WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue types analyzed

  1. Multi-tissue computational modeling analyzes pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in MKR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available Computational models using metabolic reconstructions for in silico simulation of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM can provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and avoid high experimentation costs. There is a limited amount of computational work, using metabolic reconstructions, performed in this field for the better understanding of T2DM. In this study, a new algorithm for generating tissue-specific metabolic models is presented, along with the resulting multi-confidence level (MCL multi-tissue model. The effect of T2DM on liver, muscle, and fat in MKR mice was first studied by microarray analysis and subsequently the changes in gene expression of frank T2DM MKR mice versus healthy mice were applied to the multi-tissue model to test the effect. Using the first multi-tissue genome-scale model of all metabolic pathways in T2DM, we found out that branched-chain amino acids' degradation and fatty acids oxidation pathway is downregulated in T2DM MKR mice. Microarray data showed low expression of genes in MKR mice versus healthy mice in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids and fatty-acid oxidation pathways. In addition, the flux balance analysis using the MCL multi-tissue model showed that the degradation pathways of branched-chain amino acid and fatty acid oxidation were significantly downregulated in MKR mice versus healthy mice. Validation of the model was performed using data derived from the literature regarding T2DM. Microarray data was used in conjunction with the model to predict fluxes of various other metabolic pathways in the T2DM mouse model and alterations in a number of pathways were detected. The Type 2 Diabetes MCL multi-tissue model may explain the high level of branched-chain amino acids and free fatty acids in plasma of Type 2 Diabetic subjects from a metabolic fluxes perspective.

  2. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  3. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  4. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2 in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

  5. X-ray fluorescence microtomography analyzing prostate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela R.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution map in reference samples and prostate tissue samples using X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFCT) in order to verify concentrations of certain elements correlated with characteristics observed by the transmission microtomography. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Facility of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The transmission CT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm, and the XRFCT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. (author)

  6. Photoelectric equipment type MFS-7 for analyzing oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, S.A.; Fridman, M.G.; Kholosha, T.V.; Ezhoda, G.D.; Nechitailov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the equipment type MFS-7 which is intended for analyzing used oils for the wear products of motors. The difference between type MFS-7 and its predecessors lies in the application of computer techniques to control the equipment and process the output data; and in the design of the sample container, which allows for two methods of introducing the sample into the discharge. The photoelectric equipment consists of an excitation spectrum source IVS-28, having an ac arc mode and 1.v. spark, a polychoromator, a special sample holder for analyzing liquid samples, an electronic recording apparatus with digital voltmeter type ERU-18 and control computer system Spectr 2.2 based on a minicomputer with its own printer. The type MFS-7 equipment has been tested and put into mass production

  7. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOVIES AND TV COMMERCIALS TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Van Der Valk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed some light on whether there is any connection between the types of movies broadcasted on TV and types of commercials or not. A total of 20 different movies of Polish channels have been recorded and visually analyzed including the contents of the commercials broadcasted before, after and, during them. The different types of movies examined include comedies of manners, romantic comedies, thrillers, action movies, dramas, crimes, science-fiction and adventures. The research results show that there is a relationship between the types of movies broadcasted and the commercials before, during and after them. This connection is based on the needs and consuming behavior of each movie’s viewers.

  8. Tumor tissue slice cultures as a platform for analyzing tissue-penetration and biological activities of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Lea; Höbel, Sabrina; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Ewe, Alexander; Bechmann, Ingo; Franke, Heike; Merz, Felicitas; Aigner, Achim

    2017-03-01

    The success of therapeutic nanoparticles depends, among others, on their ability to penetrate a tissue for actually reaching the target cells, and their efficient cellular uptake in the context of intact tissue and stroma. Various nanoparticle modifications have been implemented for altering physicochemical and biological properties. Their analysis, however, so far mainly relies on cell culture experiments which only poorly reflect the in vivo situation, or is based on in vivo experiments that are often complicated by whole-body pharmacokinetics and are rather tedious especially when analyzing larger nanoparticle sets. For the more precise analysis of nanoparticle properties at their desired site of action, efficient ex vivo systems closely mimicking in vivo tissue properties are needed. In this paper, we describe the setup of organotypic tumor tissue slice cultures for the analysis of tissue-penetrating properties and biological activities of nanoparticles. As a model system, we employ 350μm thick slice cultures from different tumor xenograft tissues, and analyze modified or non-modified polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes as well as their lipopolyplex derivatives for siRNA delivery. The described conditions for tissue slice preparation and culture ensure excellent tissue preservation for at least 14days, thus allowing for prolonged experimentation and analysis. When using fluorescently labeled siRNA for complex visualization, fluorescence microscopy of cryo-sectioned tissue slices reveals different degrees of nanoparticle tissue penetration, dependent on their surface charge. More importantly, the determination of siRNA-mediated knockdown efficacies of an endogenous target gene, the oncogenic survival factor Survivin, reveals the possibility to accurately assess biological nanoparticle activities in situ, i.e. in living cells in their original environment. Taken together, we establish tumor (xenograft) tissue slices for the accurate and facile ex vivo assessment of

  9. TypingSuite: Integrated Software for Presenting Stimuli, and Collecting and Analyzing Typing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the…

  10. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Arsenovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a painless, subcutaneous lump on the right buttock. Clinical examination showed an approximately 6 cm large subcutaneous mass covered by apparently normal-looking skin. No inguinal lymphadenopathy was found. The mass was excised with the clinical diagnosis of fibroma. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. After surgical excision she was free of recurrence over a period of 8 months. This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines.

  11. Assessing Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Isolated Mitochondria from Various Mouse Tissues Using Seahorse XF96 Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuso, Arcangela; Repp, Birgit; Biagosch, Caroline; Terrile, Caterina; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Working with isolated mitochondria is the gold standard approach to investigate the function of the electron transport chain in tissues, free from the influence of other cellular factors. In this chapter, we outline a detailed protocol to measure the rate of oxygen consumption (OCR) with the high-throughput analyzer Seahorse XF96. More importantly, this protocol wants to provide practical tips for handling many different samples at once, and take a real advantage of using a high-throughput system. As a proof of concept, we have isolated mitochondria from brain, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung of a wild-type mouse, and measured basal respiration (State II), ADP-stimulated respiration (State III), non-ADP-stimulated respiration (State IV o ), and FCCP-stimulated respiration (State III u ) using respiratory substrates specific to the respiratory chain complex I (RCCI) and complex II (RCCII). Mitochondrial purification and Seahorse runs were performed in less than eight working hours.

  12. Calibration of carbon analyzer LECO type IR-212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilis Windaryati; Pranjono; Galuh Sri Banawa

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of Carbon Analyzer LECO type IR-212 has been done. The aim of this research is to study the performance of the carbon analyzer LECO type IR-212 for its accuracy assurance. The experiment includes a series of performance adjustment using standard material traceable nationally/internationally. The standard material used for the calibration is standard carbon manufactured by LECO, which refers to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRM) of traceable certificate. The method used is based on Application Bulletin Leco Corporation. The composition used for the experiment varies from 0,0097% to 0,8110% that is 0,0097 ± 0,0014%; 0,0348 ± 0,0013%; 0,1770 ± 0,003% and 0,8110 ± 0,007%. The analysis results for those varied composition are 0,0097 ± 0,000175%; 0,03474 ± 0,000152%; 0,1762 ± 0,00228% and 0,80982 ± 0,000958% for their mean value and standard deviation respectively. In the standard analysis, the results are close to the true value is the measurement of a standard sample with a content of 0.811% with a correction factor of 1.0015. The smallest standard deviation in measurements of 0,0348% sample gives the lowest standard deviation, i.e. 0,000152. The analysis results are considered sufficiently stable with linear calibration curve of y = 0.9984 x with correlation coefficient R 2 = 1. (author)

  13. How to analyze Structure and Function in Tissue – based Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kayser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tissue – based diagnosis (morphological analysis of human tissue judges, measures and interprets morphologic images which have been acquired from human tissue. It translates the findings into a diagnosis or description of biological functions. What are its principle algorithms and theoretical background? Theory Pathologists are used to distinguish between structure and function. Biological structures are ordered clusters of material (genes, nuclei, cells, organs, etc., which remain constant during the period of detection and observation. They are commonly embedded or appear in circumscribed spaces. These spaces are clearly separated from their environment (background. Functions are forces that act on structures. They modify their appearance, create and delete structures and their spatial relationship. The recognition of both structures and functions is dependent upon the observation time: Material that remains unchanged within the observation period is called structure, its changes between a series of observations a function. Derivatives Biological structures and functions should be interpreted in relation to the observation time. Functions can be considered structural gradients of time or of observation periods. Implementation The analysis of conventional stained histological slides reflects to a short non changeable observation time, which in reality cannot be repeated at different times on the same tissue. Acquired digital images such as virtual slides (VS offer the opportunity of simulating different observation times if object features are analyzed that reflect structural changes at different times. The measurement of immunohistochemal intensity levels performed on the same structure can be considered a time series of the binding or antigen – antibody process. The obtained frame of these measurements can be mapped on chemical significant descriptors such as Shannon’s and structural entropy, and their entropy flows. Material

  14. Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus: a rare cutaneous lesion analyzed in a series of 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feraudy, Sébastien; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2012-10-01

    Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) represents a rare and distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal lesion of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lineage, which broadens the spectrum of lesions presently recognized as connective tissue nevus. A series of 25 cases of FCTN has been analyzed to further characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical features of this entity. Sixteen patients were female (64%) and 9 were male (36%), with age at presentation ranging from 1.5 months to 58 years (median, 10 y). Most patients presented with a solitary, slowly growing, painless plaque-like or nodular skin lesion. Eleven cases (44%) arose on the trunk, 9 (36%) on the head and neck, and 5 (20%) on the limbs. The lesion was present for a median duration of 11.5 months (mean, 13.2 mo). Grossly, the lesions were tan-brown to tan-white, smooth, and firm. Their size ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 cm in greatest dimension (mean size, 0.67 cm; median, 0.6 cm). All tumors showed poor circumscription and were situated primarily in the reticular deep dermis, extending into the superficial subcutis in 13 cases (52%). The lesion was associated with papillomatous epidermis in 17 cases (70%) and the presence of adipose tissue in the reticular dermis in 14 cases (60.9%). All tumors were composed of a proliferation of bland intradermal fibroblastic/myofibroblastic cells with indistinct palely eosinophilic cytoplasm and tapering nuclei, with no significant cytologic atypia or pleomorphism, arranged in short-intersecting fascicles and entrapping appendages. No mitoses were identified. Immunostains showed positivity for CD34 in 20 of 23 cases (87%) and weak focal positivity for smooth muscle actin in 9 of 19 cases (47%). No case stained positively for desmin or S100 protein. Clinical follow-up was obtained for 14 patients (median duration, 4 y). No tumor recurred locally, even when surgical excision was incomplete. No lesion metastasized. FCTN occurs most commonly as a plaque on the

  15. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-04

    Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  16. Combined spectroscopic imaging and chemometric approach for automatically partitioning tissue types in human prostate tissue biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kidder, Linda H.; Lewis, E. Neil

    2001-07-01

    We have applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (FPA) and a Michelson step scan interferometer, to the investigation of various states of malignant human prostate tissue. The MCT FPA used consists of 64x64 pixels, each 61 micrometers 2, and has a spectral range of 2-10.5 microns. Each imaging data set was collected at 16-1 resolution, resulting in 512 image planes and a total of 4096 interferograms. In this article we describe a method for separating different tissue types contained within FTIR spectroscopic imaging data sets of human prostate tissue biopsies. We present images, generated by the Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm, which demonstrate the successful partitioning of distinct tissue type domains. Additionally, analysis of differences in the centroid spectra corresponding to different tissue types provides an insight into their biochemical composition. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to partition tissue type regions in a different data set using centroid spectra calculated from the original data set. This has implications for the use of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm as an automated technique for the separation and examination of tissue domains in biopsy samples.

  17. Criteria for personal dosimetry in mixed radiation fields in space. [analyzing trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The complexity of direct reading and passive dosimeters for monitoring radiation is studied to strike the right balance of compromise to simplify the monitoring procedure. Trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons are analyzed.

  18. Epileptic rat brain tissue analyzed by 2D correlation Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharz, Julia; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Lewandowski, Marian H.; Kowalski, Rafał; Palus, Katarzyna; Chrobok, Łukasz; Moskal, Paulina; Birczyńska, Malwina; Sozańska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3 weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG). The Raman spectra of the fresh brain scraps, kept during measurements in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, were collected using as an excitation source 442 nm, 514.5 nm, 785 nm and 1064 nm laser line. The average spectra were analyzed by 2D correlation method regarding laser line as an external perturbation. In 2D synchronous spectra positive auto-peaks corresponding to the Cdbnd C stretching and amide I band vibrations show maxima at 1660 cm- 1 and 1662 cm- 1 for Sc and DLG, respectively. The prominent auto-peak at 2937 cm- 1, originated from the CH3 mode in DLG brain area, seems to indicate the importance of methylation, considered to be significant in epileptogenesis. Synchronous and asynchronous correlations peaks, glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear in Sc and DLG, respectively. In the 1730-1600 cm- 1 range occur cross-peaks which appearance might be triggered by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) activation.

  19. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  20. Effect of substrate choice and tissue type on tissue preparation for spectral histopathology by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, Leanne M; Griffiths, Dave; Ashton, Katherine; Dawson, Timothy; Lea, Robert W; Davis, Charles; Bonnier, Franck; Byrne, Hugh J; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-01-21

    Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, non-invasive, rapid and economical technique which has the potential to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of cancer and understanding disease progression through retrospective studies of archived tissue samples. Historically, biobanks are generally comprised of formalin fixed paraffin preserved tissue and as a result these specimens are often used in spectroscopic research. Tissue in this state has to be dewaxed prior to Raman analysis to reduce paraffin contributions in the spectra. However, although the procedures are derived from histopathological clinical practice, the efficacy of the dewaxing procedures that are currently employed is questionable. Ineffective removal of paraffin results in corruption of the spectra and previous experiments have shown that the efficacy can depend on the dewaxing medium and processing time. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of commonly used spectroscopic substrates (CaF2, Spectrosil quartz and low-E slides) and the influence of different histological tissue types (normal, cancerous and metastatic) on tissue preparation and to assess their use for spectral histopathology. Results show that CaF2 followed by Spectrosil contribute the least to the spectral background. However, both substrates retain paraffin after dewaxing. Low-E substrates, which exhibit the most intense spectral background, do not retain wax and resulting spectra are not affected by paraffin peaks. We also show a disparity in paraffin retention depending upon the histological identity of the tissue with abnormal tissue retaining more paraffin than normal.

  1. Installation of remote-handling typed EBSD-OIM analyzer for heavy irradiated reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Takada, Fumiki; Ohmi, Masao; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Miwa, Yukio

    2008-06-01

    The remote-handling typed EBSD-OIM analyzer for heavy irradiated reactor materials was installed in the JMTR hot laboratory at the first time in the world. The analyzer is used to study on IASCC (irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking) or IGSCC (inter granular stress corrosion cracking) in reactor materials. This report describes the measurement procedure, the measured results and the operating experiences on the analyzer in the JMTR hot laboratory. (author)

  2. Analyzing the effects of mechanical and osmotic loading on glycosaminoglycan synthesis rate in cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2015-02-26

    The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) plays an important role in cartilaginous tissues to support and transmit mechanical loads. Many extracellular biophysical stimuli could affect GAG synthesis by cells. It has been hypothesized that the change of cell volume is a primary mechanism for cells to perceive the stimuli. Experimental studies have shown that the maximum synthesis rate of GAG is achieved at an optimal cell volume, larger or smaller than this level the GAG synthesis rate decreases. Based on the hypothesis and experimental findings in the literature, we proposed a mathematical model to quantitatively describe the cell volume dependent GAG synthesis rate in the cartilaginous tissues. Using this model, we investigated the effects of osmotic loading and mechanical loading on GAG synthesis rate. It is found our proposed mathematical model is able to well describe the change of GAG synthesis rate in isolated cells or in cartilage with variations of the osmotic loading or mechanical loading. This model is important for evaluating the GAG synthesis activity within cartilaginous tissues as well as understanding the role of mechanical loading in tissue growth or degeneration. It is also important for designing a bioreactor system with proper extracellular environment or mechanical loading for growing tissue at the maximum synthesis rate of the extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Refinement of elastic, poroelastic, and osmotic tissue properties of intervertebral disks to analyze behavior in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Laible, Jeffrey P; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Costi, John J; Iatridis, James C

    2011-01-01

    Intervertebral disks support compressive forces because of their elastic stiffness as well as the fluid pressures resulting from poroelasticity and the osmotic (swelling) effects. Analytical methods can quantify the relative contributions, but only if correct material properties are used. To identify appropriate tissue properties, an experimental study and finite element analytical simulation of poroelastic and osmotic behavior of intervertebral disks were combined to refine published values of disk and endplate properties to optimize model fit to experimental data. Experimentally, nine human intervertebral disks with adjacent hemi-vertebrae were immersed sequentially in saline baths having concentrations of 0.015, 0.15, and 1.5 M and the loss of compressive force at constant height (force relaxation) was recorded over several hours after equilibration to a 300-N compressive force. Amplitude and time constant terms in exponential force-time curve-fits for experimental and finite element analytical simulations were compared. These experiments and finite element analyses provided data dependent on poroelastic and osmotic properties of the disk tissues. The sensitivities of the model to alterations in tissue material properties were used to obtain refined values of five key material parameters. The relaxation of the force in the three bath concentrations was exponential in form, expressed as mean compressive force loss of 48.7, 55.0, and 140 N, respectively, with time constants of 1.73, 2.78, and 3.40 h. This behavior was analytically well represented by a model having poroelastic and osmotic tissue properties with published tissue properties adjusted by multiplying factors between 0.55 and 2.6. Force relaxation and time constants from the analytical simulations were most sensitive to values of fixed charge density and endplate porosity.

  4. Machine learning approaches to analyze histological images of tissues from radical prostatectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Ing, Nathan; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Fuchs, Thomas J; Salman, Sadri; Mohanty, Sambit; Bhele, Sanica; Velásquez-Vacca, Adriana; Amin, Mahul B; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2015-12-01

    Computerized evaluation of histological preparations of prostate tissues involves identification of tissue components such as stroma (ST), benign/normal epithelium (BN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Image classification approaches have been developed to identify and classify glandular regions in digital images of prostate tissues; however their success has been limited by difficulties in cellular segmentation and tissue heterogeneity. We hypothesized that utilizing image pixels to generate intensity histograms of hematoxylin (H) and eosin (E) stains deconvoluted from H&E images numerically captures the architectural difference between glands and stroma. In addition, we postulated that joint histograms of local binary patterns and local variance (LBPxVAR) can be used as sensitive textural features to differentiate benign/normal tissue from cancer. Here we utilized a machine learning approach comprising of a support vector machine (SVM) followed by a random forest (RF) classifier to digitally stratify prostate tissue into ST, BN and PCa areas. Two pathologists manually annotated 210 images of low- and high-grade tumors from slides that were selected from 20 radical prostatectomies and digitized at high-resolution. The 210 images were split into the training (n=19) and test (n=191) sets. Local intensity histograms of H and E were used to train a SVM classifier to separate ST from epithelium (BN+PCa). The performance of SVM prediction was evaluated by measuring the accuracy of delineating epithelial areas. The Jaccard J=59.5 ± 14.6 and Rand Ri=62.0 ± 7.5 indices reported a significantly better prediction when compared to a reference method (Chen et al., Clinical Proteomics 2013, 10:18) based on the averaged values from the test set. To distinguish BN from PCa we trained a RF classifier with LBPxVAR and local intensity histograms and obtained separate performance values for BN and PCa: JBN=35.2 ± 24.9, OBN=49.6 ± 32, JPCa=49.5 ± 18.5, OPCa=72.7 ± 14.8 and Ri=60.6

  5. Aerosol climatology and planetary boundary influence at the Jungfraujoch analyzed by synoptic weather types

    OpenAIRE

    M. Collaud Coen; E. Weingartner; M. Furger; S. Nyeki; A. S. H. Prévôt; M. Steinbacher; U. Baltensperger

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen years of meteorological parameters, aerosol variables (absorption and scattering coefficients, aerosol number concentration) and trace gases (CO, NOx, SO2) measured at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.) have been analyzed as a function of different synoptic weather types. The Schüepp synoptic weather type of the Alps (SYNALP) classification from the Alpine Weather Statistics (AWS) was used to define the synoptic meteorology over the wh...

  6. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Cancer Tissue: RNA Is Stable Independent of Tissue Type with Less Than 1 Hour of Cold Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang Yong; Jun, Jonghyun; Park, Miyeon; Park, Seo Kyu; Choi, Wonju; Park, Kyunghee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Myoyong

    2018-02-01

    The effects of preanalytical variables in tissue processing and storage periods on RNA quality of tissues have been well documented in each type of cancer. However, few studies have been performed on a comparative assessment of the impacts across different cancer tissues, even though it is well known that RNase activity is highly variable in various tissue types and RNase-rich tissues have been found to yield low-quality RNA. We investigated the impacts of cold ischemia times and long-term storage on RNA integrity in various types of cancer tissue, which had been fresh-frozen and collected at the Samsung Medical Center Biobank. RNA quality was also evaluated with regard to histopathological variables. We analyzed RNA integrity number (RIN) data, which had been obtained from our quality control (QC) processes over the last 7 years. Approximately 2% of samples were randomly selected and processed to measure RIN quarterly and after 6 years of storage for QC purposes. Fresh-frozen tumor tissues yielded high-quality RNA regardless of tumor type and histopathological features. Up to 1-hour cold ischemia times and up to 6-year storage times did not adversely influence RNA integrity. Only 3 samples showed RIN of <7 out of a total of 396 analyzed tumor tissues. Tissue quality was not adversely affected by long-term storage or limited variations of cold ischemia times. The low-quality samples could be correlated with the structural composition or intratumoral heterogeneity of tissues. The strict application of standardized protocols for tissue collection is the key for high-quality biobanking.

  7. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chopin

    Full Text Available The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image's background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy.

  8. [Transciptome among Mexicans: a large scale methodology to analyze the genetics expression profile of simultaneous samples in muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raúl A; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Kent, Jack W; Laviada-Molina, Hugo A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Torres-Salazar, Amada; Torres-Salazar, Amanda; Nava-González, Edna J; Solis-Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos-Cabrales, Esther C; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to analyze multiple transcripts using microarray techniques in simultaneous biopsies of muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual as part of the standard protocol of the Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico: GEMM Family Study. We recruited 4 healthy male subjects with BM1 20-41, who signed an informed consent letter. Subjects participated in a clinical examination that included anthropometric and body composition measurements, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) subcutaneous fat biopsies anda blood draw. All samples provided sufficient amplified RNA for microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and amplified for analysis. Of the 48,687 transcript targets queried, 39.4% were detectable in a least one of the studied tissues. Leptin was not detectable in lymphocytes, weakly expressed in muscle, but overexpressed and highly correlated with BMI in subcutaneous fat. Another example was GLUT4, which was detectable only in muscle and not correlated with BMI. Expression level concordance was 0.7 (p< 0.001) for the three tissues studied. We demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out simultaneous analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues, concordance of genetic expression in different tissues, and obtained confidence that this method corroborates the expected biological relationships among LEPand GLUT4. TheGEMM study will provide a broad and valuable overview on metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Analyzing the Anomalous Dipole Moment Type Couplings of Heavy Quarks with FCNC Interactions at the CLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, A.; Tasci, A. T.; Verep, C.

    2014-01-01

    We examine both anomalous magnetic and dipole moment type couplings of a heavy quark via its single production with subsequent dominant standard model decay modes at the compact linear collider (CLIC). The signal and background cross sections are analyzed for heavy quark masses 600 and 700 GeV. We make the analysis to delimitate these couplings as well as to find the attainable integrated luminosities for 3σ observation limit

  10. Planetary boundary influence at the Jungfraujoch analyzed by aerosol cycles and synoptic weather types

    OpenAIRE

    M. Collaud Coen; E. Weingartner; M. Furger; S. Nyeki; A. S. H. Prévôt; M. Steinbacher; U. Baltensperger

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen years of meteorological parameters, aerosol variables (absorption and scattering coefficients, aerosol number concentration) and trace gases (CO, NOx, SO2) measured at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.) have been analyzed as a function of different synoptic weather types. The Alpine Weather Statistics (AWS) classification was used to define the synoptic meteorology over the whole Swiss region. The seasonal contribution of each syn...

  11. Observer variability in the assessment of type and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas, analyzed using kappa statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J

    1995-01-01

    . The kappa values for Observer A vs. B and Observer C vs. B were 0.3480 and 0.3770, respectively (both type and dysplasia). Values for type were better than for dysplasia, but agreement was only fair to moderate. CONCLUSION: The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect, but the intraobserver...... agreement was only fair to moderate. A simpler classification system or a centralization of assessments would probably increase kappa values....... of adenomas were assessed twice by three experienced pathologists, with an interval of two months. Results were analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For agreement between first and second assessment (both type and grade of dysplasia), kappa values for the three specialists were 0.5345, 0.9022, and 0...

  12. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  13. Aerosol climatology and planetary boundary influence at the Jungfraujoch analyzed by synoptic weather types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collaud Coen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen years of meteorological parameters, aerosol variables (absorption and scattering coefficients, aerosol number concentration and trace gases (CO, NOx, SO2 measured at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l. have been analyzed as a function of different synoptic weather types. The Schüepp synoptic weather type of the Alps (SYNALP classification from the Alpine Weather Statistics (AWS was used to define the synoptic meteorology over the whole Swiss region. The seasonal contribution of each synoptic weather type to the aerosol concentration was deduced from the aerosol annual cycles while the planetary boundary layer (PBL influence was estimated by means of the diurnal cycles. Since aerosols are scavenged by precipitation, the diurnal cycle of the CO concentration was also used to identify polluted air masses. SO2 and NOx concentrations were used as precursor tracers for new particle formation and growth, respectively. The aerosol optical parameters and number concentration show elevated loadings during advective weather types during the December–March period and for the convective anticyclonic and convective indifferent weather types during the April–September period. This study confirms the consensus view that the JFJ is mainly influenced by the free troposphere during winter and by injection of air parcels from the PBL during summer. A more detailed picture is, however, drawn where the JFJ is completely influenced by free tropospheric air masses in winter during advective weather types and largely influenced by the PBL also during the night in summer during the subsidence weather type. Between these two extreme situations, the PBL influence at the JFJ depends on both the time of year and the synoptic weather type. The fraction of PBL air transported to the JFJ was estimated by the relative increase of the specific humidity and CO.

  14. Analyzing THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type Metonymies from the Perspective of Negative Evaluative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Arimitsu

    Full Text Available This paper has two objectives. First, by analyzing THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies, this paper points out that it is mainly negative events that are expressed by this type of metonymy. Second, this paper reveals the motivations of those THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies that express negative events. Metonymies are widely investigated along with the views of Lakoff and Johnson (1980, and their oppositional semantic aspects are pointed out by Voßhagen (1999. However, none of the previous studies focused on the nature of THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies from the perspective of negative evaluation, euphemism, and politeness. "Let's not let Thailand become another Vietnam" expresses the Vietnam War and all the tragedies behind it. Speakers refrain from expressing negative evaluative aspects from a euphemistic perspective and try to behave politely through hiding the exact expression, and listeners can also easily understand THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies that express negative events, since negative events are much more highly marked and intensified, as well as more prominent, than are positive ones.

  15. Differences in CASA output according to the chamber type when analyzing frozen-thawed bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibănescu, Iulian; Leiding, Claus; Ciornei, Ştefan Gregore; Roșca, Petru; Sfartz, Ioana; Drugociu, Dan

    2016-03-01

    As demonstrated by some authors, the type of analyzing chamber can greatly influence the results of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). This study aimed to compare three of the disposable chamber types currently available on the market and to determine whether the CASA output may be significantly different among them. The semen from five Fleckvieh bulls was analyzed by CASA using three different disposable chambers: Leja (20μm), MofA (20μm) and Minitube (20μm), at three different time points: immediately after filling the chamber, at 6min, and also at 12min after filling. Sperm concentration was also determined using the Nucleocounter® NC-100™ device and the hemocytometer as standard methods. The results showed higher values in terms of total and progressive sperm motility for MofA compared to the other two chambers immediately after filling (pCASA only when the other methods are not available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer on board the Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuto; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Takashima, Takeshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsuda, Shoya; Kitahara, Masahiro; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-01-01

    We describe the principles of the Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA) and the implementation of the Software-type WPIA (S-WPIA) on the Arase satellite. The WPIA is a new type of instrument for the direct and quantitative measurement of wave-particle interactions. The S-WPIA is installed on the Arase satellite as a software function running on the mission data processor. The S-WPIA on board the Arase satellite uses an electromagnetic field waveform that is measured by the waveform capture receiver of the plasma wave experiment (PWE), and the velocity vectors of electrons detected by the medium-energy particle experiment-electron analyzer (MEP-e), the high-energy electron experiment (HEP), and the extremely high-energy electron experiment (XEP). The prime objective of the S-WPIA is to measure the energy exchange between whistler-mode chorus emissions and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere. It is essential for the S-WPIA to synchronize instruments to a relative time accuracy better than the time period of the plasma wave oscillations. Since the typical frequency of chorus emissions in the inner magnetosphere is a few kHz, a relative time accuracy of better than 10 μs is required in order to measure the relative phase angle between the wave and velocity vectors. In the Arase satellite, a dedicated system has been developed to realize the time resolution required for inter-instrument communication. Here, both the time index distributed over all instruments through the satellite system and an S-WPIA clock signal are used, that are distributed from the PWE to the MEP-e, HEP, and XEP through a direct line, for the synchronization of instruments within a relative time accuracy of a few μs. We also estimate the number of particles required to obtain statistically significant results with the S-WPIA and the expected accumulation time by referring to the specifications of the MEP-e and assuming a count rate for each detector.

  17. Deriving and Analyzing Analytical Structures of a Class of Typical Interval Type-2 TS Fuzzy Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Hao

    2017-09-01

    A conventional controller's explicit input-output mathematical relationship, also known as its analytical structure, is always available for analysis and design of a control system. In contrast, virtually all type-2 (T2) fuzzy controllers are treated as black-box controllers in the literature in that their analytical structures are unknown, which inhibits precise and comprehensive understanding and analysis. In this regard, a long-standing fundamental issue remains unresolved: how a T2 fuzzy set's footprint of uncertainty, a key element differentiating a T2 controller from a type-1 (T1) controller, affects a controller's analytical structure. In this paper, we describe an innovative technique for deriving analytical structures of a class of typical interval T2 (IT2) TS fuzzy controllers. This technique makes it possible to analyze the analytical structures of the controllers to reveal the role of footprints of uncertainty in shaping the structures. Specifically, we have mathematically proven that under certain conditions, the larger the footprints, the more the IT2 controllers resemble linear or piecewise linear controllers. When the footprints are at their maximum, the IT2 controllers actually become linear or piecewise linear controllers. That is to say the smaller the footprints, the more nonlinear the controllers. The most nonlinear IT2 controllers are attained at zero footprints, at which point they become T1 controllers. This finding implies that sometimes if strong nonlinearity is most important and desired, one should consider using a smaller footprint or even just a T1 fuzzy controller. This paper exemplifies the importance and value of the analytical structure approach for comprehensive analysis of T2 fuzzy controllers.

  18. Metabolomics approach for analyzing the effects of exercise in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brugnara

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D are not fully proven, given that it may occasionally induce acute metabolic disturbances. Indeed, the metabolic disturbances associated with sustained exercise may lead to worsening control unless great care is taken to adjust carbohydrate intake and insulin dosage. In this work, pre- and post-exercise metabolites were analyzed using a (1H-NMR and GC-MS untargeted metabolomics approach assayed in serum. We studied ten men with T1D and eleven controls matched for age, body mass index, body fat composition, and cardiorespiratory capacity, participated in the study. The participants performed 30 minutes of exercise on a cycle-ergometer at 80% VO(2max. In response to exercise, both groups had increased concentrations of gluconeogenic precursors (alanine and lactate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, malate, fumarate and succinate. The T1D group, however, showed attenuation in the response of these metabolites to exercise. Conversely to T1D, the control group also presented increases in α-ketoglutarate, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, and lipolysis products (glycerol and oleic and linoleic acids, as well as a reduction in branched chain amino acids (valine and leucine determinations. The T1D patients presented a blunted metabolic response to acute exercise as compared to controls. This attenuated response may interfere in the healthy performance or fitness of T1D patients, something that further studies should elucidate.

  19. Optimization of the energy resolution of an ideal ESCA-type hemispherical analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Benis, E.P.; Chatzakis, I.

    2005-01-01

    The overall base resolution R B of a high throughput ideal hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) equipped with a zoom lens and a position sensitive detector (PSD) placed a distance h from the exit focus plane of the HDA is investigated as a function of h, pre-retardation factor F and beam angle θ 0 . R B is in general a function of the linear lens magnification vertical bar M L vertical bar and can be minimized by choosing the optimal linear lens magnification vertical bar M L vertical bar o under the constraints of the Helmholtz-Lagrange law. Thus, the optimal resolution, R B (vertical bar M L vertical bar o ) can be computed as an analytic function of h,F,θ 0 and represents the ultimate resolution that can be attained ignoring fringing field effects. These results should be helpful in the efficient design and performance evaluation of any HDA utilizing a focusing lens and PSD as is typical for ESCA-type electron spectrometers

  20. Examination of in vivo gelatinolytic activity in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue using newly developed in situ zymography and image analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, W; Uzuki, M; Nishida, J; Shimamura, T; Sawai, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in vivo gelatinolytic activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium using a newly developed in situ zymography (ISZ) method and pathological image analyzer, and to evaluate the relationship between this activity and several features on RA. A total of 8 samples of synovium were obtained from RA patients during surgery, and 8 samples from osteoarthritis (OA) patients were examined as controls. Furthermore, total 14 samples of syovium were obtained for comparison among radiographical classifications as Larsen grade (4 cases of grade III, 5 cases of grade IV and 5 cases of grade V). These specimens were frozen with OCT compound immediately after surgery. Frozen sections were applied to a newly developed gelatin-coated FIZ film (Fuji Film Co.Tokyo.Japan) designed for use ISZ, and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 hours. Using an image analyzer (image processor for analytical pathology; IPAP), two variables were measured as indicators of in vivo gelatynolytic activity: optical density of gelatinolyzed area (ODG), and ratio of gelatinolyzed area (RGA). Also, we investigated the relationship between these indicators and the following variables: radiographic changes (Larsen grades), clinical data (C-reactive protein concentration), histological score of synovial tissue (modified Rooney's score), and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 (assessed by immunohistochemistry). RA synovium had significantly higher RGA and lower ODG than OA, indicating higher gelatinolytic activity in RA. Synovium from cases with Larsen grade IV or V had significantly lower ODG than cases with grade III, but there was no significant difference in RGA between grades. There was no significant correlation between gelatinolytic activity (ODG or RGA) and either CRP or modified Rooney's Histological Score. The results of ISZ indicate that the gelatinolyzed areas were mainly localized in the

  1. Preparing and Analyzing Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs Library for the Mammary Tissue of Local Turkish Kivircik Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kivircik sheep is an important local Turkish sheep according to its meat quality and milk productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiles of both prenatal and postnatal stages for the Kivircik sheep. Therefore, two different cDNA libraries, which were taken from the same Kivircik sheep mammary gland tissue at prenatal and postnatal stages, were constructed. Total 3072 colonies which were randomly selected from the two libraries were sequenced for developing a sheep ESTs collection. We used Phred/Phrap computer programs for analysis of the raw EST and readable EST sequences were assembled with the CAP3 software. Putative functions of all unique sequences and statistical analysis were determined by Geneious software. Total 422 ESTs have over 80% similarity to known sequences of other organisms in NCBI classified by Panther database for the Gene Ontology (GO category. By comparing gene expression profiles, we observed some putative genes that may be relative to reproductive performance or play important roles in milk synthesis and secretion. A total of 2414 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database (GW996847–GW999260. EST data in this study have provided a new source of information to functional genome studies of sheep.

