WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue type information

  1. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  2. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Arsenovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a painless, subcutaneous lump on the right buttock. Clinical examination showed an approximately 6 cm large subcutaneous mass covered by apparently normal-looking skin. No inguinal lymphadenopathy was found. The mass was excised with the clinical diagnosis of fibroma. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. After surgical excision she was free of recurrence over a period of 8 months. This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines.

  3. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB , the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread ... deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB , the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and ...

  4. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  5. Autonomous informational stability in connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R A

    1992-02-01

    No coherent theories currently explain connective tissue stability (i.e. 'memory') as well as spatial and temporal adaptability in the face of continual flux of its constituents. Furthermore, explanations of stability based exclusively upon DNA raise certain inherent problems, particularly with the spatial concordance of somatic tissues. As an alternative explanation, it is hypothesized that while connective tissue cells produce extracellular protein precursors through DNA-dependent processes, the assembly, location, orientation and configuration of the extracellular macromolecules as well as their degree of cell attachment depend primarily upon local micro-environmental conditions and/or self-organization rather than strictly cellular processes. The resulting extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a time- and spatially-variable filter about each cell to afford a relatively consistent micro-environment for all similar cells, regardless of the more variable macro-environment. By insuring a consistent set of signals to the cell, the filter provides a non-genetic memory complementary to genetic memory. The half-lives of constituent molecules define the duration of the filter, allowing the filter to adapt to new environmental demands, yet to maintain a consistent milieu for the cell. The cell/matrix construct permits local, self-optimizing, non-deterministic tissue autonomy obviating the need to postulate certain intricate mechanisms coordinating spatial morphology and temporal behavior.

  6. Combined spectroscopic imaging and chemometric approach for automatically partitioning tissue types in human prostate tissue biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kidder, Linda H.; Lewis, E. Neil

    2001-07-01

    We have applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (FPA) and a Michelson step scan interferometer, to the investigation of various states of malignant human prostate tissue. The MCT FPA used consists of 64x64 pixels, each 61 micrometers 2, and has a spectral range of 2-10.5 microns. Each imaging data set was collected at 16-1 resolution, resulting in 512 image planes and a total of 4096 interferograms. In this article we describe a method for separating different tissue types contained within FTIR spectroscopic imaging data sets of human prostate tissue biopsies. We present images, generated by the Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm, which demonstrate the successful partitioning of distinct tissue type domains. Additionally, analysis of differences in the centroid spectra corresponding to different tissue types provides an insight into their biochemical composition. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to partition tissue type regions in a different data set using centroid spectra calculated from the original data set. This has implications for the use of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm as an automated technique for the separation and examination of tissue domains in biopsy samples.

  7. Effect of substrate choice and tissue type on tissue preparation for spectral histopathology by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, Leanne M; Griffiths, Dave; Ashton, Katherine; Dawson, Timothy; Lea, Robert W; Davis, Charles; Bonnier, Franck; Byrne, Hugh J; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-01-21

    Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, non-invasive, rapid and economical technique which has the potential to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of cancer and understanding disease progression through retrospective studies of archived tissue samples. Historically, biobanks are generally comprised of formalin fixed paraffin preserved tissue and as a result these specimens are often used in spectroscopic research. Tissue in this state has to be dewaxed prior to Raman analysis to reduce paraffin contributions in the spectra. However, although the procedures are derived from histopathological clinical practice, the efficacy of the dewaxing procedures that are currently employed is questionable. Ineffective removal of paraffin results in corruption of the spectra and previous experiments have shown that the efficacy can depend on the dewaxing medium and processing time. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of commonly used spectroscopic substrates (CaF2, Spectrosil quartz and low-E slides) and the influence of different histological tissue types (normal, cancerous and metastatic) on tissue preparation and to assess their use for spectral histopathology. Results show that CaF2 followed by Spectrosil contribute the least to the spectral background. However, both substrates retain paraffin after dewaxing. Low-E substrates, which exhibit the most intense spectral background, do not retain wax and resulting spectra are not affected by paraffin peaks. We also show a disparity in paraffin retention depending upon the histological identity of the tissue with abnormal tissue retaining more paraffin than normal.

  8. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  9. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  10. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  11. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  12. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  13. Tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, I.; Muragaki, Y.; Ninomiya, Y.; Olsen, B.R.; Hayashi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the tissue-specific expression of type IX collagen, a major component of cartilage fibrils. It contains molecules with three genetically distinct subunits. The subunits form three triple-helical (CO) domains separated by non-triple-helical (NC) sequences. One of the subunits in cartilage, α1(IX), contains a large amino-terminal globular domain, NC4, while a second subunit, α2(IX), contains a covalently attached chondroitin sulfate chain. The site of attachment for this chain is located within the non-triple-helical sequence NC3, which separates the amino-terminal and central triple-helical domains of the type IX molecules. The NC3 region is 5 amino acid residues longer in the α2(IX) chain than in the α1(IX) and α3(IX) chains. This may explain why type IX molecules tend to show a sharp angle in the NC3 region, and why monoclonal antibody molecules that are specific for the stub left after chondroitinase ABC digestion of the chondroitin sulfate side chain always are located on the outside of the angle

  14. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  15. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-04

    Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  16. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  17. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF...

  18. Information aspects of type IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.

    1987-01-01

    A study of amounts of information necessary to localize the trajectory of a dynamical system known as the Mixmaster universe, is presented. The main result is that less information is necessary near the cosmological singularity of the system than far away. This conclusion is obtained by evolving probability distributions towards the singularity and comparying the associated information functions. Qualitative methods of dynamical systems theory present a phenomenon that might be related to this loss of information. (author) [pt

  19. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.

  20. Detection of apoptosis in paraffin embedded tissues: the influence of tissue type and fixation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Dubská, L.; Míšek, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2002), s. 529-533 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : apoptosis * TUNEL test * paraffin embedded tissues Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  1. Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, N E; MacNeil, M A; Olin, J A; McMeans, B C; Kinney, M J; Chapman, D D; Fisk, A T

    2012-04-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) can act as a powerful ecological tracer with which to examine diet, trophic position and movement, as well as more complex questions pertaining to community dynamics and feeding strategies or behaviour among aquatic organisms. With major advances in the understanding of the methodological approaches and assumptions of SIA through dedicated experimental work in the broader literature coupled with the inherent difficulty of studying typically large, highly mobile marine predators, SIA is increasingly being used to investigate the ecology of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). Here, the current state of SIA in elasmobranchs is reviewed, focusing on available tissues for analysis, methodological issues relating to the effects of lipid extraction and urea, the experimental dynamics of isotopic incorporation, diet-tissue discrimination factors, estimating trophic position, diet and mixing models and individual specialization and niche-width analyses. These areas are discussed in terms of assumptions made when applying SIA to the study of elasmobranch ecology and the requirement that investigators standardize analytical approaches. Recommendations are made for future SIA experimental work that would improve understanding of stable-isotope dynamics and advance their application in the study of sharks, skates and rays. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. The MiAge Calculator: a DNA methylation-based mitotic age calculator of human tissue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ahrim; Wang, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is important in human aging and cancer. The estimation of the number of cell divisions (mitotic age) of a given tissue type in individuals is of great interest as it allows not only the study of biological aging (using a new molecular aging target) but also the stratification of prospective cancer risk. Here, we introduce the MiAge Calculator, a mitotic age calculator based on a novel statistical framework, the MiAge model. MiAge is designed to quantitatively estimate mitotic age (total number of lifetime cell divisions) of a tissue using the stochastic replication errors accumulated in the epigenetic inheritance process during cell divisions. With the MiAge model, the MiAge Calculator was built using the training data of DNA methylation measures of 4,020 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from eight TCGA cancer types and was tested using the testing data of DNA methylation measures of 2,221 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples of five other TCGA cancer types. We showed that within each of the thirteen cancer types studied, the estimated mitotic age is universally accelerated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Across the thirteen cancer types, we showed that worse cancer survivals are associated with more accelerated mitotic age in tumor tissues. Importantly, we demonstrated the utility of mitotic age by showing that the integration of mitotic age and clinical information leads to improved survival prediction in six out of the thirteen cancer types studied. The MiAge Calculator is available at http://www.columbia.edu/∼sw2206/softwares.htm .

  3. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  4. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  5. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform...... on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset...

  6. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Animal Tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    2009-03-23

    Mar 23, 2009 ... Animal tissue culture is an integral and important part of Biotechnology teaching from the point of view of improved medical care in terms of improved diagnostics, vaccines; production of biomolecules of importance; testing efficacy of drugs; possibilities in regenerative medicine etc. This course proposes to ...

  7. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized gluco...

  8. Understanding information retrieval systems management, types, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of

  9. Perivascular adipose tissue: role in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Ivanovna Romantsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular adipose tissue is a part of blood vessel wall, regulating endovascular homeostasis, endothelial and smooth muscle cells functioning. Under physiological conditions, perivascular tissue provides beneficial anticontractile effect, though undergoes structural and functional changes in obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type2.Collected data suggest the possible key role of perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Perivascular tissue has been determined as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of visceral obesity. General mechanisms include a local low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, paracrine and metabolic alterations. Properties of perivascular adipose tissue depend on the certain type of adipocytes it contains. Brown adipocytes are well known for their metabolic preferences, however it has been shown recently that brown perivascular tissue can contribute to dyslipidemia under some conditions.  The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature understanding of perivascular adipose tissue specifics, changes in its activity, secretory and genetic profilein a course of the most common non-infectious diseases development, as well as molecular mechanisms of its functioning. We also discuss perspectives of target interventions using metabolic pathways and genes of perivascular tissue, for the effective prevention of obesity, diabetes mellitus type2 and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Digital sorting of complex tissues for cell type-specific gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Pang, Kaifang; Chow, Lionel M L; Liu, Zhandong

    2013-03-07

    Cellular heterogeneity is present in almost all gene expression profiles. However, transcriptome analysis of tissue specimens often ignores the cellular heterogeneity present in these samples. Standard deconvolution algorithms require prior knowledge of the cell type frequencies within a tissue or their in vitro expression profiles. Furthermore, these algorithms tend to report biased estimations. Here, we describe a Digital Sorting Algorithm (DSA) for extracting cell-type specific gene expression profiles from mixed tissue samples that is unbiased and does not require prior knowledge of cell type frequencies. The results suggest that DSA is a specific and sensitivity algorithm in gene expression profile deconvolution and will be useful in studying individual cell types of complex tissues.

  11. Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Palmer

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.

  12. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  13. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds Functionalized with Either Type I or Type II Collagen for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Henrique V; Sathy, Binulal N; Dudurych, Ivan; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration. To this end, a scaffold was designed with architectural cues to guide cellular and neo-tissue alignment, which was additionally functionalized with a range of extracellular matrix cues to direct stem cell differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage. Shape-memory properties were introduced by covalent cross-linking alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, while the architecture of the scaffold was modified using a directional freezing technique. Introducing such an aligned pore structure was found to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold, and promoted higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen deposition compared to an isotropic (nonaligned) pore geometry when seeded with adult human stem cells. Functionalization with collagen improved stem cell recruitment into the scaffold and facilitated more homogenous cartilage tissue deposition throughout the construct. Incorporating type II collagen into the scaffolds led to greater cell proliferation, higher sGAG and collagen accumulation, and the development of a stiffer tissue compared to scaffolds functionalized with type I collagen. The results of this study demonstrate how both scaffold architecture and composition can be tailored in a shape-memory alginate scaffold to direct stem cell differentiation and support the development of complex cartilaginous tissues.

  14. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  15. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...

  16. The effect of information types on diagnostic strategies in the information aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Through experiments, this paper investigates the compatibility of information types with the diagnostic strategy in information aid. Compatibility with operator strategies is an important requirement for information aiding systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This paper used three typical types of information aids for MCR operators to investigate the effect of the aids on diagnostic strategies: 'alarm (A),' 'hypothesis on faults (H),' and 'hypothesis on faults and expected symptoms (HS).' The experimental results indicate that the effectiveness of information aid types can vary, dependent on the strategies subjects employ. The results also show that the HS aid improved the diagnosis performance in the hypothesis-and-test strategy

  17. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  18. Type 2 diabetes-related proteins derived from an in vitro model of inflamed fat tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Sotiriou, Alexandros; Boeren, Sjef; Vaessen, Stefan; Vervoort, Jacques; Pieters, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6,

  19. Cell type-specific characterization of nuclear DNA contents within complex tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Georgina M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the presence of a nucleus, which encloses the chromosomal DNA, and is characterized by its DNA content (C-value. Complex eukaryotic organisms contain organs and tissues that comprise interspersions of different cell types, within which polysomaty, endoreduplication, and cell cycle arrest is frequently observed. Little is known about the distribution of C-values across different cell types within these organs and tissues. Results We have developed, and describe here, a method to precisely define the C-value status within any specific cell type within complex organs and tissues of plants. We illustrate the application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically focusing on the different cell types found within the root. Conclusion The method accurately and conveniently charts C-value within specific cell types, and provides novel insight into developmental processes. The method is, in principle, applicable to any transformable organism, including mammals, within which cell type specificity of regulation of endoreduplication, of polysomaty, and of cell cycle arrest is suspected.

  20. Types of lexicographical information needs and their relevance for information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2017-01-01

    often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...

  1. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  2. Multi-tissue computational modeling analyzes pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in MKR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available Computational models using metabolic reconstructions for in silico simulation of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM can provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and avoid high experimentation costs. There is a limited amount of computational work, using metabolic reconstructions, performed in this field for the better understanding of T2DM. In this study, a new algorithm for generating tissue-specific metabolic models is presented, along with the resulting multi-confidence level (MCL multi-tissue model. The effect of T2DM on liver, muscle, and fat in MKR mice was first studied by microarray analysis and subsequently the changes in gene expression of frank T2DM MKR mice versus healthy mice were applied to the multi-tissue model to test the effect. Using the first multi-tissue genome-scale model of all metabolic pathways in T2DM, we found out that branched-chain amino acids' degradation and fatty acids oxidation pathway is downregulated in T2DM MKR mice. Microarray data showed low expression of genes in MKR mice versus healthy mice in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids and fatty-acid oxidation pathways. In addition, the flux balance analysis using the MCL multi-tissue model showed that the degradation pathways of branched-chain amino acid and fatty acid oxidation were significantly downregulated in MKR mice versus healthy mice. Validation of the model was performed using data derived from the literature regarding T2DM. Microarray data was used in conjunction with the model to predict fluxes of various other metabolic pathways in the T2DM mouse model and alterations in a number of pathways were detected. The Type 2 Diabetes MCL multi-tissue model may explain the high level of branched-chain amino acids and free fatty acids in plasma of Type 2 Diabetic subjects from a metabolic fluxes perspective.

  3. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  4. Synchrotron FTIR Imaging For The Identification Of Cell Types Within Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael J.; Pounder, F. Nell; Nasse, Michael J.; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hirschmugl, Carol; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    The use of synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been shown to be a very promising tool for biomedical research. S-FTIR spectroscopy allows for the fast acquisition of infrared (IR) spectra at a spatial resolution approaching the IR diffraction limit. The development of the Infrared Environmental Imaging (IRENI) beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has allowed for diffraction limited imaging measurements of cells in human prostate and breast tissues. This has allowed for the identification of cell types within tissues that would otherwise not have been resolvable using conventional FTIR sources.

  5. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    -cellular matrix (ECM) or estrogen. Methods Ten implants of each type were tested for 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. Histological assessment of connective tissue organization, inflammation, vascularization, and thickness of regenerated tissue was undertaken. Results All implants had a high degree of biocompatibility....... ECM-enriched implants had significantly higher inflammatory scores compared to pure implants at 3 weeks. At 8 weeks, neither of the parameters differed significantly. No trace of the implants remained. Conclusions The MPEG-PLGA is highly biocompatible, degrades quickly, and seems inert in the process...

  6. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  7. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging...... infusion. One hour post adrenaline, ATBF was still increased in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline increased microvascular volume in non-T2DM subjects while this response was impaired in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline-induced increase in lipolysis was similar in both groups, but NEFA output from...

  9. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Cancer Tissue: RNA Is Stable Independent of Tissue Type with Less Than 1 Hour of Cold Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang Yong; Jun, Jonghyun; Park, Miyeon; Park, Seo Kyu; Choi, Wonju; Park, Kyunghee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Myoyong

    2018-02-01

    The effects of preanalytical variables in tissue processing and storage periods on RNA quality of tissues have been well documented in each type of cancer. However, few studies have been performed on a comparative assessment of the impacts across different cancer tissues, even though it is well known that RNase activity is highly variable in various tissue types and RNase-rich tissues have been found to yield low-quality RNA. We investigated the impacts of cold ischemia times and long-term storage on RNA integrity in various types of cancer tissue, which had been fresh-frozen and collected at the Samsung Medical Center Biobank. RNA quality was also evaluated with regard to histopathological variables. We analyzed RNA integrity number (RIN) data, which had been obtained from our quality control (QC) processes over the last 7 years. Approximately 2% of samples were randomly selected and processed to measure RIN quarterly and after 6 years of storage for QC purposes. Fresh-frozen tumor tissues yielded high-quality RNA regardless of tumor type and histopathological features. Up to 1-hour cold ischemia times and up to 6-year storage times did not adversely influence RNA integrity. Only 3 samples showed RIN of <7 out of a total of 396 analyzed tumor tissues. Tissue quality was not adversely affected by long-term storage or limited variations of cold ischemia times. The low-quality samples could be correlated with the structural composition or intratumoral heterogeneity of tissues. The strict application of standardized protocols for tissue collection is the key for high-quality biobanking.

