.; Shellock, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or “MR Conditional” (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less. PMID:26266051

  9. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  10. Curcumin and Viscum album Extract Decrease Proliferation and Cell Viability of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Cells: An In Vitro Analysis of Eight Cell Lines Using Real-Time Monitoring and Colorimetric Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, K; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Jacobsen, F; Renner, M; Harati, A; Wallner, C; Lehnhardt, M; Becerikli, M

    2017-01-01

    The cytostatic effects of the polyphenol curcumin and Viscum album extract (VAE) were assessed in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Eight human STS cell lines were used: fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778, MLS-402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1, 1273), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (U2197). Primary human fibroblasts served as control cells. Cell proliferation, viability, and cell index (CI) were analyzed by BrdU assay, MTT assay, and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). As indicated by BrdU and MTT, curcumin significantly decreased the cell proliferation of five cell lines (HT1080, SW872, SYO1, 1273, and U2197) and the viability of two cell lines (SW872 and SW982). VAE led to significant decreases of proliferation in eight cell lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, 1293, and U2197) and reduced viability in seven STS lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, and 1273). As indicated by RTCA for 160 h, curcumin decreased the CI of all synovial sarcoma cell lines as well as T778 and HT1080. VAE diminished the CI in most of the synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1) and liposarcoma (SW872, T778) cell lines as well as HT1080. Primary fibroblasts were not affected adversely by the two compounds in RTCA. Curcumin and VAE can inhibit the proliferation and viability of STS cells.

  11. Myocardial viability assessment using nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Hisada, Kinichi; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial assessment continues to be an issue in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Nuclear imaging has long played an important role in this field. In particular, PET imaging using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is regarded as the metabolic gold standard of tissue viability, which has been supported by a wide clinical experience. Viability assessment using SPECT techniques has gained more wide-spread clinical acceptance than PET, because it is more widely available at lower cost. Moreover, technical advances in SPECT technology such as gated-SPECT further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. However, other imaging techniques such as dobutamine echocardiography have recently emerged as competitors to nuclear imaging. It is also important to note that they sometimes may work in a complementary fashion to nuclear imaging, indicating that an appropriate use of these techniques may significantly improve their overall accuracy. In keeping these circumstances in mind, further efforts are necessary to further improve the diagnostic performance of nuclear imaging as a reliable viability test. (author) 107 refs

  12. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  13. Introduction for the special issue on recent advances in drug delivery across tissue barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrsny, Randall J; Brayden, David J

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Tissue Barriers contains a series of reviews with the common theme of how biological barriers established at epithelial tissues limit the uptake of macromolecular therapeutics. By improving our functional understanding of these barriers, the majority of the authors have highlighted potential strategies that might be applied to the non-invasive delivery of biopharmaceuticals that would otherwise require an injection format for administration. Half of the articles focus on the potential of particular technologies to assist oral delivery of peptides, proteins and other macromolecules. These include use of prodrug chemistry to improve molecule stability and permeability, and the related potential for oral delivery of poorly permeable agents by cell-penetrating peptides and dendrimers. Safety aspects of intestinal permeation enhancers are discussed, along with the more recent foray into drug-device combinations as represented by intestinal microneedles and externally-applied ultrasound. Other articles highlight the crossover between food research and oral delivery based on nanoparticle technology, while the final one provides a fascinating interpretation of the physiological problems associated with subcutaneous insulin delivery and how inefficient it is at targeting the liver.

  14. Influence of Heat Shock Temperatures and Fast Freezing on Viability of Probiotic Sporeformers and the Issue of Spore Plate Count Versus True Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of various heat shock conditions and fast freezing and subsequent thawing on the viability and recovery of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis as probiotic sporeformers, and also to compare spore plate and microscopic counts. Materials and Methods: After preparing the final suspensions of B. coagulans and Bacillus subtilis subsp. Natto spores, they were spread-plated before and after fast freezing treatment (-70°C for about 1 min. Heat shock treatments of the spores were carried out at 68oC for 15, 20, and 30 min as well as at 80oC for 10 and 15 min. Concentrations of the examined probiotic sporeformers were determined simultaneously by plate enumerations and microscopically determined counts. Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of SPSS were used for statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of DoE results was carried out using Minitab. Results: The results presented here show that the highest recovery rates for B. coagulans (14.75 log CFU/mL and B. subtilis spores (14.80 log CFU/mL were under a heat shock condition of 68°C for 20 min in nutrient agar (p<0.05. In addition, the survival rates of B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores under the fast freezing and subsequent thawing condition were about 90% and 88%, respectively. Plate counts differed significantly from counts determined microscopically, with differences of almost 0.5 and 0.8 log for B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores, respectively (p<0.05. In addition, DoE results of the study revealed that both factors of spore count method and only freezing factor in fast freezing treatment have a significant effect on concentrations of the spores examined (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat shock conditions, freezing and subsequent thawing circumstances, and plate counts or enumerations determined microscopically have significant influences on the viability of probiotic sporeformers and

  15. [Influence of tissue-specific superoxide dismutase genes expression in brain cells on Drosophila melanogaster sensitivity to oxidative stress and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitushynska, M V; Matiytsiv, N P; Chernyk, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study has shown that both functional gene knockout Sodl and Sod2 and their overexpression in neurons and glial tissue increase the sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster to oxidative stress (OS) conditions. The lowest survival rate was only 20.5% in insects with Sod2 knockout in neurons. Comparative analysis of the survival curves showed that adults with altered tissue-specific expression of the studied genes had reduced average and maximum life span. Under OS conditions induced by 5% hydrogen peroxide the life spans of wild type Oregon R and transgenic insects were significantly reduced. Altered Sod gene expression in glial tissue leads to degenerative changes in Drosophila brain at the young age. During the aging of insects and the action of pro-oxidants increasing of neurodegenerative phenotype is observed.

  16. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  17. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering: a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Berg, P.P. van den; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  18. A special issue on reviews in biomedical applications of nanomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells, bioimaging, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2014-10-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology in a series contains another 30 state-of-the-art reviews focused on the biomedical applications of nanomaterials, biosensors, bone tissue engineering, MRI and bioimaging, single-cell detection, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, toxicity and biosafety of nanodrugs, nanoparticle-based new therapeutic approaches for cancer, hepatic and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering : a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.P.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Oerlemans, A.J.

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women

  20. Precision Medicine Approaches to Diabetic Kidney Disease: Tissue as an Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Caroline; Ko, Yi-An; Susztak, Katalin

    2017-05-01

    Precision medicine approaches, that tailor medications to specific individuals has made paradigm-shifting improvements for patients with certain cancer types. Such approaches, however, have not been implemented for patients with diabetic kidney disease. Precision medicine could offer new avenues for novel diagnostic, prognostic and targeted therapeutics development. Genetic studies associated with multiscalar omics datasets from tissue and cell types of interest of well-characterized cohorts are needed to change the current paradigm. In this review, we will discuss precision medicine approaches that the nephrology community can take to analyze tissue samples to develop new therapeutics for patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  1. In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Hannah; Shellock, Frank G; Ahn, Christina Y

    2014-04-01

    A patient with a breast tissue expander may require a diagnostic assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To ensure patient safety, this type of implant must undergo in vitro MRI testing using proper techniques. Therefore, this investigation evaluated MRI issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port. A breast tissue expander with a remote port (Integra Breast Tissue Expander, Model 3612-06 with Standard Remote Port, PMT Corporation, Chanhassen, MN) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was evaluated by placing the implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom and MRI was performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9-W/kg. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted and GRE pulse sequences. Magnetic field interactions were not substantial and, thus, will not pose a hazard to a patient in a 3-Tesla or less MRI environment. The highest temperature rise was 1.7°C, which is physiologically inconsequential. Artifacts were large in relation to the remote port and metal connector of the implant but will only present problems if the MR imaging area of interest is where these components are located. A patient with this breast tissue expander with a remote port may safely undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less under the conditions used for this investigation. These findings are the first reported at 3-Tesla for a tissue expander. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  3. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  4. Alternating current electric field effects on neural stem cell viability and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marvi A; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2010-01-01

    Methods utilizing stem cells hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering applications; however, many issues must be worked out before these therapies can be routinely applied. Utilization of external cues for preimplantation expansion and differentiation offers a potentially viable approach to the use of stem cells in tissue engineering. The studies reported here focus on the response of murine neural stem cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogel beads to alternating current electric fields. Cell viability and differentiation was studied as a function of electric field magnitude and frequency. We applied fields of frequency (0.1-10) Hz, and found a marked peak in neural stem cell viability under oscillatory electric fields with a frequency of 1 Hz. We also found an enhanced propensity for astrocyte differentiation over neuronal differentiation in the 1 Hz cultures, as compared to the other field frequencies we studied. Published 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  5. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co60 based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  6. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  7. Assessment of myocardial viability by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, Joern J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of myocardial viability after infarction focuses on the prediction of functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium after revascularization therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging provides different approaches for the detection of myocardial viability. Measurement of end-diastolic wall thickness is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity, and can only be used 4 months after myocardial infarction due to infarct healing processes. Low-dose dobutamine stress has a good sensitivity with a high specificity for the prediction of wall motion improvement, but this is only true for patients with a singular dysfunctional area and only slightly depressed cardiac function. Late enhancement allows for direct visualization of necrotic or scarred tissue. By measuring the transmural extent of late enhancement, the probability of mechanical improvement can precisely be given. Imaging of microvascular obstruction by first-pass perfusion or late enhancement gives additional information on viability and patient prognosis. Metabolic imaging techniques, such as 31 P-MR spectroscopy and 23 Na-MR imaging, provide further insights into the mechanisms of myocardial infarction and viability. In conclusion, cardiac MRI offers several clinically usable approaches for the assessment of myocardial viability and will probably become the method of choice in the near future. (orig.)

  8. TuBaFrost 3: regulatory and ethical issues on the exchange of residual tissue for research across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, E.-B.; Riegman, P. H. J.; Dinjens, W. N. M.; Lam, K. H.; Oomen, M. H. A.; Spatz, A.; Mager, R.; Ratcliffe, C.; Knox, K.; Kerr, D.; van Damme, B.; van de Vijver, M.; van Boven, H.; Morente, M. M.; Alonso, S.; Kerjaschki, D.; Pammer, J.; Lopez-Guerrero, J. A.; Llombart Bosch, A.; Carbone, A.; Gloghini, A.; Teodorovic, I.; Isabelle, M.; Passioukov, A.; Lejeune, S.; Therasse, P.; Oosterhuis, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory regimes for research with residual tissue and accompanying data differ widely between countries in the European Union (EU): from specific consent to opt-out or even no consent at all. This could greatly hamper research where the exchange of tissue and accompanying data has become the

  9. Viability Test Device for anisakid nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kroeger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability – caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system. The interaction between curvatures, contraction of the longitudinal muscles, and inner pressure enabled the derivation of viability from stationary form data. From series of spectrally signed images within a narrow wavelength range, curvature data of the larvae were determined. Possible mobility of larvae was taken into account in statistical error variables. Experiments on individual living larvae, long-term observations of Anisakis larvae, and comparative studies of the staining method and the VTD measurements of larvae from the tissue of products confirmed the effectiveness of this method. The VTD differentiated clearly between live and dead nematode larvae isolated from marinated, deep-frozen and salted products. The VTD has been proven as excellent method to detect living anisakid nematode larvae in fishery products and is seen as useful tool for fish processing industry and control authorities. Keywords: Biophysics

  10. Viabilidade de sementes de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC: avaliação da vitalidade dos tecidos Seed viability of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.: evaluation of the tissue vitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Claudia Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia interna e a viabilidade de sementes de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. foram estudadas utilizando-se o tetrazólio (cloreto de 2, 3, 5 trifenil tetrazólio. Dos clones testados, o Flórida Sweet foi o que apresentou a menor percentagem de sementes com embriões normais (10% como também em reação às sementes sem embriões (8% e o maior percentagem de sementes com embriões deformados (81%. O clone 07-OS apresentou maior percentagem de sementes com embriões normais (51% e um número considerado elevado de sementes sem embriões (34%. Os demais clones apresentaram valores intermediários. Para todos os clones avaliados, as sementes com embriões normais apresentaram 100% de embriões viáveis. Essas sementes submetidas ao teste de tetrazólio por um período de 12 horas, apresentaram-se com uma coloração vermelha intensa, considerada ideal para a avaliação positiva da viabilidade das sementes. Estes resultados não podem, entretanto, ser tomados para prognóstico e o cálculo da taxa de germinação e dormência, apenas indicando que as sementes estão vivas.The morphology and seed viability of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. were evaluated using the tetrazolium (2, 3, 5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. From all clones tested, Florida Sweet presented the smallest percentage of seeds with normal embryos (10% or without them (8% and the greatest percentage of seeds with malformed embryos, (81%. The clone 07-0S had the greatest percentage of seeds with normal embryos (5 l% and an elevated number of seeds without embryos (34%. For all other clones evaluated, the seeds with normal embryos were 100% viable. The seeds subjected to the tetrazolium test for 12 hours, had a deep red color, considered ideal for viability positive evaluation. These tests cannot be taken as prognosis to calculate the germination and dormancy rates, only indicating that the seeds are alive.

  11. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US environmental protection agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the ‘‘what, where, and...

  12. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    this volume of the VA (see Volume 1, Section 2.2.1.2, subsection on Health Related Mineral Issues)

  13. Viabilidade celular da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de equinos após o processo de congelamento e descongelamento Viability of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction after freezing and thawing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco cavalos adultos foram submetidos à coleta de medula óssea do esterno e de tecido adiposo da região glútea. As amostras foram processadas para obtenção da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo, o número de células obtidas e a viabilidade celular foram determinados. Em seguida, realizou-se o congelamento das amostras em solução contendo 20% de soro fetal bovino e 10% de dimetilsulfóxido. Depois de um mês, realizou-se o descongelamento das amostras e a viabilidade celular foi novamente mensurada. Os resultados revelaram que as técnicas utilizadas tanto para coleta de medula óssea quanto de tecido adiposo em equinos são simples, rápidas e seguras. As metodologias adotadas para o processamento das amostras foram eficientes, obtendo-se aproximadamente 95% de viabilidade celular. Após o descongelamento, a viabilidade média das amostras de células mononucleares da medula óssea foi de 86% e da fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de 64%. Frente à importância da terapia celular na clínica médica de equinos, concluiu-se que é necessária a realização de mais estudos, visando padronizar uma técnica de criopreservação que mantenha a integridade das células da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e da fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de equinos.In five adult horses, bone marrow was aspirated from the sternum and adipose tissue extracted from the gluteal region. The samples were processed to obtain the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow and stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue, and the number of cells obtained and cell viability were determined. Next, the cell samples were frozen in medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethylsulfoxide. After one month, the cells were thawed and cell viability was again determined. The results revealed that the techniques for collecting both bone marrow and adipose tissue in horses are simple, rapid and

  14. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation provides a biological treatment option for functional restoration of large articular cartilage defects in multiple joints. While successful outcomes after OCA transplantation have been linked to viable donor chondrocytes, the importance of donor cell viability has not been comprehensively validated. To use a canine model to determine the importance of donor chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation with respect to functional success of femoral condylar OCAs based on radiographic, gross, cell viability, histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical outcome measures. Controlled laboratory study. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, adult female dogs (N = 16) were implanted with 8-mm cylindrical OCAs from male dogs in the lateral and medial femoral condyles of 1 knee. OCAs were preserved for 28 or 60 days after procurement, and chondrocyte viability was quantified before implantation. Two different storage media, temperatures, and time points were used to obtain a spectrum of percentage chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation. A successful outcome was defined as an OCA that was associated with graft integration, maintenance of hyaline cartilage, lack of associated cartilage disorder, and lack of fibrillation, fissuring, or fibrous tissue infiltration of the allograft based on subjective radiographic, gross, and histologic assessments at 6 months after implantation. Chondrocyte viability ranged from 23% to 99% at the time of implantation. All successful grafts had >70% chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation, and no graft with chondrocyte viability <70% was associated with a successful outcome. Live-dead stained sections and histologic findings with respect to cell morphological features suggested that successful grafts were consistently composed of viable chondrocytes in lacunae, while grafts that were not successful were composed of nonviable

  15. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  16. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co{sup 60} based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei, E-mail: matheus.soares@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: augusti.rodinei@gmail.com, E-mail: augusti@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H., E-mail: eberlin@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: ph_vendramini@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Thompson Mass Spectroscopy Laboratory

    2017-07-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  17. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  18. Cryopreservation of tissue engineered constructs for bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofron, Michelle D; Opsitnick, Natalie C; Attawia, Mohamed A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-11-01

    The large-scale clinical use of tissue engineered constructs will require provisions for its mass availability and accessibility. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the effects of low temperature (-196 degrees C) on the tissue engineered biological system. Initial studies used samples of the osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) adhered to a two-dimensional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) thin film (2D-PLAGA) or a three-dimensional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) sintered microsphere matrix (3D-PLAGA) designed for bone tissue engineering. Experimental samples were tested for their ability to maintain cell viability, following low temperature banking for one week, in solutions of the penetrating cryoprotective agents, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, and glycerol. Results indicated the DMSO solution yielded the greatest percent cell survival for SaOS-2 cells adhered to both the 2D- and 3D-PLAGA scaffolds; therefore, DMSO was used to cryopreserve mineralizing primary rabbit osteoblasts cells adhered to 2D-PLAGA matrices for 35 days. Results indicated retention of the extracellular matrix architecture as no statistically significant difference in the pre- and post-thaw mineralized structures was measured. Percent cell viability of the mineralized constructs following low temperature storage was approximately 50%. These are the first studies to address the issue of preservation techniques for tissue engineered constructs. The ability to successfully cryopreserve mineralized tissue engineered matrices for bone may offer an unlimited and readily available source of bone-like materials for orthopaedic applications.

  19. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  20. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  1. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philippi, Therese M

    2002-01-01

    The DoD Defense Production (DPA) Act Title III program sponsored this project in response to a critical supply base issue with the objective of strengthening the supplier base to ensure it's future viability...

  2. Microtissues Enhance Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Cell Viability of hADSCs for Three Dimensional Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yipeng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure. When evenly mixed with bioink, stem cells can be spatially distributed within a bioprinted 3D structure, thus avoiding drawbacks such as, stem cell detachment in a conventional cell-scaffold strategy. Notwithstanding the advantages mentioned above, cell viability is often compromised during 3D bioprinting, which is often due to pressure during the bioprinting process. The objective of our study was to improve the efficiency of hADSC smooth muscle differentiation and cell viability of a 3D bioprinted structure. Here, we employed the hanging-drop method to generate hADSC microtissues in a smooth muscle inductive medium containing human transforming growth factor β1 and bioprinted the induced microtissues onto a 3D structure. After 3 days of smooth muscle induction, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and smoothelin was higher in microtissues than in their counterpart monolayer cultured hADSCs, as confirmed by immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis. The semi-quantitative assay showed that the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was 0.218 ± 0.077 in MTs and 0.082 ± 0.007 in Controls; smoothelin expression was 0.319 ± 0.02 in MTs and 0.178 ± 0.06 in Controls. Induced MTs maintained their phenotype after the bioprinting process. Live/dead and cell count kit 8 assays showed that cell viability and cell proliferation in the 3D structure printed with microtissues were higher at all time

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Cell viability and scratch assay were carried out in BJ fibroblast cells treated ... healing comes from the ability of the extract to regenerate tissue ... ability to inhibit the mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of ...

  4. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  5. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  6. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  7. Ovarian fragment sizes affect viability and morphology of preantral follicles during storage at 4°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient transportation of ovarian tissues is affected b various factors compromising their viability. We tested various ovarian sample sizes (whole ovary, biopsy, and transplantation size) during various transportation times....

  8. Assessment of the technical viability of reactor options for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III.

    1996-01-01

    Various reactor concepts for the disposition of surplus Pu have been proposed by reactor vendors; not all have attained the same level of technical viability. Studies were performed to differentiate between reactor concepts by devising a quantitative index for technical viability. For a quantitative assessment, three issues required resolution: the definition of a technical maturity scale, the treatment of ''subjective'' factors which cannot be easily represented in a quantitative format, and the protocol for producing a single technical viability figure-of-merit for each alternative. Alternatives involving the use of foreign facilities were found to be the most technically viable

  9. An easy 'one tube' method to estimate viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts using real-time qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paziewska-Harris, A.; Schoone, G.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Viability estimation of the highly resistant oocysts of Cryptosporidium remains a key issue for the monitoring and control of this pathogen. We present here a simple 'one tube' quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for viability estimation using a DNA extraction protocol which preferentially solubilizes

  10. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  11. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  12. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle Tympanotonus Fuscatus in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  14. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner, T. M. [Abteilung fuer klinische Physiologie, Zentrum fuer Klinische Grundlagenforschung, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-07-15

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with {sup 3}H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. {sup 3}H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of {sup 3}H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with {sup 3}H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of {sup 3}H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of {sup 3}H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  15. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, RHJA; Bax, JJ; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van der Wall, EE; Dierckx, RAJO; Jager, PL

    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be

  16. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  17. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  18. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by 15O-water-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with 15 O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author)

  19. * Ethical Issues in the Use of Animal Models for Tissue Engineering: Reflections on Legal Aspects, Moral Theory, Three Rs Strategies, and Harm-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Gabriel R; Jeronimus, Bertus F; de Aquinas Liguori, Tácia T; Moreira, Luiz Felipe P; Harmsen, Martin C

    2017-12-01

    Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments. Third, we introduce the importance of available reduction, replacement, and refinement strategies, which should be accounted for in moral decision-making and protocol evaluation of animal experiments. The three perspectives are integrated into an algorithmic and graphic harm-benefit analysis tool based on the most relevant aspects of animal models in TE. We conclude with a consideration of future avenues to improve animal experiments.

  20. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  1. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  2. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  3. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... E-mail: ndsaraka@yahoo.fr, ndsaraka@gmail.com. Tel: 225 ..... sample viability and control of contaminants that may mask the ... viability and composition of the Escherichia coli flora in faecal ... Microbiologie alimentaire, 8e.

  4. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  6. Anticipating mismatches of HIT investments: Developing a viability-fit model for e-health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Albeit massive investments in the recent years, the impact of health information technology (HIT) has been controversial and strongly disputed by both research and practice. While many studies are concerned with the development of new or the refinement of existing measurement models for assessing the impact of HIT adoption (ex post), this study presents an initial attempt to better understand the factors affecting viability and fit of HIT and thereby underscores the importance of also having instruments for managing expectations (ex ante). We extend prior research by undertaking a more granular investigation into the theoretical assumptions of viability and fit constructs. In doing so, we use a mixed-methods approach, conducting qualitative focus group discussions and a quantitative field study to improve and validate a viability-fit measurement instrument. Our findings suggest two issues for research and practice. First, the results indicate that different stakeholders perceive HIT viability and fit of the same e-health services very unequally. Second, the analysis also demonstrates that there can be a great discrepancy between the organizational viability and individual fit of a particular e-health service. The findings of this study have a number of important implications such as for health policy making, HIT portfolios, and stakeholder communication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for a decade in Denmark: a view of the technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Ernst, Erik

    2011-01-01

    evaluation of mouse and human ovarian tissue after freezing with four different combinations of cryoprotectants. Viability was confirmed by transplantation of frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue (n = 49) to oophorectomized Nude mice. Viability after transport of fresh tissue 4-5 h prior to freezing had...... previously been validated. Overnight transport of fresh ovarian tissue prior to cryopreservation was evaluated when human ovarian tissue was kept on ice for 20 h and then cryopreserved. The thawed ovarian tissue was transplanted to an oophorectomized Nude mouse and histology confirmed viability. In Denmark...

  8. Study on human chondrocyte culture viability for autologous transplantation in clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Lombello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The limited regenerative capacity of the cartilage tissuemakes the treatment of chondral lesions difficult. The techniquescurrently available to treat cartilage lesions may relieve symptoms,but do not regenerate the injured tissue. Autologous chondrocytetransplantation uses cell biology and cell culture techniques toregenerate the hyaline cartilage. Methods: In this study, we analyzechondrocyte biopsy collection and culture for autologoustransplantation. Ultrastructural analyses of hyaline cartilage biopsieswere performed 0, 6, 24 and 48 hours after collection. The tissue evenafter 48 hours. Eleven cell culture assays were performed to evaluateisolation, viability, morphology, proliferation and absence ofcontaminants. Results: The cell culture techniques used allowedchondrocyte proliferation. Rates on cell viability were maintained abovethe acceptable patterns (above 90. Control of cell culture laboratoryconditions showed absence of contaminants, assuring safety of theprocess. The chondrocytes obtained presented the morphology typicalof cultured cell monolayers. Conclusion: The results indicate viabilityof chondrocyte culture technique for clinical application in autologoustransplantation.

  9. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-05-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.

  10. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    .003) and cytokines. Yet, these systemic adaptations had no effect on breast cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p ... no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.......Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses...

  11. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real...

  12. The apoptosis linked gene ALG-2 is dysregulated in tumors of various origin and contributes to cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas; Høj, Berit Rahbek; Mollerup, Jens

    2008-01-01

    microarrays we analysed the expression of ALG-2 in 7371 tumor tissue samples of various origin as well as in 749 normal tissue samples. Most notably, ALG-2 was upregulated in mesenchymal tumors. No correlation was found between ALG-2 staining intensity and survival of patients with lung, breast or colon...... cancer. siRNA mediated ALG-2 downregulation led to a significant reduction in viability of HeLa cells indicating that ALG-2 may contribute to tumor development and expansion....