  2. Analyzing the "CareGap": assessing gaps in adherence to clinical guidelines in adult soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Zeev; Goldbraich, Esther; Farkash, Ariel; Torresani, Michele; Bertulli, Rossella; Restifo, Nicola; Locatelli, Paolo; Casali, Paolo; Carmeli, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are gaining popularity as tools that assist physicians in optimizing medical care. These systems typically comply with evidence-based medicine and are designed with input from domain experts. Nonetheless, deviations from CDSS recommendations are abundant across a broad spectrum of disorders, raising the question as to why this phenomenon exists. Here, we analyze this gap in adherence to a clinical guidelines-based CDSS by examining the physician treatment decisions for 1329 adult soft tissue sarcoma patients in northern Italy using patient-specific parameters. Dubbing this analysis "CareGap", we find that deviations correlate strongly with certain disease features such as local versus metastatic clinical presentation. We also notice that deviations from the guideline-based CDSS suggestions occur more frequently for patients with shorter survival time. Such observations can direct physicians' attention to distinct patient cohorts that are prone to higher deviation levels from clinical practice guidelines. This illustrates the value of CareGap analysis in assessing quality of care for subsets of patients within a larger pathology.

  3. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF...

  4. Data processing in Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer onboard the Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, Mitsuru; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Yuto; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Asamura, Kazushi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kitahara, Masahiro; Matsuda, Shoya

    2018-05-01

    The software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA) is an instrument package onboard the Arase satellite, which studies the magnetosphere. The S-WPIA represents a new method for directly observing wave-particle interactions onboard a spacecraft in a space plasma environment. The main objective of the S-WPIA is to quantitatively detect wave-particle interactions associated with whistler-mode chorus emissions and electrons over a wide energy range (from several keV to several MeV). The quantity of energy exchanges between waves and particles can be represented as the inner product of the wave electric-field vector and the particle velocity vector. The S-WPIA requires accurate measurement of the phase difference between wave and particle gyration. The leading edge of the S-WPIA system allows us to collect comprehensive information, including the detection time, energy, and incoming direction of individual particles and instantaneous-wave electric and magnetic fields, at a high sampling rate. All the collected particle and waveform data are stored in the onboard large-volume data storage. The S-WPIA executes calculations asynchronously using the collected electric and magnetic wave data, data acquired from multiple particle instruments, and ambient magnetic-field data. The S-WPIA has the role of handling large amounts of raw data that are dedicated to calculations of the S-WPIA. Then, the results are transferred to the ground station. This paper describes the design of the S-WPIA and its calculations in detail, as implemented onboard Arase.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Detection of apoptosis in paraffin embedded tissues: the influence of tissue type and fixation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Dubská, L.; Míšek, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2002), s. 529-533 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : apoptosis * TUNEL test * paraffin embedded tissues Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  6. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  7. Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, N E; MacNeil, M A; Olin, J A; McMeans, B C; Kinney, M J; Chapman, D D; Fisk, A T

    2012-04-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) can act as a powerful ecological tracer with which to examine diet, trophic position and movement, as well as more complex questions pertaining to community dynamics and feeding strategies or behaviour among aquatic organisms. With major advances in the understanding of the methodological approaches and assumptions of SIA through dedicated experimental work in the broader literature coupled with the inherent difficulty of studying typically large, highly mobile marine predators, SIA is increasingly being used to investigate the ecology of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). Here, the current state of SIA in elasmobranchs is reviewed, focusing on available tissues for analysis, methodological issues relating to the effects of lipid extraction and urea, the experimental dynamics of isotopic incorporation, diet-tissue discrimination factors, estimating trophic position, diet and mixing models and individual specialization and niche-width analyses. These areas are discussed in terms of assumptions made when applying SIA to the study of elasmobranch ecology and the requirement that investigators standardize analytical approaches. Recommendations are made for future SIA experimental work that would improve understanding of stable-isotope dynamics and advance their application in the study of sharks, skates and rays. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  9. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  10. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  11. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform...... on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset...

  12. Interviewing to assess credibility in the Swedish asylum procedure: analyzing question style, type and theme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, T.S.; Horselenberg, R.; Landström, S.; Granhag, P.A.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  13. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  14. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized gluco...

  15. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  16. Perivascular adipose tissue: role in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Ivanovna Romantsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular adipose tissue is a part of blood vessel wall, regulating endovascular homeostasis, endothelial and smooth muscle cells functioning. Under physiological conditions, perivascular tissue provides beneficial anticontractile effect, though undergoes structural and functional changes in obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type2.Collected data suggest the possible key role of perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Perivascular tissue has been determined as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of visceral obesity. General mechanisms include a local low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, paracrine and metabolic alterations. Properties of perivascular adipose tissue depend on the certain type of adipocytes it contains. Brown adipocytes are well known for their metabolic preferences, however it has been shown recently that brown perivascular tissue can contribute to dyslipidemia under some conditions.  The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature understanding of perivascular adipose tissue specifics, changes in its activity, secretory and genetic profilein a course of the most common non-infectious diseases development, as well as molecular mechanisms of its functioning. We also discuss perspectives of target interventions using metabolic pathways and genes of perivascular tissue, for the effective prevention of obesity, diabetes mellitus type2 and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Digital sorting of complex tissues for cell type-specific gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Pang, Kaifang; Chow, Lionel M L; Liu, Zhandong

    2013-03-07

    Cellular heterogeneity is present in almost all gene expression profiles. However, transcriptome analysis of tissue specimens often ignores the cellular heterogeneity present in these samples. Standard deconvolution algorithms require prior knowledge of the cell type frequencies within a tissue or their in vitro expression profiles. Furthermore, these algorithms tend to report biased estimations. Here, we describe a Digital Sorting Algorithm (DSA) for extracting cell-type specific gene expression profiles from mixed tissue samples that is unbiased and does not require prior knowledge of cell type frequencies. The results suggest that DSA is a specific and sensitivity algorithm in gene expression profile deconvolution and will be useful in studying individual cell types of complex tissues.

  18. Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Palmer

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.

  19. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  20. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crecy, F de

    1994-12-31

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  1. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crecy, F. de.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. New type of thermal analyzer with a micro-air-bridge heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsuteru; Hayasaka, Junichi

    1997-11-01

    Miniaturized sensor for thermal analysis is fabricated using micromachining technique and its fundament al characteristics are obtained. This device fabricated in a Si substrate consists of monolithically integrated components of an air-bridge type microheater, a thin film thermocouple and a sample-holder. Boiling points of liquid samples, water and methanol, are observed in the heating curve and the heating-rate curve, and sudden decrease of the temperature at the dropping time of the liquid samples at room temperature due to the effect of evaporation heat is also observed. Loss of the sample due to the evaporation during heating was theoretically discussed.

  3. Baropodometric technology used to analyze types of weight-bearing during hemiparetic upright position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Teles de Menezes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although baropodometric analysis has been published since the 1990s, only now it is found a considerable number of studies showing different uses in the rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To amplify the use of this technology, this research aimed to analyze baropodometric records during upright position of subjects with hemiparesis, describing a way to define weight-bearing profiles in this population. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were matched by gender and age with 12 subjects with chronic spastic hemiparesis. This control group was formed to establish the limits of symmetry during weight-bearing distribution in the hemiparesis group. Next, hemiparesis group was submitted to procedures to measure baropodometric records used to provide variables related to the weight-bearing distribution, the arch index and the displacements in the center of pressure (CoP. Data were used to compare differences among kinds of weight-bearing distribution (symmetric, asymmetric toward non-paretic or paretic foot and coordination system for CoP displacements. RESULTS: Hemiparesis group was compounded by eight symmetrics, eight asymmetrics toward non-paretic foot and four asymmetric toward paretic foot. Significant differences in the weight-bearing distributions between non-predominantly and predominantly used foot did not promote differences in the other baropodometric records (peak and mean of pressure, and support area. Mainly in the asymmetry toward non-paretic foot it was observed significant modifications of the baropodometric records. CONCLUSION: Baropodometric technology can be used to analyze weight-bearing distribution during upright position of subjects with hemiparesis, detecting different kinds of weight-bearing profiles useful to therapeutic programs and researches involving subjects with this disability.

  4. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  5. Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available We use the formalism of Clifford Geometric Algebra (GA to develop an analysis of quantum versions of three-player non-cooperative games. The quantum games we explore are played in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR type setting. In this setting, the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game that is obtained as a proper subset of the corresponding quantum game. Using GA we investigate the outcome of a realization of the game by players sharing GHZ state, W state, and a mixture of GHZ and W states. As a specific example, we study the game of three-player Prisoners' Dilemma.

  6. Using microsatellite markers to analyze genetic diversity in 14 sheep types in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vajed Ebrahimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of genetic relationship among populations has been traditionally based on the analysis of allele frequencies at different loci. The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of five microsatellite markers (McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35 and study genetic diversity of 14 sheep types in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 565 individuals using an optimized salting-out DNA extraction procedure. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was successfully performed with the specific primers. Some locus–population combinations were not at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0. 05. The microsatellite analysis revealed high allelic and gene diversity in all 14 breeds. Pakistani and Arabi breeds showed the highest mean number of alleles (11.8 and 11 respectively, while the highest value for polymorphic information content was observed for the Arabi breed (0.88. A UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram based on the Nei's standard genetic distance among studied breeds showed a separate cluster for Arabi and Pakistani breeds and another cluster for other breeds. The Shannon index (H0 for McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35 was 2.31, 2.17, 2.27, 2.04 and 2.18, respectively, and polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.88, 0.92, 0.87, 0.84, and 0.86 for McMA2, BM6444, McMA26, HSC, and OarHH35, respectively. The high degree of variability demonstrated within the studied sheep types implies that these populations are rich reservoirs of genetic diversity that must be preserved.

  7. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  8. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  9. Automation of a McBain-Bakr-type thermogravimetric analyzer using a digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.D.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Singh, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis was used to obtain corrosion kinetics data for several materials in high-temperature environments. A thermogravimetric analyzer has been developed that uses a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance in conjunction with a digital image acquisition and analysis package to accurately characterize materials through image correlation. This provides a new method for automatically measuring mass changes continuously with a variable resolution depending on the spring component. The decomposition of calcium oxalate was used to verify the validity of the technique. The results show two reactions, whose reaction temperatures were determined by the intercept method, upon heating to 650 deg. C. The mass loss at the first reaction temperature, 200 deg. C, was 20% and a 30% loss was observed at 500 deg. C. Comparison of the experimentally obtained results with those of other researchers who used commercial instruments suggests that the method of using digital image analysis in conjunction with a spring to monitor mass change is a viable and accurate replacement for automatic electrobalances and cathetometers for thermal analysis of materials. Additional comparison between corrosion tests performed on SA210 steel in H 2 S using both a commercial thermobalance and the developed technique confirmed that high-temperature corrosion can be monitored accurately with the proposed method

  10. The spread of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tissues of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei analyzed by PCR and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimmakthong, Umaporn; Sukkarun, Pimwarang

    2017-12-01

    V. parahaemolyticus are bacteria that cause the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), or Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), in shrimp. To further understand the pathogenesis mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus infection in shrimp, the spreading of this bacterium in various tissues was investigated. The spread of infection in shrimp that were exposed to seawater bacteria was studied by PCR and histopathology at 1 min, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure. The PCR results showed that V. parahaemolyticus was at its most widespread at 6 h after exposure, at which point V. parahaemolyticus was found in the gills, hepatopancreas, intestine, muscles, and hemolymph. However, examinations after 6 h of infection found only small amounts of V. parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas and intestines. Histopathology of the hepatopancreas showed abnormalities on gross examination at 1 min-72 h after exposure. This study indicates that V. parahaemolyticus can spread quickly by using the hepatopancreas as the target tissue. After 6 h of infection, V. parahaemolyticus was eliminated by immune system while their toxins still caused damage to shrimp tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-01-01

    Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (PThe regression analysis showed that a strong positive (Pthe soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (Pthe relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback responses of the terrestrial ecosystem to environmental changes.

  12. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products. PMID:29020756

  13. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents' curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.

  14. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  15. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.

  16. Alteration of gene expression profile in Niemann-Pick type C mice correlates with tissue damage and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Vázquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a neurovisceral lipid storage disorder mainly characterized by unesterified cholesterol accumulation in lysosomal/late endosomal compartments, although there is also an important storage for several other kind of lipids. The main tissues affected by the disease are the liver and the cerebellum. Oxidative stress has been described in various NPC cells and tissues, such as liver and cerebellum. Although considerable alterations occur in the liver, the pathological mechanisms involved in hepatocyte damage and death have not been clearly defined. Here, we assessed hepatic tissue integrity, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters of wild-type control (Npc1(+/+; WT and homozygous-mutant (Npc1(-/-; NPC mice. In addition, the mRNA abundance of genes encoding proteins associated with oxidative stress, copper metabolism, fibrosis, inflammation and cholesterol metabolism were analyzed in livers and cerebella of WT and NPC mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed various oxidative stress parameters in the liver and hepatic and cerebellum gene expression in 7-week-old NPC1-deficient mice compared with control animals. We found signs of inflammation and fibrosis in NPC livers upon histological examination. These signs were correlated with increased levels of carbonylated proteins, diminished total glutathione content and significantly increased total copper levels in liver tissue. Finally, we analyzed liver and cerebellum gene expression patterns by qPCR and microarray assays. We found a correlation between fibrotic tissue and differential expression of hepatic as well as cerebellar genes associated with oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation in NPC mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In NPC mice, liver disease is characterized by an increase in fibrosis and in markers associated with oxidative stress. NPC is also correlated with altered gene expression, mainly of genes involved in oxidative stress

  17. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  18. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a means to discriminate various tissues types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Joshua; Favreau, Peter F.; Lopez, Carmen; Lall, Malvika; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Little is currently known about the fluorescence excitation spectra of disparate tissues and how these spectra change with pathological state. Current imaging diagnostic techniques have limited capacity to investigate fluorescence excitation spectral characteristics. This study utilized excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to perform a comprehensive assessment of fluorescence spectral signatures of various tissues. Immediately following tissue harvest, a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) were used to acquire hyperspectral image data from each sample. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 340 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). Spectra were examined for potential characteristic features such as consistent intensity peaks at specific wavelengths or intensity ratios among significant wavelengths. The resultant spectral features were conserved among tissues of similar molecular composition. Additionally, excitation spectra appear to be a mixture of pure endmembers with commonalities across tissues of varied molecular composition, potentially identifiable through GMM. These results suggest the presence of common autofluorescent molecules in most tissues and that excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging may serve as an approach for characterizing tissue composition as well as pathologic state. Future work will test the feasibility of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a contrast mode for discriminating normal and pathological tissues.

  19. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds Functionalized with Either Type I or Type II Collagen for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Henrique V; Sathy, Binulal N; Dudurych, Ivan; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration. To this end, a scaffold was designed with architectural cues to guide cellular and neo-tissue alignment, which was additionally functionalized with a range of extracellular matrix cues to direct stem cell differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage. Shape-memory properties were introduced by covalent cross-linking alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, while the architecture of the scaffold was modified using a directional freezing technique. Introducing such an aligned pore structure was found to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold, and promoted higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen deposition compared to an isotropic (nonaligned) pore geometry when seeded with adult human stem cells. Functionalization with collagen improved stem cell recruitment into the scaffold and facilitated more homogenous cartilage tissue deposition throughout the construct. Incorporating type II collagen into the scaffolds led to greater cell proliferation, higher sGAG and collagen accumulation, and the development of a stiffer tissue compared to scaffolds functionalized with type I collagen. The results of this study demonstrate how both scaffold architecture and composition can be tailored in a shape-memory alginate scaffold to direct stem cell differentiation and support the development of complex cartilaginous tissues.

  20. Evaluation of the lithology contents and types of clay minerals using downhole spectral analyzer of natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanov, M.; Savicic, M.; Grbovic, G.

    1992-01-01

    The microprocessor downhole spectrum analyzer of natural gamma radiation is an important part of the new generation of geophysical well logging systems. This instrument produces complete energy spectra of the penetrated formations. here physical principles of logging are shown. based on the logging results from one of the wells complex lithology was identified, together with shale contents in the formation and types of clay and minerals. (author)

  1. Review of English Language Library and Information Science Weblogs: Analyzing the Link between Weblog Types and Their Technical /Content Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Karami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weblog has become well established as one of the Web 2.0 products. Given the essential nature of their job, librarians and information professionals, can use weblog as a quick and easy mean for information and knowledge sharing. The present study reviews some 150 LIS weblogs in order to examine and analyze the link between weblog types (personal, library-owned or group operated with their content and technical structure. Webometric methods were deployed for selection of the sample. The findings indicated that there is a significant correlation between the weblog types and their update frequency. The same holds between the weblog types and their content. But no such significance was observed with respect to the weblog publishing tools. The investigators believe that the links uncovered could also hold true for Iranian LIS weblogs.

  2. The calculus and the design of a miniature quadrupole mass filter: a selected solution from different types of mass analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C.; Ioanoviciu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Chis, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mass spectrometers are very precise tools used in chemical and isotopic analysis for environmental surveillance. Traditionally environmental analysis is done by sampling the soil, air or water and taking the sample back to the laboratory for analysis. To avoid the difficulties related with the sample alteration during the sampling process and the transport the analysis 'in situ' is to be preferred. This type of analysis combines the sampling and analysis and produces an analytical result almost instantly. Fast-response detection methods are highly desirable in cases where relatively short-lived species are to be examined. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzers can be miniaturized, but some are better suited for miniaturization than others. We studied comparatively different types of mass analyzers that can be miniaturized, especially quadrupole, magnetic sector and time of flight types, in view to select from all these, the best solution for our purpose, the application to the 'in situ' environmental monitoring and inspection, analytical process control. We investigated and calculated the properties of some geometrical arrangements that we reported, one of these being a double focusing mass analyzer with electric deflector and magnetic deflector combined in a reversed geometry. From the different calculated versions we selected the following one, with the characteristic parameters: n = 62, f = 2 MHz, L = 0.07 m, r 0 = 2.616 x 10 -3 m, E z = 5 V, R housing = 3.5 r 0 , V m = 1000 V, R max = 200, M max = 200 u. Starting from these mechanical and electrical parameters we calculated and designed a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer. A theoretical study of the ion trajectories in the quadrupole analyzer by matrix formalism as well as by using Mathieu functions was made. Using the program SIMION 6, the trajectories inside the quadrupole filter were also simulated. The calculus of the ion trajectories starts by numerically solving of the Mathieu type equation

  3. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  4. Variability in Immunohistochemical Detection of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) in Cancer Tissue Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Giosuè; De Chiara, Anna; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Anniciello, Annamaria; De Cecio, Rossella; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Scala, Stefania; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    In normal cell physiology, programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, play an immunoregulatory role in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway also plays a critical role in immune escape of tumor cells and has been demonstrated to correlate with a poor prognosis of patients with several types of cancer. However, recent reports have revealed that the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the PD-L1 in tumor cells is not uniform for the use of different antibodies clones, with variable specificity, often doubtful topographical localization, and with a score not uniquely defined. The purpose of this study was to analyze the IHC expression of PD-L1 on a large series of several human tumors to correctly define its staining in different tumor tissues. PMID:27213372

  5. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  6. Type 2 diabetes-related proteins derived from an in vitro model of inflamed fat tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Sotiriou, Alexandros; Boeren, Sjef; Vaessen, Stefan; Vervoort, Jacques; Pieters, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6,

  7. On the nitrogen isotope dilution analysis by means of the automated NA-5A type 15N-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Mueller, G.; Stoerl, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical conditions are investigated under which quantitative nitrogen determination through isotope dilution analysis is possible using the NA-5A type 15 N-analyzer. Calculation of the nitrogen quantity, estimation of the maximum error and the evaluation technique are considered in detail. Test analyses performed on ammonia, urea, and amino acid nitrogen model solutions labelled in different ways yielded good correspondence with preset values. This technique was applied to determine the nitrogen content of biomedical materials. A working scheme for direct quantitative determination of ammonia-N, urea-N, and total-N in urine is presented. (author)

  8. Cell type-specific characterization of nuclear DNA contents within complex tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Georgina M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the presence of a nucleus, which encloses the chromosomal DNA, and is characterized by its DNA content (C-value. Complex eukaryotic organisms contain organs and tissues that comprise interspersions of different cell types, within which polysomaty, endoreduplication, and cell cycle arrest is frequently observed. Little is known about the distribution of C-values across different cell types within these organs and tissues. Results We have developed, and describe here, a method to precisely define the C-value status within any specific cell type within complex organs and tissues of plants. We illustrate the application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically focusing on the different cell types found within the root. Conclusion The method accurately and conveniently charts C-value within specific cell types, and provides novel insight into developmental processes. The method is, in principle, applicable to any transformable organism, including mammals, within which cell type specificity of regulation of endoreduplication, of polysomaty, and of cell cycle arrest is suspected.

  9. Postabsorptive hyperglucagonemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus analyzed with a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Miyagawa, Jun-Ichiro; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Ikawa, Takashi; Akagami, Takafumi; Tokuda, Masaru; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Kushida, Akira; Inagaki, Takashi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the performance of a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring glucagon (1-29) with monoclonal antibodies against both the C- and N-terminal regions of glucagon (1-29), and to analyze the differences in plasma levels and responses of glucagon (1-29) to oral glucose loading in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The cross-reactivity against proglucagon fragments using the ELISA kit and two types of conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits was evaluated. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out with NGT subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the glucagon (1-29) concentration was measured using three types of kit. The ELISA kit clearly had the lowest cross-reactivity against miniglucagon (19-29) and glicentin (1-61). The oral glucose tolerance test was carried out with 30 NGT and 17 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The glucagon (1-29) levels measured by the ELISA kit after glucose loading were significantly higher at all time-points in the type 2 diabetes mellitus group than in the NGT group. However, the glucagon (1-29) levels measured by one RIA kit were significantly higher in the NGT group, and those measured with the other RIA kit were approximately the same among the groups. The novel sandwich ELISA accurately determines plasma glucagon (1-29) concentrations with much less cross-reactivity against other proglucagon fragments than conventional RIA kits.

  10. Effects of two types of medical contrast media on routine chemistry results by three automated chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Jin; Rim, John Hoon; Yim, Jisook; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-08-01

    The use of iodinated contrast media has grown in popularity in the past two decades, but relatively little attention has been paid to the possible interferential effects of contrast media on laboratory test results. Herein, we investigate medical contrast media interference with routine chemistry results obtained by three automated chemistry analyzers. Ten levels of pooled serum were used in the study. Two types of medical contrast media [Iopamiro (iopamidol) and Omnipaque (iohexol)] were evaluated. To evaluate the dose-dependent effects of the contrast media, iopamidol and iohexol were spiked separately into aliquots of serum for final concentrations of 1.8%, 3.6%, 5.5%, 7.3%, and 9.1%. The 28 analytes included in the routine chemistry panel were measured by using Hitachi 7600, AU5800, and Cobas c702 analyzers. We calculated the delta percentage difference (DPD) between the samples and the control, and examined dose-dependent trends. When the mean DPD values were compared with the reference cut-off criteria, the only uniformly interferential effect observed for all analyzers was in total protein with iopamidol. Two additional analytes that showed trends toward interferential effects only in few analyzers and exceeded the limits of the allowable error were the serum iron and the total CO 2 . The other combinations of analyzer and contrast showed no consistent dose-dependent propensity for change in any analyte level. Our study suggests that many of the analytes included in routine chemistry results, except total protein and serum iron, are not significantly affected by iopamidol and iohexol. These results suggest that it would be beneficial to apply a flexible medical evaluation process for patients requiring both laboratory tests and imaging studies, minimizing the need for strict regulations for sequential tests. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  12. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  13. Synchrotron FTIR Imaging For The Identification Of Cell Types Within Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael J.; Pounder, F. Nell; Nasse, Michael J.; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hirschmugl, Carol; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    The use of synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been shown to be a very promising tool for biomedical research. S-FTIR spectroscopy allows for the fast acquisition of infrared (IR) spectra at a spatial resolution approaching the IR diffraction limit. The development of the Infrared Environmental Imaging (IRENI) beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has allowed for diffraction limited imaging measurements of cells in human prostate and breast tissues. This has allowed for the identification of cell types within tissues that would otherwise not have been resolvable using conventional FTIR sources.

  14. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    -cellular matrix (ECM) or estrogen. Methods Ten implants of each type were tested for 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. Histological assessment of connective tissue organization, inflammation, vascularization, and thickness of regenerated tissue was undertaken. Results All implants had a high degree of biocompatibility....... ECM-enriched implants had significantly higher inflammatory scores compared to pure implants at 3 weeks. At 8 weeks, neither of the parameters differed significantly. No trace of the implants remained. Conclusions The MPEG-PLGA is highly biocompatible, degrades quickly, and seems inert in the process...

  15. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging...... infusion. One hour post adrenaline, ATBF was still increased in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline increased microvascular volume in non-T2DM subjects while this response was impaired in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline-induced increase in lipolysis was similar in both groups, but NEFA output from...

  17. Measuring Mitochondrial Function in Permeabilized Cells Using the Seahorse XF Analyzer or a Clark-Type Oxygen Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaruni, Ajit S; Rogers, George W; Murphy, Anne N

    2014-05-27

    Measurements of mitochondrial respiration in intact cells can help define metabolism and its dysregulation in fields such as cancer, metabolic disease, immunology, and neurodegeneration. Although cells can be offered various substrates in the assay medium, many cell types can oxidize stored pools of energy substrates. A general bioenergetic profile can therefore be obtained using intact cells, but the inability to control substrate provision to the mitochondria can restrict an in-depth, mechanistic understanding. Mitochondria can be isolated from intact cells, but the yield and quality of the end product is often poor and prone to subselection during isolation. Plasma membrane permeabilization of cells provides a solution to this challenge, allowing experimental control of the medium surrounding the mitochondria. This unit describes techniques to measure respiration in permeabilized adherent cells using a Seahorse XF Analyzer or permeabilized suspended cells in a Hansatech Oxygraph. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Analyzing Structure and Function of Vascularization in Engineered Bone Tissue by Video-Rate Intravital Microscopy and 3D Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Tsigkou, Olga; Spencer, Joel A; Lin, Charles P; Neville, Craig; Grottkau, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Vascularization is a key challenge in tissue engineering. Three-dimensional structure and microcirculation are two fundamental parameters for evaluating vascularization. Microscopic techniques with cellular level resolution, fast continuous observation, and robust 3D postimage processing are essential for evaluation, but have not been applied previously because of technical difficulties. In this study, we report novel video-rate confocal microscopy and 3D postimage processing techniques to accomplish this goal. In an immune-deficient mouse model, vascularized bone tissue was successfully engineered using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold. Video-rate (30 FPS) intravital confocal microscopy was applied in vitro and in vivo to visualize the vascular structure in the engineered bone and the microcirculation of the blood cells. Postimage processing was applied to perform 3D image reconstruction, by analyzing microvascular networks and calculating blood cell viscosity. The 3D volume reconstructed images show that the hMSCs served as pericytes stabilizing the microvascular network formed by HUVECs. Using orthogonal imaging reconstruction and transparency adjustment, both the vessel structure and blood cells within the vessel lumen were visualized. Network length, network intersections, and intersection densities were successfully computed using our custom-developed software. Viscosity analysis of the blood cells provided functional evaluation of the microcirculation. These results show that by 8 weeks, the blood vessels in peripheral areas function quite similarly to the host vessels. However, the viscosity drops about fourfold where it is only 0.8 mm away from the host. In summary, we developed novel techniques combining intravital microscopy and 3D image processing to analyze the vascularization in engineered bone. These techniques have broad

  19. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  20. Tracking of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells using two magnetic nanoparticle types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, Annika; Siegmund, Birte J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 35 D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Grüttner, Cordula [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Warnemünde, D-18115 Rostock (Germany); Kühn, Jens-Peter [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald University Medical Center, D-17475 Greifswald (Germany); Frerich, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.frerich@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 35 D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be considered as an emerging detection technique for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells has been advocated for the cure of soft tissue defects or for persistent soft tissue augmentation. Adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells were differentiated into the adipogenic lineage and labeled with two different types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varying concentrations which resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of gene expression of adipogenic differentiation markers, adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), whereas the metabolic activity was not altered. As a result, only low nanoparticle concentrations for labeling were used for in vivo experiments. Cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. At 24 h as well as 28 days after implantation, MRI analyses were performed visualizing nanoparticle-labeled cells using T2-weighted sequences. The quantification of absolute volume of the scaffolds revealed a decrease of volume over time in all experimental groups. The distribution of nanoparticle-labeled cells within the scaffolds varied likewise over time. - Highlights: • Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles influenced the adipogenic differentiation of ASC. • Labeled cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and implanted in SCID mice. • Nanoparticle-labeled cells were visualized in vivo using T2-weighted sequences. • Volume of collagen scaffolds was decreased over time after implantation.

  1. Tracking of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells using two magnetic nanoparticle types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, Annika; Siegmund, Birte J.; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Frerich, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be considered as an emerging detection technique for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells has been advocated for the cure of soft tissue defects or for persistent soft tissue augmentation. Adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells were differentiated into the adipogenic lineage and labeled with two different types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varying concentrations which resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of gene expression of adipogenic differentiation markers, adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), whereas the metabolic activity was not altered. As a result, only low nanoparticle concentrations for labeling were used for in vivo experiments. Cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. At 24 h as well as 28 days after implantation, MRI analyses were performed visualizing nanoparticle-labeled cells using T2-weighted sequences. The quantification of absolute volume of the scaffolds revealed a decrease of volume over time in all experimental groups. The distribution of nanoparticle-labeled cells within the scaffolds varied likewise over time. - Highlights: • Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles influenced the adipogenic differentiation of ASC. • Labeled cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and implanted in SCID mice. • Nanoparticle-labeled cells were visualized in vivo using T2-weighted sequences. • Volume of collagen scaffolds was decreased over time after implantation

  2. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized glucose tolerance, reduced tissue inflammation, and reversal of clinical diabetes markers such as polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. These effects are independent of insulin but correlate with recovery of the animals’ white adipose tissue. BAT transplants lead to significant increases in adiponectin and leptin, but with levels that are static and not responsive to glucose. Pharmacological blockade of the insulin receptor in BAT transplant mice leads to impaired glucose tolerance, similar to what is seen in nondiabetic animals, indicating that insulin receptor activity plays a role in the reversal of diabetes. One possible candidate for activating the insulin receptor is IGF-1, whose levels are also significantly elevated in BAT transplant mice. Thus, we propose that the combined action of multiple adipokines establishes a new equilibrium in the animal that allows for chronic glycemic control without insulin. PMID:22315305

  3. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  4. Assessment of three types of spaceflight hardware for tissue culture studies: Comparison of skeletal tissue growth and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, B.J. [Space Medicine and Life Sciences Research Center Department of Anatomy Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. SW Atlanta, Georgia30310-1495 (United States); Spooner, B.S. [NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training Division of Biology Ackert Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas66506 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three different types of spaceflight hardware, the BioProcessing Module (BPM), the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA), and the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), were assessed for their ability to support pre-metatarsal growth and differentiation in experiments conducted on five space shuttle flights. BPM-cultured pre-metatarsal tissue showed no difference in flight and ground control lengths. Flight and ground controls cultured in the MDA grew 135 {mu}m and 141 {mu}m, respectively, in an 11 day experiment. Only five control rods and three flight rods mineralized. In another MDA experiment, pre-metatarsals were cultured at 4{degree}C (277K) or 20{degree}C (293K) for the 16 day mission, then cultured an additional 16 days in laboratory dishes at 37{degree}C (310K). The 20{degree}C (293K) cultures died post-flight. The 4{degree}C (277K) flight pre-metatarsals grew 417 {mu}m more than the 4{degree}C (277K) ground controls post-flight. In 5 and 6 day experiments done in FPAs, flight rods grew longer than ground control rods. In a 14 day experiment, ground control and flight rods also expanded in length, but there was no difference between them. The pre-metatarsals cultured in the FPAs did not mineralize, or terminally differentiate. These experiments demonstrate, that while supporting pre-metatarsal growth in length, the three types of hardware are not suitable to support routine differentiation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  6. A cytogenetic analysis of 2 cases of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Hodge, Jennelle C; Folpe, Andrew L; Oliveira, Andre M; Meyer, Kevin J; Jenkins, Robert B; Sim, Franklin H; Sukov, William R

    2012-08-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type is a rare, histologically distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia resulting from production of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23. Because of its rarity, specific genetic alterations that contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we report the abnormal karyotypes from 2 cases of confirmed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. G-banded analysis demonstrated the first tumor to have a karyotype of 46,Y,t(X;3;14)(q13;p25;q21)[15]/46XY[5], and the second tumor to have a karyotype of 46, XY,add(2)(q31),add(4)(q31.1)[2]/92,slx2[3]/46,sl,der(2)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),der(4)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),add(4)(q31.1)[10]/46,sdl,add(13)(q34)[4]/92,sdl2x2[1]. These represent what is, to our knowledge, the first examples of abnormal karyotypes obtained from phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  8. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L

    2017-05-01

    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for

  9. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  10. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  11. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  12. Tissue distribution and developmental expression of type XVI collagen in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C H; Chu, M L

    1996-04-01

    The expression of a recently identified collagen, alpha 1 (XVI), in adult mouse tissue and developing mouse embryo was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein, which contained a segment of 161 amino acids in the N-terminal noncollagenous domain of the human alpha 1 (XVI) collagen. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled human or mouse fibroblast cell lysates with this antibody revealed a major, bacterial collagenase sensitive polypeptide of approximately 210 kDa. The size agrees with the prediction from the full-length cDNA. Immunofluorescence examination of adult mouse tissues using the affinity purified antibody revealed a rather broad distribution of the protein. The heart, kidney, intestine, ovary, testis, eye, arterial walls and smooth muscles all exhibited significant levels of expression, while the skeletal muscle, lung and brain showed very restricted and low signals. During development, no significant expression of the mRNA or protein was observed in embryo of day 8 of gestation, but strong signals was detected in placental trophoblasts. Expression in embryos was detectable first after day 11 of gestation with weak positive signals appearing in the heart. In later stages of development, stronger RNA hybridizations were observed in a variety of tissues, particularly in atrial and ventricular walls of the developing heart, spinal root neural fibers and skin. These data demonstrate that type XVI collagen represents another collagenous component widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the structural integrity of various tissues.