  10. Tracking of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells using two magnetic nanoparticle types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, Annika; Siegmund, Birte J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 35 D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Grüttner, Cordula [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Warnemünde, D-18115 Rostock (Germany); Kühn, Jens-Peter [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald University Medical Center, D-17475 Greifswald (Germany); Frerich, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.frerich@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 35 D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be considered as an emerging detection technique for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells has been advocated for the cure of soft tissue defects or for persistent soft tissue augmentation. Adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells were differentiated into the adipogenic lineage and labeled with two different types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varying concentrations which resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of gene expression of adipogenic differentiation markers, adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), whereas the metabolic activity was not altered. As a result, only low nanoparticle concentrations for labeling were used for in vivo experiments. Cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. At 24 h as well as 28 days after implantation, MRI analyses were performed visualizing nanoparticle-labeled cells using T2-weighted sequences. The quantification of absolute volume of the scaffolds revealed a decrease of volume over time in all experimental groups. The distribution of nanoparticle-labeled cells within the scaffolds varied likewise over time. - Highlights: • Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles influenced the adipogenic differentiation of ASC. • Labeled cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and implanted in SCID mice. • Nanoparticle-labeled cells were visualized in vivo using T2-weighted sequences. • Volume of collagen scaffolds was decreased over time after implantation.

  11. Tracking of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells using two magnetic nanoparticle types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, Annika; Siegmund, Birte J.; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Frerich, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be considered as an emerging detection technique for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering using adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells has been advocated for the cure of soft tissue defects or for persistent soft tissue augmentation. Adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells were differentiated into the adipogenic lineage and labeled with two different types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in varying concentrations which resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of gene expression of adipogenic differentiation markers, adiponectin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), whereas the metabolic activity was not altered. As a result, only low nanoparticle concentrations for labeling were used for in vivo experiments. Cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. At 24 h as well as 28 days after implantation, MRI analyses were performed visualizing nanoparticle-labeled cells using T2-weighted sequences. The quantification of absolute volume of the scaffolds revealed a decrease of volume over time in all experimental groups. The distribution of nanoparticle-labeled cells within the scaffolds varied likewise over time. - Highlights: • Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles influenced the adipogenic differentiation of ASC. • Labeled cells were seeded onto collagen scaffolds and implanted in SCID mice. • Nanoparticle-labeled cells were visualized in vivo using T2-weighted sequences. • Volume of collagen scaffolds was decreased over time after implantation

  12. Information content versus word length in random typing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that a linear relationship between a measure of information content and word length is expected from word length optimization and it has been shown that this linearity is supported by a strong correlation between information content and word length in many languages (Piantadosi et al 2011 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108 3825). Here, we study in detail some connections between this measure and standard information theory. The relationship between the measure and word length is studied for the popular random typing process where a text is constructed by pressing keys at random from a keyboard containing letters and a space behaving as a word delimiter. Although this random process does not optimize word lengths according to information content, it exhibits a linear relationship between information content and word length. The exact slope and intercept are presented for three major variants of the random typing process. A strong correlation between information content and word length can simply arise from the units making a word (e.g., letters) and not necessarily from the interplay between a word and its context as proposed by Piantadosi and co-workers. In itself, the linear relation does not entail the results of any optimization process. (letter)

  13. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized glucose tolerance, reduced tissue inflammation, and reversal of clinical diabetes markers such as polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. These effects are independent of insulin but correlate with recovery of the animals’ white adipose tissue. BAT transplants lead to significant increases in adiponectin and leptin, but with levels that are static and not responsive to glucose. Pharmacological blockade of the insulin receptor in BAT transplant mice leads to impaired glucose tolerance, similar to what is seen in nondiabetic animals, indicating that insulin receptor activity plays a role in the reversal of diabetes. One possible candidate for activating the insulin receptor is IGF-1, whose levels are also significantly elevated in BAT transplant mice. Thus, we propose that the combined action of multiple adipokines establishes a new equilibrium in the animal that allows for chronic glycemic control without insulin. PMID:22315305

  14. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954, instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent research into lexicographical functions with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different types of situations: communicative needs, cognitive needs, and operative needs. This is a classification that is relevant and useful in general in our modern information society and therefore also relevant for information science, including lexicography.

  15. Assessment of three types of spaceflight hardware for tissue culture studies: Comparison of skeletal tissue growth and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, B.J. [Space Medicine and Life Sciences Research Center Department of Anatomy Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. SW Atlanta, Georgia30310-1495 (United States); Spooner, B.S. [NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training Division of Biology Ackert Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas66506 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three different types of spaceflight hardware, the BioProcessing Module (BPM), the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA), and the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), were assessed for their ability to support pre-metatarsal growth and differentiation in experiments conducted on five space shuttle flights. BPM-cultured pre-metatarsal tissue showed no difference in flight and ground control lengths. Flight and ground controls cultured in the MDA grew 135 {mu}m and 141 {mu}m, respectively, in an 11 day experiment. Only five control rods and three flight rods mineralized. In another MDA experiment, pre-metatarsals were cultured at 4{degree}C (277K) or 20{degree}C (293K) for the 16 day mission, then cultured an additional 16 days in laboratory dishes at 37{degree}C (310K). The 20{degree}C (293K) cultures died post-flight. The 4{degree}C (277K) flight pre-metatarsals grew 417 {mu}m more than the 4{degree}C (277K) ground controls post-flight. In 5 and 6 day experiments done in FPAs, flight rods grew longer than ground control rods. In a 14 day experiment, ground control and flight rods also expanded in length, but there was no difference between them. The pre-metatarsals cultured in the FPAs did not mineralize, or terminally differentiate. These experiments demonstrate, that while supporting pre-metatarsal growth in length, the three types of hardware are not suitable to support routine differentiation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. A cytogenetic analysis of 2 cases of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Hodge, Jennelle C; Folpe, Andrew L; Oliveira, Andre M; Meyer, Kevin J; Jenkins, Robert B; Sim, Franklin H; Sukov, William R

    2012-08-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type is a rare, histologically distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia resulting from production of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23. Because of its rarity, specific genetic alterations that contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we report the abnormal karyotypes from 2 cases of confirmed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. G-banded analysis demonstrated the first tumor to have a karyotype of 46,Y,t(X;3;14)(q13;p25;q21)[15]/46XY[5], and the second tumor to have a karyotype of 46, XY,add(2)(q31),add(4)(q31.1)[2]/92,slx2[3]/46,sl,der(2)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),der(4)t(2;4)(q14.2;p14),add(4)(q31.1)[10]/46,sdl,add(13)(q34)[4]/92,sdl2x2[1]. These represent what is, to our knowledge, the first examples of abnormal karyotypes obtained from phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  18. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  19. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  20. Tissue distribution and developmental expression of type XVI collagen in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C H; Chu, M L

    1996-04-01

    The expression of a recently identified collagen, alpha 1 (XVI), in adult mouse tissue and developing mouse embryo was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein, which contained a segment of 161 amino acids in the N-terminal noncollagenous domain of the human alpha 1 (XVI) collagen. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled human or mouse fibroblast cell lysates with this antibody revealed a major, bacterial collagenase sensitive polypeptide of approximately 210 kDa. The size agrees with the prediction from the full-length cDNA. Immunofluorescence examination of adult mouse tissues using the affinity purified antibody revealed a rather broad distribution of the protein. The heart, kidney, intestine, ovary, testis, eye, arterial walls and smooth muscles all exhibited significant levels of expression, while the skeletal muscle, lung and brain showed very restricted and low signals. During development, no significant expression of the mRNA or protein was observed in embryo of day 8 of gestation, but strong signals was detected in placental trophoblasts. Expression in embryos was detectable first after day 11 of gestation with weak positive signals appearing in the heart. In later stages of development, stronger RNA hybridizations were observed in a variety of tissues, particularly in atrial and ventricular walls of the developing heart, spinal root neural fibers and skin. These data demonstrate that type XVI collagen represents another collagenous component widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the structural integrity of various tissues.

  1. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Spector, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  2. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lu [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Tissue Engineering Center, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Spector, Myron, E-mail: luzhangmd@gmail.co [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  3. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author)

  5. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    1994-11-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author).

  6. Procedural and declarative information in user instructions: what we do and don't about these information types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Joyce; Ummelen, Nicole; Steehouder, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The use and the effects of different information types in user instructions are not completely clear. Research showed that procedural information (information about the actions) is the most important information type during use. Research results about the effects of declarative information

  7. Visceral adipose tissue macrophage-targeted TACE silencing to treat obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Seok-Beom; Song, Yoonsung; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent global health problem. Due to its close relations with metabolic diseases and cancer, new therapeutic approaches for treating obesity and obesity-induced metabolic diseases are required. Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) has been closely associated with obesity-induced inflammation and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are responsible for obesity-induced inflammation by releasing inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) is a transmembrane enzyme that induces the enzymatic cleavage and release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we developed a nonviral gene delivery system consisting of an oligopeptide (ATS-9R) that can selectively target visceral ATMs. In here we shows visceral adipose tissue-dominant inflammatory gene over-expressions in obese mouse and our strategy enabled the preferential delivery of therapeutic genes to visceral ATMs and successfully achieved ATM-targeted gene silencing. Finally, ATS-9R-mediated TACE gene silencing in visceral ATMs alleviated visceral fat inflammation and improved type 2 diabetes by reducing whole body inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Porosity, Mineralization, Tissue Type and Morphology Interactions at the Human Tibial Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Naomi A.

    Prior research has shown a relationship between tibia robustness (ratio of cross-sectional area to bone length) and stress fracture risk, with less robust bones having a higher risk, which may indicate a compensatory increase in elastic modulus to increase bending strength. Previous studies of human tibiae have shown higher ash content in slender bones. In this study, the relationships between variations in volumetric porosity, ash content, tissue mineral density, secondary bone tissue, and cross sectional geometry, were investigated in order to better understand the tissue level adaptations that may occur in the establishment of cross-sectional properties. In this research, significant differences were found between porosity, ash content, and tissue type around the cortex between robust and slender bones, suggesting that there was a level of co-adaption occurring. Variation in porosity correlated with robustness, and explained large parts of the variation in tissue mineral density. The nonlinear relationship between porosity and ash content may support that slender bones compensate for poor geometry by increasing ash content through reduced remodeling, while robust individuals increase porosity to decrease mass, but only to a point. These results suggest that tissue level organization plays a compensatory role in the establishment of adult bone mass, and may contribute to differences in bone aging between different bone phenotypes. The results suggest that slender individuals have significantly less remodeled bone, however the proportion of remodeled bone was not uniform around the tibia. In the complex results of the study of 38% vs. 66% sites the distal site was subject to higher strains than the 66% site, indicating both local and global regulators may be affecting overall remodeling rates and need to be teased apart in future studies. This research has broad clinical implications on the diagnosis and treatment of fragility fractures. The relationships that

  9. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  10. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  11. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Feriche-Fernández-Castanys, Belen; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (Leriche-Fontaine classification) were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P < .05) in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg) and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg). A significant difference (P < .05) was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P < .05) for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD. PMID:19933770

  12. Connective Tissue Reflex Massage for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue massage to improve blood circulation and intermittent claudication symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. Ninety-eight type 2 diabetes patients with stage I or II-a peripheral arterial disease (PAD (Leriche-Fontaine classification were randomly assigned to a massage group or to a placebo group treated using disconnected magnetotherapy equipment. Peripheral arterial circulation was determined by measuring differential segmental arterial pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, oxygen saturation and skin blood flow. Measurements were taken before and at 30 min, 6 months and 1 year after the 15-week treatment. After the 15-week program, the groups differed (P<.05 in differential segmental arterial pressure in right lower limb (lower one-third of thigh, upper and lower one-third of leg and left lower limb (lower one-third of thigh and upper and lower one-third of leg. A significant difference (P<.05 was also observed in skin blood flow in digits 1 and 4 of right foot and digits 2, 4 and 5 of left foot. ANOVA results were significant (P<.05 for right and left foot oxygen saturation but not for heart rate and temperature. At 6 months and 1 year, the groups differed in differential segmental arterial pressure in upper third of left and right legs. Connective tissue massage improves blood circulation in the lower limbs of type 2 diabetic patients at stage I or II-a and may be useful to slow the progression of PAD.

  13. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in psychological stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a common illness worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the disorder remains incompletely understood. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen proteolytic cascade is highly expressed in the brain regions involved in mood regulation and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that tissue-type plasminogen activator and its chief inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, are related to stress reaction and depression. Fur...

  14. Increased lipids in non-lipogenic tissues are indicators of the severity of type 2 diabetes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Tofte, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Mu, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesised that the molecular changes triggered in type 2 diabetes might cause phenotypic changes in the lipid fraction of tissues. We compared tissue lipid profiles of inbred lean B6-Bom with those of the obese B6-ob/ob and diabetic BKS-db/db mice and found that genetically diabetic mice...... significantly accumulate fat (especially monounsaturated fatty acids, MUFA) in non-lipogenic tissues such as the eye (MUFA, 2-fold), skeletal muscle (MUFA, 13-fold) and pancreas (MUFA, 16-fold). In contrast, the B6-ob/ob mice which manifest a milder form of type 2 diabetes use the liver as their predominant...

  15. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Growth type of vertebral centra and the hard tissue observed by microradiography of the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, using three specimens (BL: 21.0, 29.0 and 40.0cm). We examined the ratio of centrum length to centrum diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.8-1.0 in most centra. This indicates that the vertebral centra of rainbow trout belong to the so-called equivalent type. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm)cut through the center of notochordal pore. The microradiograph of thin section of centrurn differentiated serially and changed in pattern, but it is clear to sustain the specific characteristics. In longitudinal sections, the V-shaped part of bone was composed of structure like compact bone through the length of vertebral column. In cross sections, the notochordal pore was enclosed by the radial trabecular bones, the arrangement gradually turning toward the posterior centra like paired fans set opposite each other laterally

  17. Measurement of human tissue-type plasminogen activator by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; De Cock, F.; Collen, D.

    1983-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator was developed by using rabbit antibodies raised against plasminogen activator purified from human melanoma cell culture fluid. Samples of 100 μl containing 1 to 100 ng/ml plasminogen activator were incubated in the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates coated with antibody. The amount of bound extrinsic plasminogen activator was quantitated by the subsequent binding of 125 I-labeled affinospecific antibody. The mean level of plasma samples taken at rest was 6.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml (n = 54). This level increased approximately threefold by exhaustive physical exercise, venous occlusion, or infusion of DDAVP. Extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and active component (1.9 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, n = 54, in resting conditions) and an inactive component that does not bind to a fibrin clot (probably extrinsic plasminogen activator-proteinase inhibitor complexes). The fibrin-adsorbable fraction increased approximately fivefold to eightfold after physical exercise, venous occlusion, or DDAVP injections. Potential applications of the immunoradiometric assay are illustrated by the measurement of extrinsic plasminogen activator in different tissue extracts, body fluids, and cell culture fluids and in oocyte translation products after injection with mRNA for plasminogen activator

  18. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M.

    1990-01-01

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between 125 I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase

  19. PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF TISSUE-ENGINEERED PANCREATIC CONSTRUCTS IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Skaletskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allotransplantation of pancreatic islets remains the most effective method of treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 being capable under combination of favorable conditions (suffi cient number of isolated islets, effective combination of immunosuppressive drugs to reach the recipients’ insulin independence for several years. However, the overwhelming shortage of donor pancreas and limited post-transplantation islet survival do not allow increasing the number of such transplants and their effectiveness. This review presents a critical analysis of the work done by Russian and foreign authors onto creation of tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs that may lead to the resolution of the three main pancreatic islet transplantation issues: 1 lack of donor material; 2 necessity of immunosuppressive therapy; 3 limited survival and functional activity of the islet.

  20. The comparative morphology of the muscle tissues and changes in constituents in the pig types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, G; Fazekas, S; Sándor, I; Kollár, N

    1990-09-01

    The authors have revealed the main value characteristics of pork production by testing in five different types of pig the volume of contractile and collagen proteins, that of proteoglycans, the constituents of blood and the enzymes of the blood plasma. The contractile proteins of the muscle tissues basically determine the quality of pork. The same applies to the water retention capacity, colloidal characteristics and glycogen content of meat. The amount of contractile proteins has decreased in the best meat producing types of pig. Parallel with the decrease of white meat, and with the increase in the volume of ham, chop and chuck the contractile protein content of muscles decreased. The scientific fact according to which there is a certain correlation among the changes in the volume of contractile proteins, blood sugar level, blood serum CPK and the intensity of activity of the LDH enzymes promotes the qualifying of live animals and the work of the geneticists aiming at the increasing of the contractile protein content of the muscle tissues of pigs by selection. According to tests carried out by us the primary cause of PSE changes is a decreased volume of contractile proteins. Increased stress sensitivity and all the other factors have but a secondary importance and are all consequential. The decrease in the quantity of contractile proteins or--it is better to put it this way--the lack of the proper amount of such proteins characterizing a fully developed pig's organism is caused by the nowadays usual breeding technologies and can be well explained by those selection activities which aim at a one-sided kind of pork production.