  13. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  14. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  15. [New valvular homografts. Prospects and limits of their viability. Report of 42 implantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, G; Mesnildrey, P; Hanotel, M C; Heurtematte, Y; Cachera, J P; Paul, M; Astier, A; Beaujean, F; Dubertret, L; Galle, P

    1990-10-01

    The regain of interest in aortic homograft bioprostheses is related to the prospects of improved viability resulting from explanation from organ donors, preservation in rich tissue culture media, together with the progress made in techniques of cryopreservation. Viability studies examining morphology of electron microscopy and tests of tissue culture confirm this notion of longer viability. These properties raise hopes of satisfactory long-term results while acknowledging outstanding antigenic problems which require strict A-B-O system compatibility. The results of a preliminary series of 42 valve homografts implanted at Henri Mondor Hospital over the last 5 years are reported. Twenty-one bioprostheses were implanted on the right side in congenital heart disease with good results in every case. Twenty-one were implanted in the aortic position in children and show no signs of degeneration as yet. One poor result was related to a technical error in calibration. The rebirth of this technique raises certain hopes, especially in aortic valve replacement.

  16. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium Implant Surfaces: Microgroove-Structures Improve Cellular Adhesion and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Philip; Hoffmann, Alexia; Henningsen, Anders; Barbeck, Mike; Kopp, Alexander; Kluwe, Lan; Precht, Clarissa; Quatela, Olivia; Gaudin, Robert; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Knipfer, Christian; Grubeanu, Daniel; Smeets, Ralf; Jung, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an established electrochemical treatment technique that can be used for surface modifications of metal implants. In this study we to treated titanium implants with PEO, to examine the resulting microstructure and to characterize adhesion and viability of cells on the treated surfaces. Our aim was to identify an optimal surface-modification for titanium implants in order to improve soft-tissue integration. Three surface-variants were generated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by PEO-treatment. The elemental composition and the microstructures of the surfaces were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. In vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces was assessed by seeding L929 fibroblasts onto them and measuring the adhesion, viability and cytotoxicity of cells by means of live/dead staining, XTT assay and LDH assay. Electron microscopy and profilometry revealed that the PEO-surface variants differed largely in microstructure/topography, porosity and roughness from the untreated control material as well as from one another. Roughness was generally increased after PEO-treatment. In vitro, PEO-treatment led to improved cellular adhesion and viability of cells accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. PEO-treatment provides a promising strategy to improve the integration of titanium implants with surrounding tissues. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Study of functional viability of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Luis J; Altuna, Ane; Tijero, Maria; Vilares, Roman; Berganzo, Javier; Blanco, F J; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Rodríguez, Manuel J; Batlle, Montse

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, packaging and first test results of SU-8-based microneedles for neural applications. By the use of photolithography, sputtering and bonding techniques, polymer needles with integrated microchannels and electrodes have been successfully fabricated. The use of photolithography for the patterning of the fluidic channel integrated in the needle allows the design of multiple outlet ports at the needle tip, minimizing the possibility of being blocked by the tissue. Furthermore, the flexibility of the polymer reduces the risk of fracture and tissue damage once the needle is inserted, while it is still rigid enough to allow a perfect insertion into the neural tissue. Fluidic and electric characterization of the microneedles has shown their viability for drug delivery and monitoring in neural applications. First drug delivery tests in ex vivo tissue demonstrated the functional viability of the needle to deliver drugs to precise points. Furthermore, in vivo experiments have demonstrated lower associated damages during insertion than those by stereotaxic standard needles

  18. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  19. Usefulness of myocardial parametric imaging to evaluate myocardial viability in experimental and in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosoglou, G; Hansen, A; Bekeredjian, R; Filusch, A; Hardt, S; Wolf, D; Schellberg, D; Katus, H A; Kuecherer, H

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate whether myocardial parametric imaging (MPI) is superior to visual assessment for the evaluation of myocardial viability. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was assessed in 11 pigs before, during, and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and in 32 patients with ischaemic heart disease by using intravenous SonoVue administration. In experimental studies perfusion defect area assessment by MPI was compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry. Histological assessment of necrotic tissue was the standard reference. In clinical studies viability was assessed on a segmental level by (1) visual analysis of myocardial opacification; (2) quantitative estimation of myocardial blood flow in regions of interest; and (3) MPI. Functional recovery between three and six months after revascularisation was the standard reference. In experimental studies, compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry, planimetric assessment of infarct size by MPI correlated more significantly with histology (r2 = 0.92 versus r2 = 0.56) and had a lower intraobserver variability (4% v 15%, p < 0.05). In clinical studies, MPI had higher specificity (66% v 43%, p < 0.05) than visual MCE and good accuracy (81%) for viability detection. It was less time consuming (3.4 (1.6) v 9.2 (2.4) minutes per image, p < 0.05) than quantitative blood flow estimation by regions of interest and increased the agreement between observers interpreting myocardial perfusion (kappa = 0.87 v kappa = 0.75, p < 0.05). MPI is useful for the evaluation of myocardial viability both in animals and in patients. It is less time consuming than quantification analysis by regions of interest and less observer dependent than visual analysis. Thus, strategies incorporating this technique may be valuable for the evaluation of myocardial viability in clinical routine.

  20. Adjustment of tetrazolium methodology for the evaluation of Melanoxylon brauna seeds viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adjust the tetrazolium test methodology to Melanoxylon brauna seeds. The seeds werepre-conditioned by immersion in distilled water at 25ºC for 24 hours. The tegument of the seeds were removed and the embryos weresubmerged in the tetrazolium solution (pH 6.5 at concentration of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3%, and were kept in the dark at 25ºC temperaturefor 10 and 24 hours. The embryos were evaluated for the intensity of color, presence of milky areas, aspect of the tissues, and locationof the color. The embryos were individually classified into nine viability classes. They were also submitted to the germination andseedling emergence tests. The best correlations between the standard tests of seed germination of Melanoxylon brauna were those with0.3% concentration for 10 hours. The viability is represented by classes 1, 2 and 3.

  1. Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on viability of diced cartilage grafts in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, İsmail; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Kocatürk, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the viability of cartilage grafts embedded in platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) wrapped with no material (bare diced cartilage grafts), oxidized methylcellulose (Surgicel), or acellular dermal tissue (AlloDerm). Experimental study. In this study, six New Zealand rabbits were used. Cartilage grafts including perichondrium were excised from each ear and diced into 2-mm-by 2-mm pieces. There were four comparison groups: 1) group A, diced cartilage (not wrapped with any material); 2) group B, diced cartilage wrapped with AlloDerm; 3) group C, diced cartilage grafts wrapped with Surgicel; and 4) group D, diced cartilage wrapped with PRFM. Four cartilage grafts were implanted under the skin at the back of each rabbit. All rabbits were sacrificed at the end of 10 weeks. The cartilages were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Orcein. After that, they were evaluated for the viability of chondrocytes, collagen content, fibrillar structure of matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues. When the viability of chondrocytes, the content of fiber in matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues were compared, the cartilage embedded in the PRFM group was statistically significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that PRFM has significant advantages in ensuring the chondrocyte viability of diced cartilage grafts. It is also biocompatible, with relatively lesser inflammation and fibrosis. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. An evaluation of the effects of long term cryopreservation, cause of death, and time between death and donation on heart valve leaflet viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, K.

    1999-01-01

    The protocol for cryopreservation of allograft heart valves at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria was based on validation studies on the viability of the heart valve leaflets at the time of processing. The heart block is removed within 24 hours of death and the aor-tic and pulmonary valves trimmed immediately following retrieval. Following this processing, the valves are incubated in antibiotics at 30 degree C for 6 to 8 hours before being frozen in 10% DMSO at a controlled rate. A sample of tricuspid valve leaflet is placed in Krebs solution at the time of trimfning and is used for viability studies. Leaflet viability studies have been perfon-ned on all heart valves retrieved from 1993 to the present day at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria. Viability involves a qualitative assessment of the cellular outgrowth by leaflet fibroblasts, this assessment ranging from '-' for no outgrowth to '++++' for maximum outgrowth. Surgeons do not request valves with any particular viability and will use them whether they are viable or not. This evaluation was to determine the effects of long-term cryopreservation, cause of death, and also time lapse of heart removal following death on the viability of the retrieved leaflets. The aim of investigating the effects of long-term cryopreservation was to determine whether there was any correlation between initial viability and viability following storage for several months to several years. It was also decided to investigate whether there was any correlation between time length between death and heart retrieval and the viability. It was also thought that the cause of death may have had an effect on the viability, for example, did death by carbon monoxide poisoning have an effect on the viability of heart valve cells. Heart valves, which had been cryopreserved but could not be transplanted for various reasons were used to study the effects of cryopreservation in this study. These were thawed according to protocol and a sample of the valve

  3. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part I. Effects of Injection Technique on in vitro Fat Viability and in vivo Volume Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Atashroo, David A.; Hyun, Jeong S.; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Hu, Michael S.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; Momeni, Arash; Rimsa, Joe R.; Commons, George W.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Wan, Derrick C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting has become increasingly popular for the correction of soft tissue deficits at many sites throughout the body. Long-term outcomes, however, depend on delivery of fat in the least traumatic fashion to optimize viability of the transplanted tissue. In this study, we compare the biologic properties of fat following injection using two methods. Methods Lipoaspiration samples were obtained from five female donors and cellular viability, proliferation, and lipolysis were evaluated following injection using either a modified Coleman technique or an automated, low shear device. Comparisons were made to minimally processed, uninjected fat. Volume retention was also measured over twelve weeks following injection of fat under the scalp of immunodeficient mice using either the modified Coleman technique or the Adipose Tissue Injector. Finally, fat grafts were analyzed histologically. Results Fat viability and cellular proliferation were both significantly greater with the Adipose Tissue Injector relative to injection with the modified Coleman technique. In contrast, significantly less lipolysis was noted using the automated device. In vivo fat volume retention was significantly greater than with the modified Coleman technique at 4, 6, 8, and 12 week time points. This corresponded with significantly greater histological scores for healthy fat and lower scores for injury following injection with the device. Conclusions Biological properties of injected tissues reflect how disruptive and harmful techniques for placement of fat may be, and our in vitro and in vivo data both support the use of the automated, low shear devices compared to the modified Coleman technique. PMID:24622574

  4. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  5. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  6. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  7. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA

  8. A Comparison of Three Methods for the Analysis of Skin Flap Viability: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Carla Roberta; Martignago, Cintia Cristina Santi; da Silva, Viviane Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Estefany Camila Bonfim; Vieira, Fabiana Nascimento; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Liebano, Richard Eloin

    2018-05-01

    Objective: Technological advances have provided new alternatives to the analysis of skin flap viability in animal models; however, the interrater validity and reliability of these techniques have yet to be analyzed. The present study aimed to evaluate the interrater validity and reliability of three different methods: weight of paper template (WPT), paper template area (PTA), and photographic analysis. Approach: Sixteen male Wistar rats had their cranially based dorsal skin flap elevated. On the seventh postoperative day, the viable tissue area and the necrotic area of the skin flap were recorded using the paper template method and photo image. The evaluation of the percentage of viable tissue was performed using three methods, simultaneously and independently by two raters. The analysis of interrater reliability and viability was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland Altman Plot Analysis was used to visualize the presence or absence of systematic bias in the evaluations of data validity. Results: The results showed that interrater reliability for WPT, measurement of PTA, and photographic analysis were 0.995, 0.990, and 0.982, respectively. For data validity, a correlation >0.90 was observed for all comparisons made between the three methods. In addition, Bland Altman Plot Analysis showed agreement between the comparisons of the methods and the presence of systematic bias was not observed. Innovation: Digital methods are an excellent choice for assessing skin flap viability; moreover, they make data use and storage easier. Conclusion: Independently from the method used, the interrater reliability and validity proved to be excellent for the analysis of skin flaps' viability.

  9. The effect of Aloe vera gel on viability of dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholehvar, Fatemeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Vahdati, Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal. Aloe vera as an inexpensive and available herb can improve survival of avulsed or broken teeth in emergency cases as a transfer media. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pollen Viability and Autogamy Fitness in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Camila Capitani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae occurs in many phytophysiognomies of southern Brazil, however its ecological relevance is not well understood. The present study was developed in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul and aimed to determine variations in pollen viability along flowering, ability to perform autogamy and dye efficiency for the viability test. Pollen viability was determined by colorimetry as well as the ability to perform autogamy by isolating floral buds, being evaluated in eleven matrices. Average pollen viability was 81.43%, with the highest average value obtained with the dye 2,3,5- Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC (84.11%. Safranin was not a good indicator at the tested concentration. No correlation was found between pollen viability and flowering time. The species demonstrated an inability to perform autogamy.

  11. Population viability analysis for endangered Roanoke logperch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Anderson, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy for recovering endangered species is ensuring that populations exceed the minimum viable population size (MVP), a demographic benchmark that theoretically ensures low long-term extinction risk. One method of establishing MVP is population viability analysis, a modeling technique that simulates population trajectories and forecasts extinction risk based on a series of biological, environmental, and management assumptions. Such models also help identify key uncertainties that have a large influence on extinction risk. We used stochastic count-based simulation models to explore extinction risk, MVP, and the possible benefits of alternative management strategies in populations of Roanoke logperch Percina rex, an endangered stream fish. Estimates of extinction risk were sensitive to the assumed population growth rate and model type, carrying capacity, and catastrophe regime (frequency and severity of anthropogenic fish kills), whereas demographic augmentation did little to reduce extinction risk. Under density-dependent growth, the estimated MVP for Roanoke logperch ranged from 200 to 4200 individuals, depending on the assumed severity of catastrophes. Thus, depending on the MVP threshold, anywhere from two to all five of the logperch populations we assessed were projected to be viable. Despite this uncertainty, these results help identify populations with the greatest relative extinction risk, as well as management strategies that might reduce this risk the most, such as increasing carrying capacity and reducing fish kills. Better estimates of population growth parameters and catastrophe regimes would facilitate the refinement of MVP and extinction-risk estimates, and they should be a high priority for future research on Roanoke logperch and other imperiled stream-fish species.

  12. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  13. Hospital Viability during a Pandemic Influenza Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    intentional release may be a naturally occurring disease such as smallpox, or it may be a genetically engineered virus with no known cure . Whatever...be overwhelmed with a myriad of issues as well as, absenteeism , which will require prior planning on the hospitals‘ part to ensure adequate...logistical resupply, but when economic systems may be hanging by a thread due to absenteeism , it is likely hospitals will not be receiving regular

  14. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  15. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  18. Effect of centrifugation and washing on adipose graft viability: a new method to improve graft efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Laurence; Bencharif, Karima; Girard, Anne-Claire; Gence, Lydie; Delarue, Pierre; Hulard, Olivier; Festy, Franck; Roche, Regis

    2013-05-01

    Adipose tissue grafting is a promising method in the field of surgical filling. We studied the effect of centrifugation on fat grafts, and we propose an optimised protocol for the improvement of adipose tissue viability. Adipose tissue was subjected to different centrifugations, and the volumes of interstitial liquid and oil released were measured to choose the optimal condition. Tissue from this condition was then compared to tissue obtained from two traditional techniques: strong centrifugation (commonly 3 min at 3000 rpm/900 g), and decantation, by injecting into immunodeficient mice. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed 24 h post-injection, and after 1 month of grafting the state of the lipografts was evaluated through macroscopic and histological analysis, with oil gap area measurement. Strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious for adipose tissue because it leads to until threefold more adipocyte death compared to low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, mice injected with strong centrifuged and non-centrifuged adipose tissue have higher rates of blood IL-6 and MCP-1, compared to those grafted with soft centrifuged fat. Moreover, extensive lipid vacuoles were detectable on histological sections of the non-centrifuged lipografts, whereas lipografts from soft centrifugation contain a higher amount of connective tissue containing collagen fibres. It is necessary to wash and centrifuge adipose tissue before reinjection in order to remove infiltration liquid and associated toxic molecules, which in the long term are deleterious for the graft. However, strong centrifugation is not recommended since it leads very quickly to greater adipocyte death. Thus, soft centrifugation (400 g/1 min), preceded by washings, seems to be the most appropriate protocol for the reinjection of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published

  19. A viability analysis for a stock/price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Chakib; Raissi, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    We examine the conditions for the sustainability of a stock/price system based on the use of a marine renewable resource. Instead of studying the environmental and economic interactions in terms of optimal control, we focus on the viability of the system. These viability/crisis situations are defined by a set of economic state constraints. This constraints combine a guaranteed consumption and a minimum income for fishermen. Using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal that with only economics constraints we guarantee a perennial stock/price system.

  20. Assessment of follicle viability using fluorescence microscopy before and after ovarian thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofoudis, C; Zervomanolakis, I; Galani, I; Grigoriou, V; Botsis, D; Vlahos, N

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of young women diagnosed with cancer has been globally increasing. In many cases the surgical approach followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormonal therapy could lead to infertility or premature ovarian failure. Several options are available in order to preserve fertility and increase the future gestation rate. Among embryo cryopreservation and oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents an ideal option, especially for premenopausal women and for those who cannot delay the start of chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the follicle viability using fluorescence microscope before and after ovarian thawing.

  1. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed ... body size, slow average daily weight gain, decreased fertility, extended .... were determined by counting a total of 200 spermatozoa per each stained slide.

  2. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... by field artificial pollination were analyzed in this study. The maximum pollen viability .... the day before anthesis to avoid self-pollination. Subsequently, between ..... The Lagerstroemia handbook/checklist. Ameri. Association ...

  3. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor cross-incompatibilities and physiological studies of incompatibility ... campanula shape of the flowers attractive for insect. (bees are ..... irradiation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pollen: Effect on pollen grain viability ...

  4. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees ..... their pollen characteristics to be used in cross breeding ... viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in.

  5. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  6. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  7. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  8. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes ... at the Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources Management farm, Ebonyi State University,. Abakaliki. ..... Roots, tuber, plantains and bananas in human nutrition. Rome,.

  9. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  10. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  11. On the Viability of Diffusion MRI-Based Microstructural Biomarkers in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo

    2018-02-01

    anisotropy indices in discriminating between groups mainly at tp1, while diffusivity indices appeared to be altered at tp2. 3D-SHORE indices proved to be suitable in probing plasticity in both WM and GM, further confirming their viability as a novel family of biomarkers in ischemic stroke in WM and revealing their potential exploitability in GM. Their combination with tensor-derived indices can provide more detailed insights of the different tissue modulations related to stroke pathology.

  12. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  13. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Vaziri, Shahram; Torshabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Anitua’s PRGF and Choukran’s PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-valuesPRGF treatment induced statistically significant (PPRGF than in PRF group (PPRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF. PMID:26877740

  14. Preservation of seed viability during 25 years of storage under standard genebank conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Groot, de E.C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining sufficient viability is critical to the sustainability of ex situ conserved seed collections. For this reason, accessions are regenerated when viability falls below a predefined threshold. Viability is monitored by determining the germination ability of accessions at predefined time

  15. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by [sup 15]O-water-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by [sup 15]O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with [sup 15]O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author).

  16. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; Hart, Lucas; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii , were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus . Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  17. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five

  18. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  19. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  20. Frostbite and bone scanning: the use of 99mTc-labeled phosphates in demarcating the line of viability in frostbite victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, G.; dos Santos, P.A.; Yamaguchi, K.T.; Stroh-Recor, C.; Ibello, R.

    1986-01-01

    Early diagnosis of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage is a very important step in treating a frostbite victim. The diagnostic use of Tc-99m-phosphates in assessing the viability of soft tissue and bone in frostbite was evaluated in the early post-thaw period. Four patients were treated with a combination of warm baths, rehydration, vasodilators, epidural block, fasciotomy, and debridement. Six scans were done to stage involvement. In three of the four cases, final involvement could be determined as early as the third day. When a specific level of soft tissue or bone uptake was determined, future scanning showed either improvement, or no change in three of the four patients. In our experience, Tc-99m-phosphate scans represent an improvement over other diagnostic tests for viability of tissues

  1. Animal studies using an oxygen-tension sensor for tissue viability monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, D.; Komen, N.; Draaijer, A.; Lange, J.F.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Jeekel, J.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leakage at the site of an anastomosis is the main, yet unsolved reason for mortality in abdominal surgery. Every year, a large number of patients die due to anastomotic leakage after surgery. An objective aid to monitor the anastomotic site pre- and postoperatively and detect leakage at an early

  2. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  3. Doctors' perspectives on the viability of rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J A; Humphreys, J S; Adena, M A

    2004-01-01

    Private practitioners play a vital role in meeting the health needs of rural communities. However, the prospect of operating a private practice business in rural Australia seems to be increasingly unattractive, because many communities are forced to recruit salaried or overseas-trained doctors. This study focuses on rural practices as businesses whose viability influences their attractiveness for the recruitment and retention of practitioners. The specific objectives are to ascertain which factors contribute to or threaten practice viability in rural areas, and whether they vary according to the degree of rurality or geographical remoteness. This study is based on data collected from a national study into the viability of rural general practice undertaken jointly by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia and Monash University School of Rural Health Bendigo. The Rural Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) classification was used as the indicator of rurality. The study surveyed all general practitioners practising in rural or remote regions of Australia (RRMAs 3 to 7). Only practitioners with some financial interest in the practice were selected for this analysis. Free-text responses to the two questions 'What are the key factors contributing to the viability of your practice?' and 'What factors would put the viability of your practice at risk?' were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Factors were derived iteratively through higher-level aggregation of responses. Chi-square tests were used to make comparisons across the RRMA categories. The national survey achieved a response rate of 35% of the entire population of GPs practising in RRMA 3 to 7 regions. Of these, 1050 respondents were relevant to this analysis. Seven major factors were identified by practitioners as the main contributors to practice viability. 'Practice characteristics' was nominated by 59% of respondents, followed by 'Income' (31%), 'Personal circumstances', 'Workforce' and 'Community

  4. Viability of seeds of two representatives from Apocynaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Aviekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of some Apocynaceae seeds depending on the duration of storage under conditions of low temperature was studied. Extracted embryos from the seeds of Pachypodium lamerei Drake and Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. et Schult with different storage history were analyzed. Embryos were stained by acidic fuchsine what allows identification of viable and destructed cells. Destructed cells were stained much more intensively, while viable cells remained unstained. Observed results showed dependence of viability of P. lamerei and A. obesum seeds from term of storage. It was obtained that the seeds of investigated succulent species, just like in many other tropical plants, rapidly lost their viability and should be described as microbiotic.

  5. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  6. Present assessment of myocardial viability by nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, G B; MacIntyre, W J; Brunken, R C; Go, R T; Raja, S; Wong, C O; Chen, E Q

    1996-10-01

    Prospective delineation of viable from nonviable myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease in an important factor in deciding whether a patient should be revascularized or treated medically. Two common techniques--single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron-emission computed tomography (PET)--are used in nuclear medicine using various radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of myocardial viability in patients. Thallium-201 (201Tl) and technetium-99m (99mTc)-sestamibi are the common radiopharmaceuticals used in different protocols using SPECT, whereas fluoride-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and rubidium-82 (82Rb) are most widely used in PET. The SPECT protocols involve stress/redistribution, stress/redistribution/reinjection, and rest/redistribution imaging techniques. Many studies have compared the results of 201Tl and (99mTc)-sestamibi SPECT with those of FDG PET; in some studies, concordant results have been found between delayed thallium and FDG results, indicating that 201Tl, although considered a perfusion agent, shows myocardial viability. Discordant results in a number of studies have been found between sestamibi and FDG, suggesting that the efficacy of sestamibi as a viability marker has yet to be established. Radiolabeled fatty acids such as iodine-123 (123I)-para-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid and carbon-11 (11C)-palmitic acid have been used for the assessment of myocardial viability with limited success. 11C-labeled acetate is a good marker of oxidative metabolism in the heart and has been used to predict the reversibility of wall motion abnormalities. (18F)-FDG is considered the marker of choice for myocardial viability, although variable results are obtained under different physiological conditions. Detection of myocardial viability can be greatly improved by developing new equipment and radiopharmaceuticals of better quality.

  7. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  8. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalization assays: cell viability and radioligand integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sosabowski, Jane K; Nagra, Saeed Ahamad; Ishfaq, Malik M; Mather, Stephen J; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalization assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalized peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalized peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiopeptide internalisation and externalisation assays: Cell viability and radioligand integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza Naqvi, Syed Ali; Sosabowski, Jane K.; Ahamad Nagra, Saeed; Ishfaq, Malik M.; Mather, Stephen J.; Matzow, Torkjel

    2011-01-01

    Various aspects of radiopeptide receptor-mediated cell internalisation and externalisation assays were assessed, including the integrity of externalised peptides and the effect of varying the pH and incubation time of the acid wash step (to remove surface receptor-bound ligand) on efficacy and cell viability. The observed intact proportion of externalised peptide was 5-10%, and acid wash buffers with pH 2.8 or below were found to be detrimental to cell viability and integrity, particularly following prolonged incubation times.

  10. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  11. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  12. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Velasquez-Vottelerd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV and acid soluble thiols levels (AST in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1. We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions.

  13. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  14. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  15. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  16. Influence of CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase release of human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Grassmann, L; Weyhrauch, M; Brüllmann, D D; Ziebart, T; Scheller, H; Lehmann, K M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of four CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase (ADK) release of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and oral keratinocytes (HOK). HGF and HOK were cultured on disc-shaped CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials (e.max CAD LT, e.max CAD HT, Empress CAD and Mark II) and on discs made of tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS) serving as control. Cell viability was analyzed by using an MTT assay, and migration ability was investigated by a scratch assay. A ToxiLight assay has been performed to analyze the effect of all-ceramic materials on ADK release and cell apoptosis. At MTT assay for HGF, no significant decrease of cell viability could be detected at all points of measurement (p each > 0.05), while HOK demonstrated a significant decrease in cell viability especially on Empress CAD and Mark II at each point of measurement (p each materials at all points of measurement (between -36 % and -71 %; p each ceramic materials could be investigated. This study disclosed significant differences in cell viability and migration ability of HGF and HOK on CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials can influence oral cell lines responsible for soft tissue creation which may affect the esthetic outcome.