  13. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Spector, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  14. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lu [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Tissue Engineering Center, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Spector, Myron, E-mail: luzhangmd@gmail.co [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  15. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Visceral adipose tissue macrophage-targeted TACE silencing to treat obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Seok-Beom; Song, Yoonsung; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent global health problem. Due to its close relations with metabolic diseases and cancer, new therapeutic approaches for treating obesity and obesity-induced metabolic diseases are required. Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) has been closely associated with obesity-induced inflammation and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are responsible for obesity-induced inflammation by releasing inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) is a transmembrane enzyme that induces the enzymatic cleavage and release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we developed a nonviral gene delivery system consisting of an oligopeptide (ATS-9R) that can selectively target visceral ATMs. In here we shows visceral adipose tissue-dominant inflammatory gene over-expressions in obese mouse and our strategy enabled the preferential delivery of therapeutic genes to visceral ATMs and successfully achieved ATM-targeted gene silencing. Finally, ATS-9R-mediated TACE gene silencing in visceral ATMs alleviated visceral fat inflammation and improved type 2 diabetes by reducing whole body inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Porosity, Mineralization, Tissue Type and Morphology Interactions at the Human Tibial Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Naomi A.

    Prior research has shown a relationship between tibia robustness (ratio of cross-sectional area to bone length) and stress fracture risk, with less robust bones having a higher risk, which may indicate a compensatory increase in elastic modulus to increase bending strength. Previous studies of human tibiae have shown higher ash content in slender bones. In this study, the relationships between variations in volumetric porosity, ash content, tissue mineral density, secondary bone tissue, and cross sectional geometry, were investigated in order to better understand the tissue level adaptations that may occur in the establishment of cross-sectional properties. In this research, significant differences were found between porosity, ash content, and tissue type around the cortex between robust and slender bones, suggesting that there was a level of co-adaption occurring. Variation in porosity correlated with robustness, and explained large parts of the variation in tissue mineral density. The nonlinear relationship between porosity and ash content may support that slender bones compensate for poor geometry by increasing ash content through reduced remodeling, while robust individuals increase porosity to decrease mass, but only to a point. These results suggest that tissue level organization plays a compensatory role in the establishment of adult bone mass, and may contribute to differences in bone aging between different bone phenotypes. The results suggest that slender individuals have significantly less remodeled bone, however the proportion of remodeled bone was not uniform around the tibia. In the complex results of the study of 38% vs. 66% sites the distal site was subject to higher strains than the 66% site, indicating both local and global regulators may be affecting overall remodeling rates and need to be teased apart in future studies. This research has broad clinical implications on the diagnosis and treatment of fragility fractures. The relationships that

  18. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  19. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  20. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD (Leriche-Fontaine classification were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P<.05 in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg. A significant difference (P<.05 was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P<.05 for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD.

  1. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in psychological stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a common illness worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the disorder remains incompletely understood. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen proteolytic cascade is highly expressed in the brain regions involved in mood regulation and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that tissue-type plasminogen activator and its chief inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, are related to stress reaction and depression. Fur...

  2. Increased lipids in non-lipogenic tissues are indicators of the severity of type 2 diabetes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Tofte, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Mu, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesised that the molecular changes triggered in type 2 diabetes might cause phenotypic changes in the lipid fraction of tissues. We compared tissue lipid profiles of inbred lean B6-Bom with those of the obese B6-ob/ob and diabetic BKS-db/db mice and found that genetically diabetic mice...... significantly accumulate fat (especially monounsaturated fatty acids, MUFA) in non-lipogenic tissues such as the eye (MUFA, 2-fold), skeletal muscle (MUFA, 13-fold) and pancreas (MUFA, 16-fold). In contrast, the B6-ob/ob mice which manifest a milder form of type 2 diabetes use the liver as their predominant...

  3. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Growth type of vertebral centra and the hard tissue observed by microradiography of the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, using three specimens (BL: 21.0, 29.0 and 40.0cm). We examined the ratio of centrum length to centrum diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.8-1.0 in most centra. This indicates that the vertebral centra of rainbow trout belong to the so-called equivalent type. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm)cut through the center of notochordal pore. The microradiograph of thin section of centrurn differentiated serially and changed in pattern, but it is clear to sustain the specific characteristics. In longitudinal sections, the V-shaped part of bone was composed of structure like compact bone through the length of vertebral column. In cross sections, the notochordal pore was enclosed by the radial trabecular bones, the arrangement gradually turning toward the posterior centra like paired fans set opposite each other laterally

  5. Measurement of human tissue-type plasminogen activator by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; De Cock, F.; Collen, D.

    1983-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator was developed by using rabbit antibodies raised against plasminogen activator purified from human melanoma cell culture fluid. Samples of 100 μl containing 1 to 100 ng/ml plasminogen activator were incubated in the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates coated with antibody. The amount of bound extrinsic plasminogen activator was quantitated by the subsequent binding of 125 I-labeled affinospecific antibody. The mean level of plasma samples taken at rest was 6.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml (n = 54). This level increased approximately threefold by exhaustive physical exercise, venous occlusion, or infusion of DDAVP. Extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and active component (1.9 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, n = 54, in resting conditions) and an inactive component that does not bind to a fibrin clot (probably extrinsic plasminogen activator-proteinase inhibitor complexes). The fibrin-adsorbable fraction increased approximately fivefold to eightfold after physical exercise, venous occlusion, or DDAVP injections. Potential applications of the immunoradiometric assay are illustrated by the measurement of extrinsic plasminogen activator in different tissue extracts, body fluids, and cell culture fluids and in oocyte translation products after injection with mRNA for plasminogen activator

  6. The analyzing stratum formation and sediment environment using TEM for finding sandstone type uranium deposits in Mahuangquan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; He Jianguo; Zhao Cuiping; Lou Hansheng

    2010-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is used to detect deep geological information for insidious sandstone type uranium deposits in Mahuangquan area. TEM surveying data is processed to build the relation between resistance rate and different petrology, to ensure three large electronic strata, and to explain the space position of sediment center and alluvial fan. Combining with ore control factors of sandstone type uranium deposit, it can conclude that the slope area and the alluvial fan are the key areas for further exploration work. (authors)

  7. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M.

    1990-01-01

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between 125 I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase

  8. PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF TISSUE-ENGINEERED PANCREATIC CONSTRUCTS IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Skaletskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allotransplantation of pancreatic islets remains the most effective method of treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 being capable under combination of favorable conditions (suffi cient number of isolated islets, effective combination of immunosuppressive drugs to reach the recipients’ insulin independence for several years. However, the overwhelming shortage of donor pancreas and limited post-transplantation islet survival do not allow increasing the number of such transplants and their effectiveness. This review presents a critical analysis of the work done by Russian and foreign authors onto creation of tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs that may lead to the resolution of the three main pancreatic islet transplantation issues: 1 lack of donor material; 2 necessity of immunosuppressive therapy; 3 limited survival and functional activity of the islet.

  9. The comparative morphology of the muscle tissues and changes in constituents in the pig types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, G; Fazekas, S; Sándor, I; Kollár, N

    1990-09-01

    The authors have revealed the main value characteristics of pork production by testing in five different types of pig the volume of contractile and collagen proteins, that of proteoglycans, the constituents of blood and the enzymes of the blood plasma. The contractile proteins of the muscle tissues basically determine the quality of pork. The same applies to the water retention capacity, colloidal characteristics and glycogen content of meat. The amount of contractile proteins has decreased in the best meat producing types of pig. Parallel with the decrease of white meat, and with the increase in the volume of ham, chop and chuck the contractile protein content of muscles decreased. The scientific fact according to which there is a certain correlation among the changes in the volume of contractile proteins, blood sugar level, blood serum CPK and the intensity of activity of the LDH enzymes promotes the qualifying of live animals and the work of the geneticists aiming at the increasing of the contractile protein content of the muscle tissues of pigs by selection. According to tests carried out by us the primary cause of PSE changes is a decreased volume of contractile proteins. Increased stress sensitivity and all the other factors have but a secondary importance and are all consequential. The decrease in the quantity of contractile proteins or--it is better to put it this way--the lack of the proper amount of such proteins characterizing a fully developed pig's organism is caused by the nowadays usual breeding technologies and can be well explained by those selection activities which aim at a one-sided kind of pork production.

  10. [Rhein promotes the expression of SIRT1 in kidney tissues of type 2 diabetic rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chang, Baochao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effect of rhein on the expression of SIRT1(Sirtuin 1) in kidney of diabetic rats, and to explore the role of rhein in protecting rat kidney against diabetic nephropathy and possible mechanism. The type 2 diabetic rats were induced by high-glucose and high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body mass). Seventy-five eight-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, diabetic group, low-, medium- and high-dose (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) rhein treatment groups and 10 mg/kg pioglitazone treatment group. The rats were given corresponding substances intragastrically once a day. At the end of the 16th week, the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), serum creatinine (Scr) and 24 hours urine protein (24 h U-PRO) were determined. The renal hypertrophy index (KM/BM), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The pathological changes in renal tissues were examined by PAS staining under a light microscopy. The mean glomerular area (MGA) and mean glomerular volume (MGV) were measured by pathological image analysis system. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR were used to determine the expression of SIRT1 in renal tissues at protein and mRNA levels, respectively. The expression of SIRT1 was down-regulated in the kidney of diabetic rats. The levels of FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, Scr, 24 h U-PRO, KM/BM, MGA and MGV significantly decreased and the histopathology of renal tissues were significantly improved in all treatment groups compared with diabetic group. The expression of SIRT1 mRNA and protein markedly increased in rhein treatment groups and pioglitazone treatment group compared with diabetic group. The indicators in high-dose rhein treatment group were improved more significantly than those in the other groups. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of SIRT1 was negatively correlated with 24 h U-PRO and MGV. The expression of SIRT1 was

  11. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: A document type definition to validate and enhance XML data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohle, David G; Ayers, Leona W

    2005-01-01

    Background The Association for Pathology Informatics (API) Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) TMA Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) proposed in April 2003 provides a community-based, open source tool for sharing tissue microarray (TMA) data in a common format. Each tissue core within an array has separate data including digital images; therefore an organized, common approach to produce, navigate and publish such data facilitates viewing, sharing and merging TMA data from different laboratories. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) is a HIV/AIDS tissue bank consortium sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD). The ACSR offers HIV-related malignancies and uninfected control tissues in microarrays (TMA) accompanied by de-identified clinical data to approved researchers. Exporting our TMA data into the proposed API specified format offers an opportunity to evaluate the API specification in an applied setting and to explore its usefulness. Results A document type definition (DTD) that governs the allowed common data elements (CDE) in TMA DES export XML files was written, tested and evolved and is in routine use by the ACSR. This DTD defines TMA DES CDEs which are implemented in an external file that can be supplemented by internal DTD extensions for locally defined TMA data elements (LDE). Conclusion ACSR implementation of the TMA DES demonstrated the utility of the specification and allowed application of a DTD to validate the language of the API specified XML elements and to identify possible enhancements within our TMA data management application. Improvements to the specification have additionally been suggested by our experience in importing other institution's exported TMA data. Enhancements to TMA DES to remove ambiguous situations and clarify the data should be considered. Better specified identifiers and hierarchical relationships will make automatic use of the data possible. Our tool can be

  12. Tumor type resulting in upgrade: An analysis based on 333 low grade soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS are rare tumors. Based on histopathological criteria, three grades are distinguished from low (G1 to intermediate (G2 and high grade (G3. After complete initial surgical resection, some G1 STS recur as lesions with an upgrade of a previous G1 STS to a recurrent G2 STS. This upgrade indicates higher malignancy of the STS. Our aim was to find possible risk factors for these upgrades including age, localization of tumor and tumor type. Methods: This retrospective case-control study evaluated 333 patients. Of these 333, 54.7% were male and 45.3% female. All patients underwent R0 resections and among these, 10% subsequently upgraded. The processed data include age, gender, tumor type, tumor localization, local recurrence and upgrade. Results: Patients with upgrades have a higher mean age of 5.5 years than our reference collective. The tumor type has a significant effect on upgrades. Patients with fibrosarcomas are at a threefold risk of an upgrade compared to patients with other G1 STS.Conclusion: Our results indicate that age and tumor type play a key role in upgrades in G1 STS. Patients, age 60 and above and diagnosed with G1 fibrosarcomas, are three times as likely to upgrade compared to patients younger than 60 with other G1 STS. We discuss the significance of these risk factors and whether aside from complete tumor resection, additional therapies (e.g. irradiation may be applied to improve therapeutic outcome.

  13. Activity deprivation induces neuronal cell death: mediation by tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldi Schonfeld-Dado

    Full Text Available Spontaneous activity is an essential attribute of neuronal networks and plays a critical role in their development and maintenance. Upon blockade of activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX, neurons degenerate slowly and die in a manner resembling neurodegenerative diseases-induced neuronal cell death. The molecular cascade leading to this type of slow cell death is not entirely clear. Primary post-natal cortical neurons were exposed to TTX for up to two weeks, followed by molecular, biochemical and immunefluorescence analysis. The expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase (NSE, was down-regulated, as expected, but surprisingly, there was a concomitant and striking elevation in expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that tPA was highly elevated inside affected neurons. Transfection of an endogenous tPA inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, protected the TTX-exposed neurons from dying. These results indicate that tPA is a pivotal player in slowly progressing activity deprivation-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. IMPACTS OF TISSUE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA ON NEURONAL SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eChevilley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA. In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival.

  15. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that the postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increase is accompanied by capillary recruitment in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the postprandial capillary recruitment in adipose tissue is affected in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight type 2 diabetic overweight male....... No significant changes were found in the ATBF or in capillary recruitment in the type 2 diabetic subjects. There was no significant blood flow or microvascular blood volume changes in forearm skeletal muscle in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: After an oral glucose load, the abdominal ATBF and microvascular...... blood volume changes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are impaired in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched healthy subjects....

  16. The MiAge Calculator: a DNA methylation-based mitotic age calculator of human tissue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ahrim; Wang, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is important in human aging and cancer. The estimation of the number of cell divisions (mitotic age) of a given tissue type in individuals is of great interest as it allows not only the study of biological aging (using a new molecular aging target) but also the stratification of prospective cancer risk. Here, we introduce the MiAge Calculator, a mitotic age calculator based on a novel statistical framework, the MiAge model. MiAge is designed to quantitatively estimate mitotic age (total number of lifetime cell divisions) of a tissue using the stochastic replication errors accumulated in the epigenetic inheritance process during cell divisions. With the MiAge model, the MiAge Calculator was built using the training data of DNA methylation measures of 4,020 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from eight TCGA cancer types and was tested using the testing data of DNA methylation measures of 2,221 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples of five other TCGA cancer types. We showed that within each of the thirteen cancer types studied, the estimated mitotic age is universally accelerated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Across the thirteen cancer types, we showed that worse cancer survivals are associated with more accelerated mitotic age in tumor tissues. Importantly, we demonstrated the utility of mitotic age by showing that the integration of mitotic age and clinical information leads to improved survival prediction in six out of the thirteen cancer types studied. The MiAge Calculator is available at http://www.columbia.edu/∼sw2206/softwares.htm .

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Feng Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type milk lysozyme gene (YML, was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75 which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZαA and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity.

  18. Beneficial Autoimmunity at Body Surfaces – Immune Surveillance and Rapid Type 2 Immunity Regulate Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:25101088

  19. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces - immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress - a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  20. Dynamic culture induces a cell type-dependent response impacting on the thickness of engineered connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Guillaume Marceau; Gauvin, Robert; Proulx, Maryse; Vallée, Maud; Fradette, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal cells are central to connective tissue homeostasis and are widely used for tissue-engineering applications. Dermal fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) allow successful tissue reconstruction by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. This method leads to the production of multilayered tissues, devoid of exogenous biomaterials, that can be used as stromal compartments for skin or vesical reconstruction. These tissues are formed by combining cell sheets, generated through cell stimulation with ascorbic acid, which favours the cell-derived production/organization of matrix components. Since media motion can impact on cell behaviour, we investigated the effect of dynamic culture on mesenchymal cells during tissue reconstruction, using the self-assembly method. Tissues produced using ASCs in the presence of a wave-like movement were nearly twice thicker than under standard conditions, while no difference was observed for tissues produced from dermal fibroblasts. The increased matrix deposition was not correlated with an increased proliferation of ASCs, or by higher transcript levels of fibronectin or collagens I and III. A 30% increase of type V collagen mRNA was observed. Interestingly, tissues engineered from dermal fibroblasts featured a four-fold higher level of MMP-1 transcripts under dynamic conditions. Mechanical properties were similar for tissues reconstructed using dynamic or static conditions. Finally, cell sheets produced using ASCs under dynamic conditions could readily be manipulated, resulting in a 2 week reduction of the production time (from 5 to 3 weeks). Our results describe a distinctive property of ASCs' response to media motion, indicating that their culture under dynamic conditions leads to optimized tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenonen Arja

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. Methods 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6 yrs with T2D were randomized to supervised training four times a week and standard therapy (E, or standard treatment alone (C for 12 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, oxygen consumption (VO2max, and muscle strength (Sit-up were measured. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI was used to determine the average maximal mitral annular early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic as well as systolic (Sa velocities, systolic strain (ε and strain rate (έ from the septum, and an estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (E/Ea. Results Exercise capacity (VO2max, E 32.0 to 34.7 vs. C 32.6 to 31.5 ml/kg/min, p = .001, muscle strength (E 12.7 to 18.3 times vs. C 14.6 to 14.7 times, p 1c (E 8.2 to 7.5% vs. C 8.0 to 8.4%, p = .006 improved significantly in the exercise group compared to the controls (ANOVA. Systolic blood pressure decreased in the E group (E 144 to 138 mmHg vs. C 146 to 144 mmHg, p = .04. Contrary to risk factor changes diastolic long axis relaxation did not improve significantly, early diastolic velocity Ea from 8.1 to 7.9 cm/s for the E group vs. C 7.4 to 7.8 cm/s (p = .85, ANOVA. Likewise, after 12 months the mitral annular systolic velocity, systolic strain and strain rate, as well as E/Ea were unchanged. Conclusion Exercise training improves endurance and muscle fitness in T2D, resulting in better glycemic control and reduced blood pressure. However, myocardial diastolic tissue velocities did not change significantly. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention may be needed in order to reverse diastolic impairment in diabetics, if at all

  2. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim...... was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset...... necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin and resistin were all unaffected by IL6 infusion, but plasma resistin was lower in the diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Conclusions/interpretation  The observation that PPARGC1A and the PPARs were upregulated in the adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic patients...

  3. Role of TGF-beta1 in relation to exercise-induced type I collagen synthesis in human tendinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens L

    2003-01-01

    synthesis, is released from cultured tendon fibroblasts in response to mechanical loading. Thus TGF-beta1 could link mechanical loading and collagen synthesis in tendon tissue in vivo. Tissue levels of TGF-beta1 and type I collagen metabolism markers [procollagen I COOH-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH...... exercise (P insertion was markedly delayed by exercise compared with the decay seen in resting subjects...

  4. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A FISK-TYPE HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD. I. ANALYZING ULYSSES/KET ELECTRON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternal, O.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Potgieter, M. S.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of energetic charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field is one of the fundamental problems in heliophysics. In particular, the structure of the heliospheric magnetic field remains an unsolved problem and is discussed as a controversial topic. The first successful analytic approach to the structure of the heliospheric magnetic field was the Parker field. However, the measurements of the Ulysses spacecraft at high latitudes revealed the possible need for refinements of the existing magnetic field model during solar minimum. Among other reasons, this led to the development of the Fisk field. This approach is highly debated and could not be ruled out with magnetic field measurements so far. A promising method to trace this magnetic field structure is to model the propagation of electrons in the energy range of a few MeV. Employing three-dimensional and time-dependent simulations of the propagation of energetic electrons, this work shows that the influence of a Fisk-type field on the particle transport in the heliosphere leads to characteristic variations of the electron intensities on the timescale of a solar rotation. For the first time it is shown that the Ulysses count rates of 2.5-7 MeV electrons contain the imprint of a Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field structure. From a comparison of simulation results and the Ulysses count rates, realistic parameters for the Fisk theory are derived. Furthermore, these parameters are used to investigate the modeled relative amplitudes of protons and electrons, including the effects of drifts.

  5. Selecting "saviour siblings": reconsidering the regulation in Australia of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in conjunction with tissue typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been developed to enable the selection of a tissue type matched "saviour sibling" for a sick child. This article examines the current regulatory framework governing PGD in Australia. The availability of PGD in Australia to create a saviour sibling depends on the regulation of ART services by each State and Territory. The limitations on the use of PGD vary throughout Australia, according to the level of regulation of ART in each jurisdiction. This article considers the limitations on the use of PGD for tissue typing in Australia and argues that some of these should be removed for a more consistent national approach. In particular, the focus in ART legislation on the "paramount interests" of the child to be born is inappropriate for the application of tissue typing, which necessarily involves the interests of other family members.

  6. Adipose tissue inflammation: feeding the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Victoria R; Smith, Kerrie A; Carter, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    The global increase in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represents a burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Of particular concern is the increased morbidity associated with T2DM, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to premature death. Obesity initially leads to the development of insulin resistance in adipose and other tissues. Insulin resistance is initially compensated by increased insulin secretion but ultimately insufficient insulin is produced and this leads to the development of T2DM. Understanding the causal mechanisms underpinning the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance may be beneficial in improving quality of life and life expectancy, with the potential for a major global impact on healthcare systems. There is abundant evidence from animal, human studies and in vitro studies to support functional roles for a number of inflammatory factors in obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this review we provide an overview of the evidence supporting a fundamental role for the fluid phase (in particular the complement system) and the cellular components of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and ultimately development of T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  8. Tissue-type plasminogen activator contributes to remodeling of the rat ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junichi; Nicho, Naoki; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Satoko; Umemura, Masanari; Fujita, Takayuki; Ito, Shuichi; Taniguchi, Hideki; Asou, Toshihide; Masuda, Munetaka; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Aims The ductus arteriosus (DA) closes after birth to adapt to the robust changes in hemodynamics, which require intimal thickening (IT) to occur. The smooth muscle cells of the DA have been reported to play important roles in IT formation. However, the roles of the endothelial cells (ECs) have not been fully investigated. We herein focused on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is a DA EC dominant gene, and investigated its contribution to IT formation in the DA. Methods and results ECs from the DA and aorta were isolated from fetal rats using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RT-PCR showed that the t-PA mRNA expression level was 2.7-fold higher in DA ECs than in aortic ECs from full-term rat fetuses (gestational day 21). A strong immunoreaction for t-PA was detected in pre-term and full-term rat DA ECs. t-PA-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion activates gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gelatin zymography revealed that plasminogen supplementation significantly promoted activation of the elastolytic enzyme MMP-2 in rat DA ECs. In situ zymography demonstrated that marked gelatinase activity was observed at the site of disruption in the internal elastic laminae (IEL) in full-term rat DA. In a three-dimensional vascular model, EC-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion augmented the IEL disruption. In vivo administration of plasminogen to pre-term rat fetuses (gestational day 19), in which IT is poorly formed, promoted IEL disruption accompanied by gelatinase activation and enhanced IT formation in the DA. Additionally, experiments using five human DA tissues demonstrated that the t-PA expression level was 3.7-fold higher in the IT area than in the tunica media. t-PA protein expression and gelatinase activity were also detected in the IT area of the human DAs. Conclusion t-PA expressed in ECs may help to form IT of the DA via activation of MMP-2 and disruption of IEL. PMID:29304073

  9. Human papillomavirus in normal conjunctival tissue and in conjunctival papilloma: types and frequencies in a large series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia; Norrild, Bodil; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Vinding, Troels; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-08-01

    To examine conjunctival papilloma and normal conjunctival tissue for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV). Archival paraffin wax-embedded tissue from 165 conjunctival papillomas and from 20 histological normal conjunctival biopsy specimens was analysed for the presence of HPV by PCR. Specimens considered HPV positive using consensus primers, but with a negative or uncertain PCR result using type-specific HPV probes, were analysed with DNA sequencing. HPV was present in 86 of 106 (81%) beta-globin-positive papillomas. HPV type 6 was positive in 80 cases, HPV type 11 was identified in 5 cases and HPV type 45 was present in a single papilloma. All the 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were beta-globin positive and HPV negative. There is a strong association between HPV and conjunctival papilloma. The study presents the largest material of conjunctival papilloma investigated for HPV and the first investigation of HPV in normal conjunctival tissue. HPV types 6 and 11 are the most common HPV types in conjunctival papilloma. This also is the first report of HPV type 45 in conjunctival papilloma.

  10. A comparative study on collagen type I and hyaluronic acid dependent cell behavior for osteochondral tissue bioprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Seob; Park, Hyoungjun; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Dong-Woo; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that cells on hydrogels that were comprised of major native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e. chondrocytes on HA hydrogels and osteoblasts on Col-1 hydrogels) exhibited better proliferation and cell function than cells on non-native ECM hydrogels (i.e., chondrocytes on Col-1 hydrogels and osteoblasts on HA hydrogels). In addition, cells located near their native ECM hydrogels migrated towards them. Finally, we bioprinted three-dimensional (3D) osteochondral tissue-mimetic structures composed of two compartments, osteoblast-encapsulated Col-1 hydrogels and chondrocyte-encapsulated HA hydrogels, and found viability and functions of each cell type were well maintained within the 3D structures up to 14 days in vitro. These results suggest that with proper choice of hydrogel materials, bioprinting-based approaches can be successfully applied for osteochondral tissue regeneration. (paper)

  11. A comparative study on collagen type I and hyaluronic acid dependent cell behavior for osteochondral tissue bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Sung Won; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that cells on hydrogels that were comprised of major native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e. chondrocytes on HA hydrogels and osteoblasts on Col-1 hydrogels) exhibited better proliferation and cell function than cells on non-native ECM hydrogels (i.e., chondrocytes on Col-1 hydrogels and osteoblasts on HA hydrogels). In addition, cells located near their native ECM hydrogels migrated towards them. Finally, we bioprinted three-dimensional (3D) osteochondral tissue-mimetic structures composed of two compartments, osteoblast-encapsulated Col-1 hydrogels and chondrocyte-encapsulated HA hydrogels, and found viability and functions of each cell type were well maintained within the 3D structures up to 14 days in vitro. These results suggest that with proper choice of hydrogel materials, bioprinting-based approaches can be successfully applied for osteochondral tissue regeneration.

  12. Assessing the Functional Limitations of Lipids and Fatty Acids for Diet Determination: The Importance of Tissue Type, Quantity, and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and fatty acid (FA analysis is commonly used to describe the trophic ecology of an increasing number of taxa. However, the applicability of these analyses is contingent upon the collection and storage of sufficient high quality tissue, the limitations of which are previously unexplored in elasmobranchs. Using samples from 110 white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, collected throughout Australia, we investigated the importance of tissue type, sample quantity, and quality for reliable lipid class and FA analysis. We determined that muscle and sub-dermal tissue contain distinct lipid class and FA profiles, and were not directly comparable. Muscle samples as small as 12 mg dry weight (49 mg wet weight, provided reliable and consistent FA profiles, while sub-dermal tissue samples of 40 mg dry weight (186 mg wet weight or greater were required to yield consistent profiles. This validates the suitability of minimally invasive sampling methods such as punch biopsies. The integrity of FA profiles in muscle was compromised after 24 h at ambient temperature (~20°C, making these degraded samples unreliable for accurate determination of dietary sources, yet sub-dermal tissue retained stable FA profiles under the same conditions, suggesting it may be a more robust tissue for trophic ecology work with potentially degraded samples. However, muscle samples archived for up to 16 years in −20°C retain their FA profiles, highlighting that tissue from museum or private collections can yield valid insights into the trophic ecology of marine elasmobranchs.

  13. Effects of three different types of antifreeze proteins on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewang Lee

    Full Text Available Ovarian tissue (OT cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function.This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair (DDR, respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control. Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared.In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL

  14. Evaluation of peripheral vasodilative indices in skin tissue of type 1 diabetic rats by use of RGB images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a method to evaluate the arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats from RGB digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the dorsal reversed McFarlane skin flap are calculated based on the responses of change in the total blood concentration to occlusion of blood flow to and from the flap tissues at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin flap tissue were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic rat group compared with the non-diabetic rat group. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus.

  15. [Intervention of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on expressions of connective tissue growth factor, type I collagen, and type III collage in acute paraquat poisoned rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Yang, Hui-fang; Zhang, Ping; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    To observe the changes in the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type I collagen (Col I), and type III collagen (Col III) among the rats with acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning and the intervention effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on their expression, and to investigate the mechanism of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the intervention effect of PDTC on the disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), PQ group (n = 36), and PQ + PDTC group (n = 36). The PQ group and PQ + PDTC group were given a single dose of saline-diluted PQ (80 mg/kg) by gavage; 2 h later, the PQ + PDTC group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of PDTC (100 mg/kg), and the PQ group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline. The control group was given saline (1 ml/kg) by gavage and was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline 2h later. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 25, and 56 days after operation, the protein expression of CTGF was evaluated by Western blot; the mRNA expression of CTGF, Col I, and Col III was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR; the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured, and the pathological changes of lung tissue of the poisoned rats were observed. The protein expression of CTGF in the PQ group increased as the time went on, slowly from the 3rd to the 14th day and rapidly from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of CTGF in the PQ group began to rise markedly on the 1st day, increased rapidly from the 3rd to the 14th day, and remained at a relatively high level from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of Col I in the PQ group changed little on the 1st and 3rd day, increased slightly on the 7th day, and increased greatly from the 14th to the 56th day, significantly

  16. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), tissue factor (TF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Kiss, Katalin; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor-specific biomarkers are a prerequisite for the development of targeted imaging and therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR), Tissue Factor (TF) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) are three biomarkers that exhib...... with a reduced survival. uPAR seems to be a prognostic biomarker in oral cancer....

  17. Introduction of lysine and clot binding properties in the kringle one domain of tissue-type plasminogen activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Greef, W. van der; Rehberg, E.F.; Marotti, K.R.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the high overall similarity in primary structure between kringle one (K1) and kringle two (K2) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) there exists an enormous functional difference. It is thought that, in contrast to K1, K2 mediates lysine binding and fibrin binding and is involved in

  18. Reduction of /sup 51/Cr-permeability of tissue culture cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Habermehl, K.O.; Diefenthal, W.; Hampl, H.

    1979-01-01

    Infection of different strains of tissue culture cells with herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) resulted in a reduced /sup 51/Cr-permeability. A stability of the cellular membrane to Triton X-100, toxic sera and HSV-specific complement-mediated immune-cytolysis could be observed simultaneously. The results differed with respect to the cell strain used in the experiments.

  19. Local angiotensin II promotes adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells through type 2 angiotensin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Y. Sysoeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is often associated with high systemic and local activity of renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue are the main source of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to clarify how local RAS could control adipose differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs. We examined the distribution of angiotensin receptor expressing cells in human adipose tissue and found that type 1 and type 2 receptors are co-expressed in its stromal compartment, which is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells. To study the expression of receptors specifically in ADSCs we have isolated them from adipose tissue. Up to 99% of cultured ADSCs expressed angiotensin II (AngII receptor type 1 (AT1. Using the analysis of Ca2+ mobilization in single cells we found that only 5.2 ± 2.7% of ADSCs specifically respond to serial Ang II applications via AT1 receptor and expressed this receptor constantly. This AT1const ADSCs subpopulation exhibited increased adipose competency, which was triggered by endogenous AngII. Inhibitory and expression analyses showed that AT1const ADSCs highly co-express AngII type 2 receptor (AT2, which was responsible for increased adipose competency of this ADSC subpopulation.

  20. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in psychological stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-12-22

    Major depressive disorder is a common illness worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the disorder remains incompletely understood. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen proteolytic cascade is highly expressed in the brain regions involved in mood regulation and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that tissue-type plasminogen activator and its chief inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, are related to stress reaction and depression. Furthermore, the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression postulates that compromised neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression. In the brain, the proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF, a BDNF precursor, to mature BDNF through plasmin represents one mechanism that can change the direction of BDNF action. We also discuss the implications of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 alterations as biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Using drugs that increase tissue-type plasminogen activator or decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels may open new avenues to develop conceptually novel therapeutic strategies for depression treatment.

  1. Liver fat content is linked to inflammatory changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henry J; Vervoort, Gerald M; van der Graaf, Marinette; Stienstra, Rinke; Tack, Cees J

    2013-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are typically overweight and have an increased liver fat content (LFAT). High LFAT may be explained by an increased efflux of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue, which is partly instigated by inflammatory changes. This would imply an association between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. To analyse associations between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. A cross-sectional study. Twenty-seven obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM were studied. LFAT content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A subcutaneous (sc) fat biopsy was obtained to determine morphology and protein levels within adipose tissue. In addition to fat cell size, the percentage of macrophages and the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) within sc fat were assessed by CD68-immunohistochemical staining. Mean LFAT percentage was 11·1 ± 1·7% (range: 0·75-32·9%); 63% of the patients were diagnosed with an elevated LFAT (upper range of normal ≤5·5%). Whereas adipocyte size did not correlate with LFAT, 3 of 4 subjects with CLSs in sc fat had elevated LFAT and the percentage of macrophages present in sc adipose tissue was positively associated with LFAT. Protein concentrations of adiponectin within adipose tissue negatively correlated with LFAT. Adipose tissue protein levels of the key inflammatory adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with LFAT. Several pro-inflammatory changes in sc adipose tissue associate with increased LFAT content in obese insulin-treated patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes at the level of the adipose tissue may drive liver fat accumulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  3. Pulp regeneration after non-infected and infected necrosis, what type of tissue do we want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Bakland, Leif K

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration (revitalization) of infected necrotic pulp tissue has been an important issue in endodontics for more than a decade. Based on a series of case reports, there appears to be evidence that new soft tissue can enter the root canal with a potential for subsequent hard tissue deposition...... that such events may take place in four variants: (i) Revascularization of the pulp with accelerated dentin formation leading to pulp canal obliteration. This event has a good long-term prognosis. (ii) Ingrowth of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The long-term prognosis for this event is not known. (iii...