  1. [Rhein promotes the expression of SIRT1 in kidney tissues of type 2 diabetic rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chang, Baochao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effect of rhein on the expression of SIRT1(Sirtuin 1) in kidney of diabetic rats, and to explore the role of rhein in protecting rat kidney against diabetic nephropathy and possible mechanism. The type 2 diabetic rats were induced by high-glucose and high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body mass). Seventy-five eight-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, diabetic group, low-, medium- and high-dose (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) rhein treatment groups and 10 mg/kg pioglitazone treatment group. The rats were given corresponding substances intragastrically once a day. At the end of the 16th week, the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), serum creatinine (Scr) and 24 hours urine protein (24 h U-PRO) were determined. The renal hypertrophy index (KM/BM), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The pathological changes in renal tissues were examined by PAS staining under a light microscopy. The mean glomerular area (MGA) and mean glomerular volume (MGV) were measured by pathological image analysis system. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR were used to determine the expression of SIRT1 in renal tissues at protein and mRNA levels, respectively. The expression of SIRT1 was down-regulated in the kidney of diabetic rats. The levels of FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, Scr, 24 h U-PRO, KM/BM, MGA and MGV significantly decreased and the histopathology of renal tissues were significantly improved in all treatment groups compared with diabetic group. The expression of SIRT1 mRNA and protein markedly increased in rhein treatment groups and pioglitazone treatment group compared with diabetic group. The indicators in high-dose rhein treatment group were improved more significantly than those in the other groups. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of SIRT1 was negatively correlated with 24 h U-PRO and MGV. The expression of SIRT1 was

  2. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: A document type definition to validate and enhance XML data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohle, David G; Ayers, Leona W

    2005-01-01

    Background The Association for Pathology Informatics (API) Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) TMA Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) proposed in April 2003 provides a community-based, open source tool for sharing tissue microarray (TMA) data in a common format. Each tissue core within an array has separate data including digital images; therefore an organized, common approach to produce, navigate and publish such data facilitates viewing, sharing and merging TMA data from different laboratories. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) is a HIV/AIDS tissue bank consortium sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD). The ACSR offers HIV-related malignancies and uninfected control tissues in microarrays (TMA) accompanied by de-identified clinical data to approved researchers. Exporting our TMA data into the proposed API specified format offers an opportunity to evaluate the API specification in an applied setting and to explore its usefulness. Results A document type definition (DTD) that governs the allowed common data elements (CDE) in TMA DES export XML files was written, tested and evolved and is in routine use by the ACSR. This DTD defines TMA DES CDEs which are implemented in an external file that can be supplemented by internal DTD extensions for locally defined TMA data elements (LDE). Conclusion ACSR implementation of the TMA DES demonstrated the utility of the specification and allowed application of a DTD to validate the language of the API specified XML elements and to identify possible enhancements within our TMA data management application. Improvements to the specification have additionally been suggested by our experience in importing other institution's exported TMA data. Enhancements to TMA DES to remove ambiguous situations and clarify the data should be considered. Better specified identifiers and hierarchical relationships will make automatic use of the data possible. Our tool can be

  3. Tumor type resulting in upgrade: An analysis based on 333 low grade soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS are rare tumors. Based on histopathological criteria, three grades are distinguished from low (G1 to intermediate (G2 and high grade (G3. After complete initial surgical resection, some G1 STS recur as lesions with an upgrade of a previous G1 STS to a recurrent G2 STS. This upgrade indicates higher malignancy of the STS. Our aim was to find possible risk factors for these upgrades including age, localization of tumor and tumor type. Methods: This retrospective case-control study evaluated 333 patients. Of these 333, 54.7% were male and 45.3% female. All patients underwent R0 resections and among these, 10% subsequently upgraded. The processed data include age, gender, tumor type, tumor localization, local recurrence and upgrade. Results: Patients with upgrades have a higher mean age of 5.5 years than our reference collective. The tumor type has a significant effect on upgrades. Patients with fibrosarcomas are at a threefold risk of an upgrade compared to patients with other G1 STS.Conclusion: Our results indicate that age and tumor type play a key role in upgrades in G1 STS. Patients, age 60 and above and diagnosed with G1 fibrosarcomas, are three times as likely to upgrade compared to patients younger than 60 with other G1 STS. We discuss the significance of these risk factors and whether aside from complete tumor resection, additional therapies (e.g. irradiation may be applied to improve therapeutic outcome.

  4. Activity deprivation induces neuronal cell death: mediation by tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldi Schonfeld-Dado

    Full Text Available Spontaneous activity is an essential attribute of neuronal networks and plays a critical role in their development and maintenance. Upon blockade of activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX, neurons degenerate slowly and die in a manner resembling neurodegenerative diseases-induced neuronal cell death. The molecular cascade leading to this type of slow cell death is not entirely clear. Primary post-natal cortical neurons were exposed to TTX for up to two weeks, followed by molecular, biochemical and immunefluorescence analysis. The expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase (NSE, was down-regulated, as expected, but surprisingly, there was a concomitant and striking elevation in expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that tPA was highly elevated inside affected neurons. Transfection of an endogenous tPA inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, protected the TTX-exposed neurons from dying. These results indicate that tPA is a pivotal player in slowly progressing activity deprivation-induced neurodegeneration.

  5. IMPACTS OF TISSUE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA ON NEURONAL SURVIVAL

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    Arnaud eChevilley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA. In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival.

  6. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that the postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increase is accompanied by capillary recruitment in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the postprandial capillary recruitment in adipose tissue is affected in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight type 2 diabetic overweight male....... No significant changes were found in the ATBF or in capillary recruitment in the type 2 diabetic subjects. There was no significant blood flow or microvascular blood volume changes in forearm skeletal muscle in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: After an oral glucose load, the abdominal ATBF and microvascular...... blood volume changes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are impaired in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched healthy subjects....

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

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    Ming Feng Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type milk lysozyme gene (YML, was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75 which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZαA and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity.

  8. Beneficial Autoimmunity at Body Surfaces – Immune Surveillance and Rapid Type 2 Immunity Regulate Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:25101088

  9. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces - immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, Tim; Strid, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation, or toxins cause activation of ECs with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell-surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue-resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on ECs and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. ECs are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, ECs have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1) upon non-invasive challenge or stress - a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here, we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  10. Dynamic culture induces a cell type-dependent response impacting on the thickness of engineered connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Guillaume Marceau; Gauvin, Robert; Proulx, Maryse; Vallée, Maud; Fradette, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal cells are central to connective tissue homeostasis and are widely used for tissue-engineering applications. Dermal fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) allow successful tissue reconstruction by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. This method leads to the production of multilayered tissues, devoid of exogenous biomaterials, that can be used as stromal compartments for skin or vesical reconstruction. These tissues are formed by combining cell sheets, generated through cell stimulation with ascorbic acid, which favours the cell-derived production/organization of matrix components. Since media motion can impact on cell behaviour, we investigated the effect of dynamic culture on mesenchymal cells during tissue reconstruction, using the self-assembly method. Tissues produced using ASCs in the presence of a wave-like movement were nearly twice thicker than under standard conditions, while no difference was observed for tissues produced from dermal fibroblasts. The increased matrix deposition was not correlated with an increased proliferation of ASCs, or by higher transcript levels of fibronectin or collagens I and III. A 30% increase of type V collagen mRNA was observed. Interestingly, tissues engineered from dermal fibroblasts featured a four-fold higher level of MMP-1 transcripts under dynamic conditions. Mechanical properties were similar for tissues reconstructed using dynamic or static conditions. Finally, cell sheets produced using ASCs under dynamic conditions could readily be manipulated, resulting in a 2 week reduction of the production time (from 5 to 3 weeks). Our results describe a distinctive property of ASCs' response to media motion, indicating that their culture under dynamic conditions leads to optimized tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

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    Nenonen Arja

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. Methods 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6 yrs with T2D were randomized to supervised training four times a week and standard therapy (E, or standard treatment alone (C for 12 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, oxygen consumption (VO2max, and muscle strength (Sit-up were measured. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI was used to determine the average maximal mitral annular early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic as well as systolic (Sa velocities, systolic strain (ε and strain rate (έ from the septum, and an estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (E/Ea. Results Exercise capacity (VO2max, E 32.0 to 34.7 vs. C 32.6 to 31.5 ml/kg/min, p = .001, muscle strength (E 12.7 to 18.3 times vs. C 14.6 to 14.7 times, p 1c (E 8.2 to 7.5% vs. C 8.0 to 8.4%, p = .006 improved significantly in the exercise group compared to the controls (ANOVA. Systolic blood pressure decreased in the E group (E 144 to 138 mmHg vs. C 146 to 144 mmHg, p = .04. Contrary to risk factor changes diastolic long axis relaxation did not improve significantly, early diastolic velocity Ea from 8.1 to 7.9 cm/s for the E group vs. C 7.4 to 7.8 cm/s (p = .85, ANOVA. Likewise, after 12 months the mitral annular systolic velocity, systolic strain and strain rate, as well as E/Ea were unchanged. Conclusion Exercise training improves endurance and muscle fitness in T2D, resulting in better glycemic control and reduced blood pressure. However, myocardial diastolic tissue velocities did not change significantly. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention may be needed in order to reverse diastolic impairment in diabetics, if at all

  12. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim...... was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset...... necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin and resistin were all unaffected by IL6 infusion, but plasma resistin was lower in the diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Conclusions/interpretation  The observation that PPARGC1A and the PPARs were upregulated in the adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic patients...

  13. Typing Style and the Use of Different Sources of Information during Typing: An Investigation Using Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Bart, Victoria K E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent different sources of information are used in typing on a computer keyboard. Using self-reports 10 finger typists and idiosyncratic typists estimated how much attention they pay to different sources of information during copy typing and free typing and how much they use them for error detection. 10 finger typists reported less attention to the keyboard and the fingers and more attention to the template and the screen than idiosyncratic typists. The groups did not differ in attention to touch/kinaesthesis in copy typing and free typing, but 10 finger typists reported more use of touch/kinaesthesis in error detection. This indicates that processing of tactile/kinaesthetic information may occur largely outside conscious control, as long as no errors occur. 10 finger typists reported more use of internal prediction of movement consequences for error detection than idiosyncratic typists, reflecting more precise internal models. Further in copy typing compared to free typing attention to the template is required, thus leaving less attentional capacity for other sources of information. Correlations showed that higher skilled typists, regardless of typing style, rely more on sources of information which are usually associated with 10 finger typing. One limitation of the study is that only self-reports were used. We conclude that typing task, typing proficiency, and typing style influence how attention is distributed during typing.

  14. Role of TGF-beta1 in relation to exercise-induced type I collagen synthesis in human tendinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens L

    2003-01-01

    synthesis, is released from cultured tendon fibroblasts in response to mechanical loading. Thus TGF-beta1 could link mechanical loading and collagen synthesis in tendon tissue in vivo. Tissue levels of TGF-beta1 and type I collagen metabolism markers [procollagen I COOH-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH...... exercise (P insertion was markedly delayed by exercise compared with the decay seen in resting subjects...

  15. Selecting "saviour siblings": reconsidering the regulation in Australia of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in conjunction with tissue typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been developed to enable the selection of a tissue type matched "saviour sibling" for a sick child. This article examines the current regulatory framework governing PGD in Australia. The availability of PGD in Australia to create a saviour sibling depends on the regulation of ART services by each State and Territory. The limitations on the use of PGD vary throughout Australia, according to the level of regulation of ART in each jurisdiction. This article considers the limitations on the use of PGD for tissue typing in Australia and argues that some of these should be removed for a more consistent national approach. In particular, the focus in ART legislation on the "paramount interests" of the child to be born is inappropriate for the application of tissue typing, which necessarily involves the interests of other family members.

  16. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Claire Y; Kachnic, Lisa A; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-07-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  17. Adipose tissue inflammation: feeding the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Victoria R; Smith, Kerrie A; Carter, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    The global increase in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represents a burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Of particular concern is the increased morbidity associated with T2DM, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to premature death. Obesity initially leads to the development of insulin resistance in adipose and other tissues. Insulin resistance is initially compensated by increased insulin secretion but ultimately insufficient insulin is produced and this leads to the development of T2DM. Understanding the causal mechanisms underpinning the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance may be beneficial in improving quality of life and life expectancy, with the potential for a major global impact on healthcare systems. There is abundant evidence from animal, human studies and in vitro studies to support functional roles for a number of inflammatory factors in obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this review we provide an overview of the evidence supporting a fundamental role for the fluid phase (in particular the complement system) and the cellular components of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and ultimately development of T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Android subcutaneous adipose tissue topography in lean and obese women suffering from PCOS: comparison with type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Rackl, S; Giuliani, A; Freytag, U; Crailsheim, K; Sudi, K; Tafeit, E

    2004-07-01

    The new optical device, the lipometer, enables the noninvasive, quick, safe, and precise determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers at any given site of the human body. Fifteen anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf describe a SAT topography (SAT-Top) like an individual "fingerprint" of a subject. This SAT-Top was examined in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared to the body fat distribution of 87 age-matched healthy controls and 20 type-2 diabetic women. SAT-Top differences of these three groups were described and, to render the possibility of visual comparison, the 15-dimensional body fat information was condensed to a two-dimensional factor plot by factor analysis. All PCOS patients had an android body fat distribution with significantly thinner SAT layers on the legs as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in two distinctly different groups of PCOS women, a lean (PCOSL) and an obese (PCOSO) cluster: compared to healthy women, lean PCOS patients had significantly lower total SAT development, even though height, weight, and body mass index did not deviate significantly. Especially on the legs, their SAT layers were significantly lowered, indicating a more "apple-like" fat distribution type. Obese PCOS women showed a SAT-Top pattern very similar to that of women with type-2 diabetes, although the mean age difference between these groups was more than 30 years. Compared to healthy controls, the SAT-Top of these obese PCOS patients was strongly shifted into the android direction, appearing as "super-apples" with a significantly increased upper trunk obesity to 237.8% and a significantly decreased leg SAT development to 79.8%. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  20. Tissue-type plasminogen activator contributes to remodeling of the rat ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junichi; Nicho, Naoki; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Satoko; Umemura, Masanari; Fujita, Takayuki; Ito, Shuichi; Taniguchi, Hideki; Asou, Toshihide; Masuda, Munetaka; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Aims The ductus arteriosus (DA) closes after birth to adapt to the robust changes in hemodynamics, which require intimal thickening (IT) to occur. The smooth muscle cells of the DA have been reported to play important roles in IT formation. However, the roles of the endothelial cells (ECs) have not been fully investigated. We herein focused on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is a DA EC dominant gene, and investigated its contribution to IT formation in the DA. Methods and results ECs from the DA and aorta were isolated from fetal rats using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RT-PCR showed that the t-PA mRNA expression level was 2.7-fold higher in DA ECs than in aortic ECs from full-term rat fetuses (gestational day 21). A strong immunoreaction for t-PA was detected in pre-term and full-term rat DA ECs. t-PA-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion activates gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gelatin zymography revealed that plasminogen supplementation significantly promoted activation of the elastolytic enzyme MMP-2 in rat DA ECs. In situ zymography demonstrated that marked gelatinase activity was observed at the site of disruption in the internal elastic laminae (IEL) in full-term rat DA. In a three-dimensional vascular model, EC-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion augmented the IEL disruption. In vivo administration of plasminogen to pre-term rat fetuses (gestational day 19), in which IT is poorly formed, promoted IEL disruption accompanied by gelatinase activation and enhanced IT formation in the DA. Additionally, experiments using five human DA tissues demonstrated that the t-PA expression level was 3.7-fold higher in the IT area than in the tunica media. t-PA protein expression and gelatinase activity were also detected in the IT area of the human DAs. Conclusion t-PA expressed in ECs may help to form IT of the DA via activation of MMP-2 and disruption of IEL. PMID:29304073

  1. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  2. Human papillomavirus in normal conjunctival tissue and in conjunctival papilloma: types and frequencies in a large series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia; Norrild, Bodil; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Vinding, Troels; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-08-01

    To examine conjunctival papilloma and normal conjunctival tissue for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV). Archival paraffin wax-embedded tissue from 165 conjunctival papillomas and from 20 histological normal conjunctival biopsy specimens was analysed for the presence of HPV by PCR. Specimens considered HPV positive using consensus primers, but with a negative or uncertain PCR result using type-specific HPV probes, were analysed with DNA sequencing. HPV was present in 86 of 106 (81%) beta-globin-positive papillomas. HPV type 6 was positive in 80 cases, HPV type 11 was identified in 5 cases and HPV type 45 was present in a single papilloma. All the 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were beta-globin positive and HPV negative. There is a strong association between HPV and conjunctival papilloma. The study presents the largest material of conjunctival papilloma investigated for HPV and the first investigation of HPV in normal conjunctival tissue. HPV types 6 and 11 are the most common HPV types in conjunctival papilloma. This also is the first report of HPV type 45 in conjunctival papilloma.

  3. A comparative study on collagen type I and hyaluronic acid dependent cell behavior for osteochondral tissue bioprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Seob; Park, Hyoungjun; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Dong-Woo; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that cells on hydrogels that were comprised of major native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e. chondrocytes on HA hydrogels and osteoblasts on Col-1 hydrogels) exhibited better proliferation and cell function than cells on non-native ECM hydrogels (i.e., chondrocytes on Col-1 hydrogels and osteoblasts on HA hydrogels). In addition, cells located near their native ECM hydrogels migrated towards them. Finally, we bioprinted three-dimensional (3D) osteochondral tissue-mimetic structures composed of two compartments, osteoblast-encapsulated Col-1 hydrogels and chondrocyte-encapsulated HA hydrogels, and found viability and functions of each cell type were well maintained within the 3D structures up to 14 days in vitro. These results suggest that with proper choice of hydrogel materials, bioprinting-based approaches can be successfully applied for osteochondral tissue regeneration. (paper)

  4. A comparative study on collagen type I and hyaluronic acid dependent cell behavior for osteochondral tissue bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Sung Won; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that cells on hydrogels that were comprised of major native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e. chondrocytes on HA hydrogels and osteoblasts on Col-1 hydrogels) exhibited better proliferation and cell function than cells on non-native ECM hydrogels (i.e., chondrocytes on Col-1 hydrogels and osteoblasts on HA hydrogels). In addition, cells located near their native ECM hydrogels migrated towards them. Finally, we bioprinted three-dimensional (3D) osteochondral tissue-mimetic structures composed of two compartments, osteoblast-encapsulated Col-1 hydrogels and chondrocyte-encapsulated HA hydrogels, and found viability and functions of each cell type were well maintained within the 3D structures up to 14 days in vitro. These results suggest that with proper choice of hydrogel materials, bioprinting-based approaches can be successfully applied for osteochondral tissue regeneration.