  17. In vitro comparison of new bisphosphonic acids and zoledronate effects on human gingival fibroblasts viability, inflammation and matrix turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Colli, Marianna; Tortorella, Paolo; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tauro, Marilena; Cataldi, Amelia; Zara, Susi

    2016-11-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are drugs clinically used in resorptive diseases. It was already proved that some clinically relevant BPs can inhibit a class of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), required during tissue remodelling. Combining the arylsulfonamide function with the bisphosphonic group, several compounds were synthesized to obtain selective inhibitors of MMPs. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA), the most potent bisphosphonate available as therapy, with new sulfonamide containing BPs in an in vitro model of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Western blot was used to measure procollagen I, β1 integrin MMP-8 and MMP-9, phase contrast and MTT for cell viability; L-lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement was performed for toxicity evaluation and ELISA for prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) secretion assessment. When compared with ZA, the treatment with the newly synthesized compounds shows increasing viability, procollagen I expression and decreased expression of β1 integrin in HGFs. Higher levels of released LDH, PGE 2 and MMP-9 expression are recorded in ZA-treated HGFs. Increased levels of MMP-8 are recorded in newly synthesized compounds-treated samples. These findings allowed to conclude that new tested BPs did not affect HGFs viability and adhesion, did not induce cellular toxicity, were not responsible for inflammatory event induction and could preserve the physiological matrix turnover. It could be hypothesized that the new molecules were better tolerated by soft tissues, resulting in lesser side effects.

  18. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...

  19. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  20. Assessment of bacterial endospore viability with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, C; Lavigne, S; Ho, J; Duchaine, C

    2004-01-01

    To validate three fluorescence viability assays designed primarily for vegetative cells on pure Bacillus endospores. Purified fresh and gamma-irradiated Bacillus endospores (Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans and two strains of B. subtilis) were used. The viability assays were: 5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) to test respiratory activity and early germination, DiBAC4(3) and Live/Dead BacLight to measure membrane energization and permeabilization, respectively. Gamma irradiation treatment completely eliminated spore culturability and was used as negative control. The untreated spores showed respiratory activity after 1 h of incubation and this was characteristic of almost 100% of spores after 24 h. The membrane potential assessment gave no answer about spore viability. A lower proportion of untreated spores had permeabilized membrane compared with gamma-irradiated spores using Live/Dead BacLight (P plate count. This study shows that fluorescence tests could be applied to assess viability in potentially pathogenic Bacillus spore preparations within 1 h.

  1. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Visser, C.W.; Henke, S.J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  2. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  3. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  4. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  5. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  6. Financial viability of district mutual health insurance schemes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since its implementation, unsubstantiated reports indicate increasing health care and administra-tive costs of the various DMHIS across the country without any corresponding increase in the premium level. We sought to assess the financial viability of the DMHIS in Lawra (LDMHIS) and Sissala East (SEDMHIS) districts, ...

  7. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  8. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  9. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and ... increase in germination potential (60%) of seeds treated with polyethylene .... Key: 60* = There was no germination 60 days after sowing; MC = Moisture content; Germ. ...... Paper presented at the pre-germplasm collection meeting on Irvingia.

  10. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  11. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  12. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicholaus family

    marginal (incremental) revenues from forest carbon stock as well as the conceptual trend of forest biomass indicates that, there is ... Key words: Carbon stock payments, community preferences and REDD+ project viability. INTRODUCTION .... following criteria were used in selecting respondents especially households: 1) ...

  13. PBMC and MDAMB-231 cellular viability after telecobalt irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy by gamma rays are used for cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation effects on cells has been investigated. Studies in vitro were developed using tumor cell lines and ionizing radiation. The aim of this research was to test the cellular viability response of two cell types through MTT assay: human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and human breast carcinoma cell line MDAMB-231. These cells were irradiated with 60 Co source Theratron 80 radiotherapy machine from Atomic Energy Canada Limited with 20 x 20 cm field at 136.4 cGy/min, surface source distance 70 cm. Culture flasks contained 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cells were irradiated with 100 Gy, 25 Gy, and 50 Gy using non fractionated doses. Cellular viability were evaluated 1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after irradiation and samples were measured by optical density at 595nm. Our results show that PBMC cells present lower cellular viability post irradiation. On the other hand, MDAMB-231 cells maintain viability after 50 Gy irradiation at 72h indicating cellular radioresistance. (author)

  14. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  15. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  16. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  17. Human islet viability and function is maintained during high density shipment in silicone rubber membrane vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Pepper, Andrew R; Lopez, Boris G; Pawlick, Rena; Kin, Tatsuya; O’Gorman, Doug; Mueller, Kathryn R; Gruessner, Angelika C; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Karatzas, Theodore; Szot, Greg L; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Wilson, John R; Shapiro, AM; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    The shipment of human islets from processing centers to distant laboratories is beneficial for both research and clinical applications. The maintenance of islet viability and function in transit is critically important. Gas-permeable silicone rubber membrane (SRM) vessels reduce the risk of hypoxia-induced death or dysfunction during high-density islet culture or shipment. SRM vessels may offer additional advantages: they are cost-effective (fewer flasks, less labor needed), safer (lower contamination risk), and simpler (culture vessel can also be used for shipment). Human islets(IE) were isolated from two manufacturing centers and shipped in 10cm2 surface area SRM vessels in temperature and pressure controlled containers to a distant center following at least two days of culture (n = 6). Three conditions were examined: low density (LD), high density (HD), and a micro centrifuge tube negative control (NC). LD was designed to mimic the standard culture density for human islet preparations (200 IE/cm2), while HD was designed to have a 20-fold higher tissue density, which would enable the culture of an entire human isolation in 1–3 vessels. Upon receipt, islets were assessed for viability, measured by oxygen consumption rate normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), and quantity, measured by DNA, and, when possible, potency and function with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) measurements and transplants in immunodeficient B6 rag mice. Post-shipment OCR/DNA was not reduced in HD versus LD, and was substantially reduced in the NC condition. HD islets exhibited normal function post-shipment. Based on the data we conclude that entire islet isolations (up to 400,000 IE) may be shipped using a single, larger SRM vessel with no negative effect on viability and ex vivo and in vivo function. PMID:25131090

  18. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  19. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  20. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  1. Heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Two large experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the heterozygous effects of irradiated chromosomes on viability. Mutations were accumulated on several hundred second chromosomes by delivering doses of 2,500R over either two or four generations for total x-ray exposures of 5,000R or 10,000R. Chromosomes treated with 5,000R were screened for lethals after the first treatment, and surviving nonlethals were used to generate families of fully treated chromosomes. The members of these families shared the effects of the first irradiation, but differed with respect to those of the second. The chromosomes treated with 10,000R were not grouped into families since mutations were accumulated independently on each chromosome in that experiment. Heterozygous effects on viability of the irradiated chromosomes were tested in both isogenic (homozygous) and nonisogenic (heterozygous) genetic backgrounds. In conjunction with these tests, homozygous viabilities were determined by the marked-inversion technique. This permitted a separation of the irradiated chromosomes into those which were drastic when made homozygous and those which were not. The results indicate that drastic chromosomes have deleterious effects in heterozygous condition, since viability was reduced by 2 to 4 percent in tests performed with the 10,000R chromosomes, and by 1 percent in those involving the 5,000R material. Within a series of tests, the effects were more pronounced when the genetic background was homozygous. These results suggest that the mutants induced by high doses of x-rays are principally drastic ones which show deleterious effects on viability in heterozygous condition

  2. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (N...

  3. Succinate modulates Ca(2+) transient and cardiomyocyte viability through PKA-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carla J; Andrade, Vanessa L; Gomes, Enéas R M; Alves, Márcia N M; Ladeira, Marina S; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina N; Gomes, Dawidson A; Almeida, Alvair P; Goes, Alfredo M; Resende, Rodrigo R; Guatimosim, Silvia; Leite, M Fatima

    2010-01-01

    GPR91 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been characterized as a receptor for succinate, a citric acid cycle intermediate, in several tissues. In the heart, the role of succinate is unknown. We now report that rat ventricular cardiomyocytes express GPR91. We found that succinate, through GPR91, increases the amplitude and the rate of decline of global Ca(2+) transient, by increasing the phosphorylation levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban, two well known Ca(2+) handling proteins. The effects of succinate on Ca(2+) transient were abolished by pre-treatment with adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors. Direct PKA activation by succinate was further confirmed using a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter. Additionally, succinate decreases cardiomyocyte viability through a caspase-3 activation pathway, effect also prevented by PKA inhibition. Taken together, these observations show that succinate acts as a signaling molecule in cardiomyocytes, modulating global Ca(2+) transient and cell viability through a PKA-dependent pathway. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Kumar Sajja, Venkata Sunil; Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott Iii, William E; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Mueller, Kate R; Hanley, Thomas R; Kennedy, David J; Todd, Paul W; Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2016-01-01

    Islet transplantation (ITx) is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG), all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS) of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL) and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL), for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs) that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p < 0.03) and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  5. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley P. Weegman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation (ITx is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG, all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL, for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p<0.03 and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  6. Glioma tissue obtained by modern ultrasonic aspiration with a simple sterile suction trap for primary cell culture and pathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeteler, Juliane; Reeker, Ralf; Suero Molina, Eric; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Holling, Markus; Grauer, Oliver M; Senner, Volker; Stummer, Walter; Ewelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic aspiration is widely used in the resection of brain tumors. Nevertheless, tumor tissue fragments obtained by ultrasonic aspiration are usually discarded. In this study, we demonstrate that these fragments are possible sources of material for histopathological study and tissue culture and compare their microscopic features and viability in tissue culture of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator tissue fragments. Brain tumor tissue collected by ultrasonic aspiration (CUSA EXcel®; Integra Radionics Inc.) in a simple sterile suction trap during resection was processed for primary cell culture. Cell viability and immunohistological markers were measured by the WST-1 test, microscopy and immunofluorescent evaluation. Six gliomas are presented to demonstrate that these tissue fragments show good preservation of histological detail and tissue viability in culture. Utilization of this material may facilitate pathological interpretation by providing a more representative sample of tumor histology as well as an adequate and sterile biosource of material for tissue culture studies.

  7. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  8. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  9. Evaluation of implementation viability gap funding (VGF) policy on toll road investment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Iris; Tamin, Rizal Z.; Pribadi, Krishna S.; Wibowo, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    VGF policy for toll road investment in Indonesia must be reviewed. Since 2012 the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has issued viability gap funding (VGF) policy for PPP infrastructure project through ministry of finance decision (PMK) No.223/2012. One of VGF purpose is to improve the financial feasibility. In the toll road investment in Indonesia, the implementation of this policy has some problems. This study aimed to evaluate the policy by seeking implementation constraints so can be given an alternative. This research was conducted qualitatively, included aspects of implementation process VGF policy. The analysis process is based on literature study and in-depth interviews to related parties include business entity, ministry of finance, and the ministry of public works, Indonesia Toll Road Authority (BPJT) and professional societies. The literature review conducted by reviewing existing policies and best practices in countries that already practice VGF. The conclusion of this study are 1) There is a conflict of regulation in viability gap funding (VGF) for toll road investment in Indonesia; 2) If Government of Indonesia (GOI) want implement construction grant as VGF, so the regulation must improve in time limited for submission and clearly define limited given in regulation; 3) If GOI want implement partial construction as VGF, so the regulation must be improve in guideline for submission and given.

  10. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  11. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  12. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  13. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  14. Usefulness of radionuclide scintiphotography to evaluate preserved kidney viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koshi; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    GAMMA imaging of the renal cortical microcirculation is a safe and non-invasive method for assessment of kidney viability before transplantation. We used trifluoperazine (TFP), urokinase and verapamil from 24 to 120 hour kidney preservation in dogs. For these preserved kidneys, we used radionuuclide scintiphotography to evaluate kidney viability. After preservation, these kidneys were perfused with technitium -99m labeled microspheres, and imaging of the renal vasculature was obtained by scintigraphy. The distribution of the microspheres was assessed visually and by computer analysis. Modified Collins' solution perfused kidneys show very poor cortical uptake with marked increase in uptake in the hilar region after preservation. In contrast, cortical flow remained relatively well preserved in kidneys perfused and preserved by use of modified Collins' solotion with TFP, urokinase and urokinase + verapamil. There was a direct correlation between these results and the capacity of kidneys treated in the same fashion to sustain life after retransplantation into the original host. (author)

  15. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  16. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Sims, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number

  17. Determination of intestinal viability by Doppler ultrasonography in venous infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, M; Martin, E W; Carey, L C

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in predicting the viability of ischemic intestine secondary to venous obstruction was assessed. Twenty loops of ischemic intestine were created in dogs by temporarily obstructing venous return from the bowel. Doppler arterial flow signals within the intestine quickly disappeared following venous occlusion. In ten segments, arterial signals promptly returned following release of venous occlusion. Nine of these ten segments were viable at reoperation 24 hours later. In ten segments, no arterial signals could be detected following release of venous occlusion, and only one segment proved to be viable. Doppler ultrasound findings were far more accurate in distinguishing between viable and nonviable intestine thatn were clinical guides to intestinal viability. PMID:7352777

  18. A flow cytometric method for assessing viability of intraerythrocytic hemoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, C R; Goff, W; Davis, W C

    1991-06-24

    We have developed a rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites. The assay involves the selective uptake and metabolic conversion of hydroethidine to ethidium by live parasites present in intact erythrocytes. The red fluorescence imparted by ethidium intercalated into the DNA of the parasite permits the use of flow cytometry to distinguish infected erythrocytes with viable parasites from uninfected erythrocytes and erythrocytes containing dead parasites. Comparison of the fluorochromasia technique of enumerating the number and viability of hemoparasites in cultured erythrocytes with enumeration in Giemsa-stained films and uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine demonstrated the fluorochromasia technique yields comparable results. Studies with the hemoparasite, Babesia bovis, have shown the fluorochromasia technique can also be used to monitor the effect of parasiticidal drugs on parasites in vitro. The cumulative studies with the fluorochromasia assay suggest the assay will also prove useful in investigations focused on analysis of the immune response to hemoparasites and growth in vitro.

  19. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  20. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  1. Effect of storage materials on viability and proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viability of the G. kola seeds stored in polyethylene bag (PB) was highest (100%) followed by that of the seeds stored in fresh plantain leaf (FPL) (86.67 ± 13.33%); cement bag paper (CBP) (73.33 ± 17.64%); dry plantain leaf (DPL) (60.00%) and the control which was exposed to the ambient temperature in the laboratory ...

  2. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  3. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  4. Incisional abdominal hernia repair with concomitant abdominoplasty: Maintaining umbilical viability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Phan; Elan Kaplan; Jemma K. Porrett; Yik-Hong Ho; Warren M. Rozen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominoplasty and abdominal hernia repair are often carried out in two-stage procedures, and those describing single-stage surgery require careful dissection to preserve often only partial blood supply to the umbilicus to maintain its viability. This paper aims to describe the surgical method of laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in association with abdominoplasty. Case presentation: A patient presents with an incisional hernia at a previous periumbilical port site of size 14...

  5. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  6. Sphingosine kinase activity is not required for tumor cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rex

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology.

  7. Effect of storage temperature on Streptococcus mutans viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lídia Soares COTA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Proper storage conditions and maintenance of viable biological material plays an important role in microbiological research, allowing for the opportunity to conduct future studies. Objective To evaluate the viability of Streptococcus mutans strains that were previously grown and stored under different temperatures for approximately eight years. Material and method In this study, we evaluated 393 bacterial isolates that were stored in a freezer at -80°C (G1 and 200 isolates stored in a freezer at -20°C (G2. Aliquots of each sample were plated on blood agar and mitis-salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar-solidified medium. After incubating under microaerophilic conditions in an incubator at 37°C for 72 hours, the presence, morphology and purity of bacterial growth was observed. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Result Microbial viability was observed in almost all samples (99.7% in G1, whereas all isolates stored at -20°C were considered inviable. Conclusion The viability of S. mutans is influenced by the storage temperature of the samples, and the strains remain viable when stored under ideal temperature conditions (-80°C, even when stored for a long period of time.

  8. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  9. Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydration–dehydration cycles can frequently cause stress to seeds, but can also be used to improve germination. However, the molecular basis of the stress caused is poorly understood. Herein, we examine the effects of hydration–dehydration cycles on seed viability and profile the membrane glycerolipid molecular species. We find that seed viability was not affected during the first two cycles, but significantly decreased as further cycles were applied, until all viability was lost. The abundances of seven glycerolipid classes increased and decreased through hydration and dehydration, respectively, but the phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol abundances changed in the opposite sense, while total glycerolipid contents remained constant. This suggests that during hydration–dehydration cycles, turnover of glycerolipid metabolite pools take place, while no significant lipid synthesis or degradation is involved. As further hydration–dehydration cycles occurred, lipid unsaturation increased, plastidic lipids decreased, and phosphatidylserine acyl chains lengthened. The latter two could be lethal for seeds. Our findings reveal a novel model of membrane lipid changes, and provide new insights into the responses of seeds to hydration–dehydration cycles.

  10. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pore architecture and cell viability on freeze dried 3D recombinant human collagen-peptide (RHC)-chitosan scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Aimei; Deng, Aipeng; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lihu; Zhong, Zhaocai; Yang, Shulin

    2015-04-01

    Pore architecture of 3D scaffolds used in tissue engineering plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell survival, proliferation and further promotion of tissue regeneration. We investigated the pore size and structure, porosity, swelling as well as cell viability of a series of recombinant human collagen-peptide-chitosan (RHCC) scaffolds fabricated by lyophilization. In this paper, freezing regime containing a final temperature of freezing (Tf) and cooling rates was applied to obtain scaffolds with pore size ranging from 100μm to 120μm. Other protocols of RHC/chitosan suspension concentration and ratio modification were studied to produce more homogenous and appropriate structural scaffolds. The mean pore size decreased along with the decline of Tf at a slow cooling rate of 0.7°C/min; a more rapid cooling rate under 5°C/min resulted to a smaller pore size and more homogenous microstructure. High concentration could reduce pore size and lead to thick well of scaffold, while improved the ratio of RHC, lamellar and fiber structure coexisted with cellular pores. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on these manufactured scaffolds, the cell viability represented a negative correlation to the pore size. This study provides an alternative method to fabricate 3D RHC-chitosan scaffolds with appropriate pores for potential tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pore architecture and cell viability on freeze dried 3D recombinant human collagen-peptide (RHC)–chitosan scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Aimei; Deng, Aipeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang, Yang [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gao, Lihu; Zhong, Zhaocai [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang, Shulin, E-mail: yshulin@njust.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Pore architecture of 3D scaffolds used in tissue engineering plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell survival, proliferation and further promotion of tissue regeneration. We investigated the pore size and structure, porosity, swelling as well as cell viability of a series of recombinant human collagen-peptide–chitosan (RHCC) scaffolds fabricated by lyophilization. In this paper, freezing regime containing a final temperature of freezing (T{sub f}) and cooling rates was applied to obtain scaffolds with pore size ranging from 100 μm to 120 μm. Other protocols of RHC/chitosan suspension concentration and ratio modification were studied to produce more homogenous and appropriate structural scaffolds. The mean pore size decreased along with the decline of T{sub f} at a slow cooling rate of 0.7 °C/min; a more rapid cooling rate under 5 °C/min resulted to a smaller pore size and more homogenous microstructure. High concentration could reduce pore size and lead to thick well of scaffold, while improved the ratio of RHC, lamellar and fiber structure coexisted with cellular pores. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on these manufactured scaffolds, the cell viability represented a negative correlation to the pore size. This study provides an alternative method to fabricate 3D RHC–chitosan scaffolds with appropriate pores for potential tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabrication of recombinant human collagen-chitosan scaffolds by freezing drying • Influence of freeze drying protocols on lyophilized scaffolds • Pore size, microstructure, porosity, swelling and cell viability were compared. • The optimized porous scaffold is suitable for cell (HUVEC) seeding.

  13. Evaluation of bone viability in patients after girdlestone arthroplasty: comparison of bone SPECT/CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, G.; Collettini, F.; Hamm, B.; Makowski, M.R.; Hoppe, P.; Brenner, W.; Wassilew, G.

    2017-01-01

    To test the diagnostic performance of bone SPECT/CT and MRI for the evaluation of bone viability in patients after girdlestone-arthroplasty with histopathology used as gold standard. In this cross-sectional study, patients after girdlestone-arthroplasty were imaged with single-photon-emission-computed-tomography/computed-tomography (SPECT/CT) bone-scans using 99mTc-DPD. Additionally, 1.5 T MRI was performed with turbo-inversion-recovery-magnitude (TIRM), contrast-enhanced T1-fat sat (FS) and T1-mapping. All imaging was performed within 24 h prior to revision total-hip-arthroplasty in patients with a girdlestone-arthroplasty. In each patient, four standardized bone-tissue-biopsies (14 patients) were taken intraoperatively at the remaining acetabulum superior/inferior and trochanter major/minor. Histopathological evaluation of bone samples regarding bone viability was used as gold standard. A total of 56 bone-segments were analysed and classified as vital (n = 39) or nonvital (n = 17) by histopathology. Mineral/late-phase SPECT/CT showed a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (94%) to distinguish viable and nonviable bone tissue. TIRM (sensitivity 87%, specificity 88%) and contrast-enhanced T1-FS (sensitivity 90%, specificity 88%) also achieved a high sensitivity and specificity. T1-mapping achieved the lowest values (sensitivity 82%, specificity 82%). False positive results in SPECT/CT and MRI resulted from small bone fragments close to metal artefacts. Both bone SPECT/CT and MRI allow a reliable differentiation between viable and nonviable bone tissue in patients after girdlestone arthroplasty. The findings of this study could also be relevant for the evaluation of bone viability in the context of avascular bone necrosis. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of bone viability in patients after girdlestone arthroplasty: comparison of bone SPECT/CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederichs, G.; Collettini, F.; Hamm, B.; Makowski, M.R. [Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hoppe, P.; Brenner, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Wassilew, G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To test the diagnostic performance of bone SPECT/CT and MRI for the evaluation of bone viability in patients after girdlestone-arthroplasty with histopathology used as gold standard. In this cross-sectional study, patients after girdlestone-arthroplasty were imaged with single-photon-emission-computed-tomography/computed-tomography (SPECT/CT) bone-scans using 99mTc-DPD. Additionally, 1.5 T MRI was performed with turbo-inversion-recovery-magnitude (TIRM), contrast-enhanced T1-fat sat (FS) and T1-mapping. All imaging was performed within 24 h prior to revision total-hip-arthroplasty in patients with a girdlestone-arthroplasty. In each patient, four standardized bone-tissue-biopsies (14 patients) were taken intraoperatively at the remaining acetabulum superior/inferior and trochanter major/minor. Histopathological evaluation of bone samples regarding bone viability was used as gold standard. A total of 56 bone-segments were analysed and classified as vital (n = 39) or nonvital (n = 17) by histopathology. Mineral/late-phase SPECT/CT showed a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (94%) to distinguish viable and nonviable bone tissue. TIRM (sensitivity 87%, specificity 88%) and contrast-enhanced T1-FS (sensitivity 90%, specificity 88%) also achieved a high sensitivity and specificity. T1-mapping achieved the lowest values (sensitivity 82%, specificity 82%). False positive results in SPECT/CT and MRI resulted from small bone fragments close to metal artefacts. Both bone SPECT/CT and MRI allow a reliable differentiation between viable and nonviable bone tissue in patients after girdlestone arthroplasty. The findings of this study could also be relevant for the evaluation of bone viability in the context of avascular bone necrosis. (orig.)

  15. Pore architecture and cell viability on freeze dried 3D recombinant human collagen-peptide (RHC)–chitosan scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Aimei; Deng, Aipeng; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lihu; Zhong, Zhaocai; Yang, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Pore architecture of 3D scaffolds used in tissue engineering plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell survival, proliferation and further promotion of tissue regeneration. We investigated the pore size and structure, porosity, swelling as well as cell viability of a series of recombinant human collagen-peptide–chitosan (RHCC) scaffolds fabricated by lyophilization. In this paper, freezing regime containing a final temperature of freezing (T f ) and cooling rates was applied to obtain scaffolds with pore size ranging from 100 μm to 120 μm. Other protocols of RHC/chitosan suspension concentration and ratio modification were studied to produce more homogenous and appropriate structural scaffolds. The mean pore size decreased along with the decline of T f at a slow cooling rate of 0.7 °C/min; a more rapid cooling rate under 5 °C/min resulted to a smaller pore size and more homogenous microstructure. High concentration could reduce pore size and lead to thick well of scaffold, while improved the ratio of RHC, lamellar and fiber structure coexisted with cellular pores. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on these manufactured scaffolds, the cell viability represented a negative correlation to the pore size. This study provides an alternative method to fabricate 3D RHC–chitosan scaffolds with appropriate pores for potential tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabrication of recombinant human collagen-chitosan scaffolds by freezing drying • Influence of freeze drying protocols on lyophilized scaffolds • Pore size, microstructure, porosity, swelling and cell viability were compared. • The optimized porous scaffold is suitable for cell (HUVEC) seeding

  16. Policy Impact on Economic Viability of Biomass Gasification Systems in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing challenges on the lack of electricity access in rural areas and the management of agricultural waste. The utilization of waste-to-energy technology can help in mitigating these issues. The aim of this paper is to assess the economic viability of a biomass gasification system for rural electrification by investigating its competitiveness in relation to various government supports. Financial modelling is applied to calculate Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE. NPV and IRR results indicate that biomass gasification is an economically viable option when appropriate financial government supports exist. LCOE result indicates that biomass gasification system is already more economically competitive compared to diesel generator even without additional support but it is less competitive compared to the national electricity grid tariff. In conclusion, the biomass gasification system is an economically viable option for rural electrification in Indonesian context.

  17. The effect of simultaneous exposure of HEMn-DP and HEMn-LP melanocytes to nicotine and UV-radiation on the cell viability and melanogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Otręba, Michał; Buszman, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is a main compound of tobacco plants and may affect more than a billion people all over the world that are permanently exposed to nicotine from cigarettes, various forms of smoking cessation therapies, electronic cigarettes or second-hand smoke. It is known that nicotine forms complexes with melanin what may lead to accumulation of this alkaloid in tissues of living organisms containing the pigment. This may affect the viability of cells and process of melanin biosynthesis that takes place in melanocytes. Although UV radiation is known to be a particular inductor of melanin biosynthesis, its simultaneous effect with nicotine on this process as well as the viability of human cells containing melanin have not been assessed so far. The aim of this study was to examine the simultaneous impact of nicotine and UV radiation on viability and melanogenesis in cultured normal human melanocytes dark (HEMn-DP) and light (HEMn-LP) pigmented. Nicotine together with UV radiation induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The higher cell loss was observed in dark pigmented melanocytes in comparison to light pigmented cells. Simultaneous exposure of cells to nicotine and UV radiation also caused changes in melanization process in both tested cell lines. The data suggest that simultaneous exposure of melanocytes to nicotine and UV radiation up-regulates melanogenesis and affects cell viability. Observed processes are more pronounced in dark pigmented cells. - Highlights: • Nicotine and UVA induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine and UVA modulated melanization process in melanocytes. • Changes in viability and melanization were more pronounced in dark pigmented cells.