  4. STR typing of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) aborted foetal tissue in criminal paternity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ayeleth; Barash, Mark; Voskoboinik, Lev; Brauner, Paul; Gafny, Roni

    2011-03-01

    Sexual assault or rape cases occasionally result in unwanted pregnancies. In almost all such cases the foetus is aborted. A forensic laboratory may receive the foetus, the placenta, or paraffin embedded abortion material for paternity testing. Obtaining a foetal profile DNA from a foetus or placenta may not be successful due to the age or condition of the tissue. Moreover, maternal contamination of placental material will invariably result in a mixed DNA profile. However, the use of properly screened abortion material from paraffin blocks will almost always result in obtaining a foetal DNA profile. Furthermore, foetal tissue fixed in paraffin blocks does not require special conditions for submission and storage as required to preserve fresh foetal or placental tissue. As hospitals routinely prepare foetal tissue in paraffin blocks, which should be readily obtainable by forensic laboratories, these samples would appear to be the preferred choice for paternity testing. 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Tissue Heterogeneity on the Transmembrane Potential of Type-1 Spiral Ganglion Neurons: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriperumbudur, Kiran Kumar; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; van Rienen, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve by cochlear implants has been a successful clinical intervention to treat the sensory neural deafness. In this pathological condition of the cochlea, type-1 spiral ganglion neurons in Rosenthal's canal play a vital role in the action potential initiation. Various morphological studies of the human temporal bones suggest that the spiral ganglion neurons are surrounded by heterogeneous structures formed by a variety of cells and tissues. However, the existing simulation models have not considered the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal while studying the electric field interaction with spiral ganglion neurons. Unlike the existing models, we have implemented the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal using a computationally inexpensive image based method in a two-dimensional finite element model. Our simulation results suggest that the spatial heterogeneity of surrounding tissues influences the electric field distribution in the Rosenthal's canal, and thereby alters the transmembrane potential of the spiral ganglion neurons. In addition to the academic interest, these results are especially useful to understand how the latest tissue regeneration methods such as gene therapy and drug-induced resprouting of peripheral axons, which probably modify the density of the tissues in the Rosenthal's canal, affect the cochlear implant functionality.

  6. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  7. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Adipose Tissues Characteristics of Normal, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Uygurs Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our results showed that, at the same BMI level, Uygurs have greater WHR values, abdominal visceral fat content, and diabetes risks than Kazaks. In addition, values of HDL-C in Uygur subjects were lower than those in Kazak subjects, and values of creatinine, uric acid, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and fructosamine in Uygur male subjects were lower than those in Kazak male subjects. In contrast, systolic blood pressure values in Uygur subjects were greater than those in Kazak subjects, and blood glucose values were greater in Uygur female subjects than in Kazak female subjects. Additionally, in Uygurs, visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TBX1 and TCF21 were greater in obesity group than in normal and T2DM groups and lower in T2DM group than in normal group (P<0.01. The visceral adipose tissue expression levels of APN in normal group was greater than those in obesity and T2DM groups, and visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 in normal group were lower than those in obesity and T2DM groups (P<0.01. In conclusion, T2DM in Uygurs was mainly associated with not only distribution of adipose tissue in body, but also change in metabolic activity and adipocytokines secretion of adipose tissue.

  9. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, I.; Bilbao, E.; Schad, A.; Cancio, I.; Soto, M.; Cajaraville, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv BAS ) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv BAS increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals

  10. Comparative effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Methods  Thirty type 2 diabetic rat models were established by an eight weeks high-fat diet (HFD with a low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25mg/kg, and randomly assigned into three groups (10 each: diabetes group (T2DM, bone marrow MSCs transplantation group (BMSC and adipose tissue MSCs transplantation group (ADSC. Ten normal rats were set as control. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow or inguinal adipose tissue of normal rats. One week after STZ injection, 3×10 6 MSCs suspended in 1ml PBS were infused into rats via tail vein. The blood glucose was measured every day after MSCs transplantation, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT were performed the 7th day after transplantation to evaluate the effects of MSCs on diabetic rats. Pancreatic tissues were collected for insulin/glucagon immunofluorescence staining. Results  After MSCs transplantation, the blood glucose decreased gradually and continuously in type 2 diabetic rats, with glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity improved greatly. The improved insulin sensitivity was further confirmed by a decreased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index and increased pancreas islet β-cells (P<0.05. However, no significant differences were observed between BMSC and ADSC group. Conclusion  Both BMSC and ADSC have the same effect on type 2 diabetic rats, so the ADSC will be the ideal stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.03

  11. Simulation studies of optimum energies for DXA: dependence on tissue type, patient size and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well established technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). However, in recent years DXA is increasingly being used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. DXA scanners must also determine the soft tissue baseline value from soft-tissue-only regions adjacent to bone. The aim of this work is to determine, using computer simulations, the optimum x- ray energies for a number of dose models, different tissues, i.e. bone mineral, average soft tissue, lean soft tissue and fat; and a range of anatomical sites and patient sizes. Three models for patient dose were evaluated total beam energy, entrance exposure and absorbed dose calculated by Monte Carlo modelling. A range of tissue compositions and thicknesses were chosen to cover typical patient variations for the three sites femoral neck, PA spine and lateral spine. In this work, the optimisation of the energies is based on (1) the uncertainty that arises from the quantum statistical nature of the number of x-rays recorded by the detector, and (2) the radiation dose received by the patient. This study has deliberately not considered other parameters such as detector response, electronic noise, x-ray tube heat load etc, because these are technology dependent parameters, not ones that are inherent to the measuring technique. Optimisation of the energies is achieved by minimisation of the product of variance of density measurement and dose which is independent of the absolute intensities of the x-ray beams. The results obtained indicate that if solving for bone density, then E-low in the range 34 to 42 keV, E-high in the range 100 to 200 keV and incident intensity ratio (low energy/high energy) in the range 3 to 10 is a reasonable compromise for the normal range of patient sizes. The choice of energies is complicated by the fact that the DXA unit must also solve for fat and lean soft tissue in soft- tissue-only regions adjacent to the bone. In this

  12. piRNA Profiling of Dengue Virus Type 2-Infected Asian Tiger Mosquito and Midgut Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhai Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration. This study aimed to explore the profiles of both viral-derived and host-originated piRNAs in the whole body and midgut infected with Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus, and to elucidate gene expression profile differences of the PIWI protein family between adult females and their midguts. A deep sequencing-based method was used to identify and analyze small non-coding RNAs, especially the piRNA profiles in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut. The top-ranked, differentially-expressed piRNAs were further validated using Stem-loop qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR methods were used to detect PIWI protein family members, and their expression profiles. DENV-2 derived piRNAs (vpiRNA, 24–30 nts were observed in both infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut; however, only vpiRNA in the whole-body library had a weak preference for adenine at position 10 (10A in the sense molecules as a feature of secondary piRNA. These vpiRNAs were not equally distributed, instead they were derived from a few specific regions of the genome, especially several hot spots, and displayed an obvious positive strand bias. We refer to the differentially expressed host piRNAs after DENV infection as virus-induced host endogenous piRNAs (vepiRNAs. However, we found that vepiRNAs were abundant in mosquito whole-body tissue, but deficient in the midgut. A total of eleven PIWI family genes were

  13. A 12-bit spectroscopy analog-to-digital converter type SAA (Successive Approximation type with channel width Averaging) intended for multichannel pulse height analyzer SWAN-1 based on IBM PC/XT/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsuk, S.; Kulka, Z.

    1989-12-01

    A 12-bit spectroscopy analog-to-digital converter (ADC) type SAA (Successive Approximation type with channel width Averaging) intended for multichannel pulse height analyzer SWAN-1 based on IBM PC/XT/AT has been described. Design principles, specifications and measurements of a fundamental SAA-2 converter version are reported. Finally, two next versions of the converter with introduced modifications are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  14. A simple model for cell type recognition using 2D-correlation analysis of FTIR images from breast cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed H.; Rakib, Fazle; Al-Saad, Khalid; Al-Saady, Rafif; Lyng, Fiona M.; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2018-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer after lung cancer. So far, in clinical practice, most cancer parameters originating from histopathology rely on the visualization by a pathologist of microscopic structures observed in stained tissue sections, including immunohistochemistry markers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a biochemical fingerprint of a biopsy sample and, together with advanced data analysis techniques, can accurately classify cell types. Yet, one of the challenges when dealing with FTIR imaging is the slow recording of the data. One cm2 tissue section requires several hours of image recording. We show in the present paper that 2D covariance analysis singles out only a few wavenumbers where both variance and covariance are large. Simple models could be built using 4 wavenumbers to identify the 4 main cell types present in breast cancer tissue sections. Decision trees provide particularly simple models to reach discrimination between the 4 cell types. The robustness of these simple decision-tree models were challenged with FTIR spectral data obtained using different recording conditions. One test set was recorded by transflection on tissue sections in the presence of paraffin while the training set was obtained on dewaxed tissue sections by transmission. Furthermore, the test set was collected with a different brand of FTIR microscope and a different pixel size. Despite the different recording conditions, separating extracellular matrix (ECM) from carcinoma spectra was 100% successful, underlying the robustness of this univariate model and the utility of covariance analysis for revealing efficient wavenumbers. We suggest that 2D covariance maps using the full spectral range could be most useful to select the interesting wavenumbers and achieve very fast data acquisition on quantum cascade laser infrared imaging microscopes.

  15. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  16. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  17. Spexin peptide is expressed in human endocrine and epithelial tissues and reduced after glucose load in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liping; Ma, Yuhang; Gu, Mingyu; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Shuai; Li, Na; Wang, Yufan; Ding, Xiaoying; Yin, Jiajing; Fan, Nengguang; Peng, Yongde

    2015-09-01

    Spexin mRNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and associate with weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Its location in endocrine and epithelial cells has also been suggested. Spexin is a novel peptide that involves weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, we aimed to examine its expression in human tissues and test whether spexin could have a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The expression of the spexin gene and immunoreactivity in the adrenal gland, skin, stomach, small intestine, liver, thyroid, pancreatic islets, visceral fat, lung, colon, and kidney was higher than that in the muscle and connective tissue. Immunoreactive serum spexin levels were reduced in T2DM patients and correlated with fasting blood glucose (FBG, r=-0.686, Pepithelial tissues, indicating that spexin may be involved in physiological functions of endocrine and in several other tissues. Circulating spexin levels are low in T2DM patients and negatively related to blood glucose and lipids suggesting that the peptide may play a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise-dependent IGF-I, IGFBPs, and type I collagen changes in human peritendinous connective tissue determined by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens L; Heinemeier, Katja M; Gemmer, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon during exercise elevates type I collagen production in tendon. However, the possibility that the insertion of microdialysis fibers per se may increase the local collagen production due to trauma has not been explored. Insulin......-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen] were measured by microdialysis in peritendinous tissue of the human Achilles tendon in an exercise group (performing a 36-km run, n = 6) and a control group (no intervention, n = 6). An increase in local PICP concentration was seen in both...... and exercise groups after 48 h (P human peritendinous tissue in response to prolonged mechanical loading with part of the increase due to trauma from the sampling...

  19. Improving training of laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills using various visual force feedback types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Daan; Spruit, Edward; Dankelman, J.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Hamming, J; Horeman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual force feedback allows trainees to learn laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills. The aim of this experimental study was to find the most efficient visual force feedback method to acquire these skills. Retention and transfer validity to an untrained task were assessed. Methods

  20. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  1. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Otaduy, Maria Concepción García; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Arruda, Walquiria; Veiga, Raquel Ramos; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children ( P creatine supplementation in any group, and delta changes in brain PCr (-0.7 to +3.9%) were inferior to those in muscle PCr content (+10.3 to +27.6%; P creatine protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) may be affected by age, diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Zhen Cheng; Liu, Dao Yan; Zhang, Li Li

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow...... or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p...

  3. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non-diab......-diabetic subjects are associated with subsequent changes in body weight and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]....

  4. Recent progress in energy-filtered high energy X-ray photoemission electron microscopy using a Wien filter type energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, H.; Tsutsumi, T.; Matsudaira, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Suzuki, S.; Chun, W.-J.; Kato, M.; Kitajima, Y.; Iwasawa, Y.; Asakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (EXPEEM) is a microscopy technique which has the potential to provide surface chemical mapping during surface chemical processes on the nanometer scale. We studied the possibilities of EXPEEM using a Wien filter type energy analyzer in the high energy X-ray region above 1000 eV. We have successfully observed the EXPEEM images of Au islands on a Ta sheet using Au 3d 5/2 and Ta 3d 5/2 photoelectron peaks which were excited by 2380 eV X-rays emitted from an undulator (BL2A) at Photon Factory. Our recent efforts to improve the sensitivity of the Wien filter energy analyzer will also be discussed

  5. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1 and type III (Col3. A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002, respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13, respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03. In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  6. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ming-Bo; Li, Yan-Mi; Fei, Xiang; Song, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1) and type III (Col3). A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE) examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002), respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13), respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03). In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  7. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  8. Comparison of Species and Cell-Type Differences in Fraction Unbound of Liver Tissues, Hepatocytes, and Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Keith; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lin, Jian; Yates, Phillip; Tess, David; Li, Rui; Singh, Dhirender; Holder, Brian R; Kapinos, Brendon; Chang, George; Di, Li

    2018-04-01

    Fraction unbound ( f u ) of liver tissue, hepatocytes, and other cell types is an essential parameter used to estimate unbound liver drug concentration and intracellular free drug concentration. f u,liver and f u,cell are frequently measured in multiple species and cell types in drug discovery and development for various applications. A comparison study of 12 matrices for f u,liver and f u,cell of hepatocytes in five different species (mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human), as well as f u,cell of Huh7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines, was conducted for 22 structurally diverse compounds with the equilibrium dialysis method. Using an average bioequivalence approach, our results show that the average difference in binding to liver tissue, hepatocytes, or different cell types was within 2-fold of that of the rat f u,liver Therefore, we recommend using rat f u,liver as a surrogate for liver binding in other species and cell types in drug discovery. This strategy offers the potential to simplify binding studies and reduce cost, thereby enabling a more effective and practical determination of f u for liver tissues, hepatocytes, and other cell types. In addition, f u under hepatocyte stability incubation conditions should not be confused with f u,cell , as one is a diluted f u and the other is an undiluted f u Cell density also plays a critical role in the accurate measurement of f u,cell . Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Postmortem Tissue Distribution of Acetyl Fentanyl, Fentanyl and their Respective Nor-Metabolites Analyzed by Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Mainland, Mary; Hair, Laura; Devers, Kelly; Chrostowski, Leszek; Arbefeville, Elise; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, an epidemic of fatal narcotic overdose cases has occurred in the Tampa area of Florida. Fourteen of these deaths involved fentanyl and/or the new designer drug, acetyl fentanyl. Victim demographics, case histories, toxicology findings and causes and manners of death, as well as, disposition of fentanyl derivatives and their nor-metabolites in postmortem heart blood, peripheral blood, bile, brain, liver, urine and vitreous humor are presented. In the cases involving only acetyl fentanyl (without fentanyl, n=4), the average peripheral blood acetyl fentanyl concentration was 0.467 mg/L (range 0.31 to .60 mg/L) and average acetyl norfentanyl concentration was 0.053 mg/L (range 0.002 to 0.086 mg/L). In the cases involving fentanyl (without acetyl fentanyl, n=7), the average peripheral blood fentanyl concentration was 0.012 mg/L (range 0.004 to 0.027 mg/L) and average norfentanyl blood concentration was 0.001 mg/L (range 0.0002 to 0.003 mg/L). In the cases involving both acetyl fentanyl and fentanyl (n=3), the average peripheral blood acetyl fentanyl concentration was 0.008 mg/L (range 0.006 to 0.012 mg/L), the average peripheral blood acetyl norfentanyl concentration was 0.001 mg/L (range 0.001 to 0.002 mg/L), the average peripheral blood fentanyl concentration was 0.018 mg/L (range 0.015 to 0.021 mg/L) and the average peripheral blood norfentanyl concentration was 0.002 mg/L (range 0.001 mg/L to 0.003 mg/L). Based on the toxicology results, it is evident that when fentanyl and/or acetyl fentanyl were present, they contributed to the cause of death. A novel ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method to identify and quantify acetyl fentanyl, acetyl norfentanyl, fentanyl and norfentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues is also presented. PMID:26583960

  10. Temperature dynamics of soft tissues during diode laser cutting by different types of fiber opto-thermal converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.; Smirnov, Sergey N.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2017-03-01

    The results of in vitro study of the soft tissue temperature dynamics during 980 nm diode laser cutting by different types (CLEAR, FILM, VOLUMETRIC) of fiber opto-thermal converters (FOTC) are presented. It was found that the use of CLEAR fiber end (tip) at the laser power below 8.5 W doesn't lead to the soft tissue (chicken meat) destruction. The chicken meat destruction (cutting) begins when irradiated by 8.5 W laser radiation for approximately 9.0 s. At the power of 9.0 W this time decreases up to 7.0 s, at 9.5 W - to 6.0 s, at 10.0 W - to 3.5 s. The moment of soft tissue cutting start correlates with the moment of black layer (absorber) formation at the fiber end and appearance of visually identifiable laser cut walls on the photos; the temperature in this case rapidly increases up to 850 °C. It was determined that the FILM FOTC begins to cut the soft tissue immediately after exposure of laser radiation with power of 4.0 W, the temperature in this case reaches 900 °C. It was determined that the VOLUMETRIC FOTC begins to cut the tissue immediately after exposure at the power of 1.0 W, the temperature in this case reaches 600 °C. VOLUMETRIC FOTC can produce more effective cuts of the soft tissue at the laser power of 4.0 W, in this case, the temperature is above 1200 °C.

  11. Adipocytokines, neuropeptide Y and insulin resistance in overweight women with gynoid and android type of adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbetzova, Maria M; Koleva, Daniela I; Mitkov, Mitko D; Atanassova, Iliana B; Nikolova, Julia G; Atanassova, Pepa K; Genchev, Gencho D

    2012-01-01

    The AIM of the study was to compare the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones in women with the two main morphological types of obesity - android and gynoid obesity. The study included 2 groups of age- and weight-matched women with android (n = 32) and gynoid (n = 27) type of obesity, and a group of age-matched healthy women (n = 24) with normal weight and body constitution. Leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucose and insulin were measured. HOMA index was calculated. Leptin levels in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from those in the controls and the women with android obesity. The controls had significantly lower leptin levels compared with the android obesity women. NPY was significantly higher in the control women compared to the women with android obesity and did not differ significantly between the two groups of obese women. TNFalpha levels in all groups were very similar. Resistin did not show significant differences between all groups but tended to have the lowest levels in the controls. In the women with android obesity, insulin was significantly higher than that in the women with gynoid obesity and the controls. Insulin resistance was found in the women with android obesity only. Basal insulin and HOMA index in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from the values in the control group. The results from this study contribute to understanding the association of adipose tissue hormones and insulin resistance in obesity. When adipose tissue is predominantly distributed in the abdominal area at similar amount and percentage of body fats, leptin production is higher and insulin resistance develops. In the gynoid type of adipose tissue predisposition, overt insulin resistance is not found, leptin levels does not differ significantly from those in the control group.

  12. Increased p50/p50 NF-κB Activation in Human Papillomavirus Type 6- or Type 11-Induced Laryngeal Papilloma Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancurova, Ivana; Wu, Rong; Miskolci, Veronika; Sun, Shishinn

    2002-01-01

    We have observed elevated NF-κB DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts from human papillomavirus type 6- and 11-infected laryngeal papilloma tissues. The predominant DNA-binding species is the p50/p50 homodimer. The elevated NF-κB activity could be correlated with a reduced level of cytoplasmic IκBβ and could be associated with the overexpression of p21CIP1/WAF1 in papilloma cells. Increased NF-κB activity and cytoplasmic accumulation of p21CIP1/WAF1 might counteract death-promoting effects elicited by overexpressed PTEN and reduced activation of Akt and STAT3 previously noted in these tissues. PMID:11773428

  13. Relationship between liver tissue stiffness and histopathological findings analyzed by shear wave elastography and compression testing in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Saori; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yoshida, Keiko; Oshiro, Hisashi; Kojima, Mayumi; Sano, Takatomo; Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two methods of determining liver stiffness in rats with various degrees of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet by comparing each finding with reference to histopathological liver findings. Twenty male Wister rats were fed an MCD diet for up to 32 weeks, and four were fed a normal diet. Ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) and mechanical compression testing using an Instron Universal Testing machine were performed on each rat at designated time points. After each examination, liver histopathology was analyzed to evaluate the degrees of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score, and each finding was compared with reference to liver histopathologic findings. Median liver stiffness values measured using SWE showed a stepwise increase with increasing histological inflammation score (P = 0.002), hepatic fibrosis stage (P = 0.029), ballooning score (P = 0.012), and steatosis grade (P = 0.030). Median liver stiffness measured using an Instron machine showed a stepwise increase only with increasing histological fibrosis stage (P = 0.033). Degree of liver stiffness measured by SWE and the Instron machine differed. SWE reflected mainly inflammation, whereas Instron machine-derived values primarily reflected fibrosis. This is the main source of discrepancies between measurements made with these two modalities.

  14. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  15. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Claire Y; Kachnic, Lisa A; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-07-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  16. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  17. Meal fat storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue: comparison of pioglitazone and glipizide treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Pattan, Vishwanath; Rizza, Robert A; Jensen, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-(14)C]triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue biopsies were collected 6 and 24 h later to measure meal fatty acid storage. The portion of meal fatty acids stored in upper body sc and lower body sc adipose tissue did not differ between non-DM and T2DM subjects either at 6 or 24 h. Likewise, meal fatty acid storage did not differ between the T2DM participants treated with pioglitazone or glipizide. We conclude that meal fatty acid storage in upper body and lower body sc adipose tissue is not abnormal in T2DM patients treated with pioglitazone or glipizide.

  18. Comparison of rat connective tissue reaction to two types of foreign and Iranian white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosough Hosseini S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Three Dimensional obturation of root canal is one of the main goals of root canal therapy to preserve health or reach the regeneration or healing of periapical tissues. Root end filling materials are used in numerous situations to reach the mentioned goals. One of the common root end- filling materials is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA which the foreign and Iranian ones are different in their prices. The aim of this study was to compare the rat connective tissue reaction to Iranian and foreign MTA. "nMaterials and Methods: This was an animal study in which 40 rats were divided into 5 groups of each 8. The polyethylene tubes filled with foreign (Pro Root MTA and Iranian (Root MTA white MTA and were implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue. Similarly, the empty tubes were inserted in subcutaneous connective tissue as control group. The samples were examined histologically after 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days and were scored as followings: 0, was characterized to samples without inflammatory cells; without inflammatory reaction 1, for samples with less than 25 inflammatory cells; mild inflammatory reaction. 2, for samples with 25 to 125 inflammatory cells; moderate inflammatory reaction and 3, for ones with more than 125 inflammatory cells; severe inflammatory reaction. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and p<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: In general, inflammatory reactions were reduced in all groups. Experimental groups had moderate to severe inflammation in the 7th day which had significant difference with the control group having mild to moderate inflammation (p=0.04. There was not any significant differences between experimental and control group in 14th, 30th, 60th and 90th days (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the findings of this investigation, inflammatory subcutaneous connective tissue reaction to Iranian (Root MTA and foreign (Pro Root MTA MTA was the same.

  19. Accuracy of identification of tissue types in endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies used for molecular biology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plauto Beck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Plauto Beck1, George C Mayne1, David Astill2, Tanya Irvine1, David I Watson1, Willem A Dijckmeester1, Bas PL Wijnhoven1, Damian J Hussey11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, AustraliaObjectives: To determine if histopathologic assessment of esophageal biopsies harvested for research study is justified due to the heterogeneity of tissues in the esophagus, and the consequent histopathologic mis-matches with the clinical histopathology of biopsies taken at the same level.Methods: Since 2004, patients undergoing upper endoscopy for a variety of clinical conditions were invited to provide additional esophageal biopsies; those were collected for research purpose at the same level as biopsies collected for clinical histopathology. Research biopsies were cut in two parts: one part was submitted to research histopathology and the other stored for molecular analysis. Results of clinical histopathology for each patient were summarized per biopsy level and compared to results obtained from research biopsies at the corresponding level.Results: A total of 377 level summaries were obtained from 137 patients. Clinical histopathology summaries classified 123 levels (32.6% as squamous epithelium, 84 levels (22.3% as metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, 135 levels (35.8% as columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia, 30 levels (8% as dysplasia, and 5 levels (1.3% as adenocarcinoma. Research histopathology matched to clinical summaries on 120 of 123 (97.5% levels for squamous epithelium, 52 of 84 (61.9% for metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, and 94 of 135 (69.5% for columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. There were no matches for dysplasia between the groups; however, they agreed on all five cases of AC. On 59 (70.2% metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium levels and on 62 (46% columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia levels

  20. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  1. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  2. In vivo labelling in several rat tissues of 'peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Guilloux, F.; Rufat, P.; Uzan, A.; Renault, C.; Dubroeucq, M.C.; Gueremy, C.; Le Fur, G. (Pharmuka Laboratoires, 92 - Gennevilliers (France))

    1984-03-16

    'Peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites in several rat tissues were labelled by intravenous injection of (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 and (/sup 3/H)RO5-4864. Binding was saturable in all tissues studied and regional distribution paralleled the in vitro binding. A similar potency order of displacing compounds was found in vivo and in vitro PK 11195 > PK 11211 > RO5-4864 > diazepam > dipyridamole > clonazepam. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to examine the effects of pharmacological manipulation on the binding sites in their native state. However, some properties (broader maximum during time course, higher percentage of particulate binding in the brain and independence of temperature) make (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 the most suitable ligand for this kind of studies.

  3. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  4. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  5. Bioinspired coupled helical coils for soft tissue engineering of tubular structures - Improved mechanical behavior of tubular collagen type I templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, H P; Bohlin, J; Lomme, R M L M; Mihaila, S M; Hilborn, J; Feitz, W F J; Oosterwijk, E

    2017-09-01

    The design of constructs for tubular tissue engineering is challenging. Most biomaterials need to be reinforced with supporting structures such as knittings, meshes or electrospun material to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. In this study, coupled helical coils (CHCs) were manufactured to mimic collagen fiber orientation as found in nature. Monofilaments of different commercially available biodegradable polymers were wound and subsequently fused, resulting in right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. CHCs of different polymer composition were tested to determine the tensile strength, strain recovery, hysteresis, compressive strength and degradation of CHCs of different composition. Subsequently, seamless and stable hybrid constructs consisting of PDSII® USP 2-0 CHCs embedded in porous collagen type I were produced. Compared to collagen alone, this hybrid showed superior strain recovery (93.5±0.9% vs 71.1±12.6% in longitudinal direction; 87.1±6.6% vs 57.2±4.6% in circumferential direction) and hysteresis (18.9±2.7% vs 51.1±12.0% in longitudinal direction; 11.5±4.6% vs 46.3±6.3% in circumferential direction). Furthermore, this hybrid construct showed an improved Young's modulus in both longitudinal (0.5±0.1MPavs 0.2±0.1MPa; 2.5-fold) and circumferential (1.65±0.07MPavs (2.9±0.3)×10 -2 MPa; 57-fold) direction, respectively, compared to templates created from collagen alone. Moreover, hybrid template characteristics could be modified by changing the CHC composition and CHCs were produced showing a mechanical behavior similar to the native ureter. CHC-enforced templates, which are easily tunable to meet different demands may be promising for tubular tissue engineering. Most tubular constructs lack sufficient strength and tunability to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. Therefore, we embedded coupled helical coils (CHCs) produced from biodegradable polymers - to

  6. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Long, E-mail: long.yuan@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ma, Li [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Dillon, Lisa [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong [Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zhu, Mingshe [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Aubry, Anne-Françoise [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ji, Qin C., E-mail: qin.ji@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-16

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P{sub 1} receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with {sup 3}H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred

  7. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Long; Ma, Li; Dillon, Lisa; Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong; Zhu, Mingshe; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Ji, Qin C.

    2016-01-01

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P 1 receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with 3 H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred tissue

  8. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Katherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data

  9. A novel C-type lectin identified by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Nagayasu, Eiji; Horii, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2012-04-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of proteins which bind to carbohydrate epitopes in the presence of Ca(2+), which have been described in a wide range of species. In this study, a cDNA sequence coding a putative CTL has been identified from the cDNA library constructed from the pig round worm Ascaris suum lung L3 (LL3) larvae, which was designated as A. suum C-type lectin-1 (As-CTL-1). The 510 nucleotide open reading frame of As-CTL-1 cDNA encoded the predicted 169 amino acid protein including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues and C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CLECT) at residue 26 to 167. As-CTL-1 was most similar to Toxocara canis C-type lectin-1 and 4 (Tc-CTL-1 and 4), and highly homologous to namatode CTLs and mammalian CTLs as well, such as human C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLECG4). In addition, As-CTL-1 was strongly expressed in tissue migrating LL3 and the L4 larvae, which were developmental larvae stages within the mammalian host. These results suggest that A. suum larvae might utilize As-CTL-1 to avoid pathogen recognition mechanisms in mammalian hosts due to it is similarity to host immune cell receptors.

  10. The story of an exceptional serine protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, M; Lesept, F; Vivien, D; Macrez, R

    2016-03-01

    The only acute treatment of ischemic stroke approved by the health authorities is tissue recombinant plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced thrombolysis. Under physiological conditions, tPA, belonging to the serine protease family, is secreted by endothelial and brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes). Although revascularisation induced by tPA is beneficial during a stroke, research over the past 20 years shows that tPA can also be deleterious for the brain parenchyma. Thus, in this review of the literature, after a brief history on the discovery of tPA, we reviewed current knowledge of mechanisms by which tPA can influence brain function in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of different types of light on the response of the pulp tissue in dental bleaching: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Francine; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; de Oliveira Gallinari, Marjorie; Terayama, Amanda Miyuki; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; de Castilho Jacinto, Rogério; Sivieri-Araújo, Gustavo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2018-05-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light. The primary outcome was the inflammation/cytotoxicity observed in pulp after bleaching. Out of 2210 articles found, 12 articles were included in the review; four were in vivo studies (one study in dogs/others in human), and eight were in vitro studies (cell culture/with artificial pulp chamber or not). The light source used was halogen, light-emitting diode (LED), and laser. Only one in vivo study that used heat to simulate light effects showed significant pulp inflammation. Only two in vitro studies demonstrated that light influenced cell metabolism; one using halogen light indicated negative effects, and the other using laser therapy indicated positive effects. Given that animal and in vitro studies have been identified, there remain some limitations for extrapolation to the human situation. Furthermore, different light parameters were used. The effects of dental bleaching on the pulp are not influenced by different types of light, but different light parameters can influence these properties. There is insufficient evidence about the influence of different types of light on inflammation/cytotoxicity of the pulp.

  12. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  13. Determination of markers for collagen type I turnover in peritendinous human tissue by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J L; Langberg, Henning; Heinemeier, K M

    2006-01-01

    Previous results from our group have shown that loading of human tendon elevates tendinous type I collagen production measured by microdialysis. However, exclusion of the observed elevation as a response to trauma from inserting the microdialysis catheters or a possible influence from the collage...

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Goris, R.J.A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was

  15. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, ...

  16. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in somatostatin cells of rat pancreas and hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsson, L I; Danø, K

    1987-01-01

    -PA, and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated one band with a similar electrophoretic mobility. No urokinase-type PA immunoreactivity was found in the rat endocrine pancreas. A granular t-PA immunoreactivity resembling that found in adjacent sections with somatostatin antiserum was found in the median eminence...

  17. Role of adipose tissue derived stem cells differentiated into insulin producing cells in the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Embaby, Azza S; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Marwa G

    2018-05-15

    Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas. ADSCs were harvested, cultured and identified by testing their phenotypes through flow cytometry. They were further subjected to differentiation into IPCs using differentiation medium. mRNA expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pdx1), insulin and glucose transporter-2 genes by real time PCR was done to detect the cellular differentiation and confirmed by stimulated insulin secretion. The pancreatic tissues from all groups were examined 2 months after IPC transplantation and were subjected to histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric study. The differentiated IPCs showed significant expression of pancreatic β cell markers and insulin secretion in glucose dependent manner. Treatment with IPCs induced apparent regeneration, diffused proliferated islet cells and significant increase in C-peptide immune reaction. We concluded that transplantation of differentiated IPCs improved function and morphology of Islet cells in diabetic rats. Consequently, this therapy option may be a promising therapeutic approach to patient with type 1 DM if proven to be effective and safe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur...... or more tissues of 61% of the pigs were positive for PCV2 antigen. Up to 78% of the pigs had mild lymphoid depletion, indistinct lymphoid follicles and/or histiocytic Infiltration of the lymph nodes, but these lesions were not associated with PCV2. No association was found between the presence of lung...

  19. Correction to: Generation and characterization of tissue-type plasminogen activator transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Noguchi, Kengo; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Kyoji

    2018-01-01

    In the original publication of the article, the sentence in "Result" section have been incorrectly published as: "Three lines of tPA Tg rats were generated and analyzed by Southern blotting to confirm the presence of the transgene in genomic DNA. When rat DNA was digested with EcoRI and hybridized to the tPA probe described in "Materials and methods", a 1.0 kb band was detected (Fig. 1a, b). One founder line was selected because of its high copy number (about ten copies) of tPA gene and itansgene) and 4.4 kb (endogenous gene) reding appearance, body weight, hematology, and systematization." The corrected sentence should read as: "Three lines of tPA Tg rats were generated and analyzed by Southern blotting to confirm the presence of the transgene in genomic DNA. When rat DNA was digested with EcoRI and hybridized to the tPA probe described in "Materials and methods", a 1.0 kb band was detected (Fig. 1a, b). One founder line was selected because of its high copy number (about ten copies) of tPA gene and its lack of detectable abnormal findings, including appearance, body weight, hematology, and systematization." The original article has been corrected.

  20. Decubitus Ulcers of Soft Tissues in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Strategies, Insulin Resistance Indicators, Comprehensive Treatment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The causes of decubitus ulcers include ischaemia and neurotrophic tissue changes induced by their chronic compression, continuous pathologic moisture and shift of tissues that determine local ishaemia. The aim of the article: to study clinical options and suppurative complications of decubitus ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in terms of insulin resistance (IR in the context of combined treatment optimization. Materials and methods. Total sample of retro- and prospective analyses involved results of comprehensive treatment of 112 patients. Type 2 DM was diagnosed in 37 patients, I comparison group included 27 patients with decubitus ulcers without complications (I–III stages and DM, with decubitus ulcers stage IV — II comparison group; and the control group included other 75 individuals. Results. The patients with type 2 DM (I comparison group had considerable decrease in HOMA index of β-cell function and increased HOMA index of IR (8.31 ± 0.02, р < 0.01. Patients with type 2 DM with complicated decubitus ulcers (II comparison group had more significant increase of circulating insulin indexes (p2 < 0.01, HOMA index of IR (p2 < 0.05, and considerable decrease on HOMA index of β-cell function (p2 < 0.05. The correlation analysis of HOMA-IR indicators and element concentration in the blood revealed the correlation only in patients with type 2 DM (I and II comparison groups: potent negative correlation (r = –0.72; p < 0.001 was revealed between the HOMA-IR and Mg2+ content in erythrocytes; intermediate negative correlation (r = –0.66; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Zn2+ concentration in the blood serum; and a negative one (r = –0.69; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Cr3+ level in the blood serum. Conclusions. The advantage of the proposed classification of decubitus ulcers of soft tissue and a sequence of comprehensive treatment is considering the features of

  1. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  2. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  3. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueai Lin

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.