  5. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  6. Assessing the Functional Limitations of Lipids and Fatty Acids for Diet Determination: The Importance of Tissue Type, Quantity, and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and fatty acid (FA analysis is commonly used to describe the trophic ecology of an increasing number of taxa. However, the applicability of these analyses is contingent upon the collection and storage of sufficient high quality tissue, the limitations of which are previously unexplored in elasmobranchs. Using samples from 110 white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, collected throughout Australia, we investigated the importance of tissue type, sample quantity, and quality for reliable lipid class and FA analysis. We determined that muscle and sub-dermal tissue contain distinct lipid class and FA profiles, and were not directly comparable. Muscle samples as small as 12 mg dry weight (49 mg wet weight, provided reliable and consistent FA profiles, while sub-dermal tissue samples of 40 mg dry weight (186 mg wet weight or greater were required to yield consistent profiles. This validates the suitability of minimally invasive sampling methods such as punch biopsies. The integrity of FA profiles in muscle was compromised after 24 h at ambient temperature (~20°C, making these degraded samples unreliable for accurate determination of dietary sources, yet sub-dermal tissue retained stable FA profiles under the same conditions, suggesting it may be a more robust tissue for trophic ecology work with potentially degraded samples. However, muscle samples archived for up to 16 years in −20°C retain their FA profiles, highlighting that tissue from museum or private collections can yield valid insights into the trophic ecology of marine elasmobranchs.

  7. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression analysis of mouse spinesin, a type II transmembrane serine protease 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Okui, Akira; Mitsui, Shinichi; Kawarabuki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported novel serine proteases isolated from cDNA libraries of the human and mouse central nervous system (CNS) by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the serine protease motifs, AAHC and DSGGP. Here we report a newly isolated serine protease from the mouse CNS. This protease is homologous (77.9% identical) to human spinesin type II transmembrane serine protease 5. Mouse spinesin (m-spinesin) is also composed of (from the N-terminus) a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger-receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain, as is h-spinesin. We also isolated type 1, type 2, and type 3 variant cDNAs of m-spinesin. Full-length spinesin (type 4) and type 3 contain all the domains, whereas type 1 and type 2 variants lack the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and scavenger-receptor-like domains. Subcellular localization of the variant forms was analyzed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins. EGFP-type 4 fusion protein was predominantly localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, whereas EGFP-type 1 was localized to the cytoplasm, reflecting differential classification of m-spinesin variants into transmembrane and cytoplasmic types. We analyzed the distribution of m-spinesin variants in mouse tissues, using RT-PCR with variant-specific primer sets. Interestingly, transmembrane-type spinesin, types 3 and 4, was specifically expressed in the spinal cord, whereas cytoplasmic type, type 1, was expressed in multiple tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. Therefore, m-spinesin variants may have distinct biological functions arising from organ-specific variant expression

  8. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a means to discriminate various tissues types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Joshua; Favreau, Peter F.; Lopez, Carmen; Lall, Malvika; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Little is currently known about the fluorescence excitation spectra of disparate tissues and how these spectra change with pathological state. Current imaging diagnostic techniques have limited capacity to investigate fluorescence excitation spectral characteristics. This study utilized excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to perform a comprehensive assessment of fluorescence spectral signatures of various tissues. Immediately following tissue harvest, a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) were used to acquire hyperspectral image data from each sample. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 340 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). Spectra were examined for potential characteristic features such as consistent intensity peaks at specific wavelengths or intensity ratios among significant wavelengths. The resultant spectral features were conserved among tissues of similar molecular composition. Additionally, excitation spectra appear to be a mixture of pure endmembers with commonalities across tissues of varied molecular composition, potentially identifiable through GMM. These results suggest the presence of common autofluorescent molecules in most tissues and that excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging may serve as an approach for characterizing tissue composition as well as pathologic state. Future work will test the feasibility of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a contrast mode for discriminating normal and pathological tissues.

  9. Effects of three different types of antifreeze proteins on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewang Lee

    Full Text Available Ovarian tissue (OT cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function.This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair (DDR, respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control. Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared.In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL

  10. Evaluation of peripheral vasodilative indices in skin tissue of type 1 diabetic rats by use of RGB images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nishidate, Izumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a method to evaluate the arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats from RGB digital color images. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the dorsal reversed McFarlane skin flap are calculated based on the responses of change in the total blood concentration to occlusion of blood flow to and from the flap tissues at a pressure of 50 mmHg. The arterial inflow and the venous capacitance in the skin flap tissue were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic rat group compared with the non-diabetic rat group. The results of the present study indicate the possibility of using the proposed method for evaluating the peripheral vascular dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus.

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  12. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), tissue factor (TF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Kiss, Katalin; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor-specific biomarkers are a prerequisite for the development of targeted imaging and therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR), Tissue Factor (TF) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) are three biomarkers that exhib...... with a reduced survival. uPAR seems to be a prognostic biomarker in oral cancer....

  13. Introduction of lysine and clot binding properties in the kringle one domain of tissue-type plasminogen activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Greef, W. van der; Rehberg, E.F.; Marotti, K.R.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the high overall similarity in primary structure between kringle one (K1) and kringle two (K2) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) there exists an enormous functional difference. It is thought that, in contrast to K1, K2 mediates lysine binding and fibrin binding and is involved in

  14. Reduction of /sup 51/Cr-permeability of tissue culture cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Habermehl, K.O.; Diefenthal, W.; Hampl, H.

    1979-01-01

    Infection of different strains of tissue culture cells with herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) resulted in a reduced /sup 51/Cr-permeability. A stability of the cellular membrane to Triton X-100, toxic sera and HSV-specific complement-mediated immune-cytolysis could be observed simultaneously. The results differed with respect to the cell strain used in the experiments.

  15. Local angiotensin II promotes adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells through type 2 angiotensin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Y. Sysoeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is often associated with high systemic and local activity of renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue are the main source of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to clarify how local RAS could control adipose differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs. We examined the distribution of angiotensin receptor expressing cells in human adipose tissue and found that type 1 and type 2 receptors are co-expressed in its stromal compartment, which is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells. To study the expression of receptors specifically in ADSCs we have isolated them from adipose tissue. Up to 99% of cultured ADSCs expressed angiotensin II (AngII receptor type 1 (AT1. Using the analysis of Ca2+ mobilization in single cells we found that only 5.2 ± 2.7% of ADSCs specifically respond to serial Ang II applications via AT1 receptor and expressed this receptor constantly. This AT1const ADSCs subpopulation exhibited increased adipose competency, which was triggered by endogenous AngII. Inhibitory and expression analyses showed that AT1const ADSCs highly co-express AngII type 2 receptor (AT2, which was responsible for increased adipose competency of this ADSC subpopulation.

  16. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in psychological stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-12-22

    Major depressive disorder is a common illness worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the disorder remains incompletely understood. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen proteolytic cascade is highly expressed in the brain regions involved in mood regulation and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that tissue-type plasminogen activator and its chief inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, are related to stress reaction and depression. Furthermore, the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression postulates that compromised neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression. In the brain, the proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF, a BDNF precursor, to mature BDNF through plasmin represents one mechanism that can change the direction of BDNF action. We also discuss the implications of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 alterations as biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Using drugs that increase tissue-type plasminogen activator or decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels may open new avenues to develop conceptually novel therapeutic strategies for depression treatment.

  17. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  18. Liver fat content is linked to inflammatory changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henry J; Vervoort, Gerald M; van der Graaf, Marinette; Stienstra, Rinke; Tack, Cees J

    2013-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are typically overweight and have an increased liver fat content (LFAT). High LFAT may be explained by an increased efflux of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue, which is partly instigated by inflammatory changes. This would imply an association between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. To analyse associations between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. A cross-sectional study. Twenty-seven obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM were studied. LFAT content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A subcutaneous (sc) fat biopsy was obtained to determine morphology and protein levels within adipose tissue. In addition to fat cell size, the percentage of macrophages and the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) within sc fat were assessed by CD68-immunohistochemical staining. Mean LFAT percentage was 11·1 ± 1·7% (range: 0·75-32·9%); 63% of the patients were diagnosed with an elevated LFAT (upper range of normal ≤5·5%). Whereas adipocyte size did not correlate with LFAT, 3 of 4 subjects with CLSs in sc fat had elevated LFAT and the percentage of macrophages present in sc adipose tissue was positively associated with LFAT. Protein concentrations of adiponectin within adipose tissue negatively correlated with LFAT. Adipose tissue protein levels of the key inflammatory adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with LFAT. Several pro-inflammatory changes in sc adipose tissue associate with increased LFAT content in obese insulin-treated patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes at the level of the adipose tissue may drive liver fat accumulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  20. Pulp regeneration after non-infected and infected necrosis, what type of tissue do we want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Bakland, Leif K

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration (revitalization) of infected necrotic pulp tissue has been an important issue in endodontics for more than a decade. Based on a series of case reports, there appears to be evidence that new soft tissue can enter the root canal with a potential for subsequent hard tissue deposition...... that such events may take place in four variants: (i) Revascularization of the pulp with accelerated dentin formation leading to pulp canal obliteration. This event has a good long-term prognosis. (ii) Ingrowth of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The long-term prognosis for this event is not known. (iii...

  1. Typing of 111 ancestry informative markers in an Albanian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Pereira, V.; Kondili, A.

    2015-01-01

    ) with the purpose of differentiating Middle Eastern populations from those of the rest of the world (publication in preparation). Before these multiplexes can be applied in forensic case work, population data for these markers are needed.In this work, samples from 51 Albanian individuals were typed with the AIMs...... script in the software R.The results were compared to other population samples previously typed for the same markers. The panel of AIMs was capable of differentiating the Albanian population from other population groups except for the Greek population. These results were expected due to the history...

  2. STR typing of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) aborted foetal tissue in criminal paternity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ayeleth; Barash, Mark; Voskoboinik, Lev; Brauner, Paul; Gafny, Roni

    2011-03-01

    Sexual assault or rape cases occasionally result in unwanted pregnancies. In almost all such cases the foetus is aborted. A forensic laboratory may receive the foetus, the placenta, or paraffin embedded abortion material for paternity testing. Obtaining a foetal profile DNA from a foetus or placenta may not be successful due to the age or condition of the tissue. Moreover, maternal contamination of placental material will invariably result in a mixed DNA profile. However, the use of properly screened abortion material from paraffin blocks will almost always result in obtaining a foetal DNA profile. Furthermore, foetal tissue fixed in paraffin blocks does not require special conditions for submission and storage as required to preserve fresh foetal or placental tissue. As hospitals routinely prepare foetal tissue in paraffin blocks, which should be readily obtainable by forensic laboratories, these samples would appear to be the preferred choice for paternity testing. 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fisher information and statistical inference for phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with statistical inference for both continuous and discrete phase-type distributions. We consider maximum likelihood estimation, where traditionally the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed. Certain numerical aspects of this method are revised and we...

  4. Supporting Information Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Ghosh

    Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N-heterocyclic Carbene. Ligand Derived From a Tricyclic Triazolooxazine Framework. Manoj Kumar Gangwar, Alok Ch. Kalita and Prasenjit Ghosh*. Department of Chemistry,. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, ... 2. Figure S1. 1. H NMR spectrum of the compound 1a in CDCl3.

  5. Effect of Tissue Heterogeneity on the Transmembrane Potential of Type-1 Spiral Ganglion Neurons: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriperumbudur, Kiran Kumar; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; van Rienen, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve by cochlear implants has been a successful clinical intervention to treat the sensory neural deafness. In this pathological condition of the cochlea, type-1 spiral ganglion neurons in Rosenthal's canal play a vital role in the action potential initiation. Various morphological studies of the human temporal bones suggest that the spiral ganglion neurons are surrounded by heterogeneous structures formed by a variety of cells and tissues. However, the existing simulation models have not considered the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal while studying the electric field interaction with spiral ganglion neurons. Unlike the existing models, we have implemented the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal using a computationally inexpensive image based method in a two-dimensional finite element model. Our simulation results suggest that the spatial heterogeneity of surrounding tissues influences the electric field distribution in the Rosenthal's canal, and thereby alters the transmembrane potential of the spiral ganglion neurons. In addition to the academic interest, these results are especially useful to understand how the latest tissue regeneration methods such as gene therapy and drug-induced resprouting of peripheral axons, which probably modify the density of the tissues in the Rosenthal's canal, affect the cochlear implant functionality.

  6. STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ADVERTISING TEXTS OF INFORMATIVE AND COMPARATIVE TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubskaya, O.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this article is related to the fact that nowadays advertising has a very strong impact both on the consumer market, political and cultural life of society, and on the language and its development as a system. Advertising has given rise to the development of a special set of stylistic features of a text, formed under the influence of reviving advertising traditions in the Russian language and under the active impact of energetic and pushy European advertising. The purpose of this study is to explore stylistic features of informative and comparative advertising texts. The object of research is Russian-language advertising in printed media and on television. In the end of the article we made conclusions about groups of language means used for different stylistic devices in informative and comparative advertising texts. Analysis of stylistic features of modern informative and comparative advertising texts can be of great interest to specialists in the field of theoretical studies of modern advertising.

  7. Adipose Tissues Characteristics of Normal, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Uygurs Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our results showed that, at the same BMI level, Uygurs have greater WHR values, abdominal visceral fat content, and diabetes risks than Kazaks. In addition, values of HDL-C in Uygur subjects were lower than those in Kazak subjects, and values of creatinine, uric acid, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and fructosamine in Uygur male subjects were lower than those in Kazak male subjects. In contrast, systolic blood pressure values in Uygur subjects were greater than those in Kazak subjects, and blood glucose values were greater in Uygur female subjects than in Kazak female subjects. Additionally, in Uygurs, visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TBX1 and TCF21 were greater in obesity group than in normal and T2DM groups and lower in T2DM group than in normal group (P<0.01. The visceral adipose tissue expression levels of APN in normal group was greater than those in obesity and T2DM groups, and visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 in normal group were lower than those in obesity and T2DM groups (P<0.01. In conclusion, T2DM in Uygurs was mainly associated with not only distribution of adipose tissue in body, but also change in metabolic activity and adipocytokines secretion of adipose tissue.

  8. Comparative effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the effects on type 2 diabetes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Methods  Thirty type 2 diabetic rat models were established by an eight weeks high-fat diet (HFD with a low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25mg/kg, and randomly assigned into three groups (10 each: diabetes group (T2DM, bone marrow MSCs transplantation group (BMSC and adipose tissue MSCs transplantation group (ADSC. Ten normal rats were set as control. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow or inguinal adipose tissue of normal rats. One week after STZ injection, 3×10 6 MSCs suspended in 1ml PBS were infused into rats via tail vein. The blood glucose was measured every day after MSCs transplantation, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT were performed the 7th day after transplantation to evaluate the effects of MSCs on diabetic rats. Pancreatic tissues were collected for insulin/glucagon immunofluorescence staining. Results  After MSCs transplantation, the blood glucose decreased gradually and continuously in type 2 diabetic rats, with glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity improved greatly. The improved insulin sensitivity was further confirmed by a decreased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index and increased pancreas islet β-cells (P<0.05. However, no significant differences were observed between BMSC and ADSC group. Conclusion  Both BMSC and ADSC have the same effect on type 2 diabetic rats, so the ADSC will be the ideal stem cells for treatment of type 2 diabetes. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.03

  9. Simulation studies of optimum energies for DXA: dependence on tissue type, patient size and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well established technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). However, in recent years DXA is increasingly being used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. DXA scanners must also determine the soft tissue baseline value from soft-tissue-only regions adjacent to bone. The aim of this work is to determine, using computer simulations, the optimum x- ray energies for a number of dose models, different tissues, i.e. bone mineral, average soft tissue, lean soft tissue and fat; and a range of anatomical sites and patient sizes. Three models for patient dose were evaluated total beam energy, entrance exposure and absorbed dose calculated by Monte Carlo modelling. A range of tissue compositions and thicknesses were chosen to cover typical patient variations for the three sites femoral neck, PA spine and lateral spine. In this work, the optimisation of the energies is based on (1) the uncertainty that arises from the quantum statistical nature of the number of x-rays recorded by the detector, and (2) the radiation dose received by the patient. This study has deliberately not considered other parameters such as detector response, electronic noise, x-ray tube heat load etc, because these are technology dependent parameters, not ones that are inherent to the measuring technique. Optimisation of the energies is achieved by minimisation of the product of variance of density measurement and dose which is independent of the absolute intensities of the x-ray beams. The results obtained indicate that if solving for bone density, then E-low in the range 34 to 42 keV, E-high in the range 100 to 200 keV and incident intensity ratio (low energy/high energy) in the range 3 to 10 is a reasonable compromise for the normal range of patient sizes. The choice of energies is complicated by the fact that the DXA unit must also solve for fat and lean soft tissue in soft- tissue-only regions adjacent to the bone. In this

  10. A simple model for cell type recognition using 2D-correlation analysis of FTIR images from breast cancer tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed H.; Rakib, Fazle; Al-Saad, Khalid; Al-Saady, Rafif; Lyng, Fiona M.; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2018-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer after lung cancer. So far, in clinical practice, most cancer parameters originating from histopathology rely on the visualization by a pathologist of microscopic structures observed in stained tissue sections, including immunohistochemistry markers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a biochemical fingerprint of a biopsy sample and, together with advanced data analysis techniques, can accurately classify cell types. Yet, one of the challenges when dealing with FTIR imaging is the slow recording of the data. One cm2 tissue section requires several hours of image recording. We show in the present paper that 2D covariance analysis singles out only a few wavenumbers where both variance and covariance are large. Simple models could be built using 4 wavenumbers to identify the 4 main cell types present in breast cancer tissue sections. Decision trees provide particularly simple models to reach discrimination between the 4 cell types. The robustness of these simple decision-tree models were challenged with FTIR spectral data obtained using different recording conditions. One test set was recorded by transflection on tissue sections in the presence of paraffin while the training set was obtained on dewaxed tissue sections by transmission. Furthermore, the test set was collected with a different brand of FTIR microscope and a different pixel size. Despite the different recording conditions, separating extracellular matrix (ECM) from carcinoma spectra was 100% successful, underlying the robustness of this univariate model and the utility of covariance analysis for revealing efficient wavenumbers. We suggest that 2D covariance maps using the full spectral range could be most useful to select the interesting wavenumbers and achieve very fast data acquisition on quantum cascade laser infrared imaging microscopes.