  18. The effect of simultaneous exposure of HEMn-DP and HEMn-LP melanocytes to nicotine and UV-radiation on the cell viability and melanogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Otręba, Michał; Buszman, Ewa, E-mail: ebuszman@sum.edu.pl

    2016-11-15

    Nicotine is a main compound of tobacco plants and may affect more than a billion people all over the world that are permanently exposed to nicotine from cigarettes, various forms of smoking cessation therapies, electronic cigarettes or second-hand smoke. It is known that nicotine forms complexes with melanin what may lead to accumulation of this alkaloid in tissues of living organisms containing the pigment. This may affect the viability of cells and process of melanin biosynthesis that takes place in melanocytes. Although UV radiation is known to be a particular inductor of melanin biosynthesis, its simultaneous effect with nicotine on this process as well as the viability of human cells containing melanin have not been assessed so far. The aim of this study was to examine the simultaneous impact of nicotine and UV radiation on viability and melanogenesis in cultured normal human melanocytes dark (HEMn-DP) and light (HEMn-LP) pigmented. Nicotine together with UV radiation induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The higher cell loss was observed in dark pigmented melanocytes in comparison to light pigmented cells. Simultaneous exposure of cells to nicotine and UV radiation also caused changes in melanization process in both tested cell lines. The data suggest that simultaneous exposure of melanocytes to nicotine and UV radiation up-regulates melanogenesis and affects cell viability. Observed processes are more pronounced in dark pigmented cells. - Highlights: • Nicotine and UVA induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine and UVA modulated melanization process in melanocytes. • Changes in viability and melanization were more pronounced in dark pigmented cells.

  19. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  20. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  1. Effect of Zebularine loaded MePEG-PCL nanoparticles on viability, attachment of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of zebularine(Zebloaded Poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactonemethyl ether(MePEG-PCLnanoparticles(NPson the viability, attachment, and apoptosis of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells(LECs. METHODS: In vitro cultured infant human lens tissue HLE B-3 immortalized cells were distributed randomly divided into six groups. Each group was administered with free Zeb 50μmol/L(ZebF1 group, 100μmol/L(ZebF2 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 50μmol/L(ZebNP1 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 100μmol/L(ZebNP2 group, MePEG-PCL empty NPs(NPs groupor blank medium(group Crespectively. A tetrazolium dye assay(MTTtest and modified MTT test were performed to determine cell viability and cell attachment. DNA ladder was used to detect the cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Determined by MTT colorimetric method: Cell proliferation rate of LECs were suppressed by all Zeb administration groups in a concentration-time dependent manner(PPP ZebNP1>ZebF2(PCONCLUSION: Zeb loaded MePEG-PCL NPs had better effect on suppressing the viability and attachment of in vitro cultured LECs than the free Zeb groups, as well as enhancing the apoptosis.

  2. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  3. A business model design framework for viability : a business ecosystem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Souza, Austin; Velthuijsen, Hugo; Wortmann, J.C.; Huitema, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the design of viable business models by proposing a novel business model design framework for viability. Design: A design science research method is adopted to develop a business model design framework for viability. The business model design framework for viability is

  4. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  5. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  6. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  7. Assessment of cellular viability on calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite injectable scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Alfotawi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cements for maxillofacial reconstruction of jaw defects through calcification of rotated muscle have been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the visibility of loading of two types of commercially available cements, Cerament™ Spine Support and Cerament Bone Void Filler with mesenchymal cells and cytokines (bone morphogenetic protein to act as a biomimetic scaffolding for future clinical application. Determination of basic biocompatibility (cell viability using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and live/dead assay was carried out using MG-63 cells at various time points. Next, in order to inform potential subsequent in vivo experiments, a collagen tissue mimic was used for characterization of rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells using immunofluorescent cytoskeleton staining, and simultaneous and then sequential injection of Cerament Spine Support cement and cells into collagen gels. Results indicated that Cerament Spine Support was more biocompatible and that sequential injection of cement and then rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells into the tissue mimics is an optimal approach for clinical applications.

  8. Evaluation of cell viability and functionality in vessel-like bioprintable cell-laden tubular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Martin, James A; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-09-01

    Organ printing is a novel concept recently introduced in developing artificial three-dimensional organs to bridge the gap between transplantation needs and organ shortage. One of the major challenges is inclusion of blood-vessellike channels between layers to support cell viability, postprinting functionality in terms of nutrient transport, and waste removal. In this research, we developed a novel and effective method to print tubular channels encapsulating cells in alginate to mimic the natural vascular system. An experimental investigation into the influence on cartilage progenitor cell (CPCs) survival, and the function of printing parameters during and after the printing process were presented. CPC functionality was evaluated by checking tissue-specific genetic marker expression and extracellular matrix production. Our results demonstrated the capability of direct fabrication of cell-laden tubular channels by our newly designed coaxial nozzle assembly and revealed that the bioprinting process could induce quantifiable cell death due to changes in dispensing pressure, coaxial nozzle geometry, and biomaterial concentration. Cells were able to recover during incubation, as well as to undergo differentiation with high-level cartilage-associated gene expression. These findings may not only help optimize our system but also can be applied to biomanufacturing of 3D functional cellular tissue engineering constructs for various organ systems.

  9. DETECTION OF MYOCARDIAL VIABILITY IN ISСHAEMIC DAMAGE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Ussov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of modern methods of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and emission tomography (singlephoton emission and positron emission computer tomography – SPECT and PET as toos for diagnosis and prognosis of myocardial ischaemic damage, in particular in coronary revascularization. The definition of term “myocardial viability” is discussed. It has been shown that the integrity of blood-tissue barrier between myocardium and microcirculatory vessels is the most sensitive marker of tissue viability and of functional integrity of myocardium. It’s evaluation by means of contrast-enhanced MRI of myocardium is the most available and most precise technique of diagnosis and prognosis both in patients with postinfarction myocardiosclerosis and in patients with coronary disease without myocardial infarction. It is proposed that in the nearest future the combination of MR-coronarography and contrast-enhanced MRI of myocardium will provide a possibility to obtain the full set of data necessary for planning of endovascular and surgical treatment of various forms of coronary heart disease. PET and SPECT techniques currently are of some essential interest for pathophysiologic research of coronary ishaemia in clinical and experimental studies as well as for qualitative visual studies of pharmacokinetics.

  10. Reduction of irradiated tumor cells viability under effect of hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Voloshina, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    On Ehrlich carcinoma cells adapted to growth in vivo and in vitro, cellular mechanisms of short-term hyperglycemia effect have been studied. It has been found that SH by itself leads to the loss of viability of a part of cells of ELD solid tumors manifesting during the first 24 hours upon irradiation according to the interphase death type. Tumor cell radiation injuries arising under the effect of irradiation, usually non realized up to the first division, under SH conditions potentiate its injury effect. The phenomena observed explain partially selective injury of tumoral cells in the course of irradiation under SH conditions which testifies to the prospects of its use in clinics

  11. Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeera Ujin; Kamran Shavarebi Ali; Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement....

  12. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  13. Financial viability of the Sonora-Baja California interconnection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ortega, G.

    2017-09-01

    In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector 2015-2029, an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California (Mexico) is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line. The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. (Author)

  14. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  15. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  16. Sperm viability assessment in marine invertebrates by fluorescent staining and spectrofluorimetry: A promising tool for assessing marine pollution impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Boni, Raffaele; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    The viability of spermatozoa is a crucial parameter to evaluate their quality that is an important issue in ecotoxicological studies. Here, a new method has been developed to rapidly determine the viability of spermatozoa in three marine invertebrates: the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis. This method employed the dual DNA fluorescent staining coupled with spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dual fluorescent staining used the SYBR-14 stained live spermatozoa and propidium iodide stained degenerated cells that had lost membrane integrity. Stain uptake was assessed by confocal microscopy and then the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was quantified by spectrofluorimetric analysis. The microscopic examination revealed three populations of spermatozoa: living-SYBR-14 stained, dead-PI stained, and dying-doubly stained spermatozoa. The fluorescence emission peak values recorded in a spectrofluorimeter provide the portion of live and dead spermatozoa showing a significant negative correlation. The stain combination was further validated using known ratios of live and dead spermatozoa. The present study demonstrated that the dual DNA staining with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was effective in assessing viability of spermatozoa in marine invertebrates and that spectrofluorimetric analysis can be successfully employed to evaluate the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa. The method develop herein is simple, accurate, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective, so it could be a useful tool by which marine pollutants may be screened for spermiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclic compression maintains viability and induces chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin gel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Daniel; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Cheung, Herman S

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading has long been shown to modulate cartilage-specific extracellular matrix synthesis. With joint motion, cartilage can experience mechanical loading in the form of compressive, tensile or shearing load, and hydrostatic pressure. Recent studies have demonstrated the capacity of unconfined cyclic compression to induce chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) in agarose culture. However, the use of a nonbiodegradable material such as agarose limits the applicability of these constructs. Of the possible biocompatible materials available for tissue engineering, fibrin is a natural regenerative scaffold, which possesses several desired characteristics including a controllable degradation rate and low immunogenicity. The objective of the present study was to determine the capability of fibrin gels for supporting chondrogenesis of hMSCs under cyclic compression. To optimize the system, three concentrations of fibrin gel (40, 60, and 80 mg/mL) and three different stimulus frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz) were used to examine the effects of cyclic compression on viability, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our results show that cyclic compression (10% strain) at frequencies >0.5 Hz and gel concentration of 40 mg/mL fibrinogen appears to maintain cellular viability within scaffolds. Similarly, variations in gel component concentration and stimulus frequency can be modified such that a significant chondrogenic response can be achieved by hMSC in fibrin constructs after 8 h of compression spread out over 2 days. This study demonstrates the suitability of fibrin gel for supporting the cyclic compression-induced chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

  18. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinal e ( Z. officinal e) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis ( T. canis ) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinal e extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinal e showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinal e on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice

  19. Alexandrium fundyense cyst viability and germling survival in light vs. dark at a constant low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, Emil; Crespo, Bibiana G.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Olli, Kalle; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Both observations and models suggest that large-scale coastal blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine are seeded by deep-bottom cyst accumulation zones (“seed beds”) where cysts germinate from the sediment surface or the overlying near-bottom nepheloid layers at water depths exceeding 100 m. The germling cells and their vegetative progeny are assumed to be subject to mortality while in complete darkness, as they swim to illuminated surface waters. To test the validity of this assumption we conducted laboratory investigations of cyst viability and the survival of the germling cells and their vegetative progeny during prolonged exposure to darkness at a temperature of 6 °C, simulating the conditions in deep Gulf of Maine waters. We isolated cysts from bottom sediments collected in the Gulf of Maine under low red light and incubated them in 96-well tissue culture-plates in culture medium under a 10:14 h light:dark cycle and under complete darkness. Cyst viability was high, with excystment frequency reaching 90% in the illuminated treatment after 30 days and in the dark treatment after 50 days. Average germination rates were 0.062 and 0.038 d-1 for light and dark treatments, respectively. The dark treatment showed an approximately 2-week time lag in maximum germination rates compared to the light treatment. Survival of germlings was considerably lower in the dark treatment. In the light treatments, 47% of germinated cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for 7 days and produce vegetative progeny, i.e., there were live cells in the well along with an empty cyst at least once during the experiment. In the dark treatments 12% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for the same length of time. When dark treatments are scaled to take into account non-darkness related mortality, approximately 28% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for at least 7 days. Even though cysts are able to germinate in darkness

  20. Improvement on The Ellis and Roberts Viability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With data sets of germination percent and storage time of seed lot of wheat and sorghum stored at three different storage temperature(t, °C with three different water content (m, % of seeds, together with data set of buckwheat and lettuce reported in literatures, the possibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survival proportion and the relationship that logarithm of average viability period (logp50 and standard deviation of seed death distribution in time (δwith t, m and interaction between t and m were analysed. Result indicated that survival proportion transformed seed survival curve to line were much easier than the probability adopted by Ellis and Roberts, and the most important factor affecting logp50 and δ of seed lot was interaction between t and m. Thus, Ellis and Roberts viability model were suggested to be improved as Ki=Vi-p/10K-CWT (t×m to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent unknown, a new model of Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT(t×m was constructed to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent already known.

  1. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  2. Resuscitation at the limits of viability--an Irish perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care continue to lower the limit of viability. Decision making in this grey zone remains a challenging process. OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of healthcare providers on resuscitation and outcome in the less than 28-week preterm newborn. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers working in maternity units in the Republic of Ireland. Questions related to neonatal management of the extreme preterm infant, and estimated survival and long-term outcome. RESULTS: The response rate was 55% (74% obstetricians and 70% neonatologists). Less than 1% would advocate resuscitation at 22 weeks, 10% of health care providers advocate resuscitation at 23 weeks gestation, 80% of all health care providers would resuscitate at 24 weeks gestation. 20% of all health care providers would advocate cessation of resuscitation efforts on 22-25 weeks gestation at 5 min of age. 65% of Neonatologists and 54% trainees in Paediatrics would cease resuscitation at 10 min of age. Obstetricians were more pessimistic about survival and long term outcome in newborns delivered between 23 and 27 weeks when compared with neonatologists. This difference was also observed in trainees in paediatrics and obstetrics. CONCLUSION: Neonatologists, trainees in paediatrics and neonatal nurses are generally more optimistic about outcome than their counterparts in obstetrical care and this is reflected in a greater willingness to provide resuscitation efforts at the limits of viability.

  3. New small molecules targeting apoptosis and cell viability in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Maugg

    Full Text Available Despite the option of multimodal therapy in the treatment strategies of osteosarcoma (OS, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, the standard therapy has not changed over the last decades and still involves multidrug chemotherapy and radical surgery. Although successfully applied in many patients a large number of patients eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease in which current therapeutic regimens often lack efficacy. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we performed a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign using a 25,000 small-molecule diversity library to identify new small molecules selectively targeting osteosarcoma cells. We could identify two new small molecules that specifically reduced cell viability in OS cell lines U2OS and HOS, but affected neither hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 nor primary human osteoblasts (hOB. In addition, the two compounds induced caspase 3 and 7 activity in the U2OS cell line. Compared to conventional drugs generally used in OS treatment such as doxorubicin, we indeed observed a greater sensitivity of OS cell viability to the newly identified compounds compared to doxorubicin and staurosporine. The p53-negative OS cell line Saos-2 almost completely lacked sensitivity to compound treatment that could indicate a role of p53 in the drug response. Taken together, our data show potential implications for designing more efficient therapies in OS.

  4. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  5. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  6. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-11-06

    The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 μL of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  7. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  8. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  9. Dispensing-based bioprinting of mechanically-functional hybrid scaffolds with vessel-like channels for tissue engineering applications - A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghieh, Saman; Sarker, Md; Izadifar, Mohammad; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering (TE) to restore/repair damaged tissues or organs and, in this regard, scaffolds made from biomaterials have played a critical role. Notably, recent advances in biomaterials and three-dimensional (3D) printing have enabled the manipulation of two or more biomaterials of distinct, yet complementary, mechanical and/or biological properties to form so-called hybrid scaffolds mimicking native tissues. Among various biomaterials, hydrogels synthesized to incorporate living cells and/or biological molecules have dominated due to their hydrated tissue-like environment. Moreover, dispensing-based bioprinting has evolved to the point that it can now be used to create hybrid scaffolds with complex structures. However, the complexities associated with multi-material bioprinting and synthesis of hydrogels used for hybrid scaffolds pose many challenges for their fabrication. This paper presents a brief review of dispensing-based bioprinting of hybrid scaffolds for TE applications. The focus is on the design and fabrication of hybrid scaffolds, including imaging techniques, potential biomaterials, physical architecture, mechanical properties, cell viability, and the importance of vessel-like channels. The key issues and challenges for dispensing-based bioprinting of hybrid scaffolds are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research directions. Addressing these issues will significantly enhance the design and fabrication of hybrid scaffolds to and pave the way for translating them into clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sweta K. [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sweta K.; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering

  12. Rapid-viability PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E; Murphy, Gloria A; Alfaro, Teneile M; Avila, Julie R; Kane, Staci R; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M; Shah, Sanjiv R

    2011-09-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples.

  13. Viability of HEK 293 cells on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesized from a mutant Azotobacter vinelandii strain. Cast film and electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Uribe, Angel; Meneses-Acosta, Angelica; Domínguez-Díaz, Maraolina

    2017-12-01

    Sterilization, cytotoxicity and cell viability are essential properties defining a material for medical applications and these characteristics were investigated for poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of 230kDa obtained by bacterial synthesis from a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii. Cell viability was investigated for two types of PHB scaffolds, solution cast films and non-woven electrospun fibrous membranes, and the efficiency was compared against a culture dish. The biosynthesized PHB was sterilized by ultraviolet radiation and autoclave, it was found that the thermal properties and intrinsic viscosity remained unchanged indicating that the sterilization methods did not degrade the polymer. Sterilized scaffolds were then seeded with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells to evaluate the cytotoxic response. The cell viability of these cells was evaluated for up to six days, and the results showed that the cell morphology was normal, with no cytotoxic effects. The films and electrospun membranes exhibited over 95% cell viability whereas the viability in culture dishes reached only ca. 90%. The electrospun membrane, however, exhibited significantly higher cell density than the cast film suggesting that the fibrous morphology enables better nutrients transfer. The results indicate that the biosynthesized PHB stands UV and autoclave sterilization methods, it is biocompatible and non-toxic for cell growth of human cell lines. Furthermore, cell culture for up to 18 days showed that 62% and 90% of mass was lost for the film and fibrous electrospun scaffold, respectively. This is a favorable outcome for use in tissue engineering where material degradation, as tissue regenerates, is desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  15. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  16. Edaravone enhances the viability of ischemia/reperfusion flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yi; Kang, Shen-Song; Zhang, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to study the efficacy of edaravone in enhancing flap viability after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) and its mechanism. Forty-eight adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (n=16), IR group (n=16), and edaravone-treated IR group (n=16). An island flap at left lower abdomen (6.0 cm×3.0 cm in size), fed by the superficial epigastric artery and vein, was created in each rat of all the three groups. The arterial blood flow of flaps in IR group and edaravone-treated IR group was blocked for 10 h, and then the blood perfusion was restored. From 15 min before reperfusion, rats in the edaravone-treated IR group were intraperitoneally injected with edaravone (10 mg/kg), once every 12 h, for 3 days. Rats in the IR group and control group were intraperitoneally injected with saline, with the same method and frequency as the rats in the edaravone-treated IR group. In IR group and edaravone-treated IR group, samples of flaps were harvested after reperfusion of the flaps for 24 h. In the control group, samples of flaps were harvested 34 h after creation of the flaps. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined, and changes in organizational structure and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, apoptotic cells of vascular wall were marked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall was calculated. The ultrastructural changes of vascular endothelial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Seven days after the operation, we calculated the flap viability of each group, and marked vessels of flaps by immunohistochemical staining for calculating the average number of subcutaneous vessels. The results showed that the content of MDA, the number of multicore inflammatory cells and apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall

  17. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  18. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  19. Microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Akiko; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use only which mandate that residual solution be discarded such as albumin and globulin preparations as blood products, preparations containing albumin (such as urokinase and interferon), fat emulsions, and a preparation containing fat emulsions (propofol). In most preparations, Serratia marcescens and Burkholderia cepacia proliferated rapidly at 30 degrees C. However, in globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine to prevent protein degradation (Gamma-Venin P, Venilon-I, Globulin Injection, and Ahlbulin), no growth of S. marcescens and B. cepacia was detected over 24 h at 30 degrees C. For globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine, the injunction to "Discard residual solution after the package has been used" in the package inserts can be revised to "It is possible to use residual solution within 24 h after the package has been used with storage in a cool place."

  20. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  1. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  2. Phenomenological viability of orbifold models with three Higgs families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Nicolas; Munoz, Carlos; Teixeira, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenological viability of string multi-Higgs doublet models, namely a scenario of heterotic Z 3 orbifolds with two Wilson lines, which naturally predicts three supersymmetric families of matter and Higgs fields. We study the orbifold parameter space, and discuss the compatibility of the predicted Yukawa couplings with current experimental data. We address the implications of tree-level flavour changing neutral processes in constraining the Higgs sector of the model, finding that viable scenarios can be obtained for a reasonably light Higgs spectrum. We also take into account the tree-level contributions to indirect CP violation, showing that the experimental value of ε K can be accommodated in the present framework

  3. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  4. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  5. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  6. The effect of CO2 laser beam welded AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel on the viability of fibroblast cells, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Ceyhun; Kaçar, Ramazan; Zorba, Aslı Pınar; Bağırova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2016-03-01

    It has been determined by the literature research that there is no clinical study on the in vivo and in vitro interaction of the cells with the laser beam welded joints of AISI 316L biomaterial. It is used as a prosthesis and implant material and that has adequate mechanical properties and corrosion resistance characteristics. Therefore, the interaction of the CO2 laser beam welded samples and samples of the base metal of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with L929 fibroblast cells as an element of connective tissue under in vitro conditions has been studied. To study the effect of the base metal and the laser welded test specimens on the viability of the fibroblast cells that act as an element of connective tissues in the body, they were kept in DMEMF-12 medium for 7, 14, 28 days and 18 months. The viability study was experimentally studied using the MTT method for 7, 14, 28 days. In addition, the direct interaction of the fibroblast cells seeded on 6 different plates with the samples was examined with an inverted microscope. The MTT cell viability experiment was repeated on the cells that were in contact with the samples. The statistical relationship was analyzed using a Tukey test for the variance with the GraphPad statistics software. The data regarding metallic ion release were identified with the ICP-MS method after the laser welded and main material samples were kept in cell culture medium for 18 months. The cell viability of the laser welded sample has been detected to be higher than that of the base metal and the control based on 7th day data. However, the laser welded sample's viability of the fibroblast cells has diminished by time during the test period of 14 and 28 days and base metal shows better viability when compared to the laser welded samples. On the other hand, the base metal and the laser welded sample show better cell viability effect when compared to the control group. According to the ICP-MS results of the main material and laser welded

  7. Tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up organ printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Organ printing, takes tissue spheroids as building blocks together with additive manufacturing technique to engineer tissue or organ replacement parts. Although a wide array of cell aggregation techniques has been investigated, and gained noticeable success, the application of tissue spheroids for scale-up tissue fabrication is still worth investigation. In this paper, we introduce a new micro-fabrication technique to create tissue strands at the scale of 500-700μm as a "bioink" for future robotic tissue printing. Printable alginate micro-conduits are used as semi-permeable capsules for tissue strand fabrication. Mouse insulinoma beta TC3 cell tissue strands were formed upon 4 days post fabrication with reasonable mechanical strength, high cell viability close to 90%, and tissue specific markers expression. Fusion was readily observed between strands when placing them together as early as 24h. Also, tissue strands were deposited with human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) vascular conduits together to fabricated miniature pancreatic tissue analog. Our study provided a novel technique using tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up bioprinting of tissues or organs.

  8. Effect of laser energy, substrate film thickness and bioink viscosity on viability of endothelial cells printed by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catros, Sylvain; Guillotin, Bertrand; Bačáková, Markéta; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Guillemot, Fabien

    2011-04-01

    Biofabrication of three dimensional tissues by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting (LAB) implies to develop specific strategies for assembling the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells. Possible strategies consist in (i) printing cells onto or in the depth of ECM layer and/or (ii) printing bioinks containing both cells and ECM-like printable biomaterial. The aim of this article was to evaluate combinatorial effects of laser pulse energy, ECM thickness and viscosity of the bioink on cell viability. A LAB workstation was used to print Ea.hy926 endothelial cells onto a quartz substrate covered with a film of ECM mimicking Matrigel™. Hence, effect of laser energy, Matrigel™ film thickness and bioink viscosity was addressed for different experimental conditions (8-24 μJ, 20-100 μm and 40-110 mPa s, respectively). Cell viability was assessed by live/dead assay performed 24 h post-printing. Results show that increasing the laser energy tends to augment the cell mortality while increasing the thickness of the Matrigel™ film and the viscosity of the bioink support cell viability. Hence, critical printing parameters influencing high cell viability have been related to the cell landing conditions and more specifically to the intensity of the cell impacts occurring at the air-ECM interface and at the ECM-glass interface.

  9. Phenotypic flexibility in exotic quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.) germplasm for seedling vigor and viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, H.; Basra, S.M.A.; Cheema, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and

  10. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-01-01

    The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005) Dimension of Business Viability as its tool in order to create business operation initiatives. It provided a good framework for defining success factors in entrepreneurial operation initiatives in a specific business type – event management. This study utilized event organizers based i...

  11. Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genier FS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of 250 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL of nano-cerium oxide before being exposed to 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum starvation. Contrast images demonstrated higher cell confluence and cell integrity in cells pretreated with ceria nanoparticles compared to untreated cells. It was confirmed by MTS assay after 72 hours of serum starvation that higher cell viability was achieved with ceria nanoparticles. The results demonstrate the potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles as protective agents during cellular starvation. Keywords: cerium oxide, nanoparticles, serum starvation, human dermal fibroblasts

  12. Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genier, Francielli S; Bizanek, Maximilian; Webster, Thomas J; Roy, Amit K

    2018-01-01

    Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of 250 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL of nano-cerium oxide before being exposed to 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum starvation. Contrast images demonstrated higher cell confluence and cell integrity in cells pretreated with ceria nanoparticles compared to untreated cells. It was confirmed by MTS assay after 72 hours of serum starvation that higher cell viability was achieved with ceria nanoparticles. The results demonstrate the potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles as protective agents during cellular starvation.