  4. A boy with developmental delay, malformations, and evidence of a connective tissue disorder: possibly a new type of cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jimenez, Carmencita; Hunter, Alasdair G W

    2003-05-15

    We report a 7.5-year-old boy with loose translucent skin, aortic dilatation, hyperextensible veins, recurrent respiratory problems, pectus excavatum, arthralgias, lax joints, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and umbilical and inguinal hernias. He also has developmental delay, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, an unusual facial appearance, terminal digit hypoplasia with unusual radiographic changes in some of the phalanges, glandular hypospadias, shawl scrotum, and undescended testes. Biochemical investigations, including electrophoresis of Types 1 and 3 procollagens and collagens, and quantification of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, are normal. Relative to age-matched control patients the electron micrographs of the boy's dermis show elastin fibers to be decreased in number, and abnormal in appearance, with a low matrix to microfibril ratio. The organ distribution of abnormalities and the nature of the findings suggest a connective tissue disorder. We contrast and compare this boy's phenotype to those of the classic connective tissue disorders. We conclude that he has cutis laxa with features that distinguish him from previously described types of cutis laxa. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, K; Giannini, B; Picchi, V; Lo Scalzo, R; Cecchini, F

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of genotype, tissue type and cold storage on the bioactive compounds content and on the antiradical activity (AA) of different apple cultivars (Golden cl. B, Fuji cl. Kiku8, Braeburn cl. Hillwell). The content of analysed phyto-compounds depended on the clone, on the part of fruit, and to a minor extent, on the storage. For EC(50) data, the cultivar represented the main source of variation and the interaction with the type of tissue, was significant. The AA of apples, measured by means of the DPPH test, was highly correlated to the flavan-3-ols content, which represents a good predictor of the apple antiradical power. The new Braeburn's clone, the Hillwell, had the worst AA related to a minor phyto-chemical content. Also, its phenolic content was dramatically reduced after cold storage (flesh: -50%; peels: -20%; papples, which is important to improve their quality and consumption benefits, suggesting to the breeders to pay more attention to the potential healthy compounds in the development of new hybrids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue- and Cell Type-Specific Expression of the Long Noncoding RNA Klhl14-AS in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carmela Credendino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available lncRNAs are acquiring increasing relevance as regulators in a wide spectrum of biological processes. The extreme heterogeneity in the mechanisms of action of these molecules, however, makes them very difficult to study, especially regarding their molecular function. A novel lncRNA has been recently identified as the most enriched transcript in mouse developing thyroid. Due to its genomic localization antisense to the protein-encoding Klhl14 gene, we named it Klhl14-AS. In this paper, we highlight that mouse Klhl14-AS produces at least five splicing variants, some of which have not been previously described. Klhl14-AS is expressed with a peculiar pattern, characterized by diverse relative abundance of its isoforms in different mouse tissues. We examine the whole expression level of Klhl14-AS in a panel of adult mouse tissues, showing that it is expressed in the thyroid, lung, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, and spleen, although at different levels. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that, in the context of each organ, Klhl14-AS shows a cell type-specific expression. Interestingly, databases report a similar expression profile for human Klhl14-AS. Our observations suggest that this lncRNA could play cell type-specific roles in several organs and pave the way for functional characterization of this gene in appropriate biological contexts.

  7. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic...

  8. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Q; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic pat...

  9. Degradation of tissue-type plasminogen activator by human monocyte- derived macrophages is mediated by the mannose receptor and by the low- density lipoprotein receptor-related protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, F.; Braat, E.A.M.; Rijken, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The balance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) production and degradation determines its concentration in blood and tissues. Disturbance of this balance may result in either increased or decreased proteolysis. In the present study, we identified the receptor systems involved in the

  10. Effects of glucose and insulin levels on adipose tissue glucose measurement by microdialysis probes retained for three weeks in Type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, LM; Lutgers, HL; Dullaart, RPF; Sluiter, WJ; Wientjes, KJ; Schoonen, AJM; Hoogenberg, K

    Background: To evaluate the effects of acute hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on adipose tissue glucose measurements by microdialysis probes inserted for a 3-week period. Methods: Microdialysis probes were implanted pairwise in abdominal adipose tissue in seven Type 1 diabetic patients and

  11. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  12. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  13. Analytical and pre-analytical performance characteristics of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer for point-of-care and laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaert, Matthijs; Van Maerken, Tom; Bridts, Silke; Van Loon, Silvi; Laverge, Heleen; Stove, Veronique

    2018-03-01

    Point-of-care blood gas test results may benefit therapeutic decision making by their immediate impact on patient care. We evaluated the (pre-)analytical performance of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer, the GEM Premier 5000 (Werfen), for the determination of pH, partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO 2 ), partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), chloride (Cl - ), ionized calcium ( i Ca 2+ ), glucose, lactate, and total hemoglobin (tHb). Total imprecision was estimated according to the CLSI EP5-A2 protocol. The estimated total error was calculated based on the mean of the range claimed by the manufacturer. Based on the CLSI EP9-A2 evaluation protocol, a method comparison with the Siemens RapidPoint 500 and Abbott i-STAT CG8+ was performed. Obtained data were compared against preset quality specifications. Interference of potential pre-analytical confounders on co-oximetry and electrolyte concentrations were studied. The analytical performance was acceptable for all parameters tested. Method comparison demonstrated good agreement to the RapidPoint 500 and i-STAT CG8+, except for some parameters (RapidPoint 500: pCO 2 , K + , lactate and tHb; i-STAT CG8+: pO 2 , Na + , i Ca 2+ and tHb) for which significant differences between analyzers were recorded. No interference of lipemia or methylene blue on CO-oximetry results was found. On the contrary, significant interference for benzalkonium and hemolysis on electrolyte measurements were found, for which the user is notified by an interferent specific flag. Identification of sample errors from pre-analytical sources, such as interferences and automatic corrective actions, along with the analytical performance, ease of use and low maintenance time of the instrument, makes the evaluated instrument a suitable blood gas analyzer for both POCT and laboratory use. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in alternative splicing across human tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Gene; Holste, Dirk; Kreiman, Gabriel; Burge, Christopher B

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is widely used by higher eukaryotes to generate different protein isoforms in specific cell or tissue types. To compare AS events across human tissues, we analyzed the splicing patterns of genomically aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from libraries of cDNAs from different tissues. Results: Controlling for differences in EST coverage among tissues, we found that the brain and testis had the highest levels of exon skipping. The most p...

  15. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan, biglycan, is highly expressed in adipose tissue of Psammomys obesus and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristy Bolton1, David Segal1, Ken Walder1,21Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, 2Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: We have previously demonstrated that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin may play a role in adipose tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of obesity. Biglycan is highly similar in structure to decorin, therefore we hypothesized it would have a similar expression profile and role to decorin in adipose tissue. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure biglycan mRNA levels in adipose tissue from normal glucose tolerant and impaired glucose tolerant and type 2 diabetic (T2D Psammomys obesus. Biglycan mRNA was found to be highly expressed in adipose tissue, and gene expression was significantly higher in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, with elevated levels in obese, T2D compared to lean normal glucose tolerant P. obesus (P < 0.04. Biglycan mRNA was predominantly expressed by stromal/vascular cells of fractionated adipose tissue (P = 0.023. Biglycan expression in adipose tissue, particularly in the obese state, was markedly upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family proteins biglycan and decorin may play a role in the development of obesity and T2D, possibly by facilitating expansion of adipose tissue mass.Keywords: biglycan, small leucine-rich proteoglycan, Psammomys obesus, adipose tissue, obesity, type 2 diabetes

  16. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

  18. Preclinical characterization of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 as a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kolodka

    Full Text Available Modulation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and several other physiological responses relevant to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. The importance of bradykinin and its receptors in mediating these responses is well documented, but the role of tissue kallikrein-1, the protease that generates bradykinin in situ, is much less understood. We developed and tested DM199, recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (rhKLK-1, as a potential novel therapeutic for T2D. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies suggest that DM199 increases whole body glucose disposal in non-diabetic rats. Single-dose administration of DM199 in obese db/db mice and ZDF rats, showed an acute, dose-dependent improvement in whole-body glucose utilization. Sub-acute dosing for a week in ZDF rats improved glucose utilization, with a concomitant rise in fasting insulin levels and HOMA1-%B scores. After cessation of sub-acute dosing, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in ZDF rats during a drug wash-out period. Our studies show for the first time that DM199 administration results in acute anti-hyperglycemic effects in several preclinical models, and demonstrate the potential for further development of DM199 as a novel therapeutic for T2D.

  19. Characterization of the omega-conotoxin target. Evidence for tissue-specific heterogeneity in calcium channel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.J.; Johnson, D.S.; Olivera, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx-VIA) is a 27 amino acid peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting snail, Conus geographus, that blocks voltage-activated Ca channels. The characterization of a biologically active, homogeneous 125 I-labeled monoiodinated Tyr 22 derivative of omega-conotoxin GVIA and its use in binding and cross-linking studies are described. The 125 I-labeled toxin is specifically cross-linked to a receptor protein with an apparent M/sub r/ of 135,000. The stoichiometry between omega-conotoxin and nitrendipine binding sites in different chick tissues was determined. Skeletal muscle has a high concentration of [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding sites but no detectable omega-conotoxin sites. Brain microsomes have both binding sites, but omega-conotoxin targets are in excess. These results, combined with recent electrophysiological studies define four types of Ca channels in chick tissues, N, T, L/sub n/ (omega sensitive), and L/sub m/ (omega insensitive), and are consistent with the hypothesis that the α-subunits of certain neuronal Ca 2+ channels (L/sub n/, N) are the molecular targets of omega-conotoxin GVIA

  20. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  2. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  3. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  4. Fasting and post-prandial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, G; Annuzzi, G; Di Marino, L; De Natale, C; Giacco, R; Bozzetto, L; Cipriano, P; Santangelo, C; Masella, R; Rivellese, A A

    2011-05-01

    Fasting and post-prandial abnormalities of adipose tissue (AT) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone- sensitive lipase (HSL) activities may have pathophysiological relevance in insulin-resistant conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate activity and gene expression of AT LPL and HSL at fasting and 6 h after meal in two insulin-resistant groups - obese with Type 2 diabetes and obese without diabetes - and in non-diabetic normal-weight controls. Nine obese subjects with diabetes, 10 with obesity alone, and 9 controls underwent measurements of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides before and after a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and post-prandial (6 h) LPL and HSL activities and gene expressions were determined in abdominal subcutaneous AT needle biopsies. The diabetic obese subjects had significantly lower fasting and post-prandial AT heparin-releasable LPL activity than only obese and control subjects (pobese subjects compared to controls in both fasting condition and 6 h after the meal (pfasting and 6 h after meal measurements in either LPL or HSL activities and gene expressions. Lipolytic activities in AT are differently altered in obesity and Type 2 diabetes being HSL alteration associated with both insulin-resistant conditions and LPL with diabetes per se. These abnormalities are similarly observed in the fasting condition and after a fat-rich meal.

  5. Data output device of multichannel analyzers type SA40 and SA44 to ISOT-310 digital printer and D-102 puncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormandzhiev, S.; Semova, T.; Mishev, P.; Donkov, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chart of a device for data output from multichanel analyzers is described. Three data output modes are available: to a digital printer, to a puncher and to both of them. Circuit solution feature related to the specific analyzer requirements and external device applications are given. 3 figs.; 4 refs

  6. Android subcutaneous adipose tissue topography in lean and obese women suffering from PCOS: comparison with type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Rackl, S; Giuliani, A; Freytag, U; Crailsheim, K; Sudi, K; Tafeit, E

    2004-07-01

    The new optical device, the lipometer, enables the noninvasive, quick, safe, and precise determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers at any given site of the human body. Fifteen anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf describe a SAT topography (SAT-Top) like an individual "fingerprint" of a subject. This SAT-Top was examined in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared to the body fat distribution of 87 age-matched healthy controls and 20 type-2 diabetic women. SAT-Top differences of these three groups were described and, to render the possibility of visual comparison, the 15-dimensional body fat information was condensed to a two-dimensional factor plot by factor analysis. All PCOS patients had an android body fat distribution with significantly thinner SAT layers on the legs as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in two distinctly different groups of PCOS women, a lean (PCOSL) and an obese (PCOSO) cluster: compared to healthy women, lean PCOS patients had significantly lower total SAT development, even though height, weight, and body mass index did not deviate significantly. Especially on the legs, their SAT layers were significantly lowered, indicating a more "apple-like" fat distribution type. Obese PCOS women showed a SAT-Top pattern very similar to that of women with type-2 diabetes, although the mean age difference between these groups was more than 30 years. Compared to healthy controls, the SAT-Top of these obese PCOS patients was strongly shifted into the android direction, appearing as "super-apples" with a significantly increased upper trunk obesity to 237.8% and a significantly decreased leg SAT development to 79.8%. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Pritchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine (1 whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2 the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ≥ 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1 type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist : hip ratio, and energy expenditure, (2 IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure, and (3 IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass. Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P=0.515. IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [−0.079–0.161], P=0.498, grip strength = −0.144 kg [−0.335–0.066], P=0.175. Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored.

  8. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPAR-δ)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-δ. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-δ by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 ± 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 ± 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-δ significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 ± 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Both CB1 and PPAR-δ are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor

  9. Alteration of the bone tissue material properties in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Mansur, Sity Aishah; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150 mg/kg body weight, injected at 8 weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or diabetic (n = 10) groups and were sacrificed 4 weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690 cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032 cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338 cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with

  10. Four patients with Sillence type I osteogenesis imperfecta and mild bone fragility, complicated by left ventricular cardiac valvular disease and cardiac tissue fragility caused by type I collagen mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandersteen, Anthony M; Lund, Allan M; Ferguson, David J P

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I is a hereditary disorder of connective tissue (HDCT) characterized by blue or gray sclerae, variable short stature, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing loss, and recurrent fractures from infancy. We present four examples of OI type I complicated by valvular heart...

  11. Effect of age, impaction types and operative time on inflammatory tissue reactions following lower third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Emeka V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative mobidity following third molar surgery is affected by a number of factors. The study of these factors is essential for effective planning and limitation of morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, type of impaction and operative time on immediate postoperative tissue reactions following mandibular third molar surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with impacted mandibular third molar teeth were studied. All the third molars were classified according to Winter's classification. Surgical extraction was performed on all the patients by a single surgeon under local anaesthesia. The operation time was determined by the time lapse between incision and completion of suturing. Postoperative pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated. Results There were 120 patients with an age range of 19-42 years. Patients in the age range of 35-42 years recorded a lower pain score (p = 0.5 on day 1. The mouth opening was much better in the lower age group on day 2 and 5 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.01 respectively. Pain, swelling and trismus increased with increasing operative time. Distoangular impaction was significantly associated with higher VAS score on day 1 and 2 (p = 0.01, 0.0, 04. Distoangular and horizontal impaction are associated with a higher degree of swelling and reduced mouth opening on postoperative review days. Vertical impaction was associated with the least degree of facial swelling and best mouth opening. Conclusions Increasing operating time and advancing age are associated with more postoperative morbidity, likewise distoangular and horizontal impaction types.

  12. Urokinase vs Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Thrombolytic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqian Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating form of stroke, which leads to a high rate of mortality and poor neurological outcomes worldwide. Thrombolytic evacuation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA has been showed to be a hopeful treatment for ICH. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials were reported to compare the efficacy and safety of these two fibrinolytics administrated following minimally invasive stereotactic puncture (MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH. Therefore, the authors intended here to evaluate the differential impact of uPA and tPA in a retrospective study. In the present study, a total of 86 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia using MISP received either uPA (uPA group, n = 45 or tPA (tPA group, n = 41, respectively. The clinical baseline characteristics prior to the operation were collected. In addition, therapeutic responses were assessed by the short-term outcomes within 30 days postoperation, as well as long-term outcomes at 1 year postoperation. Our findings showed that, in comparison with tPA, uPA was able to better promote hematoma evacuation and ameliorate perihematomal edema, but the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the long-term functional outcomes of both groups were similar, with no statistical difference. In conclusion, these results provide evidence supporting that uPA and tPA are similar in the efficacy and safety for thrombolytic evacuation in combination with MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue stores across lipodystrophy types shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Little, Cynthia Harper; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by redistributed subcutaneous fat stores. We previously quantified subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the legs of two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, respectively). We now extend the MRI analysis across the whole body of patients with different forms of lipodystrophy. We studied five subcutaneous fat stores (supraclavicular, abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf) and the abdominal visceral fat stores in 10, 2, 1, 1 and 2 female subjects with, respectively, FPLD2, FPLD3, HIV-related partial lipodystrophy (HIVPL), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and in six normal control subjects. Compared with normal controls, FPLD2 subjects had significantly increased supraclavicular fat, with decreased abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf subcutaneous fat. FPLD3 subjects had increased supraclavicular and abdominal subcutaneous fat, with less severe reductions in gluteal, thigh and calf fat compared to FPLD2 subjects. The repartitioning of fat in the HIVPL subject closely resembled that of FPLD3 subjects. APL and CGL subjects had reduced upper body, gluteal and thigh subcutaneous fat; the APL subject had increased, while CGL subjects had decreased subcutaneous calf fat. Visceral fat was markedly increased in FPLD2 and APL subjects. Semi-automated MRI-based adipose tissue quantification indicates differences between various lipodystrophy types in these studied clinical cases and is a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenomic analysis of genetic metabolic disorders. Further studies with a larger sample size are essential for confirming these preliminary findings

  14. Effect of metformin therapy on the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones and mediators of nonspecific generalized inflammation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Urbanovych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the drug metformin on the levels of adipose tissue hormones and generalized nonspecific mediators of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. 38 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were followed up before and after 12 months of hypoglycemic monotherapy with glucophage. The results indicate that the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism indices and decreased body weight of patients in the presence of the therapy is due not only to direct effects of metformin in improving glucose uptake by peripheral tissues, but by the ability of the drug to modulate adipocytokine secretion.

  15. Three-Dimensional Coculture of Meniscal Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Collagen Type I Hydrogel on a Small Intestinal Matrix-A Pilot Study Toward Equine Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antje; Ribitsch, Iris; Reboredo, Jenny; Dürr, Julia; Egerbacher, Monika; Jenner, Florien; Walles, Heike

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal injuries are the most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries in the equine stifle joint. Due to the inherent limited repair potential of meniscal tissue, meniscal injuries do not only affect the meniscus itself but also lead to impaired joint homeostasis and secondary osteoarthritis. The presented study compares 3D coculture constructs of primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and meniscus cells (MC) seeded on three different scaffolds-a cell-laden collagen type I hydrogel (Col I gel), a tissue-derived small intestinal matrix scaffold (SIS-muc) and a combination thereof-for their qualification to be applied for meniscus tissue engineering. To investigate cell attachment of primary MC and MSC on SIS-muc matrix SEM pictures were performed. For molecular analysis, lyophilized samples of coculture constructs with different cell ratios (100% MC, 100% MSC, and 50% MC and 50% MSC, 20% MC, and 80% MSC) were digested and analyzed for DNA and GAG content. Active matrix remodeling of 3D coculture models was indicated by matrix metalloproteinases detection. For comparison of tissue-engineered constructs with the histologic architecture of natural equine menisci, paired lateral and medial menisci of 15 horses representing different age groups were examined. A meniscus phenotype with promising similarity to native meniscus tissue in its GAG/DNA expression in addition to Col I, Col II, and Aggrecan production was achieved using a scaffold composed of Col I gel on SIS-muc combined with a coculture of MC and MSC. The results encourage further development of this scaffold-cell combination for meniscus tissue engineering.

  16. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...... and men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  17. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  18. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  19. Tissue distribution, core biosynthesis and diversification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the lycopsamine type in three Boraginaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Cordula; Ober, Dietrich; Hartmann, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Three species of the Boraginaceae were studied: greenhouse-grown plants of Heliotropium indicum and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots cultures (hairy roots) of Cynoglossum officinale and Symphytum officinale. The species-specific pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profiles of the three systems were established by GC-MS. All PAs are genuinely present as N-oxides. In H. indicum the tissue-specific PA distribution revealed the presence of PAs in all tissues with the highest levels in the inflorescences which in a flowering plant may account for more than 70% of total plant alkaloid. The sites of PA biosynthesis vary among species. In H. indicum PAs are synthesized in the shoot but not roots whereas they are only made in shoots for C. officinale and in roots of S. officinale. Classical tracer studies with radioactively labelled precursor amines (e.g., putrescine, spermidine and homospermidine) and various necine bases (trachelanthamidine, supinidine, retronecine, heliotridine) and potential ester alkaloid intermediates (e.g., trachelanthamine, supinine) were performed to evaluate the biosynthetic sequences. It was relevant to perform these comparative studies since the key enzyme of the core pathway, homospermidine synthase, evolved independently in the Boraginaceae and, for instance, in the Asteraceae [Reimann, A., Nurhayati, N., Backenkohler, A., Ober, D., 2004. Repeated evolution of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-mediated defense system in separate angiosperm lineages. Plant Cell 16, 2772-2784.]. These studies showed that the core pathway for the formation of trachelanthamidine from putrescine and spermidine via homospermidine is common to the pathway in Senecio ssp. (Asteraceae). In both pathways homospermidine is further processed by a beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine sensitive diamine oxidase. Further steps of PA biosynthesis starting with trachelanthamidine as common precursor occur in two successive stages. Firstly, the necine bases are structurally modified and either

  20. Associations between insulin resistance and TNF-alpha in plasma, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, P; Nielsen, A R; Fischer, C P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Clear evidence exists that TNF-alpha inhibits insulin signalling and thereby glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes. However, conflicting results exist with regard to the role of TNF-alpha in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We obtained blood and biopsy samples from skeletal muscle...... and subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 96) and healthy controls matched for age, sex and BMI (n = 103). RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher plasma levels of fasting insulin (p ...) uptake (VO2/kg) in the diabetes group (p type 2 diabetic patients. Immunohistochemistry revealed more TNF-alpha protein...

  1. Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum and wound fluid in relation to formation of granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Garbarsch, C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation ......, changes in serum PIIINP mirror fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, our study provides experimental evidence consistent with the hypothesis that wound fluid PIIINP directly mirrors the local formation of granulation tissue, independent of weight loss and cyclophosphamide treatment.......The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation...... loss caused by treatment, weight loss caused by starvation was investigated. In untreated rats, serum PIIINP and wound fluid PIIINP were related to formation of granulation tissue (serum: r = 0.58, p

  2. Reproducibility of Protein Identification of Selected Cell Types in Barrett's Esophagus Analyzed by Combining Laser-Capture Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stingl, Christoph; van Vilsteren, Frederike G. I.; Guzel, Coskun; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Visser, Mike; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Luider, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and characterized by replacement of normal esophageal squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. These alterations are also reflected in changes in the protein-expression profiles of the cell types

  3. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  4. Sickle Mice Are Sensitive to Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Stroke but Respond to Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lee, Jolly; Huang, Henry; Wagner, Mary B; Joiner, Clinton H; Archer, David R; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2017-12-01

    The effects of lytic stroke therapy in patients with sickle cell anemia are unknown, although a recent study suggested that coexistent sickle cell anemia does not increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. This finding calls for systemic analysis of the effects of thrombolytic stroke therapy, first in humanized sickle mice, and then in patients. There is also a need for additional predictive markers of sickle cell anemia-associated vasculopathy. We used Doppler ultrasound to examine the carotid artery of Townes sickle mice tested their responses to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia- and transient hypoxia-ischemia-induced stroke at 3 or 6 months of age, respectively. We also examined the effects of tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) treatment in transient hypoxia-ischemia-injured sickle mice. Three-month-old sickle cell (SS) mice showed elevated resistive index in the carotid artery and higher sensitivity to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia-induced cerebral infarct. Six-month-old SS mice showed greater resistive index and increased flow velocity without obstructive vasculopathy in the carotid artery. Instead, the cerebral vascular wall in SS mice showed ectopic expression of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and P-selectin, suggesting a proadhesive and prothrombotic propensity. Indeed, SS mice showed enhanced leukocyte and platelet adherence to the cerebral vascular wall, broader fibrin deposition, and higher mortality after transient hypoxia-ischemia. Yet, post-transient hypoxia-ischemia treatment with tPA reduced thrombosis and mortality in SS mice. Sickle mice are sensitive to hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebral infarct but benefit from thrombolytic treatment. An increased resistive index in carotid arteries may be an early marker of sickle cell vasculopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. 1H NMR structural characterization of a recombinant kringle 2 domain from human tissue-type plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, I.J.L.; Llinas, M.; Kelley, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The kringle 2 domain of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been characterized via 1 H NMR spectroscopy at 300 and 620 MHz. The experiments were performed on the isolated domain obtained by expression of the 174-263 portion of t-PA in Escherichia coli. The spectrum of t-Pa kringle 2 is characteristic of a globular structure and shows overall similarity to that of the plasminogen (PGN) kringle 4. Spectral comparison with human and bovine PGN kringle 4 identified side-chain resonances from Leu 46 , which afford a fingerprint of kringle folding, and from most of the aromatic ring spin systems. Ligand-binding studies confirm that t-PA kringle 2 binds L-lysine with an association constant K a ∼ 11.9 mM -1 . The data indicate that homologous or conserved residues relative to those that compose the lysine-binding sites of PGN kringles 1 and 4 are involved in the binding of L-lysine to t-PA kringle 2. These include Tyr 36 and, within the kringle inner loop, Trp 62 , His 64 , Trp 72 , and Tyr 74 . Several labile NH protons of t-PA kringle 2 exhibit retarded H-exchange kinetics, requiring more than a week in 2 H 2 O for full deuteration in the presence of L-lysine at 37 degree C. This reveals that kringle 2 is endowed with a compact, dynamically stable conformation. Proton Overhauser experiments in 1 H 2 O, centered on well-resolved NH resonances between 9.8 and 12 ppm, identify signals arising from the His 48a imidazole NH3 proton and the three Trp indole NH1 protons. Overall, the data indicate a highly structured conformation for the recombinant t-PA kringle 2 that is closely related to that of the previously investigated PGN kringles 1, 4, and 5

  6. The role of the lysyl binding site of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the interaction with a forming fibrin clot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Weening-Verhoeff, E.J.D.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    To describe the role of the lysyl binding site in the interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, FGK1K2P) with a forming fibrin clot, we performed binding experiments with domain deletion mutants GK1K2P, K2P, and the corresponding point mutants lacking the lysyl binding site in the

  7. Peri-Implantitis Associated with Type of Cement: A Retrospective Analysis of Different Types of Cement and Their Clinical Correlation to the Peri-Implant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Walther, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    The cementation of fixed implant-supported dental restorations involves the risk of leaving excess cement in the mouth which can promote biofilm formation in the peri-implant sulcus. As a result, an inflammation may develop. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effect of two different luting cements on the peri-implant tissue. Within the scope of a retrospective clinical follow-up study, the prosthetic structures of 22 patients with 45 implants were revised. In all cases, a methacrylate cement (Premier Implant Cement [PIC], Premier® Dental Products Company, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA) had been used for cementation. In 16 additional patients with 28 implants, the suprastructures were retained with a zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Temp Bond [TB], Kerr Sybron Dental Specialities, Glendora, CA, USA). These patients were evaluated in the course of routine treatment. In both populations, the retention time of the suprastructures was similar (TB 3.77 years, PIC 4.07 years). In the PIC cases, 62% of all implants had excess cement. In the TB cases, excess cement was not detectable on any of the implants. Bleeding on probing was significantly more frequent on implants cemented with PIC (100% with and 94% without excess cement) than on implants cemented with TB (46%). Pocket suppuration was observed on 89% of the PIC-cemented implants with excess cement (PIC without excess cement 24%), whereas implants with TB were not affected by it at all. The peri-implant bone loss was significantly greater in the PIC patients (with excess cement 1.37 mm, without excess cement 0.41 mm) than it was in the TB patients (0.07 mm). The frequency of undetected excess cement depends essentially on the type of cement used. Cements that tend to leave more undetected excess have a higher prevalence for peri-implant inflammation and cause a more severe peri-implant bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Known from a handful of specimens: analyzing the worldwide patterns of occurrence and conservation of rodents and shrews recorded only from the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conservation research has not focused on Rodentia and Soricomorpha, and many species are known from a handful of specimens and the type locality only (few and type locality species (FETP.  Here we studied the patterns of occurrence of FETP rodents and soricomorphs in relation to geographical area and vegetation zones and report some conservation considerations.  Overall, 91 species of Rodentia and 19 species of Soricomorpha were selected.  There was a positive correlation between number of species per genus and number of FETP species in each genus.  The majority of FETP rodents occur in the Neotropical, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and soricomorphs in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. Higher numbers of FETP rodent species occurred in Argentina and Indonesia.  There was a positive relationship between species richness of rodents per country and number of FETP species.  In terms of habitat type, FETP species of rodents and soricomorphs showed similar patterns, with most species being found in rainforest.  The great majority of selected species of both groups were Data Deficient (DD, with Critically Endangered (CR accounting for 16.5% of Rodentia and 5.3% of Soricomorpha.  Overall, IUCN threatened species mostly occur in the Neotropical region, followed by the Afrotropical region.  It is urged that IUCN authorities should promptly revise all FETP species and their precautionary CR status, at least when a reasonable timespan (i.e., >25 years has passed since the last records. 

  9. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhu; Zeng, Manman; Liu, Y I; Yang, Xiaotao; Li, Yanan; Li, X U; Yu, Qiubo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.

  10. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (Pstress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impaired autoregulation of blood flow in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Vagn Nielsen, H; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow was studied in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients (median age: 36 years) with nephropathy and retinopathy and in eight normal subjects of the same age. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe washout...... technique. Reduction in arterial perfusion pressure was produced by elevating the limb 20 and 40 cm above heart level. Blood flow remained within 10% of control values when the limb was elevated in normal subjects. In five of the seven diabetic subjects blood flow fell significantly in both tissues when...

  12. Analyzing the impacts of three types of biochar on soil carbon fractions and physiochemical properties in a corn-soybean rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Saroop S; Ussiri, David A N; Kumar, Sandeep; Chintala, Rajesh; Papiernik, Sharon K; Malo, Douglas D; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    Biochar is a solid material obtained when biomass is thermochemically converted in an oxygen-limited environment. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil properties and organic carbon (C) were investigated under controlled conditions, mainly laboratory incubation or greenhouse studies. This 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar on selected soil physical and chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen fractions for two selected soil types (clay loam and a sandy loam soil) under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The three plant based biochar materials used for this study were corn stover (CS), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue (PW), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (SG). Data showed that CS and SG significantly increased the pH of acidic soil at the eroded landscape position but produced no significant change in soil pH at the depositional landscape position. The effects of biochar treatments on cold water extractable C (WSC) and nitrogen (WSN) fractions for the 0-7.5 cm depth were depended on biochar and soil type. Results suggested that alkaline biochars applied at 10 Mg ha -1 can increase the pH and WSC fraction of acidic sandy loam soil, but the 10 Mg ha -1 rate might be low to substantially improve physical properties and hot water extractable C and N fractions of soil. Application of higher rates of biochar and long-term monitoring is needed to quantify the benefits of biochar under field conditions on soils in different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Research on modeling method to analyze Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extraction process with online MEMS-NIR based on two types of error detection theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chen-Zhao; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Zheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-10-01

    To establish a rapid quantitative analysis method for online monitoring of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution of Lonicera Japonica Flos extraction by using micro-electromechanical near infrared spectroscopy (MEMS-NIR). High performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used as reference method.Kennard-Stone (K-S) algorithm was used to divide sample sets, and partial least square(PLS) regression was adopted to establish the multivariate analysis model between the HPLC analysis contents and NIR spectra. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to selected modeling waveband to establish PLS models. RPD was used to evaluate the prediction performance of the models. MDLs was calculated based on two types of error detection theory, on-line analytical modeling approach of Lonicera Japonica Flos extraction process was expressed scientifically by MDL. The result shows that the model established by multiplicative scatter correction(MSC) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation(RMSECV), root mean square error of correction(RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of chlorogenic acid as 1.707, 1.489, 2.362, respectively, the determination coefficient of the calibration model was 0.998 5, and the determination coefficient of the prediction was 0.988 1.The value of RPD is 9.468.The MDL (0.042 15 g•L⁻¹) selected by SiPLS is less than the original,which demonstrated that SiPLS was beneficial to improve the prediction performance of the model. In this study, a more accurate expression of the prediction performance of the model from the two types of error detection theory, to further illustrate MEMS-NIR spectroscopy can be used for on-line monitoring of Lonicera Japonica Flos extraction process. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Disrupted G1 to S phase clearance via cyclin signaling impairs liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported that a nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats because of irreversible acute liver injury owing to inhibited hepatic tissue repair, primarily due to blockage of G 0 to S phase progression of cell division cycle. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic (NDB) rats receiving 300 mg TA/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from liver injury and survival. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that impaired cyclin-regulated progression of G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle may explain inhibited liver tissue repair, hepatic failure, and death, contrasted with delayed liver tissue repair but survival observed in the DB rats receiving 300 in contrast to 30 mg TA/kg. In the TA-treated NDB rats sustained MAPKs and cyclin expression resulted in higher phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (pRb), explaining prompt tissue repair and survival. In contrast, DB rats receiving the same dose of TA (300 mg/kg) exhibited suppressed MAPKs and cyclin expression that led to inhibition of pRb, inhibited tissue repair, and death. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited delayed up regulation of MAPK signaling that delayed the expression of CD1 and pRb, explaining delayed stimulation of tissue repair observed in this group. In conclusion, the hepatotoxicant TA has a dose-dependent adverse effect on cyclin-regulated pRb signaling: the lower dose causes a recoverable delay, whereas the higher dose inhibits it with corresponding effect on the ultimate outcomes on hepatic tissue repair; this dose-dependent adverse effect is substantially shifted to the left of the dose response curve in diabetes

  15. Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Herr, I.; Lansink, M.; Angel, P.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a

  16. Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Emma; Jansson, Per Anders; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent...... case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed...... genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution...

  17. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...