  11. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  12. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  13. Spexin peptide is expressed in human endocrine and epithelial tissues and reduced after glucose load in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liping; Ma, Yuhang; Gu, Mingyu; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Shuai; Li, Na; Wang, Yufan; Ding, Xiaoying; Yin, Jiajing; Fan, Nengguang; Peng, Yongde

    2015-09-01

    Spexin mRNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and associate with weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Its location in endocrine and epithelial cells has also been suggested. Spexin is a novel peptide that involves weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, we aimed to examine its expression in human tissues and test whether spexin could have a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The expression of the spexin gene and immunoreactivity in the adrenal gland, skin, stomach, small intestine, liver, thyroid, pancreatic islets, visceral fat, lung, colon, and kidney was higher than that in the muscle and connective tissue. Immunoreactive serum spexin levels were reduced in T2DM patients and correlated with fasting blood glucose (FBG, r=-0.686, Pepithelial tissues, indicating that spexin may be involved in physiological functions of endocrine and in several other tissues. Circulating spexin levels are low in T2DM patients and negatively related to blood glucose and lipids suggesting that the peptide may play a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise-dependent IGF-I, IGFBPs, and type I collagen changes in human peritendinous connective tissue determined by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens L; Heinemeier, Katja M; Gemmer, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon during exercise elevates type I collagen production in tendon. However, the possibility that the insertion of microdialysis fibers per se may increase the local collagen production due to trauma has not been explored. Insulin......-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen] were measured by microdialysis in peritendinous tissue of the human Achilles tendon in an exercise group (performing a 36-km run, n = 6) and a control group (no intervention, n = 6). An increase in local PICP concentration was seen in both...... and exercise groups after 48 h (P human peritendinous tissue in response to prolonged mechanical loading with part of the increase due to trauma from the sampling...

  15. Improving training of laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills using various visual force feedback types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Daan; Spruit, Edward; Dankelman, J.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Hamming, J; Horeman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual force feedback allows trainees to learn laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills. The aim of this experimental study was to find the most efficient visual force feedback method to acquire these skills. Retention and transfer validity to an untrained task were assessed. Methods

  16. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  17. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Otaduy, Maria Concepción García; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Arruda, Walquiria; Veiga, Raquel Ramos; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children ( P creatine supplementation in any group, and delta changes in brain PCr (-0.7 to +3.9%) were inferior to those in muscle PCr content (+10.3 to +27.6%; P creatine protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) may be affected by age, diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Zhen Cheng; Liu, Dao Yan; Zhang, Li Li

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow...... or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p...

  19. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non-diab......-diabetic subjects are associated with subsequent changes in body weight and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]....

  20. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  1. Pointwise mutual information quantifies intratumor heterogeneity in tissue sections labeled with multiple fluorescent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Spagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measures of spatial intratumor heterogeneity are potentially important diagnostic biomarkers for cancer progression, proliferation, and response to therapy. Spatial relationships among cells including cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME are key contributors to heterogeneity. Methods: We demonstrate how to quantify spatial heterogeneity from immunofluorescence pathology samples, using a set of 3 basic breast cancer biomarkers as a test case. We learn a set of dominant biomarker intensity patterns and map the spatial distribution of the biomarker patterns with a network. We then describe the pairwise association statistics for each pattern within the network using pointwise mutual information (PMI and visually represent heterogeneity with a two-dimensional map. Results: We found a salient set of 8 biomarker patterns to describe cellular phenotypes from a tissue microarray cohort containing 4 different breast cancer subtypes. After computing PMI for each pair of biomarker patterns in each patient and tumor replicate, we visualize the interactions that contribute to the resulting association statistics. Then, we demonstrate the potential for using PMI as a diagnostic biomarker, by comparing PMI maps and heterogeneity scores from patients across the 4 different cancer subtypes. Estrogen receptor positive invasive lobular carcinoma patient, AL13-6, exhibited the highest heterogeneity score among those tested, while estrogen receptor negative invasive ductal carcinoma patient, AL13-14, exhibited the lowest heterogeneity score. Conclusions: This paper presents an approach for describing intratumor heterogeneity, in a quantitative fashion (via PMI, which departs from the purely qualitative approaches currently used in the clinic. PMI is generalizable to highly multiplexed/hyperplexed immunofluorescence images, as well as spatial data from complementary in situ methods including FISSEQ and CyTOF, sampling many different

  2. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1 and type III (Col3. A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002, respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13, respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03. In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  3. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ming-Bo; Li, Yan-Mi; Fei, Xiang; Song, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1) and type III (Col3). A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE) examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002), respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13), respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03). In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  4. Alteration of gene expression profile in Niemann-Pick type C mice correlates with tissue damage and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Vázquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a neurovisceral lipid storage disorder mainly characterized by unesterified cholesterol accumulation in lysosomal/late endosomal compartments, although there is also an important storage for several other kind of lipids. The main tissues affected by the disease are the liver and the cerebellum. Oxidative stress has been described in various NPC cells and tissues, such as liver and cerebellum. Although considerable alterations occur in the liver, the pathological mechanisms involved in hepatocyte damage and death have not been clearly defined. Here, we assessed hepatic tissue integrity, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters of wild-type control (Npc1(+/+; WT and homozygous-mutant (Npc1(-/-; NPC mice. In addition, the mRNA abundance of genes encoding proteins associated with oxidative stress, copper metabolism, fibrosis, inflammation and cholesterol metabolism were analyzed in livers and cerebella of WT and NPC mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed various oxidative stress parameters in the liver and hepatic and cerebellum gene expression in 7-week-old NPC1-deficient mice compared with control animals. We found signs of inflammation and fibrosis in NPC livers upon histological examination. These signs were correlated with increased levels of carbonylated proteins, diminished total glutathione content and significantly increased total copper levels in liver tissue. Finally, we analyzed liver and cerebellum gene expression patterns by qPCR and microarray assays. We found a correlation between fibrotic tissue and differential expression of hepatic as well as cerebellar genes associated with oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation in NPC mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In NPC mice, liver disease is characterized by an increase in fibrosis and in markers associated with oxidative stress. NPC is also correlated with altered gene expression, mainly of genes involved in oxidative stress

  5. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid......The amyloidoses are biochemically heterogeneous diseases with pathophysiologic deposits of various proteins. The clinical course, prognosis, and therapy are different for each type of amyloidosis and, therefore, a type-specific diagnosis is demanded as early as possible. We describe a method...

  6. Comparison of Species and Cell-Type Differences in Fraction Unbound of Liver Tissues, Hepatocytes, and Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Keith; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lin, Jian; Yates, Phillip; Tess, David; Li, Rui; Singh, Dhirender; Holder, Brian R; Kapinos, Brendon; Chang, George; Di, Li

    2018-04-01

    Fraction unbound ( f u ) of liver tissue, hepatocytes, and other cell types is an essential parameter used to estimate unbound liver drug concentration and intracellular free drug concentration. f u,liver and f u,cell are frequently measured in multiple species and cell types in drug discovery and development for various applications. A comparison study of 12 matrices for f u,liver and f u,cell of hepatocytes in five different species (mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human), as well as f u,cell of Huh7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines, was conducted for 22 structurally diverse compounds with the equilibrium dialysis method. Using an average bioequivalence approach, our results show that the average difference in binding to liver tissue, hepatocytes, or different cell types was within 2-fold of that of the rat f u,liver Therefore, we recommend using rat f u,liver as a surrogate for liver binding in other species and cell types in drug discovery. This strategy offers the potential to simplify binding studies and reduce cost, thereby enabling a more effective and practical determination of f u for liver tissues, hepatocytes, and other cell types. In addition, f u under hepatocyte stability incubation conditions should not be confused with f u,cell , as one is a diluted f u and the other is an undiluted f u Cell density also plays a critical role in the accurate measurement of f u,cell . Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Temperature dynamics of soft tissues during diode laser cutting by different types of fiber opto-thermal converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.; Smirnov, Sergey N.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2017-03-01

    The results of in vitro study of the soft tissue temperature dynamics during 980 nm diode laser cutting by different types (CLEAR, FILM, VOLUMETRIC) of fiber opto-thermal converters (FOTC) are presented. It was found that the use of CLEAR fiber end (tip) at the laser power below 8.5 W doesn't lead to the soft tissue (chicken meat) destruction. The chicken meat destruction (cutting) begins when irradiated by 8.5 W laser radiation for approximately 9.0 s. At the power of 9.0 W this time decreases up to 7.0 s, at 9.5 W - to 6.0 s, at 10.0 W - to 3.5 s. The moment of soft tissue cutting start correlates with the moment of black layer (absorber) formation at the fiber end and appearance of visually identifiable laser cut walls on the photos; the temperature in this case rapidly increases up to 850 °C. It was determined that the FILM FOTC begins to cut the soft tissue immediately after exposure of laser radiation with power of 4.0 W, the temperature in this case reaches 900 °C. It was determined that the VOLUMETRIC FOTC begins to cut the tissue immediately after exposure at the power of 1.0 W, the temperature in this case reaches 600 °C. VOLUMETRIC FOTC can produce more effective cuts of the soft tissue at the laser power of 4.0 W, in this case, the temperature is above 1200 °C.

  8. An investigation of the search behaviour associated with Ingwersen’s three types of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Dreier, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We report a naturalistic interactive information retrieval (IIR) study of 18 ordinary users in the age of 20–25 who carry out everyday-life information seeking (ELIS) on the Internet with respect to the three types of information needs identified by Ingwersen (1986): the verificative information...... need (VIN), the conscious topical information need (CIN), and the muddled topical information need (MIN). The searches took place in the private homes of the users in order to ensure as realistic searching as possible. Ingwersen (1996) associates a given search behaviour to each of the three types...... of information needs, which are analytically deduced, but not yet empirically tested. Thus the objective of the study is to investigate whether empirical data does, or does not, conform to the predictions derived from the three types of information needs. The main conclusion is that the analytically deduced...

  9. Adipocytokines, neuropeptide Y and insulin resistance in overweight women with gynoid and android type of adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbetzova, Maria M; Koleva, Daniela I; Mitkov, Mitko D; Atanassova, Iliana B; Nikolova, Julia G; Atanassova, Pepa K; Genchev, Gencho D

    2012-01-01

    The AIM of the study was to compare the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones in women with the two main morphological types of obesity - android and gynoid obesity. The study included 2 groups of age- and weight-matched women with android (n = 32) and gynoid (n = 27) type of obesity, and a group of age-matched healthy women (n = 24) with normal weight and body constitution. Leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucose and insulin were measured. HOMA index was calculated. Leptin levels in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from those in the controls and the women with android obesity. The controls had significantly lower leptin levels compared with the android obesity women. NPY was significantly higher in the control women compared to the women with android obesity and did not differ significantly between the two groups of obese women. TNFalpha levels in all groups were very similar. Resistin did not show significant differences between all groups but tended to have the lowest levels in the controls. In the women with android obesity, insulin was significantly higher than that in the women with gynoid obesity and the controls. Insulin resistance was found in the women with android obesity only. Basal insulin and HOMA index in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from the values in the control group. The results from this study contribute to understanding the association of adipose tissue hormones and insulin resistance in obesity. When adipose tissue is predominantly distributed in the abdominal area at similar amount and percentage of body fats, leptin production is higher and insulin resistance develops. In the gynoid type of adipose tissue predisposition, overt insulin resistance is not found, leptin levels does not differ significantly from those in the control group.

  10. Increased p50/p50 NF-κB Activation in Human Papillomavirus Type 6- or Type 11-Induced Laryngeal Papilloma Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancurova, Ivana; Wu, Rong; Miskolci, Veronika; Sun, Shishinn

    2002-01-01

    We have observed elevated NF-κB DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts from human papillomavirus type 6- and 11-infected laryngeal papilloma tissues. The predominant DNA-binding species is the p50/p50 homodimer. The elevated NF-κB activity could be correlated with a reduced level of cytoplasmic IκBβ and could be associated with the overexpression of p21CIP1/WAF1 in papilloma cells. Increased NF-κB activity and cytoplasmic accumulation of p21CIP1/WAF1 might counteract death-promoting effects elicited by overexpressed PTEN and reduced activation of Akt and STAT3 previously noted in these tissues. PMID:11773428

  11. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  12. Measurement of MMP-9 and -12 degraded elastin (ELM) provides unique information on lung tissue degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Clausen, Rikke E; Nguyen, Quoc Hai Trieu

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is an essential component of selected connective tissues that provides a unique physiological elasticity. Elastin may be considered a signature protein of lungs where matrix metalloprotease (MMP) -9-and -12, may be considered the signature proteases of the macrophages, which in part...... are responsible for tissue damage during disease progression. Thus, we hypothesized that a MMP-9/-12 generated fragment of elastin may be a relevant biochemical maker for lung diseases....

  13. Health information sources for different types of information used by Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Zhang, Ming

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers, yet this knowledge is critical for providing patient-centred care. To assess and compare the information sources used by Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers. The validated Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was translated and administered in March 2014. The oncology department of a general hospital in south-west China. A convenience sample of 198 individuals, including 79 patients with cancer (mean age=55.24, SD=13.80) and 119 family caregivers (mean age=46.83, SD=14.61). Ratings on the HIWQ items assessing information sources for different types of information. The interaction between information source and group was significant (F 3,576 =6.32, Pinformation than patients from the Internet. Caregivers and patients did not differ in the amount of information they obtained from doctors/nurses, interpersonal contacts or mass media. The interaction between information type and information source was significant (F 18,3456 =6.38, Pinformation of all types from doctors/nurses than from the other three sources and obtained more information from interpersonal contacts than from mass media or the Internet. The information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers were similar, with an important difference that caregivers obtained more online information than patients. These findings have important implications for patient care and education in China where the family typically plays a major role in the care and decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Meal fat storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue: comparison of pioglitazone and glipizide treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Pattan, Vishwanath; Rizza, Robert A; Jensen, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-(14)C]triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue biopsies were collected 6 and 24 h later to measure meal fatty acid storage. The portion of meal fatty acids stored in upper body sc and lower body sc adipose tissue did not differ between non-DM and T2DM subjects either at 6 or 24 h. Likewise, meal fatty acid storage did not differ between the T2DM participants treated with pioglitazone or glipizide. We conclude that meal fatty acid storage in upper body and lower body sc adipose tissue is not abnormal in T2DM patients treated with pioglitazone or glipizide.

  15. Accuracy of identification of tissue types in endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies used for molecular biology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plauto Beck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Plauto Beck1, George C Mayne1, David Astill2, Tanya Irvine1, David I Watson1, Willem A Dijckmeester1, Bas PL Wijnhoven1, Damian J Hussey11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, AustraliaObjectives: To determine if histopathologic assessment of esophageal biopsies harvested for research study is justified due to the heterogeneity of tissues in the esophagus, and the consequent histopathologic mis-matches with the clinical histopathology of biopsies taken at the same level.Methods: Since 2004, patients undergoing upper endoscopy for a variety of clinical conditions were invited to provide additional esophageal biopsies; those were collected for research purpose at the same level as biopsies collected for clinical histopathology. Research biopsies were cut in two parts: one part was submitted to research histopathology and the other stored for molecular analysis. Results of clinical histopathology for each patient were summarized per biopsy level and compared to results obtained from research biopsies at the corresponding level.Results: A total of 377 level summaries were obtained from 137 patients. Clinical histopathology summaries classified 123 levels (32.6% as squamous epithelium, 84 levels (22.3% as metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, 135 levels (35.8% as columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia, 30 levels (8% as dysplasia, and 5 levels (1.3% as adenocarcinoma. Research histopathology matched to clinical summaries on 120 of 123 (97.5% levels for squamous epithelium, 52 of 84 (61.9% for metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, and 94 of 135 (69.5% for columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. There were no matches for dysplasia between the groups; however, they agreed on all five cases of AC. On 59 (70.2% metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium levels and on 62 (46% columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia levels

  16. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED-photodiode matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  17. The information needs of adult Type 2 diabetic patients at Addington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was based on a Master's dissertation which investigated the information needs and information seeking behaviour of Type 2 diabetic patients at Addington Hospital in Durban. Longo's 2010, Health Information Model provided the conceptual framework for the study. The study adopted a qualitative approach to ...

  18. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  19. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  20. Variability in Immunohistochemical Detection of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) in Cancer Tissue Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Giosuè; De Chiara, Anna; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Anniciello, Annamaria; De Cecio, Rossella; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Scala, Stefania; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    In normal cell physiology, programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, play an immunoregulatory role in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway also plays a critical role in immune escape of tumor cells and has been demonstrated to correlate with a poor prognosis of patients with several types of cancer. However, recent reports have revealed that the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the PD-L1 in tumor cells is not uniform for the use of different antibodies clones, with variable specificity, often doubtful topographical localization, and with a score not uniquely defined. The purpose of this study was to analyze the IHC expression of PD-L1 on a large series of several human tumors to correctly define its staining in different tumor tissues. PMID:27213372

  1. In vivo labelling in several rat tissues of 'peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Guilloux, F.; Rufat, P.; Uzan, A.; Renault, C.; Dubroeucq, M.C.; Gueremy, C.; Le Fur, G. (Pharmuka Laboratoires, 92 - Gennevilliers (France))

    1984-03-16

    'Peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites in several rat tissues were labelled by intravenous injection of (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 and (/sup 3/H)RO5-4864. Binding was saturable in all tissues studied and regional distribution paralleled the in vitro binding. A similar potency order of displacing compounds was found in vivo and in vitro PK 11195 > PK 11211 > RO5-4864 > diazepam > dipyridamole > clonazepam. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to examine the effects of pharmacological manipulation on the binding sites in their native state. However, some properties (broader maximum during time course, higher percentage of particulate binding in the brain and independence of temperature) make (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 the most suitable ligand for this kind of studies.