  13. Long-term following-up of viability of spleen autotransplants in the Beagle canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajtos, Erika; Balint, Anita; Brath, Endre; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Kovacs, Judit; Galuska, Laszlo; Varga, Jozsef; Fodor, Zoltan; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2012-02-01

    To examine the possible late complications of splenectomy or spleen autotransplantation in large laboratory animal model, in which we need non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods for long-term monitoring of the experimental animals. Experimental groups of beagle dogs were: non-operated control, sham-operated control, splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation with 5 or 10 spleen-chips taken into the greater omentum (Furka's technique). Prior to operations, on the 1(st) postoperative week, monthly till the 6(th) as well as in the 9(th) and 12(th) month, hemorheological examinations were performed. In postoperative 12(th) month colloid scintigraphy and diagnostic laparoscopy were carried out. At the end of the investigation comparative morphological examinations were performed, too. From the 4(th)-5(th) postoperative month filtration function of spleen-autotransplants showed particular restoration compared to splenectomy group. However, the functional results did not reach the values of the control or sham-operated groups. Sham-operated control's scintigraphy nicely showed activity in the spleen. In spleen autotransplantation-groups scintigraphy indicated well the activity of spleen-chips. During diagnostic laparoscopy spleen-chips with their blood supply were found. Histologically, the structure of spleen-autotransplants was similar to normal splenic tissue. The autotransplants are regenerated, their functions have been partly restored, and thus spleen autotransplantation may prevent the possible complications of splenectomy. These parameters and the presented investigative protocol are suitable for long-term following-up of viability of the spleen-autotransplants.

  14. Determination of viability of preserved skin in low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong Chang; Hao Zheng Ming; Zao Xiao Chun

    1999-01-01

    The skin from fresh human cadavers was stored in 4-18 degree C refrigerator. Before it was grafted for treatment of burn patients, it was quickly put into 40 degree C water and bring back to a former condition. The survival rate of skin was related with time and temperature of store. We used oxygen consumption to observe the change of viability of preserved skin. Oxygen consumption of skin was observed with apparatus made in the 304th Hospital of Peoples Liberation Army. The operating temperature was 5 - 45 degree C. Determination range was 0 - 199 mm Hg, resolving power of digital display was I mm Hg, instrumental error < 0.5 s'. Fresh human cadavers skin was made into 0.3 - 0.4 mm thick piece. Cleaned with NaCl 0.9% for three time. Then it was kept in neomycin solution for fifteen minutes. Then cut into 0.5 x 0.5 cm slices and stored in neomycin (2mg/ml). The skin was stored in 4 degree C refrigerator for five different periods (1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days). Then the Oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The oxygen consumption was also determined before and after it was stored for 24 hours. After the skin was stored in 4 and -18 degree C for 24 hours the oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The prepared skin, which was stored in ordinary refrigerator, was useful and simple. The preserved skin was grafted onto the bum patient and survival rate was high and in short time. But the result showed the viability of preserved skin reduced with time. The result showed that the oxygen consumption of skin, which was stored at 4 degree C, on the fifth day was 62.23% and on day 7 was 30.5%. The study showed that the preserved skin which was stored at 4 degree C for five days was better while the vitality of skin evidently reduced after seven days and the survival rate was low. The oxygen consumption of preserved skin that was stored in -18 degree C refrigerator for 24 hours was 100%. But in 4 degree C refrigerator it was 89.1%. The result showed that the

  15. Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakhamanesh Mostafavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence 1 of 42 traits, we detected a number of strong signals. In participants of the UK Biobank of British ancestry, we found that variants that delay puberty timing are associated with a longer parental life span (P~6.2 × 10-6 for fathers and P~2.0 × 10-3 for mothers, consistent with epidemiological studies. Similarly, variants associated with later age at first birth are associated with a longer maternal life span (P~1.4 × 10-3. Signals are also observed for variants influencing cholesterol levels, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD, body mass index, as well as risk of asthma. These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. We also found marked differences between males and females, most notably at the CHRNA3 locus, and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans.

  16. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  17. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D.; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types. PMID:27166839

  18. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-21

    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types.

  19. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Green

    Full Text Available Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies.

  20. Viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei in synbiotic mayonnaise

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    Lieu, M.D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, whey protein, maltodextrin and GOS (Galacto-oligosaccharides used as microencapsulating agents to protect Lactobacillus casei during spray-drying and mayonnaise storage. The morphology of microcapsules, pH charges, the survival rate during mayonnaise storage as well as survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and intestinal fluid (SIF was tested in this study. The results indicated that whey protein showed a protective effect better than maltodextrin during spray-drying. The particles showed spherical shape and typical concavity of all samples and encapsulating agents were not affected by the size and surface structure of particles. The pH charges were not significantly different in all mayonnaise samples in this test. The viability of free cell L. casei after 6 weeks storage was significant decrease about 4 log CFU/g compared to 1.55 to 3.27 log CFU/g in the mayonnaise samples containing microcapsules in which maltodextrin showed the lowest of L. casei survival rate. In SGF and SIF conditions, maltodextrin act as prebiotic sufficiently which do not need adding GOS. The combination of whey protein and maltodextrin in which maltodextrin plays a role as supporting agents for the spray-drying process as well as prebiotic potential, while whey protein with high buffer property which enhancing the survival rate of L. casie in low pH.

  1. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

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    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  2. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Macdonald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to having access to the full course via a standard e-learning website. Mobile content was provided in a variety of forms, including text, audio and video files, a mobile multiple-choice quiz website, and links to streaming videos. Study participants who were regular users of mobile phones found the mobile learning materials to be user-friendly, offering increased convenience and flexibility. Use of the mobile content tended to increase as learners spent more time in their day away from locations where Internet-linked computers could be found. Video was found to be the most effective means of presenting content, followed by audio and text. The most promising role of mobile learning appears to be to augment rather than replace e-learning or blended learning.

  3. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  4. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  5. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  6. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    observed 43 yearling litters for 33 females in the TRB and 21 yearling litters for 19 females in the TRC. The estimated number of cubs and number of yearlings produced per breeding adult female was 0.47 and 0.20, respectively, in the TRB and 0.32 and 0.18 in the TRC. On the basis of matrix projection models, asymptotic growth rates ranged from 1.053 to 1.078 for the TRB and from 1.005 to 1.062 for the TRC, depending on how we treated unresolved fates of adult females. Persistence probabilities estimated from stochastic population models based on telemetry data ranged from 0.997 to 0.998 for the TRC subpopulation depending on model assumptions and were >0.999 for the TRB regardless of model assumptions. We extracted DNA from hair collected at baited, barbed-wire enclosures in the TRB, UARB, and LARB to determine individual identities for capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis. We used those detection histories to estimate apparent survival (φ), per-capita recruitment (f), abundance (N), realized growth rate (λ), and long-term viability, based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods that allowed estimation of temporal process variance and parameter uncertainty. Based on 23,312 hair samples, annual N for females in the TRB ranged from 133 to 164 during 2006–2012, depending on year and how detection heterogeneity was modeled. Geometric mean of λ ranged from 0.996 to 1.002. In the UARB, we collected 11,643 hair samples from 2007 to 2012, from which estimates of N for females ranged from 23 to 43 during the study period, depending on detection heterogeneity model. The geometric mean of λ ranged from 1.038 to 1.059. Estimated N for females in LARB ranged from 69 to 96, and annual λ ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 based on 3,698 hair samples collected during 2010–2012, also depending on year and heterogeneity model. Probabilities of persistence over 100 years for the TRC and TRB based on stochastic matrix projection models that used vital rate estimates from telemetry data were

  7. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  8. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  9. Scaffold Architecture Controls Insulinoma Clustering, Viability, and Insulin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N.; Palmer, Andre F.; Rilo, Horacio R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development. PMID:24410263

  10. A note on the viability of Gauss-Bonnet cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingangbam, R.; Sami, M.; Tretyakov, P.V.; Toporensky, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the viability of a vacuum Gauss-Bonnet cosmology by examining the dynamics of the homogeneous and anisotropic background in 4+1 dimensions. The trajectories of the system either originate from the standard singularity or from non-standard type, the later is characterized by the divergence of time derivative of the Hubble parameters for its finite value. At the onset, the system should relax to Einstein phase at late times as the effect of Gauss-Bonnet term becomes negligible in the low energy regime. However, we find that most of the trajectories emerging from the standard big-bang singularity lead to future re-collapse whereas the system beginning its evolution from the non-standard singularity enters the Kasner regime at late times. This leads to the conclusion that the measure of trajectories giving rise to a smooth evolution from a standard singularity to the Einstein phase is negligibly small for generic initial conditions

  11. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  12. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Viability of osteocytes in bone autografts harvested for dental implantology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Bernard; Gaudin, Christine; Georgeault, Sonia; Mallet, Romain; Basle, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Bone autograft remains a very useful and popular way for filling bone defects. In maxillofacial surgery or implantology, it is used to increase the volume of the maxilla or mandible before placing dental implants. Because there is a noticeable delay between harvesting the graft and its insertion in the receiver site, we evaluated the morphologic changes at the light and transmission electron microscopy levels. Five patients having an autograft (bone harvested from the chin) were enrolled in the study. A small fragment of the graft was immediately fixed after harvesting and a second one was similarly processed at the end of the grafting period when bone has been stored at room temperature for a 20 min ± 33 s period in saline. A net increase in the number of osteocyte lacunae filled with cellular debris was observed (+41.5%). However no cytologic alteration could be observed in the remaining osteocytes. The viability of these cells is known to contribute to the success of autograft in association with other less well-identified factors.

  14. Mobile dental operations: capital budgeting and long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Oscar; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Lester, Harold; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) runs a large mobile dental operation. Economic conditions dictate that as the mobile units age it will be harder to find donors willing or able to provide the financial resources for asset replacement. In order to maintain current levels of access for the underserved, consideration of replacement is paramount. A financial analysis for a new mobile unit was conducted to determine self-sustainability, return on investment (ROI), and feasibility of generating a cash reserve for its replacement in 12 years. Information on clinical income, operational and replacement costs, and capital costs was collected. A capital budgeting analysis (CBA) was conducted using the Net Present Value (NPV) methodology in four different scenarios. Depreciation funding was calculated by transferring funds from cash inflows and reinvested to offset depreciation at fixed compound interest. A positive ROI was obtained for two scenarios. He depreciation fund did not generate a cash reserve sufficient to replace the mobile unit. Mobile dental programs can play a vital role in providing access to care to underserved populations and ensuring their mission requires long-term planning. Careful financial viability and CBA based on sound assumptions are excellent decision-making tools.

  15. Agronomic viability of New Zealand spinach and kale intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Arthur B; Bianco, Matheus S; Tardivo, Caroline F; Pugina, Gabriel C M

    2017-01-01

    The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture. The spinach TY was influenced by the transplanting time, the earlier the transplanting, the higher the TY. The spinach YH was not influenced by the transplanting time, but rather by the cultivation system. In intercropping, the spinach YH was 13.5% lower than in monoculture. The intercropping was agronomically feasible, since the land use efficiency index, which was not influenced by the transplanting time, had an average value of 1.71, indicating that the intercropping produced 71% more kale and spinach than the same area in monoculture. Competitiveness coefficient, aggressiveness and yield loss values showed that kale is the dominating species and spinach is the dominated.

  16. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  17. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. More Pitfalls with Sperm Viability Staining and a Viability-Based Stress Test to Characterize Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Eckel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sperm viability (SV, the proportion of live sperm in a sample, is a widely applied measure of sperm quality but few studies test its robustness. At least three reasons make SV problematic as a surrogate for sperm quality. First, reviewing the ecological literature revealed that previously identified methodological pitfalls have not been overcome, including low cross-study standardization of protocols, inadequate statistical treatment, and unaccounted for within-sample heterogeneity. Second, SV is affected by biological variation such as between species, reproductive organs, or sperm age cohorts. Third, the proportion of live sperm extracted from males appears more related to male than to sperm quality in the sense of the future performance of sperm. We propose an alternative method to assess sperm quality by characterizing the temporal decrease of SV in a stressor medium and illustrate in two species, the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster how some common methodological pitfalls may be circumvented. Our data empirically support the well-known but little-considered facts that (i non-blind measurements may alter SV and (ii that SV frequently have non-significant repeatability within one sample. (iii Cross-sectional sampling of ejaculates showed that this heterogeneity even masked a biological pattern—the sperm stratification within males. We show (iv that this shortcoming can be overcome by following the temporal decline of SV of a sperm subsample in a stress test. Finally, (v comparing the staining pattern of sperm between Cimex and Drosophila, we found that in the latter, the visibility of sperm is substantially delayed (30 min when sperm density is high. We show that this delay in stained sperm visibility was, however, not biased toward dead or live sperm. To measure sperm quality, we advocate analyzing the temporal decline in SV in a stressor medium over current protocols that use SV per se and

  20. 99mTc-GHA: A promising agent for assessing tumour viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, P.S.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, P.K.; Bhatia, S.; Nambiar, U.; Jena, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biochemical investigations have a major role to play in the management of primary malignancies. Major biochemical changes occur during cancerous transformation including changes in the energy metabolism of the cell. Changes can take place in terms of utilization of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis and expression of antigens and receptors. Changes also take place in disruption of transport mechanism across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries like blood brain barrier. Anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of tumours whereas biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterization. We report here the utility of 99mTc GHA as a radiopharmaceutical for assessing tumour viability. Evaluation was done for 44 patients who had undergone 72 studies based on objective parameters like histopathological correlation and serial clinical and other radiological evaluation in long-term follow-up. All the evaluated patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the local site within one week of 99m GHA study and had some sort of morphological abnormality and suspicious contrast behaviour. 41 patients had cerebral lesions (37 primary brain tumours during initial diagnosis, evaluation of residual or recurrent disease and 4 patients of brain metastasis) and 3 patients had Ewing's Sarcoma evaluated during the course of treatment. 29 patients of suspected brain tumour (21 primary and 8 residual / recurrence) had surgical decompression along with 2/4 in metastatic brain lesions. Out of the 29 patients who underwent surgery, 28 patients had histopathology positive for malignancy. 27 patients showed abnormal GHA concentration corresponding to the morphological abnormality (1 false negative). One patient of pseudo-tumour also showed avid tracer concentration (false positive). 2/4 patients of solitary metastatic foci in brain, with positive GHA scan, underwent surgery and showed positive histopathology. 2/4 patients treated by

  1. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  2. Effects of Redox Modulation on Cell Proliferation, Viability, and Migration in Cultured Rat and Human Tendon Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Wa Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon healing is slow and usually results in inferior fibrotic tissue formation. Recently, application of tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs improved tendon healing in animal studies. In a chicken model, local injection of antioxidants reduced tendon adhesion after tendon injury. An in vitro study demonstrated that supplementation of H2O2 reduced tenogenic marker expression in TDSCs. These findings suggested that the possibility of TDSCs is involved in tendon healing and the cellular activities of TDSCs might be affected by oxidative stress of the local environment. After tendon injury, oxidative stress is increased. Redox modulation might affect healing outcomes via affecting cellular activities in TDSCs. To study the effect of oxidative stress on TDSCs, the cellular activities of rat/human TDSCs were measured under different dosages of vitamin C or H2O2 in this study. Lower dose of vitamin C increased cell proliferation, viability and migration; H2O2 affected colony formation and suppressed cell migration, cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation. Consistent with previous studies, oxidative stresses (H2O2 affect both recruitment and survival of TDSCs, while the antioxidant vitamin C may exert beneficial effects at low doses. In conclusion, redox modulation affected cellular activities of TDSCs and might be a potential strategy for tendon healing treatment.

  3. Effect of fibrin glue derived from snake venom on the viability of autogenous split-thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Rahal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of snake venom derived from fibrin glue on the viability of split-thickness skin graft. Nine crossbreed dogs were used. Full-thickness skin segments measuring 4 x 4 cm were bilaterally excised from the proximal radial area on each dog. A split-thickness skin graft was harvestedfrom left lateral thoracic area using a freehand graft knife, and was secured to the left recipient bed using several simple interrupted sutures of 3-0 nylon (sutured graft. A split-thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thoracic area using a graft knife. Fibrin glue derived from snake venom was applied to the recipient bed, and 8 equidistant simple interrupted sutures of 3-0 nylon were used to secure the skin graft (glued graft. Viable and nonviable areas were traced on a transparent sheet and measured using a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to a KS-300 image analysis system. The skin graft and recipient bed were collected from three dogs at day 7, 15, and 30 postoperative. The glued grafts had statistically higher graft viability than sutured grafts. Histological examination showed that the tissue repair process in the glued grafts was more accentuated than sutured grafts. It was possible to conclude that fibrin glue derived from snake venom increased survival of autogenous split-thickness skin graft.

  4. Combined application of arsenic trioxide and lithium chloride augments viability reduction and apoptosis induction in human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine B Schleicher

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS are the most prevalent soft tissue sarcomas affecting children and adolescents. Despite intensive treatment consisting of multimodal chemotherapy and surgery RMS patients diagnosed with metastatic disease expect long term survival rates of only 20%. Often multidrug resistance arises upon initial response emphasizing the need for new therapeutic drugs to improve treatment efficiency. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of the FDA approved drug arsenic trioxide (ATO specifically inhibiting viability and clonal growth as well as inducing cell death in human RMS cell lines of different subtypes. In this study, we combined low dose ATO with lithium chloride (LiCl, which is approved as mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but also inhibits growth and survival of different cancer cell types in pre-clinical research. Indeed, we could show additive effects of LiCl and ATO on viability reduction, decrease of colony formation as well as cell death induction. In the course of this, LiCl induced inhibitory glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β serine 9 phosphorylation, whereas glioma associated oncogene family 1 (GLI1 protein expression was particularly reduced by combined ATO and LiCl treatment in RD and RH-30 cell lines, showing high rates of apoptotic cell death. These results imply that combination of ATO with LiCl or another drug targeting GSK-3 is a promising strategy to enforce the treatment efficiency in resistant and recurrent RMS.

  5. Flow cytometric evaluation of antibiotic effects on viability and mitochondrial function of refrigerated spermatozoa of Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, M.; Jenkins, J.A.; Paniagua-Chavez, C.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Improved techniques for storage and evaluation of fish sperm would enhance breeding programs around the world. The goal of this study was to test the effect of antibiotics on refrigerated sperm from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by use of flow cytometry with 2 dual-staining protocols for objective assessment of sperm quality. Concentrations of 1 x 109 sperm/mL were suspended in Ringer's buffer at 318 mOsmol/kg (pH 8.0). The fluorescent stains Sybr 14 (10 ??M), propidium iodide (2.4 mM), and rhodamine 123 (0.13 ??M) were used to assess cell viability and mitochondrial function. Three concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution were added to fresh spermatozoa. Motility estimates and flow cytometry measurements were made daily during 7 d of refrigerated storage (4 ??C). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and antibiotic/antimycotic and all 3 concentrations of ampicillin significantly reduced sperm viability. The highest of each of the 3 antibiotic concentrations significantly reduced mitochondrial function. This study demonstrates that objective sperm quality assessments can be made using flow cytometry and that addition of antibiotics at appropriate concentrations can lengthen refrigerated storage time for tilapia spermatozoa. With minor modifications, these protocols can be adapted for use with sperm from other species and with other tissue types.

  6. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule integrity and cell viability in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, Paraskevi, E-mail: malea@bio.auth.gr [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. [Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kevrekidis, Theodoros [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Education, Democritus University of Thrace, Nea Hili, GR-68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Cd effect on microtubules and viability of seagrass leaf cells was assessed. •The Michaelis–Menten equation satisfactorily dercribed the kinetics of Cd uptake. •Cd depolymerized MTs after 3–9 d of exposure, cell death occurred at later time. •Toxicity appeared to depend on Cd uptake rate rather than on tissue Cd content. •MTs can be used as biomarker of Cd stress and uptake rate for predicting effects. -- Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium accumulation and its effects on microtubule cytoskeleton and cell viability in leaf blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were investigated under laboratory conditions in exposure concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 40 mg L{sup −1}. An initial rapid accumulation of cadmium was followed by a steady state. The Michaelis–Menten model adequately described metal accumulation; equilibrium concentration and uptake velocity tended to increase, whereas bioconcentration factor at equilibrium to decrease, as the exposure concentration increased. Cadmium depolymerized microtubules after 3–9 d of exposure, depending on trace metal concentration, indicating that microtubules could be used as an early biomarker of cadmium stress; cell death, occurring at later time than microtubule disturbance, was also observed. Microtubule depolymerization expressed as percentage of reduction of fluorescence intensity and cell mortality expressed as percentage of live cells increased with time. The lowest experimental tissue concentration associated with the onset of microtubule depolymerization and cell death (98.5–128.9 μg g{sup −1} dry wt, 0.5 mg L{sup −1} treatment, 7th and 9th d) was within the wide range of reported cadmium concentrations in leaves of seagrass species from various geographical areas. This lowest tissue concentration was exceeded up to the 3rd d at higher exposure concentrations, but toxic effects were generally detected at later time. The time periods required for the onset of depolymerization and

  7. Ethical tissue: a not-for-profit model for human tissue supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kevin; Martin, Sandie

    2011-02-01

    Following legislative changes in 2004 and the establishment of the Human Tissue Authority, access to human tissues for biomedical research became a more onerous and tightly regulated process. Ethical Tissue was established to meet the growing demand for human tissues, using a process that provided ease of access by researchers whilst maintaining the highest ethical and regulatory standards. The establishment of a licensed research tissue bank entailed several key criteria covering ethical, legal, financial and logistical issues being met. A wide range of stakeholders, including the HTA, University of Bradford, flagged LREC, hospital trusts and clinical groups were also integral to the process.

  8. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...

  9. 75 FR 42474 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability; Notice of... Transportation, announces the second meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Competitiveness and Viability, which... recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry and...

  10. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  11. Effect of chlorinated ethene conversion on viability and activity of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T.; Koning, Wim de; Janssen, Dick B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of transformation of chlorinated ethenes on the cell viability of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was investigated. A comparison of the loss of viability with the decrease in transformation rates shelved that for the monooxygenase-mediated transformation of all chlorinated ethenes except

  12. Morphology, cell viability, karyotype, expression of surface markers and plasticity of three human primary cell line cultures before and after the cryostorage in LN2 and GN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Alberto; Ligero, Gertrudis; López, María B; Navarro, Héctor; Carrillo, Jose A; Pantoll, Siobhan C; Díaz de la Guardia, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Primary cell line cultures from human skin biopsies, adipose tissue and tumor tissue are valuable samples for research and therapy. In this regard, their derivation, culture, storage, transport and thawing are important steps to be studied. Towards this end, we wanted to establish the derivation, and identify the culture characteristics and the loss of viability of three human primary cell line cultures (human adult dermal fibroblasts (hADFs), human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and primary culture of tumor cells from lung adenocarcinoma (PCTCLA)). Compared to fresh hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA, thawed cells stored in a cryogenic Dewar tanks with liquid nitrogen (LN2), displayed 98.20% ± 0.99, 95.40% ± 1.41 and 93.31% ± 3.83 of cell viability, respectively. Thawed cells stored in a Dry Vapor Shipper container with gas phase (GN2), for 20 days, in addition displayed 4.61% ± 2.78, 3.70% ± 4.09 and 9.13% ± 3.51 of average loss of cells viability, respectively, showing strong correlation between the loss of viability in hADFs and the number of post-freezing days in the Dry Vapor Shipper. No significant changes in morphological characteristics or in the expression of surface markers (being hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA characterized by positive markers CD73+; CD90+; CD105+; and negative markers CD14-; CD20-; CD34-; and CD45-; n=2) were found. Chromosome abnormalities in the karyotype were not found. In addition, under the right conditions hMSCs were differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. In this paper, we have shown the characteristics of three human primary cell line cultures when they are stored in LN2 and GN2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Within the frame of growing energy demand caused by global economic growth and taking into account the Kyoto protocol on carbon dioxide emissions nuclear power plants attaining a new role. The presented papers deal mostly with improvements in NPP design, construction and safety. Some new concepts are proposed, especially in the field of inherent or passive reactor safety as well as computerised control systems. Water cooled reactors achieved already the necessary cost reduction but require some radical thinking in fuel design, construction rate, built-in safety. The key factor will be mass production in order to attain capital cost of half today's level

  14. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sweta K; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H&E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracing Conidial Fate and Measuring Host Cell Antifungal Activity Using a Reporter of Microbial Viability in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jhingran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence can be harnessed to monitor microbial fate and to investigate functional outcomes of individual microbial cell-host cell encounters at portals of entry in native tissue environments. We illustrate this concept by introducing fluorescent Aspergillus reporter (FLARE conidia that simultaneously report phagocytic uptake and fungal viability during cellular interactions with the murine respiratory innate immune system. Our studies using FLARE conidia reveal stepwise and cell-type-specific requirements for CARD9 and Syk, transducers of C-type lectin receptor and integrin signals, in neutrophil recruitment, conidial uptake, and conidial killing in the lung. By achieving single-event resolution in defined leukocyte populations, the FLARE method enables host cell profiling on the basis of pathogen uptake and killing and may be extended to other pathogens in diverse model host organisms to query molecular, cellular, and pharmacologic mechanisms that shape host-microbe interactions.