  18. A new stable GIP-Oxyntomodulin hybrid peptide improved bone strength both at the organ and tissue levels in genetically-inherited type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Sity Aishah; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Flatt, Peter R; Bouvard, Beatrice; Chappard, Daniel; Irwin, Nigel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progress worldwide with detrimental effects on several physiological systems including bone tissue mainly by affecting bone quality. Several gut hormones analogues have been proven potent in ameliorating bone quality. In the present study, we used the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice as a model of obesity and severe T2DM to assess the extent of bone quality alterations at the organ and tissue levels. We also examined the beneficial effects of gut hormone therapy in this model by using a new triple agonist ([d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm) active at the GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. As expected, db/db mice presented with dramatic alterations of bone strength at the organ level associated with deterioration of trabecular and cortical microarchitectures and an augmentation in osteoclast numbers. At the tissue level, these animals presented also with alterations of bone strength (reduced hardness, indentation modulus and dissipated energy) with modifications of tissue mineral distribution, collagen glycation and collagen maturity. The use of [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm considerably improved bone strength at the organ level with modest effects on trabecular microarchitecture. At the tissue level, [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm ameliorated bone strength reductions with positive effects on collagen glycation and collagen maturity. This study provides support for including gut hormone analogues as possible new therapeutic strategies for improving bone quality in bone complications associated to T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiological criteria in assessing different types of proliferation in the mammary tissue with the help of microradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    26 tissue blocks of female patients with proliferating mastopathy were prepared as 2 mm-thick slices and a specimen radiogram was made of each. In all cases, the assessment of the histopathological examination lead to the result: benign. As complicated mastopathies must be regarded as risk factors with regard to later occurrence of a carcinoma, a microradiography of the sample tissue was made initially. This can help to show especially calcified micro spots in the tissue which might be an indication of malignant growth. Slices of 70 μm in thickness were taken pictures of in the microradiography chamber. The microcalcifications which could be recognized were compared to the results of the specimen radiography and the histological findings. In 15 cases, a far bigger number of micro-carlcifications (5 fold) could be established in the microradiogram; there were no such significant differences in the presentation of the calcifications in the other cases. As the tissue slice in specimen radiography is 2.5 times as thick, also the quantity of calcification must be correspondingly more. As, however, in 15 cases microradiography showed even more calcification than in the specimen radiogram, this proves the efficiency of microradiography for imaging microcalcifications. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Measurement of temperature elevation in tissue for the optimum and safe use of scalpel-type ultrasonic surgery devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C; Nuernberger, H; Reimann, H P

    2004-01-01

    Using temperature sensors of specific design, the temperature elevation during application of a Harmonic Scalpel was determined in liver tissue. The influence of different treatment techniques and application parameters on the heat produced was determined. The measurements can be used to assess the risk of harmful bioeffects and to optimise performance and treatment techniques with respect to minimum thermal load

  1. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED-photodiode matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  2. Immunodetection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human mineralocorticoid target tissues: evidence for nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, M; Ricketts, M L; Petrelli, M D; Moradi, P; Johnson, G D; Bradwell, A R; Hewison, M; Howie, A J; Stewart, P M

    1997-03-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSI) is an enzyme complex responsible for the conversion of hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone; two isoforms of the enzyme have been cloned and characterized. Clinical observations from patients with the hypertensive syndrome apparent mineralocorticoid excess, recently explained on the basis of mutations in the human 11 beta HSD2 gene, suggest that it is the 11 beta HSD2 isoform that serves a vital role in dictating specificity upon the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We have raised a novel antibody in sheep against human 11 beta HSD2 using synthetic multiantigenic peptides and have examined the localization and subcellular distribution of 11 beta HSD2 in mineralocorticoid target tissues. The immunopurified antibody recognized a single band of approximately 44 kDa in placenta, trophoblast, and distal colon. In kidney tissue, two bands of approximately 44 and 48 kDa were consistently observed. No signal was seen in decidua, adrenal, or liver. Immunoperoxidase studies on the mineralocorticoid target tissues, kidney, colon, and parotid gland indicated positive staining in epithelial cells known to express the MR: respectively, renal collecting ducts, surface and crypt colonic epithelial cells, and parotid duct epithelial cells. No staining was seen in these tissues in other sites. The intracellular localization of 11 beta HSD2 in kidney and colon epithelial cells was addressed using confocal laser microscopy. Parallel measurements of 11 beta HSD2 and nuclear propidium iodide fluorescence on sections scanned through an optical section of approximately 0.1 micron indicated significant 11 beta HSD2 immunofluorescence in the nucleus. In human kidney, colon, and salivary gland, 11 beta HSD2 protects the MR from glucocorticoid excess in an autocrine fashion. Furthermore, within these tissues, 11 beta HSD2, which had been considered to be a microsomal enzyme, is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that the

  3. Histone modification profiles are predictive for tissue/cell-type specific expression of both protein-coding and microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Michael Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated at both the DNA sequence level and through modification of chromatin. However, the effect of chromatin on tissue/cell-type specific gene regulation (TCSR is largely unknown. In this paper, we present a method to elucidate the relationship between histone modification/variation (HMV and TCSR. Results A classifier for differentiating CD4+ T cell-specific genes from housekeeping genes using HMV data was built. We found HMV in both promoter and gene body regions to be predictive of genes which are targets of TCSR. For example, the histone modification types H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were identified as the most predictive for CpG-related promoters, whereas H3K4me3 and H3K79me3 were the most predictive for nonCpG-related promoters. However, genes targeted by TCSR can be predicted using other type of HMVs as well. Such redundancy implies that multiple type of underlying regulatory elements, such as enhancers or intragenic alternative promoters, which can regulate gene expression in a tissue/cell-type specific fashion, may be marked by the HMVs. Finally, we show that the predictive power of HMV for TCSR is not limited to protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells, as we successfully predicted TCSR targeted genes in muscle cells, as well as microRNA genes with expression specific to CD4+ T cells, by the same classifier which was trained on HMV data of protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells. Conclusion We have begun to understand the HMV patterns that guide gene expression in both tissue/cell-type specific and ubiquitous manner.

  4. Treatment of tension-type headache with articulatory and suboccipital soft tissue therapy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Gómez, Anna Arnal; Martínez, Josep Benítez; Pascual-Vaca, Angel Oliva; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez

    2014-10-01

    This study researches the effectiveness of two manual therapy treatments focused on the suboccipital region for tension-type headache. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted over a period of four weeks with a follow-up at one month. Eighty-four patients with a mean age of 39.7 years (SD 11.4) with tension-type headache were assigned to 4 groups which included the following manual therapy treatment: suboccipital soft tissue inhibition; occiput-atlas-axis global manipulation; combination of both techniques; and a control group. The primary assessment consisted of collecting socio-demographic data and headache characteristics in a one-month base period, data such as age, gender, severity of pain, intensity and frequency of headache, among other. Outcome secondary assessment were: impact of headache, disability, ranges of motion of the craniocervical junction, frequency and intensity of headache, and pericranial tenderness. In the month prior to the study, average pain intensity, was rated at 6.49 (SD 1.69), and 66.7% subjects suffered headaches of moderate intensity. After 8 weeks, statistically significant improvements were noted. OAA manipulative treatment and combined therapy treatments proved to be more effective than suboccipital soft tissue inhibition for tension-type headache. The treatment with suboccipital soft tissue inhibition, despite producing less significant results, also has positive effects on different aspects of headache. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  6. The role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promsudthi, A; Poomsawat, S; Limsricharoen, W

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes is one important risk factor of chronic periodontitis. However, the roles of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4, which are implicated in the inflammatory process in both chronic periodontitis and diabetes, have not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether TLR2 and TLR4 might be involved in the relationship between chronic periodontitis and diabetes by examining TLR2 and TLR4 expression in gingival tissues from subjects with chronic periodontitis without diabetes (CP) and with diabetes (CP+DM) and from periodontally healthy subjects without diabetes (PH) and with diabetes (PH+DM). Gingival tissues were collected from 23 CP subjects, 21 CP+DM subjects, 22 PH subjects and 20 PH+DM subjects. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in gingival tissues was determined using an immunohistochemical method. In gingival epithelium, staining patterns and intensity levels of TLR2 and TLR4 expression were studied. In connective tissues, the percentages of TLR2- and TLR4-positive cells were calculated. The intensity levels and the percentages of positive cells were statistically analyzed. Chronic periodontitis or diabetes showed no significant effect on TLR2 expression in the oral epithelium. However, diabetes increased the expression of TLR2 in sulcular epithelium and changed the pattern of TLR2 expression in gingival epithelium. Chronic periodontitis decreased the expression of TLR4 in gingival epithelium. In connective tissue under sulcular epithelium, CP+DM subjects showed statistically significant higher percentages of TLR2- and TLR4-positive cells compared with PH and PH+DM subjects. Our results suggest that hyperglycemia and chronic periodontitis had effects on TLR2 and TLR4 expression in gingival tissue. The differences in TLR2 and TLR4 expression could contribute to a greater inflammatory response, leading to periodontal disease initiation and progression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Potential radioimmunoassay system for detection of Hanganutziu-Deicher type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukuria, J C; Naiki, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Masato; Nishiura, Katsumi; Okabe, Masahiro; Kato, Shiro

    1985-06-12

    A relatively simple, specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigen(s) and antibodies. The SVI-labeled H-D antigen-active molecule used for the assay is a bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein previously found to have a strong H-D antigen potency. Different H-D antigen-active molecules were compared for heterophile H-D antigen potency. Eight different lung cancer tissues were assayed for H-D antigen. The sera from the 8 lung cancer patients were also screened by ELISA and RIA in an attmept to correlate expression of H-D antigen on tissues with elevation of H-D antibodies.

  8. Modulation of type I iodothyronine 5’-deiodinase activity in white adipose tissue by nutrition: possible involvement of leptin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Kůs, Vladimír; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 561-569 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * obesity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  9. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, Ondřej; Rombaldová, Martina; Janovská, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 3 (2016), s. 731-736 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-04449P; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14040 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue macrophages * omega-3 PUFA * protectin D1 * lipid mediators * lipidomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  10. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release after heparin stimulation is increased in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, PB; van Oerle, R; Hamulyak, K; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    Aims To study heparin-stimulated TFPI release in relation to complications in Type 1 diabetic patients. Subjects and methods Nineteen uncomplicated Type 1 diabetic patients (group I) were compared with 18 patients with retinopathy (group II), and nine patients with retinopathy and albuminuria (group

  12. Early myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients without known heart disease assessed with tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Søgaard, Peter; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes; patients with albuminuria are at greatest risk. We investigated myocardial function and premature myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients with and without albuminuria compared to controls. METHODS:...

  13. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  14. Association of hexachlorobenzene in the serum and adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosallanejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic disease type 2 diabetes is increasing. Numerous studies have to take into consideration in addition to the factors such as low mobility, nutrition and inheritance, environmental factors such as hexachlorobenzene in creation of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it was tried in this study to obtain an exact result regarding the association of hexachlorobenzene with type 2 diabetes by doing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the cross-sectional and prospective studies which were received till 2 March 2016. After searching in the databases SID, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, Embase, ISI and Cochrane, 10 studies with 19 subgroups were considered in final assessment. Geometric mean concentration of Hexachlorobenzene was 12.7 ng/ml and 64.77 ng/g lipids in serum and adipose tissues, respectively. The heterogeneity index of I2 :25.95% (I2<50% and t2 :0.075 were low and hence fixed model was used for meta-analysis of studies' results. The Pearson correlation coefficient between concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in serum and adipose tissue with the odds ratio of type 2 diabetes were R2 :0.27, P value=0.57 and R2 :0.25, P value=0.18, respectively. The highest and lowest odds ratios of type 2 diabetes was [OR:6.2 (0.6-68.1] and [OR:0.99 (0.3-2.6], respectively. Overall, the odds ratio for type 2 diabetes induced to hexachlorobenzene was OR:2.33 (1.82-2.74 P value<0.001. Results of this study supported the role of hexachlorobenzene significantly as an environmental risk factor in type 2 diabetes (P<0.001.

  15. Bone Tissue Collagen Maturity and Mineral Content Increase With Sustained Hyperglycemia in the KK-Ay Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather B; Pearl, Jared C; Diaz, David R; King, Karen B; Donnelly, Eve

    2018-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases fracture risk for a given bone mineral density (BMD), which suggests that T2DM changes bone tissue properties independently of bone mass. In this study, we assessed the effects of hyperglycemia on bone tissue compositional properties, enzymatic collagen crosslinks, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the KK-Ay murine model of T2DM using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to KK-aa littermate controls (n = 8), proximal femoral bone tissue of KK-Ay mice (n = 14) exhibited increased collagen maturity, increased mineral content, and less heterogeneous mineral properties. AGE accumulation assessed by the concentration of pentosidine, as well as the concentrations of the nonenzymatic crosslinks hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), did not differ in the proximal femurs of KK-Ay mice compared to controls. The observed differences in tissue-level compositional properties in the KK-Ay mice are consistent with bone that is older and echo observations of reduced remodeling in T2DM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Detection of GAD65 autoantibodies of type-1 diabetes using anti-GAD65-abs reagent produced from bovine brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko W. Soeatmadji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, type 1 diabetes may presents as type 2 diabetes which sometimes not easily differentiated. Perhaps only autoimmune markers of β-cells destruction could differentiate those two clinical conditions. Due to extremely high cost ( $ 150/test, examination of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 auto-antibodies (anti-GAD65Abs may not be routinely performed in most, if not all, clinical laboratories in Indonesia. Hence, the production of anti-GAD65 Abs reagent in Indonesia may reduce the cost and improve the quality of diabetes care in Indonesia. We produce reagent to detect anti-GAD65-Abs using bovine brain tissue as source of GAD enzyme in 3 steps. Step 1, isolation, purification of GAD65 from bovine brain tissue and used it as a primary antigen to stimulate the generation of anti-GAD65 antibodies in Wistar rat. Step 2, the purified GAD65 antibodies were than used as a secondary antibody to induce the production of anti-anti-GAD65-antibodies in Wistar rat and rabbit. Step 3. Labeling  anti-anti GAD65-antibodies with alkaline phoshpatase and peroxidase, and detecting anti-GAD65Abs previously detected using commercial kit. The anti-anti-GAD65- antibodies reagent produced in our laboratories  successfully identify anti-GAD65-Abs of type 1 diabetic patients previously detected  with commercial reagent. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 197-203Keywords: GAD, type-1 Diabetes

  17. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  18. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  19. Kinetic characterization of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and t-PA deletion mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C. [=Carlie J. M.; Veerman, H.; Nesheim, M. E.; Pannekoek, H.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of t-PA to fibrin is mediated both by its "finger" (F) and its "kringle 2" (K2) domain. In addition, these domains are involved in the stimulation of t-PA activity by fibrin. We analyzed the kinetic characteristics of Glu-plasminogen activation by t-PA and a set of t-PA deletion mutants

  20. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  1. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  2. Effects of initiating moderate wine intake on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Witkow, Shula; Friger, Michael; Chassidim, Yoash; Liberty, Idit F; Sarusi, Benjamin; Serfaty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-02-01

    To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3·0 (-8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (-1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1·9 (-5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT -3·2 (-8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (-2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT -0·15 (-3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT. Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

  3. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (P<.001 for all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest frequency and HIT-6 values after the intervention. The application of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  6. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  7. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  8. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  9. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  10. Mammalian transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes and are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha

    2014-12-30

    Transcriptional hotspots are defined as genomic regions bound by multiple factors. They have been identified recently as cell type specific enhancers regulating developmentally essential genes in many species such as worm, fly and humans. The in-depth analysis of hotspots across multiple cell types in same species still remains to be explored and can bring new biological insights. We therefore collected 108 transcription-related factor (TF) ChIP sequencing data sets in ten murine cell types and classified the peaks in each cell type in three groups according to binding occupancy as singletons (low-occupancy), combinatorials (mid-occupancy) and hotspots (high-occupancy). The peaks in the three groups clustered largely according to the occupancy, suggesting priming of genomic loci for mid occupancy irrespective of cell type. We then characterized hotspots for diverse structural functional properties. The genes neighbouring hotspots had a small overlap with hotspot genes in other cell types and were highly enriched for cell type specific function. Hotspots were enriched for sequence motifs of key TFs in that cell type and more than 90% of hotspots were occupied by pioneering factors. Though we did not find any sequence signature in the three groups, the H3K4me1 binding profile had bimodal peaks at hotspots, distinguishing hotspots from mono-modal H3K4me1 singletons. In ES cells, differentially expressed genes after perturbation of activators were enriched for hotspot genes suggesting hotspots primarily act as transcriptional activator hubs. Finally, we proposed that ES hotspots might be under control of SetDB1 and not DNMT for silencing. Transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes. In ES cells, they are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs and might be under SetDB1 control for silencing.

  11. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Melissa [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pavlichenko, Vasiliy [Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SIPPB SB RAS), Lermontov Str. 132, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Hydrobiology, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Altenburger, Rolf [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Luckenbach, Till, E-mail: till.luckenbach@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    design with inhibitors was applied in transporter activity assays. • ABCB1- and ABCC-type efflux activities were distinguished in native gill tissue. • Inhibitory action of environmental chemicals targeted ABCB1-type efflux activity.

  12. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Melissa; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Altenburger, Rolf; Barata, Carlos; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-01-01

    design with inhibitors was applied in transporter activity assays. • ABCB1- and ABCC-type efflux activities were distinguished in native gill tissue. • Inhibitory action of environmental chemicals targeted ABCB1-type efflux activity.

  13. Toward angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds with type I collagen and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Geun; Bak, Seon Young; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Woo; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies for liver disease are being studied by many researchers worldwide, but scientific evidence to demonstrate the endocrinologic effects of implanted cells is insufficient, and it is unknown whether implanted cells can function as liver cells. Achieving angiogenesis, arguably the most important characteristic of the liver, is known to be quite difficult, and no practical attempts have been made to achieve this outcome. We carried out this study to observe the possibility of angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds. This study used adipose tissue-derived stem cells that were collected from adult patients with liver diseases with conditions similar to the liver parenchyma. Specifically, microfilaments were used to create an artificial membrane and maintain the structure of an artificial organ. After scratching the stomach surface of severe combined immunocompromised (SCID) mice (n=4), artificial scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and type I collagen were implanted. Expression levels of angiogenesis markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and CD105 were immunohistochemically assessed after 30 days. Grossly, the artificial scaffolds showed adhesion to the stomach and surrounding organs; however, there was no evidence of angiogenesis within the scaffolds; and VEGF, CD34, and CD105 expressions were not detected after 30 days. Although implantation of cells into artificial scaffolds did not facilitate angiogenesis, the artificial scaffolds made with type I collagen helped maintain implanted cells, and surrounding tissue reactions were rare. Our findings indicate that type I collagen artificial scaffolds can be considered as a possible implantable biomaterial.

  14. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  15. Immunological detection of the type V collagen propeptide fragment, PVCP-1230, in connective tissue remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Simonsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Liver fibrosis involves excessive remodeling and deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which leads to malfunction of the organ, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether levels of a type V collagen fragment, the propepti...

  16. [A case of mixed connective tissue disease positive for proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in a patient with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus and chronic thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michitsuji, Tohru; Horai, Yoshiro; Sako, Ayaka; Asano, Taro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

      A female in her sixties with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPT1DM) and chronic thyroiditis was referred to our rheumatology department with swelling in her fingers. A prominent atherosclerotic lesion was revealed upon brain magnetic resonance imaging, and she was found to have mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) positive for proteinase 3 (PR3)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). This rare case of MCTD accompanying SPT1DM and PR3-ANCA suggested that a synergy between MCTD and PR3-ANCA triggers atherosclerosis.

  17. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  18. Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator, its receptor and type-1 inhibitor in malignant and benign prostate tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Thomsen, Ole Frøkjær; Iversen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plasminogen activation (PA) cascade participates in degradation of extracellular matrix during cancer invasion. We have studied the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNA, uPA receptor (uPAR) mRNA and immunoreactivity, and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) m......RNA and immunoreactivity in 16 prostate adenocarcinomas and 9 benign prostate hyperplasias. uPA mRNA and uPAR mRNA expression were found in 9 and 8 of the adenocarcinomas, respectively, and in 7 and 6 of the benign hyperplasias, respectively. In both malignant and benign lesions, expression of these 2 m...... proximity to cancer cell islands. No immunoreactivity and/or mRNA expression of uPA, uPAR or PAI-1 was observed in cancer cells or in other epithelial cells in any of the cases....

  19. Alzheimer’s Disease Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Brain Tissue Stiffness Compared to Wild-type Mice in both Normoxia and following Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Menal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence from patients and animal models suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and that AD is associated with reduced brain tissue stiffness.AimTo investigate whether intermittent hypoxia (IH alters brain cortex tissue stiffness in AD mutant mice exposed to IH mimicking OSA.MethodsSix-eight month old (B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE985Dbo/J AD mutant mice and wild-type (WT littermates were subjected to IH (21% O2 40 s to 5% O2 20 s; 6 h/day or normoxia for 8 weeks. After euthanasia, the stiffness (E of 200-μm brain cortex slices was measured by atomic force microscopy.ResultsTwo-way ANOVA indicated significant cortical softening and weight increase in AD mice compared to WT littermates, but no significant effects of IH on cortical stiffness and weight were detected. In addition, reduced myelin was apparent in AD (vs. WT, but no significant differences emerged in the cortex extracellular matrix components laminin and glycosaminoglycans when comparing baseline AD and WT mice.ConclusionAD mutant mice exhibit reduced brain tissue stiffness following both normoxia and IH mimicking sleep apnea, and such differences are commensurate with increased edema and demyelination in AD.

  20. Tissue Factor and Toll Like Receptor (TLR)4 in Hyperglycemia-Hyperinsulinemia: Effects in Healthy Subjects, and Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Boden, Guenther; Rao, A. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have increased cardiovascular events. Blood tissue factor-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA), the initiating mechanism for blood coagulation, is elevated in DM. We have shown that hyperglycemia (HG), hyperinsulinemia (HI) and combined HG+HI (induced using 24 hr infusion clamps) increases TF-PCA in healthy and T2DM subjects, but not in T1DM subjects. The mechanisms for this are unknown. DM patients have elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. We postulated that TLR4 plays a role in modulating TF levels. Objectives and Methods We studied the effect of HG+HI on TLR4 and TF-PCA in vivo during 24 hr HG+HI infusion clamps in healthy subjects, and T1DM and T2DM subjects, and in vitro in blood. Results In vivo, in healthy subjects, 24 hr HG + HI infusion increased TLR4 6-fold, which correlated with TF-PCA (r= 0.91, p<0.0001). T2DM patients showed smaller increases in both. In T1DM subjects, TLR4 declined (50%, p<0.05) and correlated with TF-PCA (r=0.55; p<0.05). In vitro, HG (200 mg/dl added glucose) and HI (1-100 nM added insulin) increased TF-PCA in healthy subjects (~2-fold, 2-4 hr). Insulin inhibited by ~30% LPS-induced increase in TF-PCA and high glucose reversed it. TLR4 levels paralleled TF-PCA (r=0.71, p<0.0001); HG and HI increased TLR4 and insulin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 increase. Conclusions This is first evidence that even in healthy subjects, HG of short duration increases TLR4 and TF-PCA, key players in inflammation and thrombosis. TLR4-TF interplay is strikingly different in non-diabetic, T1DM and T2DM subjects. PMID:25653143

  1. Use of synovium-derived stromal cells and chitosan/collagen type I scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Zhongcheng; Lin Zhaoquan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054 (China); Xiong Hui; Long Xing; Wei Lili; Li Jian; Wu Yang, E-mail: xinglong1957@yahoo.com.c [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to investigate synovium-derived stromal cells (SDSCs) coupled with chitosan/collagen type I (CS/COL-I) scaffolds for cartilage engineering. CS/COL-I scaffolds were fabricated through freeze-drying and cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide. SDSCs were isolated from synovium and cultured onto CS/COL-I scaffolds, constructs of which were incubated in serum-free chondrogenic medium with sequential application of TGF-{beta}1 and bFGF for up to 21 days and then implanted into nude mice. The physical characteristics of the scaffolds were examined. The quality of the in vitro constructs was assessed in terms of DNA content by PicoGreen assay and cartilaginous matrix by histological examination. The implants of the constructs were evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examinations and reverse transcription PCR. Results indicated that the CS/COL-I scaffold showed porous structures, and the DNA content of SDSCs in CS/COL-I scaffolds increased at 1 week culture time. Both of the constructs in vitro and the implants were examined with positive stained GAGs histologically and the implants with positive collagen type II immunohistochemically. RT-PCR of the implants indicated that aggrecan and collagen type II expressed. It suggested that SDSCs coupled with CS/COL-I scaffolds treated sequentially with TGF-{beta}1 and bFGF in vitro were highly competent for engineered cartilage formation in vitro and in vivo.

  2. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  3. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation and ALP activity on the modified BCP scaffolds. The modified microporous surfaces showed low contact angles and large surface areas, which enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. Coating of the BCP scaffolds with type I collagen led to enhanced cell-material interactions and improved MG63 functions, such as spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. The micropore/collagen-coated scaffold showed the highest rate of cell response. These results indicate that a combination of micropores and collagen enhances cellular function on bioengineered bone allograft tissue.

  4. CD11b⁺, Ly6G⁺ cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Fischer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is containment of a pathogen at the site of infection prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. However, effector mechanisms must be kept in check to combat the pathogen while simultaneously limiting undesirable destruction of tissue resulting from these actions. Here we demonstrate that innate immune effector cells contain a peripheral poxvirus infection, preventing systemic spread of the virus. These innate immune effector cells are comprised primarily of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁻ monocytes that accumulate initially at the site of infection, and are then supplemented and eventually replaced by CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells. The phenotype of the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells resembles neutrophils, but the infiltration of neutrophils typically occurs prior to, rather than following, accumulation of monocytes. Indeed, it appears that the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrated the site of VACV infection in the ear are phenotypically distinct from the classical description of both neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. We found that CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells produce Type I interferons and large quantities of reactive oxygen species. We also observed that depletion of Ly6G⁺ cells results in a dramatic increase in tissue damage at the site of infection. Tissue damage is also increased in the absence of reactive oxygen species, although reactive oxygen species are typically thought to be damaging to tissue rather than protective. These data indicate the existence of a specialized population of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrates a site of virus infection late and protects the infected tissue from immune-mediated damage via production of reactive oxygen species. Regulation of the action of this population of cells may provide an intervention to prevent innate immune-mediated tissue destruction.

  5. Evaluation of Zinc-alpha-2-Glycoprotein and Proteasome Subunit beta-Type 6 Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Tissue Microarray Technology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-07-23

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is a significant cause of illness and death in males. Current detection strategies do not reliably detect the disease at an early stage and cannot distinguish aggressive versus nonaggressive CaP leading to potential overtreatment of the disease and associated morbidity. Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and proteasome subunit beta-Type 6 (PSMB-6) were found to be up-regulated in the serum of CaP patients with higher grade tumors after 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate if ZAG and PSMB-6 were also overexpressed in prostatic tumor tissue of CaP patients. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on CaP tissue microarrays with samples from 199 patients. Confirmatory gene expression profiling for ZAG and PSMB-6 were performed on 4 cases using Laser Capture Microdissection and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. ZAG expression in CaP epithelial cells was inversely associated with Gleason grade (benign prostatic hyperplasia>G3>G4\\/G5). PSMB-6 was not expressed in either tumor or benign epithelium. However, strong PSMB-6 expression was noted in stromal and inflammatory cells. Our results indicate ZAG as a possible predictive marker of Gleason grade. The inverse association between grade and tissue expression with a rising serum protein level is similar to that seen with prostate-specific antigen. In addition, the results for both ZAG and PSMB-6 highlight the challenges in trying to associate the protein levels in serum with tissue expression.

  6. Estrogen receptor-independent catechol estrogen binding activity: protein binding studies in wild-type, Estrogen receptor-alpha KO, and aromatase KO mice tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Brian J; Ansell, Pete J; Newton, Leslie G; Harada, Nobuhiro; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Rottinghaus, George E; Welshons, Wade V; Lubahn, Dennis B

    2004-06-01

    Primary evidence for novel estrogen signaling pathways is based upon well-documented estrogenic responses not inhibited by estrogen receptor antagonists. In addition to 17beta-E2, the catechol estrogen 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2) has been shown to elicit biological responses independent of classical estrogen receptors in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mice. Consequently, our research was designed to biochemically characterize the protein(s) that could be mediating the biological effects of catechol estrogens using enzymatically synthesized, radiolabeled 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1) and 4OHE2. Scatchard analyses identified a single class of high-affinity (K(d) approximately 1.6 nM), saturable cytosolic binding sites in several ERalphaKO estrogen-responsive tissues. Specific catechol estrogen binding was competitively inhibited by unlabeled catechol estrogens, but not by 17beta-E2 or the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Tissue distribution studies indicated significant binding differences both within and among various tissues in wild-type, ERalphaKO, and aromatase knockout female mice. Ligand metabolism experiments revealed extensive metabolism of labeled catechol estrogen, suggesting that catechol estrogen metabolites were responsible for the specific binding. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence for the interaction of catechol estrogen metabolites with a novel binding protein that exhibits high affinity, specificity, and selective tissue distribution. The extensive biochemical characterization of this binding protein indicates that this protein may be a receptor, and thus may mediate ERalpha/beta-independent effects of catechol estrogens and their metabolites.

  7. Relationship between TCF7L2 Relative Expression in Pancreas Tissue with Changes in Insulin by High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT on fasting glucose, insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissue of T2D rats, 2 to determine the relation between TCF7L2 expression with insulin changes in the HIIT and control groups. Methods: In the present applied-experimental study, T2D male Wistar rats induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin-nicotinamide were assigned to control (no-training and HIIT (5 times/week/12-week groups. Fasting glucose, serum insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues of both groups were measured after lasted exercise and compared between 2 groups by independent T test. Also, the relation between TCF7L2 expression and insulin of HIIT to the control group was assessed by Pearson correlations. Results: The HIIT training in the training group was associated with improved fasting glucose compared with the control group (P<0.001. A significant increase was observed in serum insulin levels (P< 0.001. Also, there was seen a significant decrease in TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues in HIIT group compared with the control group (P= 0.038. Significant negative correlation was found between TCF7L2 expression and insulin changes of the HIIT to control groups (r=0.84, P=0.034. conclusion: HIIT training is associated with improvements in glycemic control and insulin secretion in T2D rats. Based on these data, this improvement can be attributed to decrease in TCF7L2 expression at pancreas tissues by HIIT training.

  8. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Palmer, Gaby; Seemayer, Christian; Lamacchia, Celine; Finckh, Axel; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Baeten, Dominique; Reith, Walter; Gabay, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To determine the regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in order to investigate their role as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Expression of class II MHC, class II MHC transactivator (CIITA), and Ciita isoforms PI, PIII, and PIV was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in human synovial tissues, arthritic mouse joints, and human and murine FLS. CIA was induced in mice in which isoform PIV of Ciita was knocked out (PIV(-/-) ), in PIV(-/-) mice transgenic for CIITA in the thymus (K14 CIITA), and in their control littermates. HLA-DRA, total CIITA, and CIITA PIII messenger RNA levels were significantly increased in synovial tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the levels in tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. Human FLS expressed surface class II MHC via CIITA PIII and PIV, while class II MHC expression in murine FLS was entirely mediated by PIV. Mice with a targeted deletion of CIITA PIV lack CD4+ T cells and were protected against CIA. The expression of CIITA was restored in the thymus of PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice, which had a normal CD4+ T cell repertoire and normal surface levels of class II MHC on professional antigen-presenting cells, but did not induce class II MHC on FLS. Synovial inflammation and immune responses against type II collagen were similar in PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice and control mice with CIA, but bone erosion was significantly reduced in the absence of PIV. Overexpression of class II MHC is tightly correlated with CIITA expression in arthritic synovium and in FLS. Selective targeting of Ciita PIV in peripheral tissues abrogates class II MHC expression by murine FLS but does not protect against inflammation and autoimmune responses in CIA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Use of tissue-specific microRNA to control pathology of wild-type adenovirus without attenuation of its ability to kill cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Ryan; Chen, Hannah H; Carroll, Fionnadh; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; van Rooijen, Nico; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-05-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.

  10. Cloning of zebrafish activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) cDNA and mRNA expression of ActRIIB in embryos and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R R; Bally-Cuif, L; Lee, S E; Gong, Z; Ni, X; Hew, C L; Peng, C

    1999-07-20

    A full-length cDNA encoding for activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) was cloned from zebrafish embryos. It encodes a protein with 509 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. The extracellular domain shows 74-91% sequence identity to human, bovine, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus and goldfish activin type IIB receptors, while the transmembrane region and the kinase domain show 67-78% and 82-88% identity to these known activin IIB receptors, respectively. In adult zebrafish, ActRIIB mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the gonads, as well as in non-reproductive tissues, including the brain, heart and muscle. In situ hybridization on ovarian sections further localized ActRIIB mRNA to cytoplasm of oocytes at different stages of development. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, ActRIIB mRNA was found to be expressed at all stages of embryogenesis examined, including the sphere, shield, tail bud, and 6-7 somite. These results provide the first evidence that ActRIIB mRNA is widely distributed in fish embryonic and adult tissues. Cloning of zebrafish ActRIIB demonstrates that this receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and provides a basis for further studies on the role of activin in reproduction and development in lower vertebrates.

  11. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  12. Type II collagen-hyaluronan hydrogel – a step towards a scaffold for intervertebral disc tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Calderon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc regeneration strategies based on stem cell differentiation in combination with the design of functional scaffolds is an attractive approach towards repairing/regenerating the nucleus pulposus. The specific aim of this study was to optimise a composite hydrogel composed of type II collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA as a carrier for mesenchymal stem cells. Hydrogel stabilisation was achieved by means of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS cross-linking. Optimal hydrogel properties were determined by investigating different concentrations of EDC (8mM, 24mM and 48mM. Stable hydrogels were obtained independent of the concentration of carbodiimide used. The hydrogels cross-linked by the lowest concentration of EDC (8mM demonstrated high swelling properties. Additionally, improved proliferation of seeded rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs and hydrogel stability levels in culture were observed with this 8mM cross-linked hydrogel. Results from this study indicate that EDC/NHS (8mM cross-linked type II collagen/HA hydrogel was capable of supporting viability of rMSCs, and furthermore their differentiation into a chondrogenic lineage. Further investigations should be conducted to determine its potential as scaffold for nucleus pulposus regeneration/repair.

  13. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody (MAb). The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.5 fmol/ml. A linear dose-response is obtained with up to 40 fmol/ml of uPA:uPAR complexes, while uPA and uPAR separately do not cause any response in the ELISA. A buffer which has been used previously for optimal...... extraction of uPAR yields the highest amounts of uPA:uPAR complexes. Absorption of tumor extracts with anti-uPA or anti-uPAR MAbs results in a complete disappearance of the ELISA signal, demonstrating the specificity of the ELISA. The recovery of chemically cross-linked uPA:uPAR complexes added to tumor...