  2. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  3. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  4. Bioinspired coupled helical coils for soft tissue engineering of tubular structures - Improved mechanical behavior of tubular collagen type I templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, H P; Bohlin, J; Lomme, R M L M; Mihaila, S M; Hilborn, J; Feitz, W F J; Oosterwijk, E

    2017-09-01

    The design of constructs for tubular tissue engineering is challenging. Most biomaterials need to be reinforced with supporting structures such as knittings, meshes or electrospun material to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. In this study, coupled helical coils (CHCs) were manufactured to mimic collagen fiber orientation as found in nature. Monofilaments of different commercially available biodegradable polymers were wound and subsequently fused, resulting in right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. CHCs of different polymer composition were tested to determine the tensile strength, strain recovery, hysteresis, compressive strength and degradation of CHCs of different composition. Subsequently, seamless and stable hybrid constructs consisting of PDSII® USP 2-0 CHCs embedded in porous collagen type I were produced. Compared to collagen alone, this hybrid showed superior strain recovery (93.5±0.9% vs 71.1±12.6% in longitudinal direction; 87.1±6.6% vs 57.2±4.6% in circumferential direction) and hysteresis (18.9±2.7% vs 51.1±12.0% in longitudinal direction; 11.5±4.6% vs 46.3±6.3% in circumferential direction). Furthermore, this hybrid construct showed an improved Young's modulus in both longitudinal (0.5±0.1MPavs 0.2±0.1MPa; 2.5-fold) and circumferential (1.65±0.07MPavs (2.9±0.3)×10 -2 MPa; 57-fold) direction, respectively, compared to templates created from collagen alone. Moreover, hybrid template characteristics could be modified by changing the CHC composition and CHCs were produced showing a mechanical behavior similar to the native ureter. CHC-enforced templates, which are easily tunable to meet different demands may be promising for tubular tissue engineering. Most tubular constructs lack sufficient strength and tunability to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. Therefore, we embedded coupled helical coils (CHCs) produced from biodegradable polymers - to

  5. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Long, E-mail: long.yuan@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ma, Li [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Dillon, Lisa [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong [Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zhu, Mingshe [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Aubry, Anne-Françoise [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ji, Qin C., E-mail: qin.ji@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-16

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P{sub 1} receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with {sup 3}H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred

  6. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Long; Ma, Li; Dillon, Lisa; Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong; Zhu, Mingshe; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Ji, Qin C.

    2016-01-01

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P 1 receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with 3 H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred tissue

  7. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Katherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data

  8. A novel C-type lectin identified by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Nagayasu, Eiji; Horii, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2012-04-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of proteins which bind to carbohydrate epitopes in the presence of Ca(2+), which have been described in a wide range of species. In this study, a cDNA sequence coding a putative CTL has been identified from the cDNA library constructed from the pig round worm Ascaris suum lung L3 (LL3) larvae, which was designated as A. suum C-type lectin-1 (As-CTL-1). The 510 nucleotide open reading frame of As-CTL-1 cDNA encoded the predicted 169 amino acid protein including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues and C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CLECT) at residue 26 to 167. As-CTL-1 was most similar to Toxocara canis C-type lectin-1 and 4 (Tc-CTL-1 and 4), and highly homologous to namatode CTLs and mammalian CTLs as well, such as human C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLECG4). In addition, As-CTL-1 was strongly expressed in tissue migrating LL3 and the L4 larvae, which were developmental larvae stages within the mammalian host. These results suggest that A. suum larvae might utilize As-CTL-1 to avoid pathogen recognition mechanisms in mammalian hosts due to it is similarity to host immune cell receptors.

  9. The story of an exceptional serine protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, M; Lesept, F; Vivien, D; Macrez, R

    2016-03-01

    The only acute treatment of ischemic stroke approved by the health authorities is tissue recombinant plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced thrombolysis. Under physiological conditions, tPA, belonging to the serine protease family, is secreted by endothelial and brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes). Although revascularisation induced by tPA is beneficial during a stroke, research over the past 20 years shows that tPA can also be deleterious for the brain parenchyma. Thus, in this review of the literature, after a brief history on the discovery of tPA, we reviewed current knowledge of mechanisms by which tPA can influence brain function in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian Analysis of a Simple Measurement Model Distinguishing between Types of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let a quantity of interest, Y, be modeled in terms of a quantity X and a set of other quantities Z. Suppose that for Z there is type B information, by which we mean that it leads directly to a joint state-of-knowledge probability density function (PDF for that set, without reference to likelihoods. Suppose also that for X there is type A information, which signifies that a likelihood is available. The posterior for X is then obtained by updating its prior with said likelihood by means of Bayes’ rule, where the prior encodes whatever type B information there may be available for X. If there is no such information, an appropriate non-informative prior should be used. Once the PDFs for X and Z have been constructed, they can be propagated through the measurement model to obtain the PDF for Y, either analytically or numerically. But suppose that, at the same time, there is also information of type A, type B or both types together for the quantity Y. By processing such information in the manner described above we obtain another PDF for Y. Which one is right? Should both PDFs be merged somehow? Is there another way of applying Bayes’ rule such that a single PDF for Y is obtained that encodes all existing information? In this paper we examine what we believe should be the proper ways of dealing with such a (not uncommon situation.

  11. Information Needs, Infobutton Manager Use, and Satisfaction by Clinician Type: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A.; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne; Cimino, James J.

    2009-01-01

    To effectively meet clinician information needs at the point of care, we must understand how their needs are dependent on both context and clinician type. The Infobutton Manager (IM), accessed through a clinical information system, anticipates the clinician's questions and provides links to pertinent electronic resources. We conducted an observational usefulness case study of medical residents (MDs), nurse practitioners (NPs), registered nurses (RNs), and a physician assistant (PA), using the IM in a laboratory setting. Generic question types and success rates for each clinician's information needs were characterized. Question type frequency differed by clinician type. All clinician types asked for institution-specific protocols. The MDs asked about unfamiliar domains, RNs asked about physician order rationales, and NPs asked questions similar to both MDs and RNs. Observational data suggest that IM success rates may be improved by tailoring anticipated questions to clinician type. Clinicians reported that a more visible Infobutton may increase use. PMID:18952943

  12. Influence of different types of light on the response of the pulp tissue in dental bleaching: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Francine; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; de Oliveira Gallinari, Marjorie; Terayama, Amanda Miyuki; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; de Castilho Jacinto, Rogério; Sivieri-Araújo, Gustavo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2018-05-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light. The primary outcome was the inflammation/cytotoxicity observed in pulp after bleaching. Out of 2210 articles found, 12 articles were included in the review; four were in vivo studies (one study in dogs/others in human), and eight were in vitro studies (cell culture/with artificial pulp chamber or not). The light source used was halogen, light-emitting diode (LED), and laser. Only one in vivo study that used heat to simulate light effects showed significant pulp inflammation. Only two in vitro studies demonstrated that light influenced cell metabolism; one using halogen light indicated negative effects, and the other using laser therapy indicated positive effects. Given that animal and in vitro studies have been identified, there remain some limitations for extrapolation to the human situation. Furthermore, different light parameters were used. The effects of dental bleaching on the pulp are not influenced by different types of light, but different light parameters can influence these properties. There is insufficient evidence about the influence of different types of light on inflammation/cytotoxicity of the pulp.

  13. Determination of markers for collagen type I turnover in peritendinous human tissue by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J L; Langberg, Henning; Heinemeier, K M

    2006-01-01

    Previous results from our group have shown that loading of human tendon elevates tendinous type I collagen production measured by microdialysis. However, exclusion of the observed elevation as a response to trauma from inserting the microdialysis catheters or a possible influence from the collage...

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Goris, R.J.A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was

  15. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, ...

  16. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in somatostatin cells of rat pancreas and hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsson, L I; Danø, K

    1987-01-01

    -PA, and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated one band with a similar electrophoretic mobility. No urokinase-type PA immunoreactivity was found in the rat endocrine pancreas. A granular t-PA immunoreactivity resembling that found in adjacent sections with somatostatin antiserum was found in the median eminence...

  17. Role of adipose tissue derived stem cells differentiated into insulin producing cells in the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Embaby, Azza S; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Marwa G

    2018-05-15

    Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas. ADSCs were harvested, cultured and identified by testing their phenotypes through flow cytometry. They were further subjected to differentiation into IPCs using differentiation medium. mRNA expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pdx1), insulin and glucose transporter-2 genes by real time PCR was done to detect the cellular differentiation and confirmed by stimulated insulin secretion. The pancreatic tissues from all groups were examined 2 months after IPC transplantation and were subjected to histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric study. The differentiated IPCs showed significant expression of pancreatic β cell markers and insulin secretion in glucose dependent manner. Treatment with IPCs induced apparent regeneration, diffused proliferated islet cells and significant increase in C-peptide immune reaction. We concluded that transplantation of differentiated IPCs improved function and morphology of Islet cells in diabetic rats. Consequently, this therapy option may be a promising therapeutic approach to patient with type 1 DM if proven to be effective and safe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinese Cardiovascular Disease Mobile Apps' Information Types, Information Quality, and Interactive Functions for Self-Management: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Zhang, Wenhui; Cai, Run

    2017-12-14

    China has a large population with cardiovascular disease (CVD) that requires extensive self-management. Mobile health (mHealth) apps may be a useful tool for CVD self-management. Little is currently known about the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and whether app functions are conducive to promoting CVD self-management. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and interactive app functions for promoting CVD self-management. Mobile apps targeting end users in China with CVD conditions were selected in February 2017 through a multi-stage process. Three frameworks were used to evaluate the selected apps: (1) types of health information offered were assessed using our Health Information Wants framework, which encompasses 7 types of information; (2) quality of information provided in the apps was assessed using the 11 guidelines recommended by the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health; and (3) types of interactive app functions for CVD self-management were assessed using a 15-item framework adapted from the literature, including our own prior work. Of 578 apps identified, 82 were eligible for final review. Among these, information about self-care (67/82, 82%) and information specifically regarding CVD (63/82, 77%) were the most common types of information provided, while information about health care providers (22/82, 27%) and laboratory tests (5/82, 6%) were least common. The most common indicators of information quality were the revealing of apps' providers (82/82, 100%) and purpose (82/82, 100%), while the least common quality indicators were the revealing of how apps' information was selected (1/82, 1%) and app sponsorship (0/82, 0%). The most common interactive functions for CVD self-management were those that enabled user interaction with the app provider (57/82, 70%) and with health care providers (36/82, 44

  19. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur...... or more tissues of 61% of the pigs were positive for PCV2 antigen. Up to 78% of the pigs had mild lymphoid depletion, indistinct lymphoid follicles and/or histiocytic Infiltration of the lymph nodes, but these lesions were not associated with PCV2. No association was found between the presence of lung...

  20. Integrative specimen information service - a campus-wide resource for tissue banking, experimental data annotation, and analysis services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadow, Gunther; Dhaval, Rakesh; McDonald, Clement J; Ragg, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present the architecture and approach of an evolving campus-wide information service for tissues with clinical and data annotations to be used and contributed to by clinical researchers across the campus. The services provided include specimen tracking, long term data storage, and computational analysis services. The project is conceived and sustained by collaboration among researchers on the campus as well as participation in standards organizations and national collaboratives.

  1. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  2. Decubitus Ulcers of Soft Tissues in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Strategies, Insulin Resistance Indicators, Comprehensive Treatment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The causes of decubitus ulcers include ischaemia and neurotrophic tissue changes induced by their chronic compression, continuous pathologic moisture and shift of tissues that determine local ishaemia. The aim of the article: to study clinical options and suppurative complications of decubitus ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in terms of insulin resistance (IR in the context of combined treatment optimization. Materials and methods. Total sample of retro- and prospective analyses involved results of comprehensive treatment of 112 patients. Type 2 DM was diagnosed in 37 patients, I comparison group included 27 patients with decubitus ulcers without complications (I–III stages and DM, with decubitus ulcers stage IV — II comparison group; and the control group included other 75 individuals. Results. The patients with type 2 DM (I comparison group had considerable decrease in HOMA index of β-cell function and increased HOMA index of IR (8.31 ± 0.02, р < 0.01. Patients with type 2 DM with complicated decubitus ulcers (II comparison group had more significant increase of circulating insulin indexes (p2 < 0.01, HOMA index of IR (p2 < 0.05, and considerable decrease on HOMA index of β-cell function (p2 < 0.05. The correlation analysis of HOMA-IR indicators and element concentration in the blood revealed the correlation only in patients with type 2 DM (I and II comparison groups: potent negative correlation (r = –0.72; p < 0.001 was revealed between the HOMA-IR and Mg2+ content in erythrocytes; intermediate negative correlation (r = –0.66; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Zn2+ concentration in the blood serum; and a negative one (r = –0.69; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Cr3+ level in the blood serum. Conclusions. The advantage of the proposed classification of decubitus ulcers of soft tissue and a sequence of comprehensive treatment is considering the features of

  3. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  4. Distinctive marketing and information technology capabilities and strategic types : A cross-national investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas

  5. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  6. Knowledge sharing and innovation in relationships interorganizational type of information technology outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Rodrigues Faoro; Mírian Oliveira; Marcelo Faoro de Abreu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: this paper presents an analysis of the sharing of knowledge and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type outsourcing of Information Technology. Objective: analyze the existence of relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type of outsourcing information technology (IT). Methodology: research is exploratory, qualitative and using as a strategy the multiple case study, which analyzed 12 companies in IT outsourci...

  7. Preventing tissue fibrosis by local biomaterials interfacing of specific cryptic extracellular matrix information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejs, Christine-Maria; St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Ojala, Juha R. M.; Steele, Joseph A. M.; da Silva, Patricia Barros; Rynne-Vidal, Angela; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Hansel, Catherine S.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Clara; Mazo, Manuel M.; You, Amanda Y. F.; Wang, Alex J.; von Erlach, Thomas; Tryggvason, Karl; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to the breakdown of tissue structures such as the basement membrane, promoting tissue fibrosis. Here we developed an electrospun membrane biofunctionalized with a fragment of the laminin β1-chain to modulate the expression of MMP2 in this context. We demonstrate that interfacing of the β1-fragment with the mesothelium of the peritoneal membrane via a biomaterial abrogates the release of active MMP2 in response to transforming growth factor β1 and rescues tissue integrity ex vivo and in vivo in a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis. Importantly, our data demonstrate that the membrane inhibits MMP2 expression. Changes in the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules further point towards a contribution of the modulation of EMT. Biomaterial-based presentation of regulatory basement membrane signals directly addresses limitations of current therapeutic approaches by enabling a localized and specific method to counteract MMP2 release applicable to a broad range of therapeutic targets. PMID:28593951

  8. Preventing tissue fibrosis by local biomaterials interfacing of specific cryptic extracellular matrix information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejs, Christine-Maria; St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Ojala, Juha R. M.; Steele, Joseph A. M.; da Silva, Patricia Barros; Rynne-Vidal, Angela; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Hansel, Catherine S.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Clara; Mazo, Manuel M.; You, Amanda Y. F.; Wang, Alex J.; von Erlach, Thomas; Tryggvason, Karl; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to the breakdown of tissue structures such as the basement membrane, promoting tissue fibrosis. Here we developed an electrospun membrane biofunctionalized with a fragment of the laminin β1-chain to modulate the expression of MMP2 in this context. We demonstrate that interfacing of the β1-fragment with the mesothelium of the peritoneal membrane via a biomaterial abrogates the release of active MMP2 in response to transforming growth factor β1 and rescues tissue integrity ex vivo and in vivo in a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis. Importantly, our data demonstrate that the membrane inhibits MMP2 expression. Changes in the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules further point towards a contribution of the modulation of EMT. Biomaterial-based presentation of regulatory basement membrane signals directly addresses limitations of current therapeutic approaches by enabling a localized and specific method to counteract MMP2 release applicable to a broad range of therapeutic targets.

  9. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueai Lin

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.

  10. A boy with developmental delay, malformations, and evidence of a connective tissue disorder: possibly a new type of cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jimenez, Carmencita; Hunter, Alasdair G W

    2003-05-15

    We report a 7.5-year-old boy with loose translucent skin, aortic dilatation, hyperextensible veins, recurrent respiratory problems, pectus excavatum, arthralgias, lax joints, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and umbilical and inguinal hernias. He also has developmental delay, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, an unusual facial appearance, terminal digit hypoplasia with unusual radiographic changes in some of the phalanges, glandular hypospadias, shawl scrotum, and undescended testes. Biochemical investigations, including electrophoresis of Types 1 and 3 procollagens and collagens, and quantification of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, are normal. Relative to age-matched control patients the electron micrographs of the boy's dermis show elastin fibers to be decreased in number, and abnormal in appearance, with a low matrix to microfibril ratio. The organ distribution of abnormalities and the nature of the findings suggest a connective tissue disorder. We contrast and compare this boy's phenotype to those of the classic connective tissue disorders. We conclude that he has cutis laxa with features that distinguish him from previously described types of cutis laxa. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, K; Giannini, B; Picchi, V; Lo Scalzo, R; Cecchini, F

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of genotype, tissue type and cold storage on the bioactive compounds content and on the antiradical activity (AA) of different apple cultivars (Golden cl. B, Fuji cl. Kiku8, Braeburn cl. Hillwell). The content of analysed phyto-compounds depended on the clone, on the part of fruit, and to a minor extent, on the storage. For EC(50) data, the cultivar represented the main source of variation and the interaction with the type of tissue, was significant. The AA of apples, measured by means of the DPPH test, was highly correlated to the flavan-3-ols content, which represents a good predictor of the apple antiradical power. The new Braeburn's clone, the Hillwell, had the worst AA related to a minor phyto-chemical content. Also, its phenolic content was dramatically reduced after cold storage (flesh: -50%; peels: -20%; papples, which is important to improve their quality and consumption benefits, suggesting to the breeders to pay more attention to the potential healthy compounds in the development of new hybrids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue- and Cell Type-Specific Expression of the Long Noncoding RNA Klhl14-AS in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carmela Credendino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available lncRNAs are acquiring increasing relevance as regulators in a wide spectrum of biological processes. The extreme heterogeneity in the mechanisms of action of these molecules, however, makes them very difficult to study, especially regarding their molecular function. A novel lncRNA has been recently identified as the most enriched transcript in mouse developing thyroid. Due to its genomic localization antisense to the protein-encoding Klhl14 gene, we named it Klhl14-AS. In this paper, we highlight that mouse Klhl14-AS produces at least five splicing variants, some of which have not been previously described. Klhl14-AS is expressed with a peculiar pattern, characterized by diverse relative abundance of its isoforms in different mouse tissues. We examine the whole expression level of Klhl14-AS in a panel of adult mouse tissues, showing that it is expressed in the thyroid, lung, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, and spleen, although at different levels. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that, in the context of each organ, Klhl14-AS shows a cell type-specific expression. Interestingly, databases report a similar expression profile for human Klhl14-AS. Our observations suggest that this lncRNA could play cell type-specific roles in several organs and pave the way for functional characterization of this gene in appropriate biological contexts.