  16. Degloving injuries and flap viability assessment | Widgerow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 83, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  17. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  18. Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondol, Jayanta Deb; Yohanis, Yigzaw G; Norton, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The impact of photovoltaic (PV) array size, orientation, inclination, load profile, electricity buying price, feed-in tariffs, PV/inverter sizing ratio ('sizing ratio') and PV/inverter cost ratio ('cost ratio') on the economic viability of a grid-connected PV system was investigated using a validated TRNSYS simulation model. The results showed that the fractional load met directly by a PV system depends on matching between PV supply and building load profile, sizing ratio and PV inclination. The profitability of a grid-connected PV system increases if the PV system is sized to reduce excess PV electrical energy fed to the grid when the feed-in tariff is lower than electricity buying price. The effect of feed-in tariffs on PV saving for selected European countries has been shown. The cost of the PV electricity depends on sizing ratio, PV and inverter lifetimes, cost ratio, PV inclination and financial parameters. The effect of cost ratio on the optimum PV/inverter sizing ratio is less significant when the cost ratio lies within 7-11. The minimum PV electricity cost at low and high insolation conditions were obtained for sizing ratios of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. The lowest PV electricity cost was found for surface slopes within 30-40 for the selected European locations. The PV electricity cost for cost ratio of 5 and 13 varied from 0.44-0.85 EURkWh -1 to 0.38-0.76 EURkWh -1 , respectively within high to low insolation conditions when the PV module unit cost, market discount rate, PV size, PV lifetime and inverter lifetime were assumed to be 6.5 EURW p -1 , 3%, 13 kW p , 20 years and 10 years, respectively. (author)

  19. Myocardial viability assessed by Tl-201 SPECT. Redistribution versus reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalela, William Azem; Pimentel, Flavio Ferrarini de Oliveira; Uchida, Augusto Hiroshi; Bottega, Augusto; Ramires, Jose Antonio Franchine; Izaki, Marisa; Moraes, Aguinaldo Pereira; Soares Junior, Jose; Giorgi, Maria C. Pinto; Moffa, Paulo Jorge; Bellotti, Giovanni; Giovanni Guido Cerri; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify if a third series of images acquired by reinjection thallium-201, 24 h after conventional myocardial perfusion with the radioisotope, improves the identification of myocardial viability segments. The methods: we studied 30 patients, mean age 57.7 ±9.4 years, with old myocardial infarction using thallium (Tl)-201 SPECT, and we obtained three series of images (stress, redistribution after 4 h and reinjection after 24 h. Cardiac images were divided in 5 segments (apical, lateral, anterior, septal and inferior) and each one received a value by a score system according to the Tl-201 myocardial uptake (0=normal uptake; 1=mild hypoperfusion; 2=moderate hypoperfusion; 3=severe hypoperfusion or no myocardial uptake). We considered viable myocardium when the uptake of Tl-201 in the segment related to te myocardial infarction increases at least 1 point in two different axis of Tl-201 SPECT. The results: seven (23,3%) patients demonstrated increase of Tl-201 uptake only at reinjection images, showing a high efficacy of the method. Nine (30%) patients showed persistent hypoperfusion at all series of images suggesting only fibrosis in the are related to the infarction. Fourteen (46,7%) patients showed increase of Tl-201 concentration at redistribution images; among these patients, six showed improvement of myocardial uptake at reinjection. This condition was interpreted as regional chronic ischemic process: hibernating myocardium. The conclusion was that Tl-201 hypoperfusion at redistribution images without significant changes in relation to the stress images do not represent fibrosis at all. The reinjection technic was better than conventional redistribution in the detection of viable myocardium. This data allows a better therapeutic orientation. (author)

  20. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-01-01

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars

  1. A model to determine the economic viability of water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Jeroen; van Wyk, Philippus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In view of concerns expressed by South African local authorities the aim of this study was to develop a model to determine whether water fluoridation is economically viable to reduce dental caries in South Africa. Microsoft Excel software was used to develop a model to determine economic viability of water fluoridation for 17 water providers from all nine South African provinces. Input variables for this model relate to chemical cost, labor cost, maintenance cost of infrastructure, opportunity cost, and capital depreciation. The following output variables were calculated to evaluate the cost of water fluoridation: per capita cost per year, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. In this model it is assumed that the introduction of community water fluoridation can reduce caries prevalence by an additional 15 percent and that the savings in cost of treatment will be equal to the average fee for a two surface restoration. Water providers included in the study serve 53.5 percent of the total population of South Africa. For all providers combined chemical cost contributes 64.5 percent to the total cost, per capita cost per year was $0.36, cost-effectiveness was calculated as $11.41 and cost-benefit of the implementation of water fluoridation was 0.34. This model confirmed that water fluoridation is an economically viable option to prevent dental caries in South African communities, as well as conclusions over the last 10 years that water fluoridation leads to significant cost savings and remains a cost-effective measure for reducing dental caries, even when the caries-preventive effectiveness is modest. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  3. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  4. The influence of medium elasticity on the prediction of histotripsy-induced bubble expansion and erythrocyte viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B.

    2018-05-01

    Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy). No bubble expansion was computed for either form of histotripsy when the elastic modulus was greater than 20 MPa and the peak negative pressure was less than 50 MPa. Strain in the medium due to the expansion of a single bubble was also tabulated. The viability of red blood cells was calculated as a function of distance from the bubble wall based on empirical data of impulsive stretching of erythrocytes. Red blood cells remained viable at distances further than 44 µm from the bubble wall. As the medium elasticity increased, the distance over which bubble expansion-induced strain influenced red blood cells was found to decrease sigmoidally. These results highlight the relationship between tissue elasticity and the efficacy of histotripsy. In addition, an upper medium elasticity limit was identified, above which histotripsy may not be effective for tissue liquefaction.

  5. Bioprinting Cartilage Tissue from Mesenchymal Stem Cells and PEG Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guifang; Hubbell, Karen; Schilling, Arndt F; Dai, Guohao; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is one of the most attractive enabling technologies for tissue engineering and regeneration. During the printing process, cells, scaffolds , and growth factors are rapidly deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations. Ideally, the bioprinted tissues are able to mimic the native anatomic structures in order to restore the biological functions. In this study, a bioprinting platform for 3D cartilage tissue engineering was developed using a commercially available thermal inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization . The engineered cartilage demonstrated native zonal organization, ideal extracellular matrix (ECM ) composition, and proper mechanical properties. Compared to the conventional tissue fabrication approach, which requires extended UV exposure, the viability of the printed cells with simultaneous photopolymerization was significantly higher. Printed neocartilage demonstrated excellent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II production, which was consistent with gene expression profile. Therefore, this platform is ideal for anatomic tissue engineering with accurate cell distribution and arrangement.

  6. Tissue culture of surgically prepared temporalis fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, A P; Kerr, A G; Nevin, N C; Woods, G

    1982-10-01

    Temporalis fascia which is used to graft the tympanic membrane has been shown to be viable in tissue culture by a previous pilot study. This present study reports the effect on the viability of the fascia by scraping loose connective tissue from it and allowing it to dry. Pieces of fascia from 30 patients were each divided in 4 and prepared to give explants, fresh, fresh and scraped, dried, and dried and scraped. The fascia grew from 17 patients when cultured fresh, 5 when fresh and scraped, 1 when dried, and none when dried and scraped. These results are significantly different and show that the fascia is devitilized when prepared by the normal method for use in tympanoplasty.

  7. Single cell adhesion force measurement for cell viability identification using an AFM cantilever-based micro putter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yajing; Nakajima, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Kojima, Masaru; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-11-01

    Fast and sensitive cell viability identification is a key point for single cell analysis. To address this issue, this paper reports a novel single cell viability identification method based on the measurement of single cell shear adhesion force using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever-based micro putter. Viable and nonviable yeast cells are prepared and put onto three kinds of substrate surfaces, i.e. tungsten probe, gold and ITO substrate surfaces. A micro putter is fabricated from the AFM cantilever by focused ion beam etching technique. The spring constant of the micro putter is calibrated using the nanomanipulation approach. The shear adhesion force between the single viable or nonviable cell and each substrate is measured using the micro putter based on the nanorobotic manipulation system inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. The adhesion force is calculated based on the deflection of the micro putter beam. The results show that the adhesion force of the viable cell to the substrate is much larger than that of the nonviable cell. This identification method is label free, fast, sensitive and can give quantitative results at the single cell level.

  8. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  9. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  11. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  12. The effect of CO{sub 2} laser beam welded AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel on the viability of fibroblast cells, in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köse, Ceyhun, E-mail: ceyhun.kose@gop.edu.tr [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat (Turkey); Kaçar, Ramazan, E-mail: rkacar@karabuk.edu.tr [Faculty of Technology Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Karabuk University, Karabuk 78050 (Turkey); Zorba, Aslı Pınar, E-mail: aslipinarzorba@gmail.com [Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Bioengineering Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bağırova, Melahat, E-mail: mbagir@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Allahverdiyev, Adil M., E-mail: adil@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-01

    It has been determined by the literature research that there is no clinical study on the in vivo and in vitro interaction of the cells with the laser beam welded joints of AISI 316L biomaterial. It is used as a prosthesis and implant material and that has adequate mechanical properties and corrosion resistance characteristics. Therefore, the interaction of the CO{sub 2} laser beam welded samples and samples of the base metal of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with L929 fibroblast cells as an element of connective tissue under in vitro conditions has been studied. To study the effect of the base metal and the laser welded test specimens on the viability of the fibroblast cells that act as an element of connective tissues in the body, they were kept in DMEMF-12 medium for 7, 14, 28 days and 18 months. The viability study was experimentally studied using the MTT method for 7, 14, 28 days. In addition, the direct interaction of the fibroblast cells seeded on 6 different plates with the samples was examined with an inverted microscope. The MTT cell viability experiment was repeated on the cells that were in contact with the samples. The statistical relationship was analyzed using a Tukey test for the variance with the GraphPad statistics software. The data regarding metallic ion release were identified with the ICP-MS method after the laser welded and main material samples were kept in cell culture medium for 18 months. The cell viability of the laser welded sample has been detected to be higher than that of the base metal and the control based on 7th day data. However, the laser welded sample's viability of the fibroblast cells has diminished by time during the test period of 14 and 28 days and base metal shows better viability when compared to the laser welded samples. On the other hand, the base metal and the laser welded sample show better cell viability effect when compared to the control group. According to the ICP-MS results of the main material and

  13. Impact of age and diagnosis on viability during centrifugation and cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civriz Bozdag, S; Bay, M; Ayyıldız, E; Topcuoglu, P; Ilhan, O

    2012-08-01

    The viability of the hematopoietic stem cells infused to the patient is important for transplant outcome. We evaluated 31 peripheral blood stem cell product collected from 15 patients. We aimed to check the viabilities of the cells from patients with different age and diagnosis, in different stages of the cryopreservation procedure. We showed a markedly decreased viability rate after centrifugation and addition of DMSO. Percentages of viabilities were similar between young and old patients in each step. Type of hematological malignancy did not make a significant influence on the viability. High speed centrifugation has a negative impact on the viability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  15. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  17. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  18. Detecting viability transitions of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H; Chen, P; Fang, H; Lin, L; Tang, G Q; Mu, G G; Gong, W; Liu, Z P; Wu, H; Zhao, H; Han, Z C

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) can be promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Since large population and high viability are generally required, detecting viability transitions of these cells is crucial for their population expansion and quality control. Here, as a non-invasive method, Raman micro-spectroscopy is applied to examine hUC-MSCs with different viability. Using peak fitting and statistic t-test, the Raman peaks with obvious differences between the cells with high viability (> 90%) and low viability ( -1 , symmetric stretching of C–C in lipids at 877 cm -1 and CH deformation in proteins at 1342 cm -1 show the most significant changes (p < 0.001). When the cell viability decreases, the intensities of the former two peaks are both about doubled while that of the latter peak reduces by about 30%. Based on these results, we propose that the viability of hUC-MSCs can be characterized by these three peaks. And their intensity changes can be understood from the model of excessive reactive oxygen species interacting with the bio-macromolecules

  19. Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haitao; Jiang, Bingbing; Li, Bingyun; Li, Zhaoliang; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We

  20. Viability of Sharing Facilities for the Disposition of Spent Fuel and Nuclear Waste. An Assessment of Recent Proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, ideas have been put forward and initiatives launched regarding cooperation in the nuclear fuel cycle, including both regional and multilateral approaches, to dealing with reprocessing, storage of spent fuel or, more recently, disposal of radioactive waste. The rationale behind the multinational disposal concepts ranges from concerns about the capability of some countries to implement safe national nuclear waste management programmes in a timely fashion, to questions about the availability of suitable geological formations; and, of course, the economies of scale in repository implementation are a major driver. In addition to these issues of cost, environmental and safety considerations, other benefits of such approaches for storage and underground disposal are security and non-proliferation advantages, which have become increasingly important after recent terrorist events worldwide. The IAEA has supported, since the 1970s, multilateral initiatives that seek to reduce access to weapons usable nuclear material technologies. Among different cooperation concepts, the sharing of facilities for dealing with radioactive waste management was proposed and developed through conferences and expert group meetings, as well as technical publications. The experience gained in other international frameworks, such as groupings in the European Union, was also reviewed. It was concluded that the scenarios and approaches proposed in earlier IAEA publications require further consideration regarding the conditions for their implementation, their viability, and the benefits and challenges inherent in the alternatives proposed. It is useful to consider the wider issue of spent fuel disposition (reprocessing/encapsulation, storage and disposal) when discussing the option of shared repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and high level waste from reprocessing. This proper account to be taken of new initiatives and technologies in predisposal activities and their impact

  1. Robustness and management adaptability in tropical rangelands: a viability-based assessment under the non-equilibrium paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accatino, F; Sabatier, R; De Michele, C; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; Meyer, K M

    2014-08-01

    Rangelands provide the main forage resource for livestock in many parts of the world, but maintaining long-term productivity and providing sufficient income for the rancher remains a challenge. One key issue is to maintain the rangeland in conditions where the rancher has the greatest possibility to adapt his/her management choices to a highly fluctuating and uncertain environment. In this study, we address management robustness and adaptability, which increase the resilience of a rangeland. After reviewing how the concept of resilience evolved in parallel to modelling views on rangelands, we present a dynamic model of rangelands to which we applied the mathematical framework of viability theory to quantify the management adaptability of the system in a stochastic environment. This quantification is based on an index that combines the robustness of the system to rainfall variability and the ability of the rancher to adjust his/her management through time. We evaluated the adaptability for four possible scenarios combining two rainfall regimes (high or low) with two herding strategies (grazers only or mixed herd). Results show that pure grazing is viable only for high-rainfall regimes, and that the use of mixed-feeder herds increases the adaptability of the management. The management is the most adaptive with mixed herds and in rangelands composed of an intermediate density of trees and grasses. In such situations, grass provides high quantities of biomass and woody plants ensure robustness to droughts. Beyond the implications for management, our results illustrate the relevance of viability theory for addressing the issue of robustness and adaptability in non-equilibrium environments.

  2. Study progress of cardiac MRI technology in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hao

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common diseases that cause disability and death around the world. Correctly and effectively assessing the myocardial viability after myocardial infarction can reduce the disabled rate and mortality rate. At present, many methods could be used to assess myocardial viability. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology has a lot of advantages compared to other methods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of CMR in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, and compared CMR with other technologies. (authors)

  3. Present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Garcia Barreto, David

    1999-01-01

    The myocardial viability diagnosis is important for those who will undergo myocardial revascularization whether by surgery or coronary angioplasty. Our purpose is to present some of the present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests. Emphasis is made on the estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the use of vasodilators in perfusion scintigraphy mainly with technetium-labeled compounds. Also, the current possibilities for a myocardial metabolism study using single-photon emission-computed tomography as well as some clinical implications of myocardial viability are set forth

  4. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  5. Assessment of post-implantation integration of engineered tissues using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sakib F.; Lee, Seung Y.; Lloyd, William R.; Chen, Leng-Chun; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Zhou, Ying; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Kennedy, Robert; Marcelo, Cynthia; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2018-02-01

    Clinical translation of engineered tissue constructs requires noninvasive methods to assess construct health and viability after implantation in patients. However, current practices to monitor post-implantation construct integration are either qualitative (visual assessment) or destructive (tissue histology). As label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing can noninvasively characterize pre-implantation construct viability, we employed a handheld fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy probe to quantitatively and noninvasively assess tissue constructs that were implanted in a murine model. We designed the system to be suitable for intravital measurements: portability, localization with precise maneuverability, and rapid data acquisition. Our model tissue constructs were manufactured from primary human cells to simulate patient variability and were stressed to create a range of health states. Secreted amounts of three cytokines that relate to cellular viability were measured in vitro to assess pre-implantation construct health. In vivo optical sensing assessed tissue integration of constructs at one-week and three-weeks post-implantation. At one-week post-implantation, optical parameters correlated with in vitro pre-implantation secretion levels of all three cytokines (p clinical optical diagnostic tools based on label-free fluorescence lifetime sensing of endogenous tissue fluorophores could noninvasively monitor post-implantation integration of engineered tissues.

  6. Yucca Mountain and the environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    The scientists and engineers who work on the Yucca Mountain Project keenly feel their responsibility - to solve an important national environmental issue. Addressing the issue of nuclear waste disposal may also help keep the nuclear option viable. Under congressional mandate, they are working to find that solution despite tough opposition from the state of Nevada. Nevada and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been litigating the issue of environmental permits for almost 2 years now, and the court decisions have all favored DOE. The DOE's site characterization efforts are designed to determine whether Yucca Mountain can safely store spent nuclear fuel for the next 10,000 yr. DOE is studying the rocks, the climate, and the water table to make sure that the site is suitable before anything is built there. The success of the Yucca Mountain Project is vital to settling existing environmental issues as well as maintaining the viability of nuclear energy. Through efforts in Congress and outreach programs in Nevada, DOE hopes to inform the public of the mission and begin the process of site characterization

  7. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  8. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  9. Transcriptome architecture across tissues in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folch Josep M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial selection has resulted in animal breeds with extreme phenotypes. As an organism is made up of many different tissues and organs, each with its own genetic programme, it is pertinent to ask: How relevant is tissue in terms of total transcriptome variability? Which are the genes most distinctly expressed between tissues? Does breed or sex equally affect the transcriptome across tissues? Results In order to gain insight on these issues, we conducted microarray expression profiling of 16 different tissues from four animals of two extreme pig breeds, Large White and Iberian, two males and two females. Mixed model analysis and neighbor – joining trees showed that tissues with similar developmental origin clustered closer than those with different embryonic origins. Often a sound biological interpretation was possible for overrepresented gene ontology categories within differentially expressed genes between groups of tissues. For instance, an excess of nervous system or muscle development genes were found among tissues of ectoderm or mesoderm origins, respectively. Tissue accounted for ~11 times more variability than sex or breed. Nevertheless, we were able to confidently identify genes with differential expression across tissues between breeds (33 genes and between sexes (19 genes. The genes primarily affected by sex were overall different than those affected by breed or tissue. Interaction with tissue can be important for differentially expressed genes between breeds but not so much for genes whose expression differ between sexes. Conclusion Embryonic development leaves an enduring footprint on the transcriptome. The interaction in gene × tissue for differentially expressed genes between breeds suggests that animal breeding has targeted differentially each tissue's transcriptome.

  10. Positron emission tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium or ischemically injured myocardium with a reversible impairment of contractile function remains clinically important but challenging. Detection of reversible dysfunction and distinction from irreversible tissue injury by positron emission tomography is based on identification of preserved or even enhanced glucose metabolism with F-18 2-fluoro 2-deoxyglucose. Regional patterns of myocardial glucose utilization and blood flow, defined as perfusion-metabolism mismatches or matches, on positron emission tomography in patients with chronic or even acute ischemic heart disease are highly accurate in predicting the functional outcome after interventional revascularization. Compared with thallium-201 redistribution scintigraphy, positron emission tomography appears to be diagnostically more accurate, especially in patients with severely impaired left ventricular function. While larger clinical trials are needed for further confirmation, positron emission tomography has already proved clinically useful for stratifying patients with poor left ventricular function to the most appropriate therapeutic approach

  11. LncRNA CASC2 inhibited the viability and induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through regulating miR-24-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fei; Le, Yi-Guan; Fan, Ji-Chang; Xin, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Background Cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2), a recently discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), was confirmed to play numerous roles in several human cancers. However, the involvement and concrete mechanism of CASC2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still need to be further elucidated. Methods The relative expressions of CASC2 and miR-24-3p in HCC tissue and cell lines were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effects of CASC2 and miR-24-3p on HCC cells were further assessed via cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo tumorigenesis assay was performed to verify the inhibition effect of CASC2 on the tumor growth and further clarify the important role of miR-24-3p in this mechanism. Results Compared with the paired normal tissues, the relative expression of CASC2 significantly reduced in the HCC tissues, while miR-24-3p as determined by qRT-PCR obviously increased in the HCC tissues. This observation was also found in HCC cell lines. Meanwhile, the expression of CASC2 was negatively related to miR-24-3p expression in the HCC tissues (r = -0.804, p cells, but the up-regulation of miR-24-3p greatly eliminated the CASC2-induced effects. The tumorigenesis of HCC cells was restrained significantly by CASC2 overexpression as shown by decreased tumor volume and growth rate. However, miR-24-3p up-regulation rescued the inhibition of CASC2 on the tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion LncRNA CASC2 inhibited the viability and induced the apoptosis of HCC cells through regulating miR-24-3p. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Near-fault earthquake issue is almost a new issue in earthquake engineering. ... although those countries had advanced regulations for seismic design of ... allocating the plastic joints according to development guideline and ...

  13. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  14. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  15. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  16. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  17. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  18. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  19. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue eng...

  20. The technical, economic and commercial viability of the vehicle-to-grid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, Jonathan; Harries, David; Bräunl, Thomas; Whitely, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The idea that electric vehicles can be used to supply power to the grid for stabilisation and peak time supply is compelling, especially in regions where traditional forms of storage, back up or peaking supply are unavailable or expensive. A number of variants of the vehicle-to-grid theme have been proposed and prototypes have proven that the technological means to deliver many of these are available. This study reviews the most popular variants and investigates their viability using Western Australia, the smallest wholesale electricity market in the world, as an extreme test case. Geographical and electrical isolation prevents the trade of energy and ancillary services with neighbouring regions and the flat landscape prohibits hydroelectric storage. Hot summers and the widespread use of air-conditioning means that peak energy demand is a growing issue, and the ongoing addition to already underutilised generation and transmission capacity is unsustainable. The report concludes that most variants of vehicle-to-grid currently require too much additional infrastructure investment, carry significant risk and are currently too costly to implement in the light of alternative options. Charging electric vehicles can, however, be added to planned demand side management schemes without the need for additional capital investment. - Highlights: ► The Wholesale Electricity Market is used to evaluate variants of vehicle-to-grid. ► Arbitrage of the market is restricted to a few trading intervals each year. ► Implementing peak shaving through battery energy storage is cost prohibited. ► Supply of ancillary services is uncommercial when compared to conventional sources. ► Adding vehicle load to demand side management schemes is the most likely variant.

  1. Electrospun polyurethane membranes for Tissue Engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Laís P., E-mail: lagabriel@gmail.com [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amélia [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Macedo, Milton; Jardini, André L.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In vitro cells attachment and proliferation was investigated by SEM, and in vitro cell viability was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Live/Dead® assays. It was found that the membranes present an homogeneous morphology, high porosity, high surface area/volume ratio, it was also observed a random fiber network. The thermal analysis showed that the membrane degradation started at 254 °C. In vitro evaluation of fibroblasts cells showed that fibroblasts spread over the membrane surface after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. This study supports the investigation of electrospun polyurethane membranes as biocompatible scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications and provides some guidelines for improved biomaterials with desired properties.

  2. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  3. New reproductive genetics: political issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, R S

    1993-09-01

    For the last 12 years, the reproductive policies of the executive branch of US government have been dominated by the anti-abortion, right-to-life position. Since coming to office, the Clinton administration has lifted the gag rule on abortion advice, removed the barrier to fetal tissue research, encouraged application for premarket approval of RU-486, and approved the female condom. The new administration's future policy and action taken on abortion, new drugs (e.g., RU-486), fetal tissue research, and payments for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal therapy, and abortion are outlined. President Clinton clearly has enunciated a pro-choice stance on abortion, and rescinded current regulations restricting abortion. The gag rule was lifted on January 22, 1993. The French manufacturer of RU-486 has not applied to the Food and Drug Administration for premarket approval out of concern for the reaction of both the federal executive and a potential boycott of other products by right-to-life, anti-abortion groups. New factors may encourage the manufacturer to apply for approval. The US Public Health Service can be expected to expand information and prevention activities to slow the spread of AIDS and to increase efforts for family planning to reduce teenage pregnancy. Fetal tissue research has contributed to such breakthroughs as prenatal diagnosis, in vitro surgery, and transplantation. The ban on the research was lifted early in the new administration. Aside from the issue of financial coverage under insurance plans to pay for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal therapy, and abortion, prenatal therapy raises a potential new conflict between the mother and her fetus. It raises issues related to equality for the disabled, particularly after life outside the womb is possible. In 2 years there could be a reversal of power in the Congress, again raising the specter of efforts to restrict developments in the field of reproductive biology.

  4. Population Viability of Avian Endangered Species: the PVAvES Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melton, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... The program is designed to assess the viability of endangered bird species populations on U.S. Army lands. It also facilitates the comparison of alternative ecological scenarios based on different assumptions about the effects of natural or human...

  5. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  6. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  7. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  8. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  9. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  10. Guiding tissue regeneration with ultrasound in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Diane; Comeau, Eric S.; Raeman, Carol H.; Child, Sally Z.; Hobbs, Laura; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-05-01

    Developing new technologies that enable the repair or replacement of injured or diseased tissues is a major focus of regenerative medicine. This paper will discuss three ultrasound technologies under development in our laboratories to guide tissue regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. A critical obstacle in tissue engineering is the need for rapid and effective tissue vascularization strategies. To address this challenge, we are developing acoustic patterning techniques for microvascular tissue engineering. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields provide a rapid, non-invasive approach to spatially pattern cells in three dimensions without affecting cell viability. Acoustic patterning of endothelial cells leads to the rapid formation of microvascular networks throughout the volumes of three-dimensional hydrogels, and the morphology of the resultant microvessel networks can be controlled by design of the ultrasound field. A second technology under development uses ultrasound to noninvasively control the microstructure of collagen fibers within engineered tissues. The microstructure of extracellular matrix proteins provides signals that direct cell functions critical to tissue regeneration. Thus, controlling collagen microfiber structure with ultrasound provides a noninvasive approach to regulate the mechanical properties of biomaterials and control cellular responses. The third technology employs therapeutic ultrasound to enhance the healing of chronic wounds. Recent studies demonstrate increased granulation tissue thickness and collagen deposition in murine dermal wounds exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In summary, ultrasound technologies offer noninvasive approaches to control cell behaviors and extracellular matrix organization and thus hold great promise to advance tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

  11. NPP Cernavoda unit 2 economic viability: The challenge for an advanced financing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condu, M.; Popescu, D.