  14. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH 3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH 2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH 3 symmetric) and 2848 cm -1 (CH 2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH 3 to CH 2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed

  15. The influence of Simvastatin and Korargin on the clinical course of coronary heart disease, body weight and distribution of adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pogrebniak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most influential risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Incidence of coronary heart diseases (CHD and acute myocardial infarction in diabetic patients is much higher than in people without diabetes. Type 2 DM affects other risk factors of CHD due to the fact that, as a rule, it is accompanied by obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decrease of high density lipoproteins. Purpose of the investigation – to improve the efficiency of treatment of patients with CHD with type 2 DM based on the effect of Simvastatin and Korargin on it’s clinical course, body weight and the distribution of adipose tissue. Materials and methods of the investigation. The study involved 175 patients with CHD aged from 34 to 87, mean age was 61,0 ± 8,0 years, among whom there were 96 (54,9% men and 79 (45,1% women. All surveyed received conventional treatment. Depending on supplementary prescriptions patients were divided into eight groups: 1 group - 22 patients with CHD who were prescribed Simvastatin, 2 group - 20 patients with CHD who were prescribed Korargin, 3 group - 20 patients with coronary artery disease who were prescribed simultaneously both Simvastatin and Korarhin, 4 group - 20 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes treated with Simvastatin, 5 group - 23 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes who took Korargin, 6 group - 27 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes, who were prescribed both Simvastatin and Korargin in addition to conventional treatments, 7 group - 20 patients with CHD who received only conventional treatments, 8 group - 23 patients with coronary artery disease combined with type 2 diabetes who received only conventional treatments. Simvastatin ("Vazostat-Health" FC "Health", Kharkiv was administered at a daily dose of 20 mg at night during 6 months, Korargin (JSC "Engineer", Uman - 0,1 g of L-arginine hydrochloride with 0.1 g of inosine – was administered at a dose of 3

  16. Identification and tissue distribution of mRNAs encoding salmon-type calcitonins-IV and -V in the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshie; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2004-06-01

    Four types of calcitonin are produced in salmonid fish, although their functional diversity is almost unknown. To explore the significance of these isoforms, we have characterized salmon-type calcitonin (sCT) mRNAs in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and examined their tissue distribution. In addition to the previously isolated sCT-I cDNAs, two new forms of sCT cDNA were cloned from the ultimobranchial gland, and one of them (sCT-IV cDNA) was predicted to encode an N-terminal peptide of 80 amino acid residues, a putative cleavage site Lys-Arg, sCT-IV, a cleavage and amidation sequence Gly-Lys-Lys-Arg, and a C-terminal peptide of 18 amino acids. The sCT-IV precursor was 78% identical with the rainbow trout sCT-I precursors. The other cloned cDNA encoded a precursor for a novel CT, sCT-V. The sCT-V peptide was different from sCT-IV by only one amino acid residue: Val at position 8 in the latter was replaced by Met. The sCT-V precursor had 80 and 90% identity with the sCT-I and -IV precursors respectively. No cDNA clones were obtained for sCTs-II or -III.Tissue distribution of sCT-I, -IV and -V mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and specific cleavage with restriction enzymes. An amplified fragment from sCT-I mRNA was detected not only in the ultimobranchial gland, but also in the gills, testis and ovary. RT-PCR analysis coupled to restriction digestion further revealed that sCT-IV mRNA was expressed in both the testis and the ultimobranchial gland. The expression sites of sCT-IV mRNA were localized to the Leydig cells of the testis and to the parenchymal cells of the ultimobranchial gland, by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Although the amino acid sequence of sCT-V peptide was nearly the same as that of sCT-IV, the sCT-V gene showed a much wider pattern of expression: the band amplified by RT-PCR was detected in all the tissues examined except the kidney, gills and blood cells. The sCT-V mRNA was shown to be localized in the parenchymal cells of the

  17. Lung adenocarcinoma originates from retrovirus infection of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes during pulmonary post-natal development or tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Claudio; Caporale, Marco; Ceesay, Ousman; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Ferri, Nicola; Varasano, Vincenzo; de las Heras, Marcelo; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a unique oncogenic virus with distinctive biological properties. JSRV is the only virus causing a naturally occurring lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, OPA) and possessing a major structural protein that functions as a dominant oncoprotein. Lung cancer is the major cause of death among cancer patients. OPA can be an extremely useful animal model in order to identify the cells originating lung adenocarcinoma and to study the early events of pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that lung adenocarcinoma in sheep originates from infection and transformation of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes (termed here lung alveolar proliferating cells, LAPCs). We excluded that OPA originates from a bronchioalveolar stem cell, or from mature post-mitotic type 2 pneumocytes or from either proliferating or non-proliferating Clara cells. We show that young animals possess abundant LAPCs and are highly susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. On the contrary, healthy adult sheep, which are normally resistant to experimental OPA induction, exhibit a relatively low number of LAPCs and are resistant to JSRV infection of the respiratory epithelium. Importantly, induction of lung injury increased dramatically the number of LAPCs in adult sheep and rendered these animals fully susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. Furthermore, we show that JSRV preferentially infects actively dividing cell in vitro. Overall, our study provides unique insights into pulmonary biology and carcinogenesis and suggests that JSRV and its host have reached an evolutionary equilibrium in which productive infection (and transformation) can occur only in cells that are scarce for most of the lifespan of the sheep. Our data also indicate that, at least in this model, inflammation can predispose to retroviral infection and cancer.

  18. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  19. The effects of capsaicin and capsaicinoid analogs on metabolic molecular targets in highly energetic tissues and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Nicholas P; Lambalot, Emily L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in dietary chemicals that may provide benefits for pathologies such as diabetes and obesity. Capsaicinoids found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for the "hot" or "spicy" sensation associated with these foods. Capsaicinoid consumption is also associated with enhanced metabolism, making them potentially therapeutic for metabolic disease by promoting weight loss. This review summarizes much of the current experimental evidence (ranging from basic to applied investigations) of the biochemical and molecular metabolic effects of capsaicinoids in metabolically significant cell types. Along with influencing metabolic rate, findings demonstrate capsaicinoids appear to alter molecular metabolic signaling, regulate hunger and satiety, blood metabolites, and catecholamine release. Notably, the majority of the experiments summarized herein utilized isolated supplemental or research grade capsaicinoids rather than natural food sources for experimental interventions. Additional work should be conducted using primary food sources of capsaicin to explore pharmacological, physiological, and metabolic benefits of both chronic and acute capsaicin consumption. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):229-246, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Effects of prolonged ingestion of epigallocatechin gallate on diabetes type 1-induced vascular modifications in the erectile tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombo, C; Morgado, C; Tavares, I; Neves, D

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 1 is a metabolic disease that predisposes to erectile dysfunction, partly owing to structural and molecular changes in the corpus cavernosum (CC) vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early treatment with the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cavernous diabetes-induced vascular modifications. Diabetes was induced in two groups of young Wistar rats; one group was treated with EGCG for 10 weeks. A reduction in smooth muscle content was observed in the CC of diabetic rats, which was significantly attenuated with EGCG consumption. No differences were observed among groups, neither in the expression of VEGF assayed by western blotting nor in the immunofluorescent labeling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). VEGFR2 was restricted to the endothelium, whereas VEGF and VEGFR1 co-localized in the smooth muscle layer. With regard to the Angiopoietin/Tie-2 system, no quantitative differences in Angiopoietin 1 were observed among the experimental groups. Ang1 localization was restricted to the smooth muscle layer, and receptor Tie2 and Angiopoietin 2 were both expressed in the endothelium. In brief, our results suggest that EGCG consumption prevented diabetes-induced loss of cavernous smooth muscle but does not affect vascular growth factor expression in young rats.

  1. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  2. Treated of type 1 diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow and pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumizu, R.; Sugiura, K.; Iwai, H.

    1987-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) can prevent and treat insulitis and overt diabetes in NOD mice. However, ABMT alone could not be used to treat overt diabetes in NOD mice whose islets had been completely destroyed. To provide insulin-producing cells, pancreatic tissue from newborn mice was grafted under the renal capsules in combination with ABMT. The aims of concomitant ABMT are as follows. (i) It induces immunological tolerance to the donor-type major histocompatibility complex determinants and permits the host to accept subsequent pancreatic allografts from the bone marrow donor. (ii) ABMT replaces abnormal stem cells with normal stem cells. After transplantation of bone marrow plus newborn pancreas, NOD mice showed reduction of the glycosuria and a normal response in the glucose-tolerance test. Immunohistological study revealed the presence of clustered insulin-containing beta cells in the grafted pancreatic transplants. ABMT may become a viable treatment of established type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans

  3. Global gene expression profiling displays a network of dysregulated genes in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skov Vibe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized arterial alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction, medial matrix accumulations, and calcifications are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D. These changes may render the vessel wall more susceptible to injury; however, the molecular characteristics of such diffuse pre-atherosclerotic changes in diabetes are only superficially known. Methods To identify the molecular alterations of the generalized arterial disease in T2D, DNA microarrays were applied to examine gene expression changes in normal-appearing, non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from 10 diabetic and 11 age-matched non-diabetic men scheduled for a coronary by-pass operation. Gene expression changes were integrated with GO-Elite, GSEA, and Cytoscape to identify significant biological pathways and networks. Results Global pathway analysis revealed differential expression of gene-sets representing matrix metabolism, triglyceride synthesis, inflammation, insulin signaling, and apoptosis. The network analysis showed a significant cluster of dysregulated genes coding for both intra- and extra-cellular proteins associated with vascular cell functions together with genes related to insulin signaling and matrix remodeling. Conclusions Our results identify pathways and networks involved in the diffuse vasculopathy present in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue in patients with T2D and confirmed previously observed mRNA-alterations. These abnormalities may play a role for the arterial response to injury and putatively for the accelerated atherogenesis among patients with diabetes.

  4. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  5. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of <10 years. Furthermore, HA and IαI amassed in follicular germinal centers and in T-cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  6. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type, non-phosphaturic variant: report of a case and review of 32 cases from the Japanese published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Rie; Kawabata, Yuka; Ito, Shusaku; Kikuchi, Fumihito

    2014-09-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare neoplasm that can cause tumor-induced osteomalacia due to overproduction of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). We report here a case of subcutaneous PMTMCT, non-phosphaturic variant, in the sole. We also review 32 Japanese cases of PMTMCT reported in detail. They occurred in 16 men and 15 women (one was unknown), with ages ranging 20-73 years (median, 48). Tumors were found in soft tissue, bone and sinuses in 17, 11 and four, respectively. A history of long-standing osteomalacia was noted in all cases except two non-phosphaturic variant cases. Serum FGF23 level was elevated in 11 of 12 cases examined. In terms of follow-up information, metastases were found in four patients, and two patients died of disease. In conclusion, PMTMCT is histologically a benign lesion; however, there may be rare metastatic and malignant cases. Wider recognition of the histological features of this unique neoplasm would aid its distinction from the large number of mesenchymal tumors for which it may be mistaken and should enable correct diagnosis of tumors with osteomalacia. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  8. Effect of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on acute myocardial infarction; Limitation of infarct size and preservation of left ventricular function evaluated by radionuclide methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Takaya; Inou, Tetsuji; Ashihara, Toshiaki; Ogata, Ikuo; Nabeyama, Shouzou; Yamada, Akira; Murakami, Satoshi; Kodama, Mayuko; Matsui, Kanji (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide studies were performed in 18 patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving i.v. injection of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 12 hr after an attack. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography revealed that infarct size decreased by 42% in the rt-PA treated group, as compared with 25% in the control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction, as found on first-pass radionuclide angiography with Tc-99m PYP, was significantly higher in the rt-PA treated group than the control group (49% vs 38%). Radionuclide imagings were helpful in confirming myocardial salvage after rt-PA intravenous therapy. It was also considered necessary to perform rt-PA therapy as early as possible after an acute myocardial attack. (N.K.).

  9. Programming of adipose tissue miR-483-3p and GDF-3 expression by maternal diet in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferland-McCollough, D; Fernandez-Twinn, D S; Cannell, I G

    2012-01-01

    substantially modulates the capacity of adipocytes to differentiate and store lipids. We show that some of these effects are mediated by translational repression of growth/differentiation factor-3, a target of miR-483-3p. We propose that increased miR-483-3p expression in vivo, programmed by early......Nutrition during early mammalian development permanently influences health of the adult, including increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such programming are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that programmed changes in mi......RNA expression link early-life nutrition to long-term health. Specifically, we show that miR-483-3p is upregulated in adipose tissue from low-birth-weight adult humans and prediabetic adult rats exposed to suboptimal nutrition in early life. We demonstrate that manipulation of miR-483-3p levels in vitro...

  10. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens

    2016-12-01

    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between ~30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of ~100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Microscopic study of dental hard tissues in primary teeth with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II: Correlation of 3D imaging using X-ray microtomography and polarising microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R; Fearne, Janice M; Sabel, Nina; Norén, Jörgen G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the histological appearance of dental hard tissues in primary teeth from children with DI using conventional polarised light microscopy and correlate that with 3D imaging using X-ray microtomograpy (XMT) to gain a further understanding of the dentine structure of teeth diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta. Undecalcified sections of primary teeth from patients diagnosed with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II were examined using polarised light microscopy. XMT was employed for 3D-imaging and analysis of the dentine. The polarised light microscopy and XMT revealed tubular structures in the dentine seen as vacuoles coinciding with the path of normal dentinal tubules but not continuous tubules. The size of the tubules was close to that of capillaries. The largest tubular structures had a direction corresponding to where the pulp tissue would have been located during primary dentine formation. The dysfunctional mineralisation of the dentine and obliteration of the pulp evidently leaves blood vessels in the dentine which have in the main been tied off and, in the undecalcified sections, appear as vacuoles. Although from radiographs, the pulp in teeth affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfect type II appears to be completely obliterated, a network of interconnected vessels may remain. The presence of large dentinal tubules and blood vessels, or the remnants of blood vessels, could provide a pathway for bacteria from the oral cavity. This might account for why some of these teeth develop periapical abscesses in spite of apparently having no pulp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body fat of stock-type horses predicted by rump fat thickness and deuterium oxide dilution and validated by near-infrared spectroscopy of dissected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjak, E N; Cavinder, C A; Burnett, D D; Argo, C Mc; Dinh, T T N

    2017-10-01

    Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (DO) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS. Twenty-four stock-type horses were selected to be humanely euthanized based on 3 primary criteria: geriatric, crippled, and/or unsafe. Approximately 20 h before slaughter, horses were weighed and BCS assessed to be 1 ( = 1; 433 kg), 2 ( = 1; 415 kg), 3 ( = 1; 376 kg), 4 ( = 7; 468 ± 13 kg), 5 ( = 10; 455 ± 11 kg), and 6 ( = 4; 493 ± 12 kg) and RFT was measured using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 4 h after DO infusion (0.12 g/kg BW). Deuterium oxide concentration of plasma was determined by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Horses were housed in a dry lot overnight before being individually sedated (1.1 mg xylazine/kg BW) and anesthetized using a jugular venipuncture (2.2 mg ketamine/kg BW), and potassium chloride (KCl) solution was administered to cease cardiac function before exsanguination. After euthanasia, horse carcasses were processed and dissected and tissues were collected for NIRS analysis. Body fat predicted by DO dilution was correlated with BF measured by NIRS analysis on various weight bases ( = 0.76 to 0.81, horses.

  13. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. David valve-sparing aortic root replacement: equivalent mid-term outcome for different valve types with or without connective tissue disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Kari, Fabian A; Fischbein, Michael P; Liang, David H; Beraud, Anne-Sophie; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2013-01-01

    Although implicitly accepted by many that the durability of valve-sparing aortic root replacement in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and connective tissue disorders will be inferior, this hypothesis has not been rigorously investigated. From 1993 to 2009, 233 patients (27% bicuspid aortic valve, 40% Marfan syndrome) underwent Tirone David valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Follow-up averaged 4.7 ± 3.3 years (1102 patient-years). Freedom from adverse outcomes was determined using log-rank calculations. Survival at 5 and 10 years was 98.7% ± 0.7% and 93.5% ± 5.1%, respectively. Freedom from reoperation (all causes) on the aortic root was 92.2% ± 3.6% at 10 years; 3 reoperations were aortic valve replacement owing to structural valve deterioration. Freedom from structural valve deterioration at 10 years was 96.1% ± 2.1%. No significant differences were found in survival (P = .805, P = .793, respectively), reoperation (P = .179, P = .973, respectively), structural valve deterioration (P = .639, P = .982, respectively), or any other functional or clinical endpoints when patients were stratified by valve type (tricuspid aortic valve vs bicuspid aortic valve) or associated connective tissue disorder. At the latest echocardiographic follow-up (95% complete), 202 patients (94.8%) had none or trace aortic regurgitation, 10 (4.7%) mild, 0 had moderate to severe, and 1 (0.5%) had severe aortic regurgitation. Freedom from greater than 2+ aortic regurgitation at 10 years was 95.3% ± 2.5%. Six patients sustained acute type B aortic dissection (freedom at 10 years, 90.4% ± 5.0%). Tirone David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement in carefully selected young patients was associated with excellent clinical and echocardiographic outcome in patients with either a tricuspid aortic valve or bicuspid aortic valve. No demonstrable adverse influence was found for Marfan syndrome or connective tissue disorder on durability, clinical outcome

  15. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  16. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  17. Jelly-type carbohydrate supplement in healthy subjects suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein and improves their satisfactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Oyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Many studies have reported the effects of preoperative clear fluid carbohydrate supplements; however, few studies have reported the effects of preoperative jelly-type carbohydrate supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of a jelly-type oral nutritional supplement (ONS on metabolism, redox balance by using various surrogate markers and to evaluate its excretion from the stomach. Methods: This study was conducted according to a crossover design. Participants underwent a control experiment whereby they fasted after dinner and only ingested water until the experiment. The remaining participants underwent an ONS experiment whereby they ingested 400 g of ONS before bed and another 400 g at 7:00 am. Blood samples were collected at 9:00 am. After a break of at least 24 h, participants underwent the alternate experiment. Results: Thirty minutes after intake of jelly, the gastric antrum appeared flat (the same result as that at baseline on ultrasonography. The ONS group showed significantly lower serum free fatty acid levels (100 μEq/L, p = 0.027, vs. 327 μEq/L, n = 6, total ketone bodies levels, 3-MH/creatinine levels, and oxidative stress surrogate markers. Serum insulin levels were significantly higher and participant's satisfaction was improved in the ONS group. Conclusions: We have the limitations of our methodologies as surrogate markers, compared with direct measurement of lipolysis, proteolysis and redox balance regulation. But Jelly-type ONS suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein, decreases oxidative stress and improves patient satisfaction in healthy participants, without any increased risk of aspiration. Keywords: Crossover design, Jelly-type oral nutritional supplement, Metabolism, Antioxidation, ERAS

  18. MR Histoanatomical Distribution of 290 Soft-tissue Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Jeung Il; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Won Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed too identify the MR histoanatomical distribution of soft-tissue tumors. A total of 290 soft-tissue tumors of 281 patients were analyzed by the use of MR imaging and were pathologically confirmed after surgical resection or a biopsy. There were 120 malignant soft-tissue tumors including tumors of an intermediate malignancy and 170 benign tumors. The histoanatomical locations were divided into three types: 'type I' with superficial layer tumors that involved the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 'type II' with deep layer tumors that involved the muscle or tendon and 'type III' with soft tissue tumors that involved both the superficial and deep layers. Soft-tissue tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, glomus tumor, angiolipoma, leiomyosarcoma and lymphoma as 'type I' tumors. 'Type II' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included liposarcoma, fibromatosis, papillary endothelial hyperplasia and rhabdomyosarcoma. 'Type III' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 50% included neurofibromatosis. The MR histoanatomical distributions of soft tissue tumors are useful in the differential pathological diagnosis when a soft-tissue tumor has a nonspecific MR appearance.

  19. THE POTENTIAL VALUE OF ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Frolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data on the potential value of ultrasound imaging in diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma were analyzed. Ultrasound in B-regime was used to assess the extent of soft tissue sarcoma, Doppler ultrasonography was used to study tumor vascularization and sonoelastography was useful to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of soft tissues. The analysis of diagnostic value of ultrasound in detection of soft tissue lesions was carried out.  Criteria characterizing various histological types of tumors were identified.

  20. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  2. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  3. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  4. EFFECT OF INFLIXIMAB ON DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL CLASS AND RADIOLOGICAL SIGN OF BONE AND CARTILAGINOUS TISSUES ALTERATION OF JOINTS IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of this trial was evaluation of effect of treatment with blocker of tumor necrosis factor infliximab on dynamics of functional class and radiological changes of bone and cartilaginous tissue of joints in children with different clinical types of juvenile arthritis (JA. Infliximab was used according to standard scheme on 0, 2, 6 and then every 8 week by intravenous infusion. Mean single dose of infliximab was 6,8 ± 2,3 mg/kg. All children were treated with immunosuppressive agents (ciclosporin in 6% of patients, methotrexate in 60%, ciclosporin combined with methotrexate — 20%, ciclosporin with leflunomide — 5%, leflunomide with methotreate — 4% combined with anti cytokine treatment. 7 children were treated with oral glucocorticoids in mean dose 0,37 mg/kg daily. disorders in joint function and structural changes of joints of different severity (radiological sign were discovered in all patients before starting of treatment with infliximab. Duration of observation was 6 week — 2 years. Authors made a conclusion that treatment with infliximab prevents progressing of bone and cartilaginous destruction in all types of AJ, not depending on intensity of its clinical activity. This medication provides for full functional recovery of joints and elimination of features of disablement in patients with good clinical activity.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, infliximab, treatment.

  5. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and structure to the skin and internal organs. Epithelial tissue provides a covering for deeper body layers. The ... such as the gastrointestinal system, are made of epithelial tissue. Muscle tissue includes three types of tissue: Striated ...

  6. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  7. Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1.5 years of functional loading without oral hygiene: a preliminary study in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzak, Georg; Zechner, Werner; Tangl, Stefan; Vasak, Christoph; Donath, Karl; Watzek, Georg

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension (PSD) and peri-implant bone level (BL) of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures. After 1.5 years of functional loading and plaque accumulation, all implants showed severe peri-implant mucositis and comparatively high BL. A histomorphometric evaluation of the sulcus depth (SD), the dimension of the junctional epithelium (JE) and the connective tissue contact (CTC) resulted in no significant differences between the three implant designs, neither in the maxilla nor in the mandible (P>0.05). The sum of SD, JE and CTC forming the PSD was nearly the same in the maxilla (commercially pure titanium, CpTi: 3.5 mm 2.9/4.1 confidence interval (CI); titanium plasma sprayed (TPS): 3.5 mm 2.9/4.2 CI; sand blasted acid-etched (GBAE): 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI) and in the mandible (CpTi: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; TPS: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; GBAE: 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI; P>0.05). There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs (maxilla: CpTi: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; TPS: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.5CI; GBAE: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; mandible: CpTi: 0.8 mm 0.5/1.2 CI; TPS: 0.6 mm 0.4/0.9 CI; GBAE: 0.7 mm 0.5/1.1 CI; P>0.05). Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1.5 years of functional loading was not influenced by implant design and surface modifications in baboons.

  8. A Histologic Evaluation on Tissue Reaction to Three Implanted Materials (MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement Type I in the Mandible of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sasani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Nowadays Mineral Trioxide aggregate (MTA is widely used for root end fillings, pulp capping, perforation repair and other endodontic treatments.Investigations have shown similar physical and chemical properties for Portland cement and Root MTA with those described for MTA.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tissue reaction to implanted MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA in the mandible of cats.Materials and Methods: Under asepsis condition and general anesthesia, a mucoperiosteal flap, following the application of local anesthesia, was elevated to expose mandibular symphysis. Two small holes in both sides of mandible were drilled. MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA were mixed according to the manufacturers, recommendation and placed in bony cavities. In positive control group, the test material was Zinc oxide powder plus tricresoformalin. In negative control group, the bony cavities were left untreated. After 3,6 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the mandibular sections were prepared for histologic examination under light microscope. The presence and thickness of inflammation, presence of fibrosis capsule, the severity of fibrosis and bone formation were investigated. The data were submitted to Exact Fisher test, chi square test and Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis.Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the degree of inflammation,presence of fibrotic capsule, severity of fibrosis and inflammation thickness between Root MTA, Portland cement and MTA (P>0.05. There was no statistical difference in boneformation between MTA and Portland cement (P>0.05. However, bone formation was not found in any of the Root MTA specimens and the observed tissue was exclusively of fibrosis type.Conclusion: The physical and histological results observed with MTA are similar to those of Root MTA and Portland cement. Additionally, all of these three materials are biocompatible

  9. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  10. Transcriptomics resources of human tissues and organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias; Hallström, Björn M.; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    a framework for defining the molecular constituents of the human body as well as for generating comprehensive lists of proteins expressed across tissues or in a tissue-restricted manner. Here, we review publicly available human transcriptome resources and discuss body-wide data from independent genome......Quantifying the differential expression of genes in various human organs, tissues, and cell types is vital to understand human physiology and disease. Recently, several large-scale transcriptomics studies have analyzed the expression of protein-coding genes across tissues. These datasets provide...

  11. New techniques for imaging and analyzing lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; Ingram, P.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Mastin, P.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The recent technological revolution in the field of imaging techniques has provided pathologists and toxicologists with an expanding repertoire of analytical techniques for studying the interaction between the lung and the various exogenous materials to which it is exposed. Analytical problems requiring elemental sensitivity or specificity beyond the range of that offered by conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are particularly appropriate for the application of these newer techniques. Electron energy loss spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass analysis each offer unique advantages in this regard, but also possess their own limitations and disadvantages. Diffraction techniques provide crystalline structural information available through no other means. Bulk chemical techniques provide useful cross-checks on the data obtained by microanalytical approaches. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the methodology of these techniques, acknowledge situations in which they have been used in addressing problems in pulmonary toxicology, and comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. It is necessary for an investigator to weigh6 each of these factors when deciding which technique is best suited for any given analytical problem; often it is useful to employ a combination of two or more of the techniques discussed. It is anticipated that there will be increasing utilization of these technologies for problems in pulmonary toxicology in the decades to come. 92 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  12. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  13. Analyzing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    New types of disclosure and reporting are argued to be vital in order to convey a transparent picture of the true state of the company. However, they are unfortunately not without problems as these types of information are somewhat more complex than the information provided in the traditional...... stakeholders in a form that corresponds to the stakeholders understanding, then disclosure and interpretation of key performance indicators will also be facilitated....

  14. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation.

  15. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  16. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p periodontitis groups (p periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Tissue-type plasminogen activator and C-reactive protein in acute coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the importance of inflammation and fibrinolysis for evolution of ischaemic heart disease in a cohort of initially healthy subjects. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Follow-up periods 7-15 years. SUBJECTS: Included in the study were 133 cases with coronary heart disease...... and 258 controls. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects with ischaemic heart disease identified in 1991 by the Danish National Hospital Register. Protein concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured with ELISA methods in stored serum.......005) and it was present in both the 7-9 years follow-up cohort (CRP: P = 0.014; t-PA: P = 0.001) and the 15 years follow-up cohort (CRP: P = 0.027; t-PA: P = 0.012). The best predictor of CRP was t-PA, whilst the best predictor of t-PA was triglycerides. In a logistic regression analysis model, t-PA still came out...

  18. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zou, Haidong, E-mail: zouhaidong@hotmail.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2010-06-11

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg{sup 54}-Trp{sup 63} of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition{sub .} These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  19. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  1. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing; Zou, Haidong

    2010-01-01

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg 54 -Trp 63 of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition . These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  2. Effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical porosity, non-enzymatic glycation and bone tissue mechanics in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G M; Tiwari, S; Hofbauer, C; Picke, A-K; Rauner, M; Huber, G; Peña, J A; Damm, T; Barkmann, R; Morlock, M M; Hofbauer, L C; Glüer, C-C

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases skeletal fragility; however, the contributing mechanisms and the efficacy of bone-forming agents are unclear. We studied diabetes and parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment effects on cortical porosity (Ct.Po), non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and bone mechanics in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Eleven-week old ZDF diabetic (DB) and non-diabetic (ND) rats were given 75μg/kg PTH (1-84) or vehicle 5days per week over 12weeks. The right femora and L4 vertebrae were excised, micro-CT scanned, and tested in 3-point bending and uniaxial compression, respectively. NEG of the samples was determined using fluorescence. Diabetes increased Ct.Po (vertebra (vert): +40.6%, femur (fem): +15.5% vs. ND group, pbone tissue mechanics where reductions in vertebral maximum strain (-22%) and toughness (-42%) were observed in the DB vs. ND group (pbone mechanics, which were not improved with PTH treatment. PTH therapy alone may worsen diabetic bone mechanics through formation of new bone with high AGEs cross-linking. Optimal treatment regimens must address both improvements of bone mass and glycemic control in order to successfully reduce diabetic bone fragility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Bone and diabetes". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examination of the signal transduction pathways leading to upregulation of tissue type plasminogen activator by Porphyromonas endodontalis in human pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F-M; Chen, Y-J; Chou, M-Y; Chang, Y-C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity in human pulp cells stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in the absence or presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The supernatants of P. endodontalis were used to evaluate t-PA activity in human pulp cells using casein zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, to search for possible signal transduction pathways, SB203580, U0126 and LY294002 were added to test how they modulated the t-PA activity. The main casein secreted by human pulp cells migrated at 70 kDa and represented t-PA. Secretion of t-PA was found to be stimulated with P. endodontalis during 2-day cultured period (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production respectively (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production (P > 0.05). Porphyromonas endodontalis enhances t-PA production in human pulp cells, and the signal transduction pathways p38 and MEK are involved in the inhibition of t-PA.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianyun; Wang, Yingjun; Wu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  5. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  6. This paper describes 14 Colombian web based “edu-communicational” projects. The aim is to analyze different types of platforms, different type of use and the elements that facilitate interaction with final users. The study sample is composed of three main

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Durán Becerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes 14 Colombian web based “edu-communicational” projects. The aim is to analyze different types of platforms, different type of use and the elements that facilitate interaction with final users. The study sample is composed of three main categories of sites: formal education sites, informal education sites and other types of sites that contain some kind of educational content. The research establishes different variables aimed at discovering educommunicative tools. Both the theoretical framework and the conceptual approach to edu-communication, as well as the methodological proposal applied are retrieved from the works of De Oliveira (2009, Freire (2002, Barbas Coslado (2012, Pérez-Tornero (2004, Tejedor (2010, Said and Arcila (2011a and O’Reilly (2009, among others. In conclusion, the article shows similarities and differences among the platforms that shape the online edu-communicational landscape in Colombia.

  7. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  8. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  9. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  10. Downregulation of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs in malignant melanoma: inverse correlation with membrane-type 1-matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomasso, Thiago; Trombetta-Lima, Marina; Sogayar, Mari C; Winnischofer, Sheila M B

    2014-02-01

    The invasive phenotype of many tumors is associated with an imbalance between the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and the membrane-anchored reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK). RECK inhibits MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP, and has been linked to patient survival and better prognosis in several types of tumors. However, despite the wide implication of these MMPs in melanoma establishment and progression, the role of RECK in this type of tumor is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the expression of RECK, TIMP1, TIMP2, TIMP3, MT1MMP, MMP2, and MMP9 in two publicly available melanoma microarray datasets and in a panel of human melanoma cell lines. We found that RECK is downregulated in malignant melanoma, accompanied by upregulation of MT1MMP and TIMP2. In both datasets, we observed that the group of samples displaying higher RECK levels show lower median expression levels of MT1MMP and TIMP2 and higher levels of TIMP3. When tested in a sample-wise manner, these correlations were statistically significant. Inverse correlations between RECK, MT1MMP, and TIMP2 were verified in a panel of human melanoma cell lines and in a further reduced model that includes a pair of matched primary tumor-derived and metastasis-derived cell lines. Taken together, our data indicate a consistent correlation between RECK, MT1MMP, and TIMP2 across different models of clinical samples and cell lines and suggest evidence of the potential use of this subset of genes as a gene signature for diagnosing melanoma.

  11. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  12. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  13. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  14. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  15. Use of Tissue-Specific MicroRNA to Control Pathology of Wild-Type Adenovirus without Attenuation of Its Ability to Kill Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawood, R.; Chen, H.H.; Carroll, F.; Bazan-Peregrino, M.; Rooijen, van N.; Seymour, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective

  16. Angiographic picture of soft tissue desmoid fibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, N.S.; Kuznetsova, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Arteriography was performed in 35 patients with soft tissue desmoid fibromas. Angiographic semiotics of this disease was described. The frequency of detectability of symptoms in the arterial, parenchymatous and venous phases was analyzed. A tumor in the arterial phase was shown to be of normevascular or moderately hypervascular type without noticeable winding of the nutrient arteries, such features of malignancy as lacunae and ''tumor'' vessels being absent. In the parenchymatous phase desmoid tumors were shown to accumulate moderately a contrast substance, a tumor contour at a vast length was ill defined and poorly marked from surrounding tissues. The venous phase was less noticeable and the time of its appearance was usually within normal. In general by most of its parameters the angiographic picture of agressive fibromatosis corresponded to that of benign tumors and could be used for differential diagnosis of desmoid fibromas and some types of tissue sarcomas

  17. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  18. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  19. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  20. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  1. In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in control and thrombus-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko

    1992-01-01

    In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Tc-99m-rt-PA) was studied in control rats and thrombus-bearing rats. To compare fibrin binding in vivo with that in vitro, Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was also imaged. Rapid blood clearance and accumulation into the liver and kidneys were observed in both control and thrombus-bearing rats. Accumulation in the stomach, which indicates instability of labeled rt-PA in vivo, was very low until two hours after injection. Tc-99m-rt-PA accumulation in the clots was higher than that in skeletal and heart muscles, although it was lower than in blood, liver, and kidneys. Administration of aprotinin, an antifibrinolytic agent, significantly prolonged clot accumulation of Tc-99m-rt-PA at 30 minutes after injection. These results suggest that fibrinolysis is responsible for the low rt-PA concentration in the clots. A scintigram of a thrombus-bearing rat demonstrated increased radioactivity at the clot forming site. On the other hand, Tc-99m-labeled human albumin, which was used as a control, was not accumulated in the clot. Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was clearly imaged. By comparison, in vivo fibrin binding of Tc-99m-rt-PA was much lower than in vitro. The reasons for low thrombus uptake in vivo may be: (1) biochemical inactivation of extrinsically administered rt-PA by t-PA inhibitor; (2) fibrinolysis by rt-PA activated plasminogen. Overcoming these limitations will enable Tc-99m-rt-PA to reach the stage of clinical trials. (author)

  2. Tissue-specific inactivation of type 2 deiodinase reveals multilevel control of fatty acid oxidation by thyroid hormone in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M L C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ignacio, Daniele L; Moises, Caio C S; Ferreira, Alexander R; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity.