  13. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic...

  14. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Q; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic pat...

  15. Degradation of tissue-type plasminogen activator by human monocyte- derived macrophages is mediated by the mannose receptor and by the low- density lipoprotein receptor-related protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, F.; Braat, E.A.M.; Rijken, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The balance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) production and degradation determines its concentration in blood and tissues. Disturbance of this balance may result in either increased or decreased proteolysis. In the present study, we identified the receptor systems involved in the

  16. Effects of glucose and insulin levels on adipose tissue glucose measurement by microdialysis probes retained for three weeks in Type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, LM; Lutgers, HL; Dullaart, RPF; Sluiter, WJ; Wientjes, KJ; Schoonen, AJM; Hoogenberg, K

    Background: To evaluate the effects of acute hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on adipose tissue glucose measurements by microdialysis probes inserted for a 3-week period. Methods: Microdialysis probes were implanted pairwise in abdominal adipose tissue in seven Type 1 diabetic patients and

  17. 38 CFR 74.25 - What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.25 What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect? In order to establish owner... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of personally...

  18. 38 CFR 74.26 - What types of business information will VA collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.26 What types of business information will VA collect? VA will examine a variety of business records. See § 74.12, “What is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of business...

  19. Information Technology, Type II Classroom Integration, and the Limited Infrastructure in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D.; Johnson D. Lamont

    2006-01-01

    In this second special issue on Type II applications of information technology in education, the focus is on classroom integration. This editorial explores some possible explanations for the fact that information technology in schools has not fulfilled its considerable potential. One reason may be that individualized instruction is not part of the…

  20. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  1. piRNA Profiling of Dengue Virus Type 2-Infected Asian Tiger Mosquito and Midgut Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhai Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration. This study aimed to explore the profiles of both viral-derived and host-originated piRNAs in the whole body and midgut infected with Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus, and to elucidate gene expression profile differences of the PIWI protein family between adult females and their midguts. A deep sequencing-based method was used to identify and analyze small non-coding RNAs, especially the piRNA profiles in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut. The top-ranked, differentially-expressed piRNAs were further validated using Stem-loop qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR methods were used to detect PIWI protein family members, and their expression profiles. DENV-2 derived piRNAs (vpiRNA, 24–30 nts were observed in both infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut; however, only vpiRNA in the whole-body library had a weak preference for adenine at position 10 (10A in the sense molecules as a feature of secondary piRNA. These vpiRNAs were not equally distributed, instead they were derived from a few specific regions of the genome, especially several hot spots, and displayed an obvious positive strand bias. We refer to the differentially expressed host piRNAs after DENV infection as virus-induced host endogenous piRNAs (vepiRNAs. However, we found that vepiRNAs were abundant in mosquito whole-body tissue, but deficient in the midgut. A total of eleven PIWI family genes were

  2. Measurement of MMP-9 and -12 degraded elastin (ELM) provides unique information on lung tissue degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Elastin is an essential component of selected connective tissues that provides a unique physiological elasticity. Elastin may be considered a signature protein of lungs where matrix metalloprotease (MMP) -9-and -12, may be considered the signature proteases of the macrophages, which in part are responsible for tissue damage during disease progression. Thus, we hypothesized that a MMP-9/-12 generated fragment of elastin may be a relevant biochemical maker for lung diseases. Methods Elastin fragments were identified by mass-spectrometry and one sequence, generated by MMP-9 and -12 (ELN-441), was selected for monoclonal antibody generation and used in the development of an ELISA. Soluble and insoluble elastin from lung was cleaved in vitro and the time-dependent release of fragments was assessed in the ELN-441 assay. The release of ELN-441 in human serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 10) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 29) were compared to healthy matched controls (n = 11). Results The sequence ELN-441 was exclusively generated by MMP-9 and -12 and was time-dependently released from soluble lung elastin. ELN-441 levels were 287% higher in patients diagnosed with COPD (p elastin. This fragment was elevated in serum from patients with the lung diseases IPF and COPD, however these data needs to be validated in larger clinical settings. PMID:22818364

  3. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  4. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan, biglycan, is highly expressed in adipose tissue of Psammomys obesus and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristy Bolton1, David Segal1, Ken Walder1,21Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, 2Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: We have previously demonstrated that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin may play a role in adipose tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of obesity. Biglycan is highly similar in structure to decorin, therefore we hypothesized it would have a similar expression profile and role to decorin in adipose tissue. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure biglycan mRNA levels in adipose tissue from normal glucose tolerant and impaired glucose tolerant and type 2 diabetic (T2D Psammomys obesus. Biglycan mRNA was found to be highly expressed in adipose tissue, and gene expression was significantly higher in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, with elevated levels in obese, T2D compared to lean normal glucose tolerant P. obesus (P < 0.04. Biglycan mRNA was predominantly expressed by stromal/vascular cells of fractionated adipose tissue (P = 0.023. Biglycan expression in adipose tissue, particularly in the obese state, was markedly upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family proteins biglycan and decorin may play a role in the development of obesity and T2D, possibly by facilitating expansion of adipose tissue mass.Keywords: biglycan, small leucine-rich proteoglycan, Psammomys obesus, adipose tissue, obesity, type 2 diabetes

  5. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type, non-phosphaturic variant: report of a case and review of 32 cases from the Japanese published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Rie; Kawabata, Yuka; Ito, Shusaku; Kikuchi, Fumihito

    2014-09-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare neoplasm that can cause tumor-induced osteomalacia due to overproduction of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). We report here a case of subcutaneous PMTMCT, non-phosphaturic variant, in the sole. We also review 32 Japanese cases of PMTMCT reported in detail. They occurred in 16 men and 15 women (one was unknown), with ages ranging 20-73 years (median, 48). Tumors were found in soft tissue, bone and sinuses in 17, 11 and four, respectively. A history of long-standing osteomalacia was noted in all cases except two non-phosphaturic variant cases. Serum FGF23 level was elevated in 11 of 12 cases examined. In terms of follow-up information, metastases were found in four patients, and two patients died of disease. In conclusion, PMTMCT is histologically a benign lesion; however, there may be rare metastatic and malignant cases. Wider recognition of the histological features of this unique neoplasm would aid its distinction from the large number of mesenchymal tumors for which it may be mistaken and should enable correct diagnosis of tumors with osteomalacia. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: An Underdiagnosed Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorder with Mucocutaneous, Articular, and Systemic Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists. PMID:23227356

  8. Preclinical characterization of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 as a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kolodka

    Full Text Available Modulation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and several other physiological responses relevant to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. The importance of bradykinin and its receptors in mediating these responses is well documented, but the role of tissue kallikrein-1, the protease that generates bradykinin in situ, is much less understood. We developed and tested DM199, recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (rhKLK-1, as a potential novel therapeutic for T2D. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies suggest that DM199 increases whole body glucose disposal in non-diabetic rats. Single-dose administration of DM199 in obese db/db mice and ZDF rats, showed an acute, dose-dependent improvement in whole-body glucose utilization. Sub-acute dosing for a week in ZDF rats improved glucose utilization, with a concomitant rise in fasting insulin levels and HOMA1-%B scores. After cessation of sub-acute dosing, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in ZDF rats during a drug wash-out period. Our studies show for the first time that DM199 administration results in acute anti-hyperglycemic effects in several preclinical models, and demonstrate the potential for further development of DM199 as a novel therapeutic for T2D.

  9. Characterization of the omega-conotoxin target. Evidence for tissue-specific heterogeneity in calcium channel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.J.; Johnson, D.S.; Olivera, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx-VIA) is a 27 amino acid peptide from the venom of the fish-hunting snail, Conus geographus, that blocks voltage-activated Ca channels. The characterization of a biologically active, homogeneous 125 I-labeled monoiodinated Tyr 22 derivative of omega-conotoxin GVIA and its use in binding and cross-linking studies are described. The 125 I-labeled toxin is specifically cross-linked to a receptor protein with an apparent M/sub r/ of 135,000. The stoichiometry between omega-conotoxin and nitrendipine binding sites in different chick tissues was determined. Skeletal muscle has a high concentration of [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding sites but no detectable omega-conotoxin sites. Brain microsomes have both binding sites, but omega-conotoxin targets are in excess. These results, combined with recent electrophysiological studies define four types of Ca channels in chick tissues, N, T, L/sub n/ (omega sensitive), and L/sub m/ (omega insensitive), and are consistent with the hypothesis that the α-subunits of certain neuronal Ca 2+ channels (L/sub n/, N) are the molecular targets of omega-conotoxin GVIA

  10. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  12. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  13. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  14. 78 FR 41403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... these topics: (1) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance... (b) also requires recording and justification of any deviation from the written procedures. Section 1270.33(a) requires records to be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step...

  15. 75 FR 9226 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of FDA's functions, including whether the... of any deviation from the written procedures. Section 1270.33(a) requires records to be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step in the performance of infectious disease screening...

  16. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  17. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L

    2017-05-01

    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for

  18. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  19. Remote sensing information acquisition of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun

    2000-01-01

    The author briefly describes the genesis and ore-formation mechanism of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area. Techniques such as remote sensing digital image data processing and data enhancement, as well as 3-dimension quantitative analysis of drill hole data are applied to extract information on metallogenic environment of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit and the distribution of paleo-channel

  20. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  1. Fasting and post-prandial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, G; Annuzzi, G; Di Marino, L; De Natale, C; Giacco, R; Bozzetto, L; Cipriano, P; Santangelo, C; Masella, R; Rivellese, A A

    2011-05-01

    Fasting and post-prandial abnormalities of adipose tissue (AT) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone- sensitive lipase (HSL) activities may have pathophysiological relevance in insulin-resistant conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate activity and gene expression of AT LPL and HSL at fasting and 6 h after meal in two insulin-resistant groups - obese with Type 2 diabetes and obese without diabetes - and in non-diabetic normal-weight controls. Nine obese subjects with diabetes, 10 with obesity alone, and 9 controls underwent measurements of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides before and after a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and post-prandial (6 h) LPL and HSL activities and gene expressions were determined in abdominal subcutaneous AT needle biopsies. The diabetic obese subjects had significantly lower fasting and post-prandial AT heparin-releasable LPL activity than only obese and control subjects (pobese subjects compared to controls in both fasting condition and 6 h after the meal (pfasting and 6 h after meal measurements in either LPL or HSL activities and gene expressions. Lipolytic activities in AT are differently altered in obesity and Type 2 diabetes being HSL alteration associated with both insulin-resistant conditions and LPL with diabetes per se. These abnormalities are similarly observed in the fasting condition and after a fat-rich meal.

  2. The Effect of Prior Knowledge on Price Acceptability and the Type of Information Examined.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Akshay R; Sieben, Wanda A

    1992-01-01

    This article assesses whether differences in prior knowledge result in differences in (1) price acceptability and (2) the extent to which different types of information are examined. Using a personal computer-based methodology, subjects who varied in their prior product knowledge provided price responses, and the time they spent examining various kinds of information was measured. Acceptable price-range and points (price limits) were found to be lowest for low-knowledge subjects. Further, the...

  3. Time-resolved diffuse optical tomographic imaging for the provision of both anatomical and functional information about biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Tanikawa, Yukari; Homma, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Yukio

    2005-04-01

    We present in vivo images of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of human lower legs and forearm to validate the dual functions of a time-resolved (TR) NIR DOT in clinical diagnosis, i.e., to provide anatomical and functional information simultaneously. The NIR DOT system is composed of time-correlated single-photon-counting channels, and the image reconstruction algorithm is based on the modified generalized pulsed spectral technique, which effectively incorporates the TR data with reasonable computation time. The reconstructed scattering images of both the lower legs and the forearm revealed their anatomies, in which the bones were clearly distinguished from the muscles. In the absorption images, some of the blood vessels were observable. In the functional imaging, a subject was requested to do handgripping exercise to stimulate physiological changes in the forearm tissue. The images of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentration changes in the forearm were obtained from the differential images of the absorption at three wavelengths between the exercise and the rest states, which were reconstructed with a differential imaging scheme. These images showed increases in both blood volume and oxyhemoglobin concentration in the arteries and simultaneously showed hypoxia in the corresponding muscles. All the results have demonstrated the capability of TR NIR DOT by reconstruction of the absolute images of the scattering and the absorption with a high spatial resolution that finally provided both the anatomical and functional information inside bulky biological tissues.

  4. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Pritchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine (1 whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2 the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ≥ 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1 type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist : hip ratio, and energy expenditure, (2 IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure, and (3 IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass. Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P=0.515. IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [−0.079–0.161], P=0.498, grip strength = −0.144 kg [−0.335–0.066], P=0.175. Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored.

  5. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPAR-δ)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-δ. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-δ by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 ± 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 ± 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-δ significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 ± 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Both CB1 and PPAR-δ are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor

  6. Alteration of the bone tissue material properties in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Mansur, Sity Aishah; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150 mg/kg body weight, injected at 8 weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or diabetic (n = 10) groups and were sacrificed 4 weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690 cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032 cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338 cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with

  7. [Intervention of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on expressions of connective tissue growth factor, type I collagen, and type III collage in acute paraquat poisoned rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Yang, Hui-fang; Zhang, Ping; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    To observe the changes in the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type I collagen (Col I), and type III collagen (Col III) among the rats with acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning and the intervention effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on their expression, and to investigate the mechanism of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the intervention effect of PDTC on the disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), PQ group (n = 36), and PQ + PDTC group (n = 36). The PQ group and PQ + PDTC group were given a single dose of saline-diluted PQ (80 mg/kg) by gavage; 2 h later, the PQ + PDTC group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of PDTC (100 mg/kg), and the PQ group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline. The control group was given saline (1 ml/kg) by gavage and was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline 2h later. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 25, and 56 days after operation, the protein expression of CTGF was evaluated by Western blot; the mRNA expression of CTGF, Col I, and Col III was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR; the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured, and the pathological changes of lung tissue of the poisoned rats were observed. The protein expression of CTGF in the PQ group increased as the time went on, slowly from the 3rd to the 14th day and rapidly from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of CTGF in the PQ group began to rise markedly on the 1st day, increased rapidly from the 3rd to the 14th day, and remained at a relatively high level from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of Col I in the PQ group changed little on the 1st and 3rd day, increased slightly on the 7th day, and increased greatly from the 14th to the 56th day, significantly

  8. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  9. How predictive quantitative modelling of tissue organisation can inform liver disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasdo, Dirk; Hoehme, Stefan; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-10-01

    From the more than 100 liver diseases described, many of those with high incidence rates manifest themselves by histopathological changes, such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, and, in its later stages, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, primary biliary cirrhosis and other disorders. Studies of disease pathogeneses are largely based on integrating -omics data pooled from cells at different locations with spatial information from stained liver structures in animal models. Even though this has led to significant insights, the complexity of interactions as well as the involvement of processes at many different time and length scales constrains the possibility to condense disease processes in illustrations, schemes and tables. The combination of modern imaging modalities with image processing and analysis, and mathematical models opens up a promising new approach towards a quantitative understanding of pathologies and of disease processes. This strategy is discussed for two examples, ammonia metabolism after drug-induced acute liver damage, and the recovery of liver mass as well as architecture during the subsequent regeneration process. This interdisciplinary approach permits integration of biological mechanisms and models of processes contributing to disease progression at various scales into mathematical models. These can be used to perform in silico simulations to promote unravelling the relation between architecture and function as below illustrated for liver regeneration, and bridging from the in vitro situation and animal models to humans. In the near future novel mechanisms will usually not be directly elucidated by modelling. However, models will falsify hypotheses and guide towards the most informative experimental design. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  11. Information Types in Nonmimetic Documents: A Review of Biddle's Wipe-Clean Slate (Understanding Documents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, Peter B.; Kirsch, Irwin S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how the 16 permanent lists used by a first grade reading teacher (and mother of 6) to manage the household represents the whole range of documents covered in the 3 major types of documents: matrix documents, graphic documents, and locative documents. Suggests class activities to clarify students' understanding of the information in…

  12. 7 CFR 170.9 - What type of information does the application require?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.9 What... Market will provide market management with information on contacts, farm location, type of farming...

  13. 19 CFR 202.5 - Type of information to be developed at hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Such statements should include not only the direct costs for materials and labor, commonly termed prime cost, but also indirect costs such as indirect labor, overhead factory expenses, fixed charges, the... INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.5 Type of information to be developed at hearing...

  14. Quality of online information on type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Nina; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Evidence-based health information is a prerequisite for patients with type 2 diabetes to engage in self-management and to make informed medical decisions. The Internet is an important source of health information. In the present study, we systematically assessed formal quality, quality of decision support and usability of German and English language websites on type 2 diabetes. The search term 'type 2 diabetes' was entered in the two most popular search engines. Descriptive data on website quality are presented. Additionally, associations between website quality and affiliation (commercial vs. non-commercial), presence of the HON code quality seal and website traffic were explored. Forty-six websites were included. Most websites provided basic information necessary for decision-making, while only one website also provided decision support. Websites with a HON code had significantly better formal quality than websites without HON code. We found a highly significant correlation between usability and website traffic and a significant correlation between formal quality and website traffic. Most websites do not provide sufficient information to support patients in medical decision-making. Our finding that usability and website traffic are tightly associated is consistent with previous research indicating that design is the most important cue for users assessing website credibility. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Four patients with Sillence type I osteogenesis imperfecta and mild bone fragility, complicated by left ventricular cardiac valvular disease and cardiac tissue fragility caused by type I collagen mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandersteen, Anthony M; Lund, Allan M; Ferguson, David J P

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I is a hereditary disorder of connective tissue (HDCT) characterized by blue or gray sclerae, variable short stature, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing loss, and recurrent fractures from infancy. We present four examples of OI type I complicated by valvular heart...