    1999-01-01

    The completion of Cernavoda Unit-2 being no doubt, the viability of the project was analyzed and strengthened. Economic justification of the decision to complete Unit-2 is described, including assessment of its safety design guides, design requirements and engineering design solutions in the light of changes in codes, guideline, standards and actual regulatory requirements. Cost-benefit analysis demonstrates the economic viability of the project

  12. Determination of Complement-Mediated Killing of Bacteria by Viability Staining and Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Marko; Lineri, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Pasi; Karp, Matti; Peltonen, Karita; Nuutila, Jari; Lilius, Esa-Matti

    1998-01-01

    Complement-mediated killing of bacteria was monitored by flow cytometric, luminometric, and conventional plate counting methods. A flow cytometric determination of bacterial viability was carried out by using dual staining with a LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. In addition to the viable cell population, several other populations emerged in the fluorescence histogram, and there was a dramatic decrease in the total cell count in the light-scattering histogram in the course of the co...

  13. The Effect of Method and Germination Paper Substrate on Viability of Eucalyptus Pellita F. Mull Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Naning; Megawati, Megawati; Leksono, Budi

    2017-01-01

    Improper seed handling of Eucalyptus pellita will reduce seed quality, so as to improve the viability of the seed proper handling techniques are needed. To investigate the seed germination potency as a result of seed handling germination seed tests are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of germination method and paper substrate on the viability of E. pellita seeds. Seeds used in this study were from seedling seed orchard in South Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Riau. ...

  14. Hospital board effectiveness: relationships between board training and hospital financial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, C; Morlock, L; Alexander, J; Lyles, C A

    1992-01-01

    This study examined whether hospital governing boards that invest in board education and training are more informed and effective decision-making bodies. Measures of hospital financial viability (i.e., selected financial ratios and outcomes) are used as indicators of hospital board effectiveness. Board participation in educational programs was significantly associated with improved profitability, liquidity, and occupancy levels, suggesting that investment in the education of directors is likely to enhance hospital viability and thus increase board effectiveness.

  15. Role of Cell-Cell bond for the viability and the function of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC viability and homeostasis is regulated by cell-matrix and cell-cell contact: disruption of these interactions are responsible of a switch from a mature to a high proliferative phenotype. VSMCs migration, rate of growth and apoptosis, and the extent of their extracellular matrix (ECM deposition can be also modulated by proatherogenic peptides. Among them, ATII induces the transactivation of IGF I R, which, together with the binding protein IGFBP3, represents a determinant of cell survival, growth and proliferation. Aim of our in vitro study was to verify the role of elective cell-cell bond in moulating the response to ATII. Thus, we evaluated viability, proliferation, IGFIR, IGFBP3 expression and the long term survival and production of ECM in a provisional tissue. A7r5 cell-line was used in adherent cultures or incubated in agarose-coated culture plates to inhibit cell-matrix interactions. Cells, treated or not with ATII 100 nM, were evaluated for apoptosis rate, cell cycle, IGFIR and IGFBP3 protei expression. Fibrin provisional tissue was developed polymerizing a fibrin solution. cantaining A7r5 cells with thrombin. Histological stainings for ECM components were performed on sections of prvisional tissue. An exclusive cell-cell contact resulted to monolayer cell cultures. ATII did not affect the cell survival in both culture conditions, but promoted a 10% decrease in "S" phase and an increases IGFIR expression only in adherent cells. while suspended cell aggregates were resistant to ATII administration; IGFBP3 was reduced both in ATII treated adherent cells and in floating clustered cells, irrespective of the treatmentn. VSMC conditioning in agarose-coated plates before seeding in fibrin provisional matrix reduced, but not abolished, the cell ability to colonize the clot and to produce ECM. This study demonstrates that the elective cell-cell contact induces a quiescent status in cells lacking of cell

  16. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Booth, R.S.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were selected on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000 to 2010, (2) economic competitiveness with coal, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high-temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. Although the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of economic competitiveness, all of the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected. Public and institutional acceptance of nuclear power was found to be affected primarily by four issues: (1) operational safety, (2) waste handling and disposal, (3) construction and operating costs, and (4) the adequacy of management and regulatory controls

  17. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Domingues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF. We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  18. Effect of lecithin content blend with poly (L-lactic acid) on viability and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhonghua; Wu Qingyu

    2009-01-01

    Lecithin constitutes a natural mixture of phospholipids and neutral lipids and plays critical roles in cellular membrane structure and cellular signaling. In this study, lecithin was blended with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) for modifying the surface of PLLA because it might obtain appropriate hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified PLLA films were manufactured using conventional solvent-casting technique. The hydrophilicity clearly increased with an increase of lecithin content in the polymer blends, as determined by measuring the water contact angle (WCA). The cytocompatibility and any potential cytotoxic effects were studied over 7 days by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the films of PLLA containing 0-15% lecithin (wt.%), in comparison with tissue culture plates (TCPs). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using WST-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell morphology was studied by toluidine blue and propidium iodide staining. This results obtained above suggested that 5%lecithin-containing PLLA films could possess the optimal hydrophilicity, higher adhesion and proliferation of MSCs for a prolonged period and did not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells. The study showed that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the modified PLLA were markedly improved by directly introducing lecithin into the polymer without the use of multiple synthetic steps. The information obtained should be useful for future research in vascular tissue engineering (VTE).

  19. A single polymerase (L) mutation in avian metapneumovirus increased virulence and partially maintained virus viability at an elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A; Lupini, Caterina; Catelli, Elena; Clubbe, Jayne; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J

    2011-02-01

    Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produced by the recombinant vaccine, whereas the combined three L gene mutations increased disease to a level (P<0.0001) that was indistinguishable from that caused by the revertant Italy 309/04 virus. Testing of the L mutations individually showed that two mutations did not increase virulence, while the third mutation, corresponding to an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution, produced virulence indistinguishable from that caused by Italy 309/04. In contrast to the vaccine, the virulent mutant also showed increased viability at temperatures typical of turkey core tissues. The notion that increased viral virulence resulted from enhanced ability to replicate in tissues away from the cool respiratory tract, cannot be discounted.

  20. Fabrication of scalable and structured tissue engineering scaffolds using water dissolvable sacrificial 3D printed moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Larsen, Layla Bashir; Trifol Guzman, Jon

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting...

  1. Layer-by-layer bioassembly of cellularized polylactic acid porous membranes for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guduric, Vera; Metz, Carole; Siadous, Robin; Bareille, Reine; Levato, Riccardo; Engel, Elisabeth; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Devillard, Raphaël; Luzanin, Ognjan; Catros, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The conventional tissue engineering is based on seeding of macroporous scaffold on its surface ("top-down" approach). The main limitation is poor cell viability in the middle of the scaffold due to poor diffusion of oxygen and nutrients and insufficient vascularization. Layer-by-Layer (LBL)

  2. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk products during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighswonger, B D; Brashears, M M; Gilliland, S E

    1996-02-01

    The viability was investigated of five strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and one strain of Lactobacillus casei that were added as adjuncts to yogurt and cultured buttermilk during 28 d of refrigerated storage at 5 to 7 degrees C. A modification of LBS (Lactobacillus selection) agar was used for the enumeration of L. acidophilus and L. casei. The medium allowed the colony formation of the adjunct bacteria while preventing colony formation of the traditional yogurt or buttermilk starter cultures. At each sampling period, colonies from the selective agar medium were isolated for confirmation of identity to confirm that only L. acidophilus and L. casei were enumerated, that their characteristics did not change during storage, or both. The strains of L. acidophilus varied in both cultured products. In buttermilk, L. acidophilus MUH-41, O-16, and L-1 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but strains 43121 and La-5 did. No significant loss in viability of L. acidophilus MUH-41 and L-1 occurred in yogurt prepared using culture CM2; however, strains 43121, O-16, and La-5 lost viability. In the yogurt prepared using culture YC-4, L. acidophilus 43121 exhibited no significant loss in viability, but MUH-41, O-16, L-1, and La-5 did. There was no loss in viability of L. casei GG during storage of any of the cultured products.

  3. An updated methodology to review developing-country vaccine manufacturer viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Nicholas; Kumar, Ritu; Hozumi, Dai; Lorenson, Tina; Larsen, Shannon; Gowda, Bhavya; Batson, Amie

    2017-07-05

    In 1997, Milstien, Batson, and Meaney published "A Systematic Method for Evaluating the Potential Viability of Local Vaccine Producers." The paper identified characteristics of successful vaccine manufacturers and developed a viability framework to evaluate their performance. This paper revisits the original study after two decades to determine the ability of the framework to predict manufacturer success. By reconstructing much of the original dataset and conducting in-depth interviews, the authors developed informed views on the continued viability of manufacturers in low- and middle-income country markets. Considering the marked changes in the market and technology landscape since 1997, the authors find the viability framework to be predictive and a useful lens through which to evaluate manufacturer success or failure. Of particular interest is how incumbent and potentially new developing-country vaccine manufacturers enter and sustain production in competitive international markets and how they integrate (or fail to integrate) new technology into the production process. Ultimately, most manufacturers will need to meet global quality standards to be viable. As governments and donors consider investments in vaccine producers, the updated viability factors will be a useful tool in evaluating the prospects of manufacturers over the mid to long term. The paper emphasizes that while up-front investments are important, other critical factors-including investments in a national regulatory authority, manufacturer independence, and ability to adapt and adopt new technology-are necessary to ensure viability. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  5. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...

  6. The Impact of Glyphosate, Its Metabolites and Impurities on Viability, ATP Level and Morphological changes in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Marta; Jarosiewicz, Paweł; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Huras, Bogumiła; Bukowska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of herbicides to animals and human is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study has been undertaken to assess toxic effect of widely used pesticide—glyphosate, its metabolites: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and methylphosphonic acid and its impurities: N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA), N-methylglyphosate, hydroxymethylphosphonic acid and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated the effect of those compounds on viability, ATP level, size (FSC-A parameter) and granulation (SSC-A parameter) of the cells studied. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate, its metabolites and impurities (0.01–10 mM) for 4 and 24 h. It was found that investigated compounds caused statistically significant decrease in viability and ATP level of PBMCs. The strongest changes in cell viability and ATP level were observed after 24 h incubation of PBMCs with bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine, and particularly PMIDA. Moreover, all studied compounds changed cell granularity, while PMIDA and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine altered PBMCs size. It may be concluded that bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine, and PMIDA caused a slightly stronger damage to PBMCs than did glyphosate. Changes in the parameters studied in PBMCs were observed only at high concentrations of the compounds examined, which clearly shows that they may occur in this cell type only as a result of acute poisoning of human organism with these substances. PMID:27280764

  7. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  8. Neutrino dark energy. Revisiting the stability issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers Bjaelde, O.; Hannestad, S. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Brookfield, A.W. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Dept. of Physics, Astro-Particle Theory and Cosmology Group; Van de Bruck, C. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics, Astro-Particle Theory and Cosmology Group; Mota, D.F. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Oslo (Norway); Schrempp, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tocchini-Valentini, D. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2007-05-15

    A coupling between a light scalar field and neutrinos has been widely discussed as a mechanism for linking (time varying) neutrino masses and the present energy density and equation of state of dark energy. However, it has been pointed out that the viability of this scenario in the non-relativistic neutrino regime is threatened by the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations associated with a negative adiabatic sound speed squared. In this paper we revisit the stability issue in the framework of linear perturbation theory in a model independent way. The criterion for the stability of a model is translated into a constraint on the scalar-neutrino coupling, which depends on the ratio of the energy densities in neutrinos and cold dark matter. We illustrate our results by providing meaningful examples both for stable and unstable models. (orig.)

  9. Uranium issues and policies: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    US policy is to reestablish the viability of nuclear energy and to expand the useful energy derived from uranium. A comprehensive assessment of US uranium resources is a key part of this effort. This assessment should lead to resolution of issues regarding adequacy of US uranium resources and production capability to meet long-term need in an economic manner. DOE programs on ore-reserve estimation, resource appraisal (particularly NURE), and production capability analysis are responsive to these information needs, as well as concerns regarding uranium demand, market growth, uranium prices, and foreign supply and demand. The cooperation of industry, particularly in providing basic information needed for DOE studies, is a vital element of this activity

  10. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  11. Viability and proliferation potential of adipose-derived stem cells following labeling with a positron-emitting radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhami, Esmat [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Goertzen, Andrew L.; Mzengeza, Shadreck [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); Xiang, Bo; Deng, Jixian; Stillwell, Chris; Tian, Ganghong [National Research Council Canada, Cardiac Studies Group, Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg (Canada); Arora, Rakesh C.; Freed, Darren [St. Boniface General Hospital, Cardiac Science Program, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have promising potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Our objective is to examine the biological function of the labeled stem cells following labeling with a readily available positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). In this work we characterize labeling efficiency through assessment of FDG uptake and retention by the ASCs and the effect of FDG on cell viability, proliferation, transdifferentiation, and cell function in vitro using rat ASCs. Samples of 10{sup 5} ASCs (from visceral fat tissue) were labeled with concentrations of FDG (1-55 Bq/cell) in 0.75 ml culture medium. Label uptake and retention, as a function of labeling time, FDG concentration, and efflux period were measured to determine optimum cell labeling conditions. Cell viability, proliferation, DNA structure damage, cell differentiation, and other cell functions were examined. Non-labeled ASC samples were used as a control for all experimental groups. Labeled ASCs were injected via tail vein in several healthy rats and initial cell biodistribution was assessed. Our results showed that FDG uptake and retention by the stem cells did not depend on FDG concentration but on labeling and efflux periods and glucose content of the labeling and efflux media. Cell viability, transdifferentiation, and cell function were not greatly affected. DNA damage due to FDG radioactivity was acute, but reversible; cells managed to repair the damage and continue with cell cycles. Over all, FDG (up to 25 Bq/cell) did not impose severe cytotoxicity in rat ASCs. Initial biodistribution of the FDG-labeled ASCs was 80% + retention in the lungs. In the delayed whole-body images (2-3 h postinjection) there was some activity distribution resembling typical FDG uptake patterns. For in vivo cell tracking studies with PET tracers, the parameter of interest is the amount of radiotracer that is present in the cells being labeled and consequent

  12. Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nirmalya; Vitkin, I Alex

    2011-11-01

    Polarimetry has a long and successful history in various forms of clear media. Driven by their biomedical potential, the use of the polarimetric approaches for biological tissue assessment has also recently received considerable attention. Specifically, polarization can be used as an effective tool to discriminate against multiply scattered light (acting as a gating mechanism) in order to enhance contrast and to improve tissue imaging resolution. Moreover, the intrinsic tissue polarimetry characteristics contain a wealth of morphological and functional information of potential biomedical importance. However, in a complex random medium-like tissue, numerous complexities due to multiple scattering and simultaneous occurrences of many scattering and polarization events present formidable challenges both in terms of accurate measurements and in terms of analysis of the tissue polarimetry signal. In order to realize the potential of the polarimetric approaches for tissue imaging and characterization/diagnosis, a number of researchers are thus pursuing innovative solutions to these challenges. In this review paper, we summarize these and other issues pertinent to the polarized light methodologies in tissues. Specifically, we discuss polarized light basics, Stokes-Muller formalism, methods of polarization measurements, polarized light modeling in turbid media, applications to tissue imaging, inverse analysis for polarimetric results quantification, applications to quantitative tissue assessment, etc.

  13. Crosstalk between Substrates and Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitors in Cryopreservation of Tissue-Engineered Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is documented that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can be differentiated into various types of cells to present a tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thus, the preservation of stem cells is a crucial factor for their effective long-term storage that further facilitates their continuous supply and transportation for application in regenerative medicine. Cryopreservation is the most important, practicable, and the only established mechanism for long-term preservation of cells, tissues, and organs, and engineered tissues; thus, it is the key step for the improvement of tissue engineering. A significant portion of MSCs loses cellular viability while freeze-thawing, which represents an important technical limitation to achieving sufficient viable cell numbers for maximum efficacy. Several natural and synthetic materials are extensively used as substrates for tissue engineering constructs and cryopreservation because they promote cell attachment and proliferation. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK inhibitors can improve the physiological function and postthaw viability of cryopreserved MSCs. This review proposes a crosstalk between substrate topology and interaction of cells with ROCK inhibitors. It is shown that incorporation of ionic nanoparticles in the presence of an external electrical field improves the generation of ROCK inhibitors to safeguard cellular viability for the enhanced cryopreservation of engineered tissues.

  14. Oral supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 alters cecal microbiota by stimulating gut immune system in mice irrespectively of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, Yuko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Ijichi, Tetsuo; Inoue, Ryo

    2018-03-20

    Effect on cecal microbiota and gene expression of various cytokines in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissues were compared between viable and heat-killed Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 (BR-108) using a mouse model. Irrespectively of viability, oral supplementation of BR-108 altered the cecal microbiota and stimulated gene expression of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissue of mice. In addition, BR-108 supplementation significantly affected the relative abundance of bacterial genera and family, Oscillospira, Bacteroides and S24-7. The abundance of these bacterial genera and family strongly correlated with gene expression induced by BR-108. This study demonstrated that the effect of heat-killed BR-108 on the mouse cecal microbiota is similar to that of viable BR-108, most likely due to stimulation of the gut immune system by both heat-killed and viable BR-108 is also similar.

  15. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  16. Ethical Issues in Transnational Eye Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominique E; Kelly, Richard; Jones, Gary L A; Machin, Heather; Pollock, Graeme A

    2017-02-01

    To review ethical issues that may arise in the setting of transnational eye banking activities, such as when exporting or importing corneal tissue for transplantation. A principle-based normative analysis of potential common dilemmas in transnational eye banking activities was performed. Transnational activities in eye banking, like those in other fields involving procurement and use of medical products of human origin, may present a number of ethical issues for policy makers and professionals. Key ethical concerns include the potential impact of export or import activities on self-sufficiency of corneal tissue supply within exporting and importing countries; potential disclosure requirements when obtaining consent or authorization for ocular tissue donation when donations may be exported; and difficulties inherent in assuring equity in the allocation of tissues available for export and in establishing and respecting standards of safety and quality across different jurisdictions. Further analysis of specific ethical issues in eye banking is necessary to inform development of guidelines and other governance tools that will assist policy makers and professionals to support ethical practice.

  17. Tumor tissue slice cultures as a platform for analyzing tissue-penetration and biological activities of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Lea; Höbel, Sabrina; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Ewe, Alexander; Bechmann, Ingo; Franke, Heike; Merz, Felicitas; Aigner, Achim

    2017-03-01

    important biological nanoparticle properties. Beyond the quantitative analysis of nanoparticle tissue-penetration, the excellent tissue preservation and cell viability also allows for the evaluation of biological activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate

  19. An Overview of Recent Patents on Musculoskeletal Interface Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit T.; Browe, Daniel P.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Freeman, Joseph W.

    2018-01-01

    Interface tissue engineering involves the development of engineered grafts that promote integration between multiple tissue types. Musculoskeletal tissue interfaces are critical to the safe and efficient transmission of mechanical forces between multiple musculoskeletal tissues e.g. between ligament and bone tissue. However, these interfaces often do not physiologically regenerate upon injury, resulting in impaired tissue function. Therefore, interface tissue engineering approaches are considered to be particularly relevant for the structural restoration of musculoskeletal tissues interfaces. In this article we provide an overview of the various strategies used for engineering musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a specific focus on the recent important patents that have been issued for inventions that were specifically designed for engineering musculoskeletal interfaces as well as those that show promise to be adapted for this purpose. PMID:26577344

  20. Effects of hydroxyapatite nanostructure on channel surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold on cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Hong Liu,2 Pishan Yang11Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Department of Periodontology, Shandong University; 2State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A new nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated porcine acellular dermal matrix (HAp-PADM was fabricated by a biomimetic mineralization method. Human periodontal ligament stem cells were seeded on HAp-PADM and the effects of this scaffold on cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on HAp-PADM exhibited different cell shape when compared with those on pure PADM. Moreover, HAp-PADM promoted cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity significantly. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of bone-related markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCN upregulated in the HAp-PADM scaffold. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells on the HAp-PADM scaffold was proposed based on the research results. The results of this study highlight the micro-nano, two-level, three-dimensional HAp-PADM composite as a promising scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, scaffold, nanostructure, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

  1. Immobilization of Platelet-Rich Plasma onto COOH Plasma-Coated PCL Nanofibers Boost Viability and Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Solovieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaffolds made of polycaprolactone (PCL are actively employed in different areas of biology and medicine, especially in tissue engineering. However, the usage of unmodified PCL is significantly restricted by the hydrophobicity of its surface, due to the fact that its inert surface hinders the adhesion of cells and the cell interactions on PCL surface. In this work, the surface of PCL nanofibers is modified by Ar/CO2/C2H4 plasma depositing active COOH groups in the amount of 0.57 at % that were later used for the immobilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP. The modification of PCL nanofibers significantly enhances the viability and proliferation (by hundred times of human mesenchymal stem cells, and decreases apoptotic cell death to a normal level. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, after immobilization of PRP, up to 10.7 at % of nitrogen was incorporated into the nanofibers surface confirming the grafting of proteins. Active proliferation and sustaining the cell viability on nanofibers with immobilized PRP led to an average number of cells of 258 ± 12.9 and 364 ± 34.5 for nanofibers with ionic and covalent bonding of PRP, respectively. Hence, our new method for the modification of PCL nanofibers with PRP opens new possibilities for its application in tissue engineering.

  2. Loss of cellular viability in areas of ground-glass opacity on computed tomography images immediately after pulmonary radiofrequency ablation in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Masaomi; Nakada, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sawaguchi, Akira; Uchino, Noriko; Sato, Shinya; Asada, Yujiro; Tamura, Shozo; Asanuma, Taketoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cellular viability of lung parenchyma and neoplastic cells in areas of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (CT) images immediately after pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in rabbits. A LeVeen RFA electrode was placed percutaneously into rabbit lungs with or without metastatic VX2 tumors. Five minutes later, seven isolated lungs were imaged by use of a multi-detector row CT scanner, and the images were compared with histological features. The cellular viability of the lung tissues was assessed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) staining in eight normal lungs and in three lungs with multiple metastatic tumors. All lung lesions appeared as bilayered structures with a central, dense, attenuated area and an outer area of GGO on CT images, and as three-layered structures on macroscopic and microscopic images 5 min after RFA. The GGO areas approximately corresponded to the outer two layers in macroscopic images that were exudative and congestive on microscopic images. Staining for NADH was significantly reduced in the GGO and densely attenuated areas with or without tumor tissue staining compared with the non-ablated area. Our results suggest that an area of GGO that appears on CT immediately after RFA can be effectively treated by RFA. (author)

  3. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  4. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  5. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  6. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  7. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  8. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  9. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  10. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  11. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  12. Therapeutic management and care provided for neonates at the borderline of viability: opinions of medical school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogusława Pilewska-Kozak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in the 20th c. and development of neonatology have created a chance to survive for the infants born before term, underdeveloped and unable to survive outside the  mother’s womb. The triumph of reason over nature has given newborns a chance of undisturbed development, however there are infants who have no hopes to function independently, whose life is overburdened  with pain and suffering. From the ethical point of view all activities undertaken by the medical staff require respect for the human being and individualized management. The issues like decision as to continue or withheld resuscitation, differentiation between persistant therapy and euthanasia, withdrawal from persistant life supporting therapy and treatment, the limits of decision making  are the main dilemmas of the medical staff and parents. The purpose of study was to present opinions of the medical school students on the care of neonates born at the borderline of viability. The study was carried out in the group of 360 students of medical schools, 211 (58.6% from the Medical University of Lublin, and 149 (41.4% students of theMedicalUniversityinWrocław. The respondents were diagnostically surveyed by means of a questionnaire developed by the authors and evaluated by competent judges. The study was approved by the Ethical Board, Medical University of Lublin, No KE – 0254/180/2013.             The results revealed that over half respondents stated that it is impassible to define the limit of neonate’s viability, i.e. maturity to live outsider the mother’s womb and that each baby should be approached individually. The majority of students believed that resuscitation of a newborn on the verge of viability is the right approach. Almost every fourth student thought that the question should consider parental opinion, and 1/3 believed that once started, the treatment should be continued in any situation.

  13. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  14. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  15. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  17. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  18. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  19. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  20. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  1. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  2. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on viability of isolated Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Bornman, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of viability as measured by vital straining with fluorescein diacetate were carried out on freshly isolated and partially aged (16-hour-old) Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare mesophyll protoplasts following irradiation with UV-B. Damage to the photosynthetic system by UV-B was determined by delayed light emission (DLE). In the case of freshly isolated Protoplasts Beta was approximately 30% more susceptible than Hordeum following 3h irradiation, with viability decreasing from 90% to 40%. After storage of protoplasts on ice for 16 h UV-B radiation markedly depressed viability in both species, but in the case of Hordeum there was a substantial initial loss of nearly 70% in viability over the first hour of irradiation. The first 10 min of UV-B radiation decreased the intensity of DLE by 40% without appreciably affecting the decay rate. Longer treatment times did not give a proportional effect so that even after 60 min of UV-B the inhibition did not exceed 60%. This suggested that although the enzyme system responsible for FDA hydrolysis may be partially inactivated (viability was 75-80% as compared with 90% in the control), the UV-B did not penetrate the innermost parts of the chloroplasts, but left some thylakoids undamaged. (orig.)