  3. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xianyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Gang, E-mail: imwugang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xianyun; Wang Yingjun; Wu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. ► Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. ► Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ε-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1 H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  5. The Effect of a Vegetarian vs Conventional Hypocaloric Diabetic Diet on Thigh Adipose Tissue Distribution in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Klementova, Marta; Herynek, Vit; Skoch, Antonin; Herynek, Stepan; Hill, Martin; Mari, Andrea; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the effects of a vegetarian and a conventional diet on thigh adipose tissue distribution in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventy-four subjects with T2D were randomly assigned to either follow a vegetarian diet (V, n = 37) or a control group who followed an isocaloric conventional anti-diabetic diet (C, n = 37). Both diets were calorie restricted (-500 kcal/day). To measure insulin sensitivity, the hyperinsulinemic (1 mU.kg -1 .min -1 ) isoglycemic clamp was conducted. β-Cell function was assessed using a mathematical model after a test meal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh was performed. All subjects were examined at 0, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance and a multivariate regression model. Greater reduction was observed in total leg area in V (-13.6 cm 2 [95% confidence interval [CI], -14.2 to -12.9] in V vs -9.9 cm 2 [95% CI, -10.6 to -9.2] in C; Gxt p diets (Gxt, p = 0.64). Subfascial fat was reduced only in response to a vegetarian diet (-0.82 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.55] cm 2 in V vs -0.44 [95% CI, -0.78 to +0.02] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.04). The reduction in intramuscular fat tended to be greater in response to a vegetarian diet (-1.78 [95% CI, -2.26 to -1.27] cm 2 in V vs -0.57 [95% CI, -1.06 to -0.09] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.12). Changes in subcutaneous and subfascial fat correlated with changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and β-cell insulin sensitivity. After adjustment for changes in body mass index (BMI), correlations remained significant for changes in fasting plasma glucose and β-cell insulin sensitivity and with changes in triglycerides. Our data indicate the importance of both subcutaneous and subfascial fat in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolism. BMI , body mass index; C , control group; FPG , fasting plasma glucose; Gxt , interaction between group and time; HbA1c , glycated hemoglobin; MCR

  6. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  7. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  8. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  9. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  10. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  11. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  12. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  13. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  15. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  16. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  17. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  18. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  19. Long-Term Results Comparing Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Autogenous Connective Tissue Grafts With Coronally Advanced Flaps for Treatment of Dehiscence-Type Recession Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd

    2016-03-01

    Although connective tissue grafts with coronally advanced flaps (CTG + CAF) have been deemed the gold standard for recession defect treatment, to provide adequate recession coverage, the periodontal profession continues to pursue lower-morbidity, patient-preferred substitutes that are more convenient and of unlimited supply. Using a randomized, controlled, and masked contralateral comparison of matched-pair, within-patient recession defects, collagen matrix (CMX) + CAF therapy was compared with CTG + CAF at 6 months and 5 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of root coverage (RC). Secondary efficacy parameters included width of keratinized tissue (KTw), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinician rating of color and texture compared with surrounding tissues, and patient esthetic satisfaction. Seventeen patients were available for the 5-year recall. Mean RC between 6 months and 5 years changed from 89.5% to 77.6% for CMX + CAF test sites and 97.5% to 95.5% for CTG + CAF control sites. KTw averaged >3 mm for both test and control sites at 5 years. PD was equivalent at all time points. The 6-month to 5-year changes for RC, KTw, and PD were not significantly different between therapies. CAL change from 6 months to 5 years was greater for CTG + CAF (0.26 mm) than CMX + CAF (-0.21 mm). Tissue color match to surrounding tissues remained similar for both therapies throughout the study. There was a difference in tissue texture at both 6 months and 5 years, with CMX + CAF sites tending to be "equally firm" and CTG + CAF sites "more firm." Patient satisfaction was high, with no statistical difference in satisfaction between therapies at any time point. When balanced with patient-reported satisfaction, clinical rankings of esthetics, and control and historical RC results reported by other investigators, CMX + CAF appears to present a viable and long-term alternative to traditional CTG + CAF therapy.

  20. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  1. P2X receptor-ion channels in the inflammatory response in adipose tissue and pancreas-potential triggers in onset of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Solini, Anna

    2018-01-01

    -cell and adipose tissue. In the former, P2Y and possibly some P2X receptors-ion channels regulate insulin secretion, but it is still debated whether excessive ATP can via P2X receptors impair β-cell function directly or whether cell damage is due to an excessive systemic release of cytokines. In human adipocytes......, the P2X7 receptor promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines, at least in part via inflammasome activation, likely contributing to systemic insulin resistance. This receptor-inflammasome system is also strongly activated in macrophages infiltrating both pancreas and adipose tissue, mediating...

  2. Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Scintigraphy of the Lower Limbs in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of tissue perfusion as a hemodynamic consequence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in diabetic patients is of great importance in the management of these patients.We present a noninvasive, functional method of 99mTc-MIBI (methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile tissue-muscle perfusion scintigraphy (TMPS of the lower limbs, which assesses tissue perfusion in basal conditions (“rest” study and exercise conditions (“stress” study. Emphasis is given on perfusion reserve (PR as an important indicator of preservation of microcirculation and its local autoregulatory mechanisms in PAD. We present a case of a 71-year-old male diabetic patient with skin ulcers of the right foot and an ankle-brachial index >1.2 (0.9-1.1. Dynamic phase TMPS of the lower limbs showed decreased and late arterial vascularization of the right calf (RC with lower percentage of radioactivity in the 1st minute: RC 66%, left calf (LC 84%. PR was borderline with a value of 57% for LC and decreased for RC (42%. Functional assessment of hemodynamic consequences of PAD is important in evaluating both advanced and early PAD, especially the asymptomatic form. The method used to determine the TMPS of the lower limbs, can differentiate subtle changes in microcirculation and tissue perfusion

  3. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  4. Composite cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: crosstalk between different types of MSCs in cell sheet facilitates complex periodontal-like tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Shiyu; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Qiu; Ding, Yin; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-14

    Tissue-engineering strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell sheets have been widely used for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, given the complexity in periodontal structure, the regeneration methods using a single species of MSC could not fulfill the requirement for periodontal regeneration. We researched the interaction between the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSCs), and constructed a composite cell sheet comprising both of the above MSCs to regenerate complex periodontium-like structures in nude mice. Our results show that by co-culturing PDLSCs and JBMMSCs, the expressions of bone and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes and proteins were significantly improved in both MSCs. Further investigations showed that, compared to the cell sheet using PDLSCs or JBMMSCs, the composite stem cell sheet (CSCS), which comprises these two MSCs, expressed higher levels of bone- and ECM-related genes and proteins, and generated a composite structure more similar to the native periodontal tissue physiologically in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the crosstalk between PDLSCs and JBMMSCs in cell sheets facilitate regeneration of complex periodontium-like structures, providing a promising new strategy for physiological and functional regeneration of periodontal tissue.

  5. Analyzing powers and proton spin transfer coefficients in the elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an L-type polarized deuteron target at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.L.

    1986-10-01

    Analyzing powers and spin transfer coefficients which describe the elastic scattering of polarized protons from a polarized deuteron target have been measured. The energy of the proton beam was 800 MeV and data were taken at laboratory scattering angles of 7, 11, 14, and 16.5 degrees. One analyzing power was also measured at 180 degrees. Three linearly independent orientations of the beam polarization were used and the target was polarized parallel and antiparallel to the direction of the beam momentum. The data were taken with the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (experiment 685). The results are compared with multiple scattering predictions based on Dirac representations of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrices. 27 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

  6. YKL-40 protein in osteosarcoma tumor tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Andrea Pohly; Daugaard, Søren; Christensen, Lise Hanne

    2016-01-01

    YKL-40, a cellular glycoprotein isolated from the human osteosarcoma (OS) cell line MG63, is increased in the blood of patients with various types of cancer, and is found as an independent prognostic variable for survival. YKL-40 is also present with variable intensity in the tumor cells of some...... cancer types, but survival results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the tissue expression of YKL-40 and its possible role as a predictive marker in patients with OS. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Diagnostic biopsies were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...

  7. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  8. The impact of laser ablation on optical soft tissue differentiation for tissue specific laser surgery-an experimental ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzle Florian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical diffuse reflectance can remotely differentiate various bio tissues. To implement this technique in an optical feedback system to guide laser surgery in a tissue-specific way, the alteration of optical tissue properties by laser ablation has to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the general feasibility of optical soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy under the influence of laser ablation, comparing the tissue differentiation results before and after laser intervention. Methods A total of 70 ex vivo tissue samples (5 tissue types were taken from 14 bisected pig heads. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded before and after Er:YAG-laser ablation. The spectra were analyzed and differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA. To assess the potential of tissue differentiation, area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity was computed for each pair of tissue types before and after laser ablation, and compared to each other. Results Optical tissue differentiation showed good results before laser exposure (total classification error 13.51%. However, the tissue pair nerve and fat yielded lower AUC results of only 0.75. After laser ablation slightly reduced differentiation results were found with a total classification error of 16.83%. The tissue pair nerve and fat showed enhanced differentiation (AUC: 0.85. Laser ablation reduced the sensitivity in 50% and specificity in 80% of the cases of tissue pair comparison. The sensitivity of nerve–fat differentiation was enhanced by 35%. Conclusions The observed results show the general feasibility of tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy even under conditions of tissue alteration by laser ablation. The contrast enhancement for the differentiation between nerve and fat tissue after ablation is assumed to be due to laser removal of the

  9. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  10. Analysis of lung tissue using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.; Barrera, R.; Miranda, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a comparative study is presented of the contents of metals in lung tissue from healthy patients and with lung cancer, by means of two analytical techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The samples of cancerous tissue were taken from 26 autopsies made to individuals died in the National Institute of Respiratory Disease (INER), 22 of cancer and 4 of other non-cancer biopsies. When analyzing the entirety of the samples, in the cancerous tissues, there were increments in the concentrations of S (4%), K (635%), Co (85%) and Cu (13%). Likewise, there were deficiencies in the concentrations of Cl (59%), Ca (6%), Fe (26%) and Zn (7%). Only in the cancerous tissues there were appearances of P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Br and Sr. The tissue samples were classified according to cancer types (adenocarcinomas, epidermoides and of small cell carcinoma), personal habits (smokers and alcoholic), genetic predisposition and residence place. There was a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Ca and a marked increment in the Cu in the epidermoide tissue samples with regard to those of adenocarcinoma or of small cells cancer. Also, decrements were detected in K and increments of Fe, Co and Cu in the sample belonging to people that resided in Mexico City with regard to those that resided in the State of Mexico

  11. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  12. In-vivo quantitative measurement of tissue oxygen saturation of human webbing using a transmission type continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizimu, Tuerxun; Adachi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Takashi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takahashi, Nozomi; Nakada, Taka-aki; Oda, Shigeto; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for monitoring tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Many commercial NIRS devices are presently available. However, the precision of those devices is relatively poor because they are using the reflectance-model with which it is difficult to obtain the blood volume and other unchanged components of the tissue. Human webbing is a thin part of the hand and suitable to measure spectral transmittance. In this paper, we present a method for measuring StO2 of human webbing from a transmissive continuous-wave nearinfrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) data. The method is based on the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and it consists of two steps. In the first step, we give a pressure to the upstream region of the measurement point to perturb the concentration of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin as remaining the other components and measure the spectral signals. From the measured data, spectral absorbance due to the components other than hemoglobin is calculated. In the second step, spectral measurement is performed at arbitrary time instance and the spectral absorbance obtained in the step 1 is subtracted from the measured absorbance. The tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is estimated from the remained data. The method was evaluated on an arterial occlusion test (AOT) and a venous occlusion test (VOT). In the evaluation experiment, we confirmed that reasonable values of StO2 were obtained by the proposed method.

  13. Expression of Leptin and Visfatin in Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, Noha A; Amr, Eman M; Shaker, Olfat G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the protein and gene expression of leptin and visfatin in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), patients with CP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and healthy individuals. The study includes 50 individuals: 10 healthy individuals, 20 patients with CP, and 20 patients with CP and T2DM. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss were measured, and gingival biopsies were obtained. Leptin and visfatin protein expression in gingival tissues was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest leptin mRNA and protein expression was observed in the control group and was significantly (P ≤0.05) different from the CP and CP+T2DM groups. Gingival tissues from patients with CP and T2DM had a significant increase in visfatin and a decrease in leptin gene and protein expression (P <0.05) compared with both controls and patients with CP. Expression of leptin and visfatin in the gingival tissues suggests a possible role for these adipokines in the pathogenesis of CP and T2DM.

  14. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  15. Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Sinaii, Ninet; Szarek, Eva; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-09-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling system is widely expressed and has a central role in regulating cellular metabolism in all organ systems affected by obesity. PKA has four regulatory (RIα, RIIα, RIβ, RIIβ) and four catalytic (Cα, Cβ, Cγ, Prkx) subunit isoforms that have tissue-specific expression profiles. In mice, knockout (KO) of RIIβ, the primary PKA regulatory subunit in adipose tissue or knockout of the catalytic subunit Cβ resulted in a lean phenotype that resists diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications. Here we report that the disruption of the ubiquitously expressed PKA RIIα subunit in mice (RIIαKO) confers resistance to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. After 2-week high-fat diet exposure, RIIαKO mice weighed less than wild-type littermates. Over time this effect was more pronounced in female mice that were also leaner than their wild-type counterparts, regardless of the diet. Decreased intake of a high-fat diet contributed to the attenuated weight gain in RIIαKO mice. Additionally, RIIα deficiency caused differential regulation of PKA in key metabolic organs: cAMP-stimulated PKA activity was decreased in liver and increased in gonadal adipose tissue. We conclude that RIIα represents a potential target for therapeutic interventions in obesity, glucose intolerance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Tissue response and wound healing after placement of two types of bioengineered grafts containing vital cells in submucosal maxillary pouches: an experimental pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Reichart, Peter A; Buser, Daniel; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the wound healing and tissue response after placement of two different skin substitutes in subgingival mucosal pouches in rabbits. Four rabbits were selected to receive a commercially available skin substitute consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts and an epithelial layer (test membrane 1) and a prototype device consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts only (test membrane 2). In each rabbit, two horizontal incisions were made in the buccal alveolar mucosa of the maxilla bilaterally to create submucosal pouches. Three pouches in each animal were filled with either the test 1 or test 2 membranes, and one pouch was left without a membrane (sham-operated control). All rabbits were sacrificed after a healing period of 4 weeks, and histologic samples were prepared and examined. After a healing period of 1 month, both tested membranes were still visible in the sections. Test membrane 1 was still bilayered, contained inflammatory cells in its center, and was encapsulated by a thick fibrous tissue. Numerous ectopic calcifications were evident in the collagenous part of the membrane and in association with some basal epithelial cells. Test membrane 2 was also encapsulated in fibrous tissue, with inflammatory cells present only between the fibrous encapsulation and the remnants of the membrane. For test membrane 2, no calcifications were visible. Test membrane 1 seemed to be more resistant to degradation, but there was also a more pronounced inflammatory reaction in comparison to test membrane 2, especially in the vicinity of the keratinocytes. The significance of the ectopic calcifications, along with that of the resorption or degradation processes of both tested membranes, must be evaluated in future experimental studies, with different time points after implantation examined.

  17. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  18. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  19. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  20. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  1. The principal neuronal gD-type 3-O-sulfotransferases and their products in central and peripheral nervous system tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Roger; Yabe, Tomio; HajMohammadi, Sassan; Rhodes, John; McNeely, Melissa; Liu, Jian; Lamperti, Edward D.; Toselli, Paul A.; Lech, Miroslaw; Spear, Patricia G.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Shworak, Nicholas W.

    2007-01-01

    Within the nervous system, heparan sulfate (HS) of the cell surface and extracellular matrix influences developmental, physiologic and pathologic processes. HS is a functionally diverse polysaccharide that employs motifs of sulfate groups to selectively bind and modulate various effector proteins. Specific HS activities are modulated by 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues, which are generated by a family of seven 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Most isoforms we herein designate as gD-type 3-OSTs because they generate HSgD+, 3-O-sulfated motifs that bind the gD envelope protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and thereby mediate viral cellular entry. Certain gD-type isoforms are anticipated to modulate neurobiologic events, because a Drosophila gD-type 3-OST is essential for a conserved neurogenic signaling pathway regulated by Notch. Information about 3-OST isoforms expressed in the nervous system of mammals is incomplete. Here, we identify the 3-OST isoforms having properties compatible with their participation in neurobiologic events. We show that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are principal isoforms of brain. We find these are gD-type enzymes, as they produce products similar to a prototypical gD-type isoform, and they can modify HS to generate receptors for HSV-1 entry into cells. Therefore, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 catalyze modifications similar or identical to those made by the Drosophila gD-type 3-OST that has a role in regulating Notch signaling. We also find that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the predominant isoforms expressed in neurons of the trigeminal ganglion, and 3-OST-2/4-type 3-O-sulfated residues occur in this ganglion and in select brain regions. Thus, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the major neural gD-type 3-OSTs, and so are prime candidates for participating in HS-dependent neurobiologic events. PMID:17482450

  2. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  3. Preparation and characterization of photocured poly (ε-caprolactone) diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate/chitosan for photopolymerization-type 3D printing tissue engineering scaffold application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Chen, Freeman

    2017-12-01

    Because of its biocompatible, biodegradable and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is an attractive biomaterial for use in tissue engineering scaffolds. This work builds on previous research by incorporating 95% DD chitosan into a visible-light curable resin which is compatible with a digital light processing (DLP™) projection additive manufacturing (3D printing) system. Different concentrations of chitosan were added to a poly (ε-caprolactone)-diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate baseline resin and the samples were extensively characterized. Thermal and mechanical analysis conformed to established scaffold requirements. L929 cells were cultured on the photo-crosslinked films and MTT assays were performed at 1, 3, and 5days to assess cytocompatibility of the resins. Data and SEM images verified a correlation between the concentration of chitosan in the photocurable resin and the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of cell cultures. Finally, the processability of the resins with the dynamic masking DLP system was demonstrated by constructing multi-layer scaffolds with actual measurements that were consistent with the CAD models. These findings encourage the use of chitosan as an additive in visible-light curable resins to improve desired properties in tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Scintiscans data analyzer model AS-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesa, J.; Wierzbicki, W.

    1975-01-01

    The principle of work and construction elements of the device made up for scintiscans data analyzation by ''square root scaling'' is presented. The device is equipped with cassette tape recorder type MK-125, made in Poland serving like scintiscans data bank, and with scintiscans data analyzation three programs. The cassette of two types, C-60 and C-90, is applied with working time of 2 x 30 min. and 2 x 45 min. respectivly. Results of scintiscans data analysation are printed by electric typewriter at figures in form of digital scintigram. (author)

  5. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  6. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  7. FNDC5 Gene Expression and Irisin Protein Level of Visceral Fat Tissue after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: It seems that FNDC5 gene and Irisin protein have an important role in metabolic diseases and can be affected by resistance training. Perhaps the changes in the levels of these metabolic indicators is a potential new target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as T2DM (type 2 diabetes.

  8. Insulin resistance in multiple tissues in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is present in lean patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with matched healthy controls. We studied eight patients (four men and four women) with

  9. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms confe...

  10. Plasma concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of clusterin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia, very-low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloučková, J; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Trachta, P; Kasalický, M; Haluzíková, D; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2016-07-18

    Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with wide range of functions. To further explore its possible regulatory role in energy homeostasis and in adipose tissue, we measured plasma clusterin and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 15 healthy lean women, 15 obese women (OB) and 15 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent a 2-week very low-calorie diet (VLCD), 10 obese women without T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 8 patients with T2DM, 8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 8 normoglycemic patients who underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). VLCD decreased plasma clusterin in OB but not in T2DM patients while LSG and HEC had no effect. Clusterin mRNA expression in SCAT at baseline was increased in OB and T2DM patients compared with controls. Clusterin mRNA expression decreased 6 months after LSG and remained decreased 12 months after LSG. mRNA expression of clusterin was elevated at the end of HEC compared with baseline only in normoglycemic but not in IGT or T2DM patients. In summary, our data suggest a possible local regulatory role for clusterin in the adipose tissue rather than its systemic involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  11. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  12. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s. In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC, a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs, spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  13. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Changkook You; Kyo-Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell p...

  14. Detection of HPV-DNA by a PCR-based method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from rare endocervical carcinoma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Khalifa, Mahmoud M; Ismiil, Nadia; Dubé, Valerie; Saad, Reda S; Sun, Peizhu; Seth, Arun; Ghorab, Zeina

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of cervical squamous neoplasia and adenocarcinomas of the mucinous and endometrioid cell types. Cervical serous, clear cell, and small cell carcinomas differ from the conventional endocervical adenocarcinoma in their clinical characteristics. The data on the role of HPV in their pathogenesis are limited. In this study, we examined the presence of high-risk HPV-DNA in rare types of cervical carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction-based test. In-house cervical serous, clear cell, and small cell carcinoma cases accessioned between 2000 and 2008 were tested for HPV by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from deparaffinized sections using Roche AMPLICOR HPV Amplification Detection and Control Kits. The kit detects all 13 high-risk HPV-DNA genotypes. The positive cut-off point for AMPLICOR HPV Test was A450 = 0.2. We identified 4 serous, 3 clear cell, 1 mixed clear cell and serous, and 5 small cell carcinomas. High-risk HPV-DNA tested positive in 3 out of 4 serous carcinomas, 2 out of 3 cervical clear cell carcinomas, and all 5 cases of small cell carcinoma and the mixed cell type. Our report documents HPV status in a series of archival unusual types of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. It suggests a robust association between high-risk HPV and these rare subtypes. Despite their unique clinical setting and morphologic appearance, the majority of these tumors likely share a common HPV-mediated carcinogenic pathway. Our observation is particularly significant in cervical cancer prevention as we enter the HPV vaccination era.

  15. A probable risk factor of female breast cancer: study on benign and malignant breast tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sohaila; Husnain, Syed M

    2014-01-01

    The study reports enhanced Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in breast tissues, a probable risk factor of breast cancer in females. Forty-one formalin-fixed breast tissues were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twenty malignant, six adjacent to malignant and 15 benign tissues samples were investigated. The malignant tissues samples were of grade 11 and type invasive ductal carcinoma. The quantitative comparison between the elemental levels measured in the two types of specimen (benign and malignant) tissues (removed after surgery) suggests significant elevation of these metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the malignant tissue. The specimens were collected just after mastectomy of women aged 19 to 59 years from the hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan. Findings of study depict that these elements have a promising role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (229 ± 121 mg/L) in malignant breast tissue samples of patients (p factor of breast cancer. In order to validate our method of analysis, certified reference material muscle tissue lyophilized (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for metal studied. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Asymmetric concentration distribution for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed in both malignant and benign tissue samples.

  16. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  17. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  18. Estimation of ellagic acid and/or repaglinide effects on insulin signaling, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators of liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and brain in insulin resistant/type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed M; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2017-02-01

    Even though ellagic acid has previously been valued in many models of cancer, so far its full mechanistic effect as a natural antiapoptotic agent in the prevention of type 2 diabetes complications has not been completely elucidated, which was the goal of this study. We fed albino rats a high-fat fructose diet (HFFD) for 2 months to induce insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and then treated the rats with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) and/or repaglinide (0.5 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 2 weeks. At the serum level, ellagic acid challenged the consequences of HFFD, significantly improving the glucose/insulin balance, liver enzymes, lipid profile, inflammatory cytokines, redox level, adipokines, ammonia, and manganese. At the tissue level (liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and brain), ellagic acid significantly enhanced insulin signaling, autophosphorylation, adiponectin receptors, glucose transporters, inflammatory mediators, and apoptotic markers. Remarkably, combined treatment with both ellagic acid and repaglinide had a more pronounced effect than treatment with either alone. These outcomes give new insight into the promising molecular mechanisms by which ellagic acid modulates numerous factors induced in the progression of diabetes.

  19. Luminol testing in detecting modern human skeletal remains: a test on different types of bone tissue and a caveat for PMI interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudullo, Giorgio; Caruso, Valentina; Cappella, Annalisa; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Amadasi, Alberto; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    When forensic pathologists and anthropologists have to deal with the evaluation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in skeletal remains, luminol testing is frequently performed as a preliminary screening method. However, the repeatability of this test on the same bone, as well as comparative studies on different bones of the same individual, has never been performed. Therefore, with the aim of investigating the influence that different types of bones may exert on the response to the luminol test, the present study analysed three different skeletal elements (femoral diaphysis, vertebra and cranial vault), gathered from ten recent exhumed skeletons (all with a 20-year PMI). The analysis was performed twice on the same bone after 2 months: the analysis at time 0 concerned the whole bone, whereas the second concerned only a part of the same bone taken during the first test (which already had been broken). The overall results showed different responses, depending on the type of bone and on the integrity of the samples. Negative results at the first analysis (6.6% out of the total of samples) are consistent with what is reported in the literature, whilst at the second analysis, the increase of about 20% of false-negative results highlights that the luminol test ought to be performed with caution in case of broken bones or elements which are taphonomically altered. Results have thus proven that the exposition to environmental agents might result in haemoglobin (Hb) loss, as detected even after only 2 months. The study also focused on the crucial issue of the type of bone subjected to testing, remarking the suitability of the femoral diaphysis (100% of positive responses at the first analysis vs only 18% of false-negative results at the second test, corresponding to 5% of total false-negative results) as opposed to other bone elements that showed a low yield. In particular, the cranial vault gave poor results, with 40% of discrepancy between results from the two analyses

  20. Construction of an Aptamer-SiRNA Chimera-Modified Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel for Cell-Type-Specific Capture and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Zeng, Wen; Sun, Jiansen; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Li; Zhou, Jingting; Wu, Yangxiao; Sun, Jun; Liu, Ge; Tang, Rui; Tan, Ju; Zhu, Chuhong

    2015-06-23

    The application of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the main developmental direction of vascular replacement therapy. Due to few and/or dysfunctional endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), it is difficult to successfully construct EPC capture TEBVs in diabetes. RNA has a potential application in cell protection and diabetes treatment, but poor specificity and low efficiency of RNA transfection in vivo limit the application of RNA. On the basis of an acellular vascular matrix, we propose an aptamer-siRNA chimera-modified TEBV that can maintain a satisfactory patency in diabetes. This TEBV consists of two parts, CD133-adenosine kinase (ADK) chimeras and a TEBV scaffold. Our results showed that CD133-ADK chimeras could selectively capture the CD133-positive cells in vivo, and then captured cells can internalize the bound chimeras to achieve RNA self-transfection. Subsequently, CD133-ADK chimeras were cut into ADK siRNA by a dicer, resulting in depletion of ADK. An ADK-deficient cell may act as a bioreactor that sustainably releases adenosine. To reduce nonspecific RNA transfection, we increased the proportion of HAuCl4 during the material preparation, through which the transfection capacity of polyethylenimine (PEI)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-capped gold nanoparticles (PEI/PEG-AuNPs) was significantly decreased and the ability of TEBV to resist tensile and liquid shear stress was greatly enhanced. PEG and 2'-O-methyl modification was used to enhance the in vivo stability of RNA chimeras. At day 30 postgrafting, the patency rate of CD133-ADK chimera-modified TEBVs reached 90% in diabetic rats and good endothelialization was observed.

  1. Fetal lung interstitial tumor: the first Japanese case report and a comparison with fetal lung tissue and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mariko; Tanaka, Mio; Gomi, Kiyoshi; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Dehner, Louis P; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2013-10-01

    Fetal lung interstitial tumor, a newly recognized lung lesion in infants, was first reported in 2010. Here, we report the first Japanese case of fetal lung interstitial tumor which was originally diagnosed as atypical congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. A 7-day-old girl was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress and a left lung mass and she subsequently underwent left lower lobectomy. The specimen showed a 5 cm solid mass with a fibrous capsule. Histological examination revealed immature airspaces and interstitium, containing bronchioles and cartilage. The epithelial and interstitial cells contained abundant glycogen granules. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin in the epithelial and interstitial cells. β-catenin gene mutations and trisomy 8 were not detected, so a neoplastic origin could not be confirmed. The histological findings were partly consistent with normal fetal lung at the canalicular stage, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. In this report, we compare the above conditions and discuss the pathogenesis of fetal lung interstitial tumor. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Analyzing the Types of Discrimination in Turkish for Foreigners Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agcihan, Ezgi; Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2018-01-01

    Textbooks might be one of the main resources of teachers even today however there have been many changes in education media and Technologies. Especially language course books used in foreign language teaching can be the basic source of learning when the target language is not spoken in the country where the language is thought. Thus, it can be…

  3. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  4. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  5. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  6. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    breeding was quickly understood. In vitro techniques for crop improvement first consisted of micropropagation and plant regeneration, and then in vitro methods were also found to be useful for eliminating disease and selecting for resistant cells or explants. In vitro selection using specific chemical compounds and pathogens is another useful aspect of tissue culture. More recently, in vitro techniques were combined to mutation induction for generating genetic variation, including novel disease resistant mutants. Mutation induction can be caused by chemical or physical mutagens that alter the structure of the DNA. Treatment of in vitro tissues with physical or chemical mutagens may increase the frequency of genetic variation considerably. The physical mutagens most commonly used are X-rays, gamma rays and UV light, whereas Ethyl Methane- Sulphonate (EMS) is the chemical mutagen most used in crop improvement. Irradiation treatments may be a suitable choice of mutagen for a number of reasons because the application is fast and, in contrast to chemical mutagens, there is no risk that residues remain in the medium. In this research we are going to determine the resistant cells, which will come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants by using races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis culture filtrates in vitro conditions. If we will get successful results by this method we will be able to develop new melon cultivars, which will be resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. The present work was performed with in vitro plantlets obtained from seeds of melon cv. Yuva which is an important commercial cultivar in Turkey. According to our observations filtrate and gamma ray treatment have an important effect on tolerant plantlet and callus formation. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of

  7. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  8. Hydroethanolic Extract of Strychnos pseudoquina Accelerates Skin Wound Healing by Modulating the Oxidative Status and Microstructural Reorganization of Scar Tissue in Experimental Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariáurea M. Sarandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of topical application of ointment based on Strychnos pseudoquina hydroethanolic extract in the cutaneous wounds healing in diabetic rats was evaluated. Samples of S. pseudoquina were submitted to phytochemical prospection and in vitro antioxidant assay. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Sal-wounds treated with 0.9% saline solution; VH-wounds treated with 0.6 g of lanolin cream (vehicle; SS-wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine cream (10 mg/g; ES5- and ES10-wounds treated with an ointment of S. pseudoquina extract, 5% and 10%, respectively. Fragments of wounds were removed for histological and biochemical analysis every 7 days during 21 days. ES showed equivalent levels per gram of extract of total phenols and flavonoids equal to 122.04 mg for TAE and 0.60 mg for RE. The chlorogenic acid was one of the major constituents. S. pseudoquina extract presented high antioxidant potential in vitro. ES5 and ES10 showed higher wound healing rate and higher amount of cells, blood vessels, and type III and I collagen. The oxidative stress markers were lower in the ES5 and ES10 groups, while the antioxidants enzymes levels were higher. Ointment based on S. pseudoquina extract promotes a fast and efficient cutaneous repair in diabetic rats.

  9. Psychopathological manifestations of joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome/ Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: The link between connective tissue and psychological distress revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Psychological distress is a known feature of generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), as well as of its most common syndromic presentation, namely Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome - JHS/EDS-HT), and significantly contributes to the quality of life of affected individuals. Most published articles dealt with the link between gJHM (or JHS/EDS-HT) and anxiety-related conditions, and a novel generation of studies is emerging aimed at investigating the psychopathologic background of such an association. In this paper, literature review was carried out with a semi-systematic approach spanning the entire spectrum of psychopathological findings in gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT. Interestingly, in addition to the confirmation of a tight link between anxiety and gJHM, preliminary connections with depression, attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were also found. Few papers investigated the relationship with schizophrenia with contrasting results. The mind-body connections hypothesized on the basis of available data were discussed with focus on somatotype, presumed psychopathology, and involvement of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The hypothesis of positive Beighton score and alteration of interoceptive/proprioceptive/body awareness as possible endophenotypes in families with symptomatic gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT is also suggested. Concluding remarks addressed the implications of the psychopathological features of gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT in clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils......In this study, the pathogenic behavior of PRRSV 13V091 and 13V117, isolated in 2013 from two different Belgian farms with enzootic respiratory problems shortly after weaning in the nursery, were compared with the Belgian strain 07V063 isolated in 2007. Full-length genome sequencing was performed....... It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin-cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication...

  11. An in vivo cis-regulatory screen at the type 2 diabetes associated TCF7L2 locus identifies multiple tissue-specific enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have repeatedly shown an association between non-coding variants in the TCF7L2 locus and risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D, implicating a role for cis-regulatory variation within this locus in disease etiology. Supporting this hypothesis, we previously localized complex regulatory activity to the TCF7L2 T2D-associated interval using an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC enhancer-trapping reporter strategy. To follow-up on this broad initial survey of the TCF7L2 regulatory landscape, we performed a fine-mapping enhancer scan using in vivo mouse transgenic reporter assays. We functionally interrogated approximately 50% of the sequences within the T2D-associated interval, utilizing sequence conservation within this 92-kb interval to determine the regulatory potential of all evolutionary conserved sequences that exhibited conservation to the non-eutherian mammal opossum. Included in this study was a detailed functional interrogation of sequences spanning both protective and risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7903146, which has exhibited allele-specific enhancer function in pancreatic beta cells. Using these assays, we identified nine segments regulating various aspects of the TCF7L2 expression profile and that constitute nearly 70% of the sequences tested. These results highlight the regulatory complexity of this interval and support the notion that a TCF7L2 cis-regulatory disruption leads to T2D predisposition.

  12. Autopsy Tissue Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed

  13. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  14. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  15. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  16. Gene expression in periodontal tissues following treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenacher Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In periodontitis, treatment aimed at controlling the periodontal biofilm infection results in a resolution of the clinical and histological signs of inflammation. Although the cell types found in periodontal tissues following treatment have been well described, information on gene expression is limited to few candidate genes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles of immune and inflammatory genes in periodontal tissues from sites with severe chronic periodontitis following periodontal therapy in order to identify genes involved in tissue homeostasis. Gingival biopsies from 12 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were taken six to eight weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy, and from 11 healthy controls. As internal standard, RNA of an immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCaT was used. Total RNA was subjected to gene expression profiling using a commercially available microarray system focusing on inflammation-related genes. Post-hoc confirmation of selected genes was done by Realtime-PCR. Results Out of the 136 genes analyzed, the 5% most strongly expressed genes compared to healthy controls were Interleukin-12A (IL-12A, Versican (CSPG-2, Matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, Down syndrome critical region protein-1 (DSCR-1, Macrophage inflammatory protein-2β (Cxcl-3, Inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (BIRC-1, Cluster of differentiation antigen 38 (CD38, Regulator of G-protein signalling-1 (RGS-1, and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene (C-FOS; the 5% least strongly expressed genes were Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase-2 (RIP-2, Complement component 3 (C3, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Endothelin-1 (EDN-1, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, Matrix-metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14, and Interferon regulating factor-7 (IRF-7. Conclusion Gene expression profiles found in periodontal tissues following

  17. Positive- and negative-acting regulatory elements contribute to the tissue-specific expression of INNER NO OUTER, a YABBY-type transcription factor gene in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Marissa K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INNER NO OUTER (INO gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element that when present in quadruplicate can produce low-level expression in the normal INO pattern. Results Significant redundancy in activity between different regions of the INO promoter is demonstrated. For specific regulatory elements, multimerization or the addition of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S general enhancer was able to activate expression of reporter gene constructs that were otherwise incapable of expression on their own. A new promoter element, POS6, is defined and is shown to include sufficient positive regulatory information to reproduce the endogenous pattern of expression in ovules, but other promoter regions are necessary to fully suppress expression outside of ovules. The full-length INO promoter, but not any of the INO promoter deletions tested, is able to act as an enhancer-blocking insulator to prevent the ectopic activation of expression by the 35S enhancer. Sequence conservation between the promoter regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa aligns closely with the functional definition of the POS6 and POS9 regions, and with a defined INO minimal promoter. The B. oleracea INO promoter is sufficient to promote a similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis to that observed for the Arabidopsis promoter. Conclusions At least two independent regions of the INO promoter contain sufficient regulatory information to direct the specific pattern but not the level of INO gene expression. These regulatory regions act in a partially redundant manner to promote the expression in a specific pattern in the ovule and

  18. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patien