  3. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and metabolism for assessment of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Identifying preserved myocardial viability in the presence of severe regional left ventricular dysfunction is becoming increasingly more important for clinical decision-making to better select those patients with coronary artery disease who will benefit most from revascularization. 201 Tl remains the most commonly employed radionuclide for detecting both ischemia and viability. A severe persistent defect with 201 Tl uptake compared to peak to improved perfusion and corresponding improved function after revascularisation. Detection of defect reversibility on 201 Tl imaging is enhanced by 'reinjection' of a second 201 Tl dose after acquisition of redistribution images. Initial and 4-hour rest/redistribution imaging has proven most usefull for detection of viability in the resting state in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The greater the extent of preoperative viability, the greater is the improvement in regional and global function after revascularisation. 99 Tc sestamibi has also been demonstrated to be extracted by myocardial cells in proportion to regional blood flow in the presence of viable myocities. Although this agrnt does not redistribute after intravenous injection, its >50% uptake of the tracer implies viablility and predicts improved regional function after revascularisation. Finally positron emission tomography with 18 F fluorodeoxoglucose (FDG) is perhaps the most sensitive noninvasive imaging technique for detection of viability in stunned or hibernating myocardium. A mismatch pattern between regional flow and FDG uptake as approximately an 80-85% positive preicted value for predicting improved function in asynergic myocardial regions after revascualarisation

  5. Encapsulation in alginate-skim milk microspheres improves viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in stimulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Xia; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Zhen; Xin, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Lu-E; Tang, Zhen-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) was encapsulated in alginate-skim milk microspheres. Characteristics of encapsulated L. bulgaricus, such as pH stability, bile stability, storage stability and release property, were studied in this paper. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was not observed after 1 min in simulated gastric fluids (SGF) at pH 2.5 or 2.0. Compared with that of free L. bulgaricus, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus only decreased 0.7 log CFU/g and 2 log CFU/g after 2.0 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.5 and pH 2.0, respectively. L. bulgaricus was also sensitive to bile solution. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was fully lost after 1 h incubation in 1 and 2% bile solution, while the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus was only lost 2 log CFU/g and 2.6 log CFU/g in 1 and 2% bile solution at the same time, respectively. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus could be completely released from microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) within 2 h. The viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained around 8 log CFU/g when stored at 4°C for 30 days. The current encapsulation technique enables a large proportion of L. bulgaricus to remain good bioactive in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment.

  6. Prolonging the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum through the addition of prebiotics into the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2011-08-01

    This article reports on the effects of prebiotics on the growth/death kinetics, metabolism, and biomass production by 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (c19 and DSMZ 2601, isolated from table olives and purchased from a Public Collection, respectively). The research was divided into 3 different steps, in order to highlight the optimal combination for cell viability and experiments were performed under the conditions of an accelerated shelf life test; thus, 3 combinations were pointed out (fructooligosaccharides [FOS], 5 g/L; glucose + inulin, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L; glucose + FOS, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L). A sample containing only glucose was used as control. The results highlighted that the 3 combinations aforementioned prolonged cell viability over the time both under low and high inoculum conditions (3 and 9 log CFU/mL, respectively); however, FOS alone caused a reduction of biomass production, even if cell number was not affected by this compound. Therefore, as a final result of this research, the combination glucose + FOS could be proposed as a suitable mean to achieve an optimal production of biomass and prolong cell viability over the time. Food producers require a prolonged viability of probiotic bacteria in functional foods; this goal is usually achieved by refrigeration. In this article, the prolongation of cell viability through the addition of prebiotics was proposed. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Mechanism of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress regulating viability and biocontrol ability of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2015-01-16

    The use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. The effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effects of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the yeast cells with or without H₂O₂ treatment. We found that the viability of R. glutinis decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress. Compared to the control, yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited more accumulation of ROS and higher levels of protein oxidative damage, but showed lower efficacy for biocontrol of Penicillium expansum causing blue mold rot on peach fruit. The results indicate that apoptosis is a main cause of the cell viability loss in R. glutinis, which is attributed to ROS accumulation under oxidative stress. These findings offer a plausible explanation that oxidative stress affects biocontrol efficacy of R. glutinis via regulating its viability and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards an understanding of the influence of national culture on organisational viability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awuzie Bankole O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Viability connotes a system’s ability to become ultra-stable through effective self-regulation of its internal processes and information processing among its subsystems. Applying this to an infrastructure delivery system (IDS context, this study proposes that an IDS can successfully deliver on client requirements only if they attain and maintain viability. Research into the influence of National Culture (NC on an IDS’s viability appears to be lacking; hence this study. Adopting a multi-case study, qualitative research design, this study explores three IDSs involved in the delivery of infrastructure projects in two different NC contexts; Nigeria and the United Kingdom. 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted across the cases to provide for an in-depth understanding of existing interactions between participants in these delivery systems: client/project sponsor; main contractor and sub-contractors and to understand the influence of the prevailing national culture on such interactions, if any. Findings indicate that NC in project delivery environments influence the ability of IDSs to attain viability, especially as it pertains to the sustenance of Team Quality Attributes (TWQ within the system. Based on these findings, it is expected that in modelling IDSs for viability, adequate consideration should be given to the prevailing NC by project managers and planners.

  9. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005 Dimension of Business Viability as its tool in order to create business operation initiatives. It provided a good framework for defining success factors in entrepreneurial operation initiatives in a specific business type – event management. This study utilized event organizers based in Batangas, a southern popular province, which also is a great popular destination for many types of events. Findings showed that the event management business in Batangas City is generally a personal event type of business whose year of operation ranges from one to three years, mostly link to church or reception venues and usually offers on the day coordination. In the assessment of its perceived viability, it was found out that this type of business is moderately viable in terms of market, technical, business model, management model, economic and financial, and exit strategy. Among all the dimensions tested, only market, management model, economic and financial, and exit strategy showed significant relationship with the profile variables of the event management business. From the enumerated problems encountered, those that got the highest rate were demanding clients, overbooking of reservation/exceeding number of guests and failure to meet spectators and/or competitors expectations. And, the recommended business operation initiatives were based on the weaknesses discovered using Thompson’s Dimension of Business Viability Model.

  10. Detection of viability by percent thallium uptake with conventional thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kamon; Araki, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Kou-ichi; Yumikura, Sei; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kan-matsuse, Katsuo; Hagiwara, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) is used for diagnosis of viability in infarcted myocardium before coronary revascularization. Underestimation of viability by TMS has been reported by many investigators. To evaluate viability precisely, thallium re-injection method or 24 hour delayed imaging is performed. However, these techniques are not convenient and are difficult to perform in clinical practice. Percent T1-uptake method was developed for predicting myocardial viability. To evaluate usefulness of this method, TMS was performed before and after PTCA in 23 patients with myocardial infarction. Left ventricle was divided into 3 layers, then each layer was divided into 4 segments (12 segments in total). Forth three segments showed recovery of perfusion on TMS after PTCA. Viability in infarcted myocardium is predicted by 1) redistribution (RD), 2) %T1-uptake≥45% on the image immediately after exercise (TE), and 3) %T1-uptake≥45% on delayed image (TD). Sensitivity was RD: 60%, TE: 90% and TD: 95% (p<0.001 vs. RD). Specificity was RD: 74%, TE: 68%, and TD: 60% (NS). Predictive accuracy (PA) was RD: 69%, TE: 77%, TD: 73% (NS). Compared with RD, %T1-uptake, either TE or TD, increased sensitivity with slightly improved PA, but decreased specificity slightly. Therefore %T1-uptake would be a sensitive and useful predictor to find patients who are most likely to benefit from re-vascularization. (author)

  11. The Viability of the Lactobacillus Rhamnosus IL4.2 Strain in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability maintenance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IL4.2 strain in gastrointestinal conditions represents one of the most important characteristics regarding its use for obtaining probiotic products. The tests were performed with a cell suspension kept in 0.5% NaCl. The influence of pepsin (3 g/l at pH of 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3, as well as of pancreatin (1 g/l in the presence of bile salts (1.5, 2, 3 and 5 mg/ml were determined. The influence of casein and mucin, in a concentration of 1 g/l, was also established in the aforementioned conditions. It was observed that mucin presented a longer viability maintenance, fact also confirmed by the calculation of the mathematical parameters of viability and mortality, when mucin was either used or not, especially in the case of gastric transit. The results proved that the tested strain maintained its viability even at pH between 1.8 - 2 and at an even higher concentration, of 2 mg/ml of bile salts, but up to two hours as of the exposure to the conditions of the simulated small intestinal juice. Such results were also confirmed by the cumulated effect of the simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, the strain thus increasing its viability with an average of 10% in the presence of mucin.

  12. Space mutagenic effects on cistanche deserticola seed viability and parasitic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Zhou Feng; Yu Jing; Chen Jun; Sun Suqin; Liu Yougang; Liu Tongning

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Cistanche deserticola which from a single plant with fine properties were carried to the space by the recoverable experiment satellite 'Shijian No.8'. After space loading, the seed viability and characters of infrared spectroscopy were analyzed and then planted to observe and investigate the variation and heredity. The results showed that compared to the control group, the seed viability and germination rate increased observably after space loading. As well, the plants grew much healthier at the seedling stage. The results indicated that space loading has obvious promote effects on the seed viability, germination rate and disease resistance of Cistanche deserticola. The analysis results of infrared spectroscopy showed the contents of protein and carbohydrate were increased distinctly and the contents of oil or fat reduced somewhat in the seeds after space loading. The intensity ratio between characteristic absorption peak of protein and characteristic absorption peak of fat (I 1625 /I 1745 ) were increased from 1.07 to 1.16, which could be related to the enhancement of seed viability and the reduction of germination restraint substances. It could be concluded that microgravity and intense radiation in the space caused seed viability and material metabolism change. (authors)

  13. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  14. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  15. Navigating "Thorny" Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In their article "Mindfulness and discussing 'thorny' issues in the classroom" Konstantinos Alexakos et al. ("Cult Stud Sci Educ," 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As…

  16. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  17. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  18. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  19. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  20. Volume 8 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue is our third Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference special issue held in July this year in Adelaide, Australia.   As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.    We are delighted to feature in this special  issue —Reflections on Student Persistence—prepared by Advisory Board member Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, USA.  Vincent is a long-time friend and supporter of STARS and its predecessor FYHE Conferences and Journal.   In his article, Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue.

  1. Assessing Technical and Programmatic Viability of Nuclear Waste and Material Stream Disposition Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. S. Hill; B. Griebenow

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responsibility for cleanup and disposition of nuclear wastes and excess materials that are a legacy of the nuclear arms race. In fulfilling this responsibility, EM applies a systems engineering approach to identify baseline disposition plans for the wastes and materials (storage, stabilization, treatment, and disposal), assess the path viability, and develop integration opportunities to improve the disposition viability or to combine, eliminate, and/or simplify activities, technologies, and facilities across the DOE Complex, evaluate the baseline and alternatives to make informed decisions, and implement and track selected opportunities. This paper focuses on processes used to assess the disposition path viability - the likelihood that current planning for disposition of nuclear waste and materials can be implemented

  2. Influence of electrospun scaffolds prepared from distinct polymers on proliferation and viability of endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, V. G., E-mail: matveeva-vg@mail.ru; Antonova, L. V., E-mail: antonova.la@mail.ru; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, 650002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    We compared electrospun nonwoven scaffolds from polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PHBV/PCL). The surface of PHBV/PCL and PCL scaffolds was highly porous and consisted of randomly distributed fibers, whilst the surface of PLA scaffolds consisted of thin straight fibers, which located more sparsely, forming large pores. Culture of EA.hy 926 endothelial cells on these scaffolds during 7 days and further fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the surface of PHBV/PCL scaffolds was most favorable for efficient adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. The lowest proliferation rate and cell viability were detected on PLA scaffolds. Therefore, PHBV/PCL electrospun nonwoven scaffolds demonstrated the best results regarding endothelial cell proliferation and viability as compared to PCL and PLA scaffolds.

  3. Efficacy of propidium iodide and FUN-1 stains for assessing viability in basidiospores of Rhizopogon roseolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Elena; Majada, Juan; Casares, Abelardo

    2017-01-01

    The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated. At 6 mo and 1 y, the spores kept in a water suspension survived better than those left within intact, dry gasterocarps. Our work highlights the importance of temperature, nutrients, and vitamins for maturation and germination of spores of R. roseolus during 1 y of storage.

  4. Study of wettability and cell viability of H implanted stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Ahmad, Riaz; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of hydrogen ion implantation on surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel is investigated. Hydrogen ions are implanted in the near-surface of stainless steel to facilitate hydrogen bonding at different doses with constant energy of 500 KeV, which consequently improve the surface wettability. Treated and untreated sample are characterized for surface wettability, incubation of hydroxyapatite and cell viability. Contact angle (CA) study reveals that surface wettability increases with increasing H-ion dose. Raman spectroscopy shows that precipitation of hydroxyapatite over the surface increase with increasing dose of H-ions. Cell viability study using MTT assay describes improved cell viability in treated samples as compared to the untreated sample. It is found that low dose of H-ions is more effective for cell proliferation and the cell count decreases with increasing ion dose. Our study demonstrates that H ion implantation improves the surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel.

  5. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide on the viability of Botryococcus braunii algae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Ilhan-Ayisigi, Esra; Togtema, Arnoud; Gouveia, Joao; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2018-05-01

    In bio-based industries, Botryococcus braunii is identified as a potential resource for production of hydrocarbons having a wide range of applications in chemical and biopolymer industries. For a sustainable production platform, the algae cultivation should be integrated with downstream processes. Ideally the algae are not harvested, but the product is isolated while cultivation and growth is continued especially if the doubling time is slow. Consequently, hydrocarbons can be extracted while keeping the algae viable. In this study, the effects of pressure on the viability of B. braunii cells were tested hydrostatically and under supercritical CO 2 conditions. Viability was determined by light microscopy, methylene blue uptake and by re-cultivation of the algae after treatments to follow the growth. It was concluded that supercritical CO 2 was lethal to the algae, whereas hydrostatic pressure treatments up to 150 bar have not affected cell viability and recultivation was successful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization and viability of biologically-inspired algorithms in a dynamic multiagent camera surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Dhavale, Nitin; Marmol, Salvador; Calleja, Elizabeth; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Bellman, Kirstie; Landauer, Chris; Arbib, Michael A.; Itti, Laurent

    2003-10-01

    In view of the growing complexity of computational tasks and their design, we propose that certain interactive systems may be better designed by utilizing computational strategies based on the study of the human brain. Compared with current engineering paradigms, brain theory offers the promise of improved self-organization and adaptation to the current environment, freeing the programmer from having to address those issues in a procedural manner when designing and implementing large-scale complex systems. To advance this hypothesis, we discus a multi-agent surveillance system where 12 agent CPUs each with its own camera, compete and cooperate to monitor a large room. To cope with the overload of image data streaming from 12 cameras, we take inspiration from the primate"s visual system, which allows the animal to operate a real-time selection of the few most conspicuous locations in visual input. This is accomplished by having each camera agent utilize the bottom-up, saliency-based visual attention algorithm of Itti and Koch (Vision Research 2000;40(10-12):1489-1506) to scan the scene for objects of interest. Real time operation is achieved using a distributed version that runs on a 16-CPU Beowulf cluster composed of the agent computers. The algorithm guides cameras to track and monitor salient objects based on maps of color, orientation, intensity, and motion. To spread camera view points or create cooperation in monitoring highly salient targets, camera agents bias each other by increasing or decreasing the weight of different feature vectors in other cameras, using mechanisms similar to excitation and suppression that have been documented in electrophysiology, psychophysics and imaging studies of low-level visual processing. In addition, if cameras need to compete for computing resources, allocation of computational time is weighed based upon the history of each camera. A camera agent that has a history of seeing more salient targets is more likely to obtain

  7. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation by stepped vitrification and monitored by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Ariadna; Clavero, Macarena; Gallardo, Miguel; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Amorim, Christiani A; Parrado-Gallego, Ángel; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Paulini, Fernanda; Morris, John; Risco, Ramón

    2018-04-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is, in most cases, the only fertility preservation option available for female patients soon to undergo gonadotoxic treatment. To date, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been carried out by both traditional slow freezing method and vitrification, but even with the best techniques, there is still a considerable loss of follicle viability. In this report, we investigated a stepped cryopreservation procedure which combines features of slow cooling and vitrification (hereafter called stepped vitrification). Bovine ovarian tissue was used as a tissue model. Stepwise increments of the Me 2 SO concentration coupled with stepwise drops-in temperature in a device specifically designed for this purpose and X-ray computed tomography were combined to investigate loading times at each step, by monitoring the attenuation of the radiation proportional to Me 2 SO permeation. Viability analysis was performed in warmed tissues by immunohistochemistry. Although further viability tests should be conducted after transplantation, preliminary results are very promising. Four protocols were explored. Two of them showed a poor permeation of the vitrification solution (P1 and P2). The other two (P3 and P4), with higher permeation, were studied in deeper detail. Out of these two protocols, P4, with a longer permeation time at -40 °C, showed the same histological integrity after warming as fresh controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ebselen Preserves Tissue-Engineered Cell Sheets and their Stem Cells in Hypothermic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Nishida, Kohji

    2016-12-14

    Clinical trials have been performed using autologous tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets for corneal regenerative medicine. To improve stem cell-based therapy for convenient clinical practice, new techniques are required for preserving reconstructed tissues and their stem/progenitor cells until they are ready for use. In the present study, we screened potential preservative agents and developed a novel medium for preserving the cell sheets and their stem/progenitor cells; the effects were evaluated with a luciferase-based viability assay. Nrf2 activators, specifically ebselen, could maintain high ATP levels during preservation. Ebselen also showed a strong influence on maintenance of the viability, morphology, and stem cell function of the cell sheets preserved under hypothermia by protecting them from reactive oxygen species-induced damage. Furthermore, ebselen drastically improved the preservation performance of human cornea tissues and their stem cells. Therefore, ebselen shows good potential as a useful preservation agent in regenerative medicine as well as in cornea transplantation.

  9. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahinejad, E.; Ghaffari, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2016-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn–Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn–Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. - Highlights: • Cell viability vs. corrosion resistance for medical-grade stainless steels • The stainless steel samples were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Unpenetrated additive played a critical role in the correlation.

  10. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  11. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, B A; Al-Ammari, B S

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species ( Moringa peregrina , Abrus precatorius , Arthrocnemum macrostachyum , Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis ) from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96-72% at 25/15 °C, 94-70% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (100-80%) test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (8%, 4%) tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min), and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (96%) tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis , were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ). Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  13. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahinejad, E., E-mail: salahinejad@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Bruker AXS Inc., 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Vashaee, D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Tayebi, L. [Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn–Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn–Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. - Highlights: • Cell viability vs. corrosion resistance for medical-grade stainless steels • The stainless steel samples were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Unpenetrated additive played a critical role in the correlation.

  14. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Al-Hammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species (Moringa peregrina, Abrus precatorius, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96–72% at 25/15 °C, 94–70% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (100–80% test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (8%, 4% tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min, and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (96% tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis, were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ. Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  15. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  16. Indirect Low-Intensity Ultrasonic Stimulation for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungshin Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS treatment has been shown to increase mass transport, which could benefit tissue grafts during the immediate postimplant period, when blood supply to the implanted tissue is suboptimal. In this in vitro study, we investigated effects of LIUS stimulation on dye diffusion, proliferation, metabolism, and tropomyosin expression of muscle cells (C2C12 and on tissue viability and gene expression of human adipose tissue organoids. We found that LIUS increased dye diffusion within adjacent tissue culture wells and caused anisotropic diffusion patterns. This effect was confirmed by a hydrophone measurement resulting in acoustic pressure 150–341 Pa in wells. Cellular studies showed that LIUS significantly increased proliferation, metabolic activity, and expression of tropomyosin. Adipose tissue treated with LIUS showed significantly increased metabolic activity and the cells had similar morphology to normal unilocular adipocytes. Gene analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression (a marker for tissue damage was significantly lower for stimulated organoids than for control groups. Our data suggests that LIUS could be a useful modality for improving graft survival in vivo.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii: effects of 60 Co ionizing radiation in the viability and infectivity, detected in vitro in LLC-MK2 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto M.; Almeida, Beatriz S.V.; Cardoso, Roselaine P.A.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F.

    1997-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, promotes devasting disease in fetus and AIDS patients. The longlife immunity of natural infection is inefficient in eliminate tissue infective cysts. Few immunization programs were tested, mostly with attenuated strains. Ionizing radiation were used with successful in vaccine production, without reproductive ability with a relatively normal physiology until reproduction. Here, we tested several schedules of 60 Co irradiation of tachzoites from RH strain of T. gondii, from peritoneal exudate or suspensions of LLC-MK2 infected cells, to optimize the viability and sterility of the irradiated agents. The tachzoites were exposed to 50, 100 and 200 Gy in a GammaCell 220 at 366 Gy/h. The viability was tested by motility, integrity and Trypan Blue dye exclusion. All irradiation schedules maintained a high (>90%) viability of the parasites. Dilutions were injected in C57Bl/6j mice with induction of specific antibodies, no clinical disease but uncertain sterility. Infection of LLC--MK2 cells showed that viable and reproductive parasites were often found in 50 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradied cells, with no growth occuring with 200 Gy irradiated tachzoites. Our data show that 200 Gy 60 Co irradiation blocks the reproductive capacity without affecting the short term viability of tachzoites of T. gondii. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  18. Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Jiang, Feng; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Kalina; Zheng, Xuguang; Cai, Yizhong; Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2010-01-01

    Gallic acid, an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is cytotoxic against certain cancer cells, without harming normal cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether gallic acid can inhibit glioma cell viability, proliferation, invasion and reduce glioma cell mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of U87 and U251n glioma cells with gallic acid inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BrdU and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid sign...

  19. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  20. From "Gut Feeling" to Objectivity: Machine Preservation of the Liver as a Tool to Assess Organ Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Jochmans, Ina

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise how machine perfusion could contribute to viability assessment of donor livers. In both hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion, perfusate transaminase measurement has allowed pretransplant assessment of hepatocellular damage. Hypothermic perfusion permits transplantation of marginal grafts but as yet has not permitted formal viability assessment. Livers undergoing normothermic perfusion have been investigated using parameters similar to those used to evaluate the liver in vivo. Lactate clearance, glucose evolution and pH regulation during normothermic perfusion seem promising measures of viability. In addition, bile chemistry might inform on cholangiocyte viability and the likelihood of post-transplant cholangiopathy. While the use of machine perfusion technology has the potential to reduce and even remove uncertainty regarding liver graft viability, analysis of large datasets, such as those derived from large multicenter trials of machine perfusion, are needed to provide sufficient information to enable viability parameters to be defined and validated .

  1. Metabolic Profile of Pancreatic Acinar and Islet Tissue in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M.; Mueller, Kathryn; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2016-01-01

    The amount and condition of exocrine impurities may affect the quality of islet preparations especially during culture. In this study, the objective was to determine the oxygen demandand viability of islet and acinar tissue post-isolation and whether they change disproportionately while in culture. We compare the OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability in units nmol/min/mg DNA), and percent change in OCR and DNA recoveries between adult porcine islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation (paired) over a 6-9 days of standard culture. Paired comparisons were done to quantify differences in OCR/DNA between islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation, at specified time points during culture; the mean (± standard error) OCR/DNA was 74.0 (±11.7) units higher for acinar (vs. islet) tissue on the day of isolation (n=16, p<0.0001), but 25.7 (±9.4) units lower after 1 day (n=8, p=0.03), 56.6 (±11.5) units lower after 2 days (n=12, p=0.0004), and 65.9 (±28.7) units lower after 8 days (n=4, p=0.2) in culture. DNA and OCR recoveries decreased at different rates for acinar versus islet tissue over 6-9 days in culture (n=6). DNA recovery decreased to 24±7% for acinar and 75±8% for islets (p=0.002). Similarly, OCR recovery decreased to 16±3% for acinar and remained virtually constant for islets (p=0.005). Differences in the metabolic profile of acinarand islet tissue should be considered when culturing impure islet preparations. OCR-based measurements may help optimize pre-IT culture protocols. PMID:25131082

  2. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  3. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  4. A brief review of extrusion-based tissue scaffold bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Liqun; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-08-01

    Extrusion-based bio-printing has great potential as a technique for manipulating biomaterials and living cells to create three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for damaged tissue repair and function restoration. Over the last two decades, advances in both engineering techniques and life sciences have evolved extrusion-based bio-printing from a simple technique to one able to create diverse tissue scaffolds from a wide range of biomaterials and cell types. However, the complexities associated with synthesis of materials for bio-printing and manipulation of multiple materials and cells in bio-printing pose many challenges for scaffold fabrication. This paper presents an overview of extrusion-based bio-printing for scaffold fabrication, focusing on the prior-printing considerations (such as scaffold design and materials/cell synthesis), working principles, comparison to other techniques, and to-date achievements. This paper also briefly reviews the recent development of strategies with regard to hydrogel synthesis, multi-materials/cells manipulation, and process-induced cell damage in extrusion-based bio-printing. The key issue and challenges for extrusion-based bio-printing are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future, aimed at developing novel biomaterials and bio-printing systems, creating patterned vascular networks within scaffolds, and preserving the cell viability and functions in scaffold bio-printing. The address of these challenges will significantly enhance the capability of extrusion-based bio-printing. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  6. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  7. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  8. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  9. Strategic Issues for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Contains precis of 18 articles on strategic management issues, including management development, on-the-job training, corporate scholarship, educational technology, coaching, investing in intellectual capital, and knowledge management. (SK)

  10. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... This paper discusses the issues and challenges faced during .... provision of this AELF's office is costly and need permission from the university's management. .... This is to deduct weeks for the assignment and tests because ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... One of the important issues in the field of human education is the method of ... Encouragement and punishment method in Islamic management has been ... Concept of education refers to the cultivating human talent, this.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... rameter of computation time and convergence rate. The two scheme have shown ... matrix and its inversion repeatedly for every iteration. This issue causes long ..... Some New Findings on Gauss-Seidel. Technique for Load ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... The main goal of this article is to analyze methodological issues in .... methodology and theory and historiology (theory of historic process) whose goal is to .... internal branches of sociology and interdisciplinary links of ...

  15. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... The dimensions to business process strategy factors are .... Investigation pains directed at further exploring these issues are very ... relationship management, material flow management, corporate culture in SMEs' Customer.

  17. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 1Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan ... face obesity issues because of several factors such as changes in diet intake, lifestyle, physical ...... and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

  20. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.