  16. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Ding Qing-Yan; Zhang Shu-Hui; Chen Xiu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. (paper)

  17. Usefulness of multiqubit W-type states in quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Indian Institute of Technology (India); Adhikari, S. [Birla Institute of Technology (India); Kumar, A., E-mail: atulk@iitj.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-10-15

    We analyze the efficiency of multiqubit W-type states as resources for quantum information. For this, we identify and generalize four-qubit W-type states. Our results show that these states can be used as resources for deterministic quantum information processing. The utility of results, however, is limited by the availability of experimental setups to perform and distinguish multiqubit measurements. We therefore emphasize protocols where two users want to establish an optimal bipartite entanglement using the partially entangled W-type states. We find that for such practical purposes, four-qubit W-type states can be a better resource in comparison to three-qubit W-type states. For a dense coding protocol, our states can be used deterministically to send two bits of classical message by locally manipulating a single qubit. In addition, we also propose a realistic experimental method to prepare the four-qubit W-type states using standard unitary operations and weak measurements.

  18. Effect of age, impaction types and operative time on inflammatory tissue reactions following lower third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Emeka V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative mobidity following third molar surgery is affected by a number of factors. The study of these factors is essential for effective planning and limitation of morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, type of impaction and operative time on immediate postoperative tissue reactions following mandibular third molar surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with impacted mandibular third molar teeth were studied. All the third molars were classified according to Winter's classification. Surgical extraction was performed on all the patients by a single surgeon under local anaesthesia. The operation time was determined by the time lapse between incision and completion of suturing. Postoperative pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated. Results There were 120 patients with an age range of 19-42 years. Patients in the age range of 35-42 years recorded a lower pain score (p = 0.5 on day 1. The mouth opening was much better in the lower age group on day 2 and 5 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.01 respectively. Pain, swelling and trismus increased with increasing operative time. Distoangular impaction was significantly associated with higher VAS score on day 1 and 2 (p = 0.01, 0.0, 04. Distoangular and horizontal impaction are associated with a higher degree of swelling and reduced mouth opening on postoperative review days. Vertical impaction was associated with the least degree of facial swelling and best mouth opening. Conclusions Increasing operating time and advancing age are associated with more postoperative morbidity, likewise distoangular and horizontal impaction types.

  19. Urokinase vs Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Thrombolytic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqian Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating form of stroke, which leads to a high rate of mortality and poor neurological outcomes worldwide. Thrombolytic evacuation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA has been showed to be a hopeful treatment for ICH. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials were reported to compare the efficacy and safety of these two fibrinolytics administrated following minimally invasive stereotactic puncture (MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH. Therefore, the authors intended here to evaluate the differential impact of uPA and tPA in a retrospective study. In the present study, a total of 86 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia using MISP received either uPA (uPA group, n = 45 or tPA (tPA group, n = 41, respectively. The clinical baseline characteristics prior to the operation were collected. In addition, therapeutic responses were assessed by the short-term outcomes within 30 days postoperation, as well as long-term outcomes at 1 year postoperation. Our findings showed that, in comparison with tPA, uPA was able to better promote hematoma evacuation and ameliorate perihematomal edema, but the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the long-term functional outcomes of both groups were similar, with no statistical difference. In conclusion, these results provide evidence supporting that uPA and tPA are similar in the efficacy and safety for thrombolytic evacuation in combination with MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue stores across lipodystrophy types shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Robinson, John F; Miskie, Brooke A; Walcarius, Rhonda; Little, Cynthia Harper; Rutt, Brian K; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by redistributed subcutaneous fat stores. We previously quantified subcutaneous fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the legs of two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, respectively). We now extend the MRI analysis across the whole body of patients with different forms of lipodystrophy. We studied five subcutaneous fat stores (supraclavicular, abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf) and the abdominal visceral fat stores in 10, 2, 1, 1 and 2 female subjects with, respectively, FPLD2, FPLD3, HIV-related partial lipodystrophy (HIVPL), acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and in six normal control subjects. Compared with normal controls, FPLD2 subjects had significantly increased supraclavicular fat, with decreased abdominal, gluteal, thigh and calf subcutaneous fat. FPLD3 subjects had increased supraclavicular and abdominal subcutaneous fat, with less severe reductions in gluteal, thigh and calf fat compared to FPLD2 subjects. The repartitioning of fat in the HIVPL subject closely resembled that of FPLD3 subjects. APL and CGL subjects had reduced upper body, gluteal and thigh subcutaneous fat; the APL subject had increased, while CGL subjects had decreased subcutaneous calf fat. Visceral fat was markedly increased in FPLD2 and APL subjects. Semi-automated MRI-based adipose tissue quantification indicates differences between various lipodystrophy types in these studied clinical cases and is a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenomic analysis of genetic metabolic disorders. Further studies with a larger sample size are essential for confirming these preliminary findings

  1. Effect of metformin therapy on the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones and mediators of nonspecific generalized inflammation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Urbanovych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the drug metformin on the levels of adipose tissue hormones and generalized nonspecific mediators of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. 38 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were followed up before and after 12 months of hypoglycemic monotherapy with glucophage. The results indicate that the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism indices and decreased body weight of patients in the presence of the therapy is due not only to direct effects of metformin in improving glucose uptake by peripheral tissues, but by the ability of the drug to modulate adipocytokine secretion.

  2. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Allen; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2015-01-01

    Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies. Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots. Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California. We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor. This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  3. Does “quorum sensing” imply a new type of biological information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with biological communication and information, unifying concepts are necessary in order to couple the different “codes” that are being inductively “cracked” and defined at different emergent and “de-emergent” levels of the biological hierarchy. In this paper I compare the type...... of biological information implied by genetic information with that implied in the concept of “quorum sensing” (which refers to a prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication system) in order to explore if such integration is being achieved. I use the Lux operon paradigm and the Vibrio fischeri – Euprymna scolopes...... symbiotic partnership to exemplify the emergence of informational contexts along the biological hierarchy (from molecules to ecologies). I suggest that the biosemiotic epistemological framework can play an integra¬tive role to overcome the limits of dyadic mechanistic descriptions when relating...

  4. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...... and men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  5. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  6. Tissue distribution, core biosynthesis and diversification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the lycopsamine type in three Boraginaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Cordula; Ober, Dietrich; Hartmann, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Three species of the Boraginaceae were studied: greenhouse-grown plants of Heliotropium indicum and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots cultures (hairy roots) of Cynoglossum officinale and Symphytum officinale. The species-specific pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profiles of the three systems were established by GC-MS. All PAs are genuinely present as N-oxides. In H. indicum the tissue-specific PA distribution revealed the presence of PAs in all tissues with the highest levels in the inflorescences which in a flowering plant may account for more than 70% of total plant alkaloid. The sites of PA biosynthesis vary among species. In H. indicum PAs are synthesized in the shoot but not roots whereas they are only made in shoots for C. officinale and in roots of S. officinale. Classical tracer studies with radioactively labelled precursor amines (e.g., putrescine, spermidine and homospermidine) and various necine bases (trachelanthamidine, supinidine, retronecine, heliotridine) and potential ester alkaloid intermediates (e.g., trachelanthamine, supinine) were performed to evaluate the biosynthetic sequences. It was relevant to perform these comparative studies since the key enzyme of the core pathway, homospermidine synthase, evolved independently in the Boraginaceae and, for instance, in the Asteraceae [Reimann, A., Nurhayati, N., Backenkohler, A., Ober, D., 2004. Repeated evolution of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-mediated defense system in separate angiosperm lineages. Plant Cell 16, 2772-2784.]. These studies showed that the core pathway for the formation of trachelanthamidine from putrescine and spermidine via homospermidine is common to the pathway in Senecio ssp. (Asteraceae). In both pathways homospermidine is further processed by a beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine sensitive diamine oxidase. Further steps of PA biosynthesis starting with trachelanthamidine as common precursor occur in two successive stages. Firstly, the necine bases are structurally modified and either

  7. Head and neck cancer information on the internet: type, accuracy and content.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the type, accuracy and content of information available on the internet regarding head and neck cancer. The search engine Google was used to generate a list of the top 100 websites about head and neck cancer. The websites were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument and the JAMA benchmarks and whether the site displayed the Health on the Net seal was also recorded. The search yielded 1,650,000 sites on the Google website. Of the top 100 sites, a total of 33 sites were suitable for analysis due to duplicate links, non-functioning links and irrelevant website. 45% achieved all four JAMA benchmarks and 18% achieved only 1 benchmark. No website receiving the maximum mark on the overall score and four websites received the lowest overall score regarding the DISCERN instrument. The question with the poorest response score was \\'Does it describe how the treatment choices affect overall quality of life?\\' 39% of the websites displayed the Health on the Net (HON) seal. A wide variety of types of information are available on the internet regarding head and neck cancer with variable accuracy levels based on both Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks and DISCERN. The onus lies with the practitioner to guide the patient regarding scientific reliability of information and to direct the patient in filtering the information sourced. The inclusion of quality of life related information is currently lacking and should be addressed to ensure a more comprehensive understanding for patients of treatment options.

  8. Associations between insulin resistance and TNF-alpha in plasma, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, P; Nielsen, A R; Fischer, C P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Clear evidence exists that TNF-alpha inhibits insulin signalling and thereby glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes. However, conflicting results exist with regard to the role of TNF-alpha in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We obtained blood and biopsy samples from skeletal muscle...... and subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 96) and healthy controls matched for age, sex and BMI (n = 103). RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher plasma levels of fasting insulin (p ...) uptake (VO2/kg) in the diabetes group (p type 2 diabetic patients. Immunohistochemistry revealed more TNF-alpha protein...

  9. Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum and wound fluid in relation to formation of granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Garbarsch, C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation ......, changes in serum PIIINP mirror fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, our study provides experimental evidence consistent with the hypothesis that wound fluid PIIINP directly mirrors the local formation of granulation tissue, independent of weight loss and cyclophosphamide treatment.......The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation...... loss caused by treatment, weight loss caused by starvation was investigated. In untreated rats, serum PIIINP and wound fluid PIIINP were related to formation of granulation tissue (serum: r = 0.58, p

  10. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  11. Sickle Mice Are Sensitive to Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Stroke but Respond to Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lee, Jolly; Huang, Henry; Wagner, Mary B; Joiner, Clinton H; Archer, David R; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2017-12-01

    The effects of lytic stroke therapy in patients with sickle cell anemia are unknown, although a recent study suggested that coexistent sickle cell anemia does not increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. This finding calls for systemic analysis of the effects of thrombolytic stroke therapy, first in humanized sickle mice, and then in patients. There is also a need for additional predictive markers of sickle cell anemia-associated vasculopathy. We used Doppler ultrasound to examine the carotid artery of Townes sickle mice tested their responses to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia- and transient hypoxia-ischemia-induced stroke at 3 or 6 months of age, respectively. We also examined the effects of tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) treatment in transient hypoxia-ischemia-injured sickle mice. Three-month-old sickle cell (SS) mice showed elevated resistive index in the carotid artery and higher sensitivity to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia-induced cerebral infarct. Six-month-old SS mice showed greater resistive index and increased flow velocity without obstructive vasculopathy in the carotid artery. Instead, the cerebral vascular wall in SS mice showed ectopic expression of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and P-selectin, suggesting a proadhesive and prothrombotic propensity. Indeed, SS mice showed enhanced leukocyte and platelet adherence to the cerebral vascular wall, broader fibrin deposition, and higher mortality after transient hypoxia-ischemia. Yet, post-transient hypoxia-ischemia treatment with tPA reduced thrombosis and mortality in SS mice. Sickle mice are sensitive to hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebral infarct but benefit from thrombolytic treatment. An increased resistive index in carotid arteries may be an early marker of sickle cell vasculopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. 1H NMR structural characterization of a recombinant kringle 2 domain from human tissue-type plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, I.J.L.; Llinas, M.; Kelley, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The kringle 2 domain of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been characterized via 1 H NMR spectroscopy at 300 and 620 MHz. The experiments were performed on the isolated domain obtained by expression of the 174-263 portion of t-PA in Escherichia coli. The spectrum of t-Pa kringle 2 is characteristic of a globular structure and shows overall similarity to that of the plasminogen (PGN) kringle 4. Spectral comparison with human and bovine PGN kringle 4 identified side-chain resonances from Leu 46 , which afford a fingerprint of kringle folding, and from most of the aromatic ring spin systems. Ligand-binding studies confirm that t-PA kringle 2 binds L-lysine with an association constant K a ∼ 11.9 mM -1 . The data indicate that homologous or conserved residues relative to those that compose the lysine-binding sites of PGN kringles 1 and 4 are involved in the binding of L-lysine to t-PA kringle 2. These include Tyr 36 and, within the kringle inner loop, Trp 62 , His 64 , Trp 72 , and Tyr 74 . Several labile NH protons of t-PA kringle 2 exhibit retarded H-exchange kinetics, requiring more than a week in 2 H 2 O for full deuteration in the presence of L-lysine at 37 degree C. This reveals that kringle 2 is endowed with a compact, dynamically stable conformation. Proton Overhauser experiments in 1 H 2 O, centered on well-resolved NH resonances between 9.8 and 12 ppm, identify signals arising from the His 48a imidazole NH3 proton and the three Trp indole NH1 protons. Overall, the data indicate a highly structured conformation for the recombinant t-PA kringle 2 that is closely related to that of the previously investigated PGN kringles 1, 4, and 5

  13. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. The role of the lysyl binding site of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the interaction with a forming fibrin clot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Weening-Verhoeff, E.J.D.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    To describe the role of the lysyl binding site in the interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, FGK1K2P) with a forming fibrin clot, we performed binding experiments with domain deletion mutants GK1K2P, K2P, and the corresponding point mutants lacking the lysyl binding site in the

  15. Impaired information sampling in mild dementia of Alzheimer's type but not in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Benke, Thomas; Brand, Matthias; Djamshidian, Atbin; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-05-01

    It is unknown whether aging affects predecisional processing, that is, gathering information and evaluating options before making a decision. Here, we investigated information sampling in mild Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and healthy aging by using the Information Sampling Task (IST). In a first investigation, we compared patients with mild DAT (n = 20) with healthy controls (n = 20) on the IST and several neuropsychological background tests. In a second investigation, healthy older adults (n = 30) were compared with younger adults (n = 30) on the IST and executive-function tasks. Results of the first investigation demonstrated that, in the IST, patients gathered significantly less information, made riskier and less accurate decisions, and showed less reward sensitivity relative to controls. We found a significant correlation between performance on the IST and performance on tests of verbal fluency, working memory, and recognition in patients but not in controls. Results of the second investigation indicated a largely similar performance pattern between healthy older adults and younger adults. There were no significant correlations for both groups between the IST and executive-function tasks. There are no relevant changes with healthy aging in predecisional processing. In contrast, mild DAT significantly affects predecisional information sampling. Thus, the problems shown in patients with mild DAT in decision making might be related to the patients' difficulties in predecisional processing. Decision-making performance in mild DAT might be improved by helping the patients at a predecisional stage to gather sufficient information and evaluate options more accurately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Association between information sources and level of knowledge about diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cántaro, Katherine; Jara, Jimena A; Taboada, Marco; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between the type of information source and the level of knowledge about diabetes mellitus in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a reference diabetes and hypertension center in Lima, Peru, during 2014. Level of knowledge was measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire-24 and 12 information sources. Patients with 75% correct answers were considered to have a good knowledge. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Of the total 464 patients enrolled, 52.2% were females, and 20.3% used the Internet as information source. Mean knowledge was 12.9±4.8, and only 17.0% had a good knowledge, which was associated with information on diabetes obtained from the Internet (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.14), and also from other patients (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.31). Good knowledge was also associated with postgraduate education (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.21 to 11.09), disease duration longer than 12 years (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1,22 to 3.01), and age older than 70 years (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.72). Search for information in the Internet was positively associated to a good level of knowledge. It is suggested to teach patients with diabetes to seek information on the Internet and, on the other hand, to develop virtual spaces for interaction of patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Research and application of information system for sandstone-type uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Huang Shutao; Hou Huiqun

    2003-01-01

    The GIS (Geographical Information System) technique is applied to the exploration and evaluation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits and the GIS application system of desktop is created for non-GIS professionals. ArcView3.2 is taken as compositive platform of the information system. The secondary design is developed through the AVENUE language provided by ArcView3.2 on the software functions. According to the needs of multi-source information management and integrated evaluation, a series of new functions are appended to the basic platform through AVENUE language on a basis of sufficiently inheriting ArcView3.2 software functions and a friendly graphic user interface is also created, so that the system implements the following functions better, including information query, data base management, editing graphics, geologic mapping, image processing, spatial analysis, model analysis and result output. In order to manage the plenty of borehole data better and quickly realize the borehole mapping, a system software of borehole data management and mapping on the base of GIS software platform is developed. The system software has been applied to uranium survey project in the west of Hailaer basin. Based on multi-source geoscience information database including geologic, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data, the system software has been used to perform the integrated analysis of spatial data for realizing the deep analysis and studies of the metallogenic geologic environments of sandstone-type uranium deposits. In the Kelulun basin, the weights of evidence analysis have been used to quantitatively predict the prospective areas of sandstone uranium deposits. Information system has also been applied to the integrated evaluation of uranium resource in the south of Yili basin, Songliao basin and other areas. (authors)

  18. Peri-Implantitis Associated with Type of Cement: A Retrospective Analysis of Different Types of Cement and Their Clinical Correlation to the Peri-Implant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Walther, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    The cementation of fixed implant-supported dental restorations involves the risk of leaving excess cement in the mouth which can promote biofilm formation in the peri-implant sulcus. As a result, an inflammation may develop. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effect of two different luting cements on the peri-implant tissue. Within the scope of a retrospective clinical follow-up study, the prosthetic structures of 22 patients with 45 implants were revised. In all cases, a methacrylate cement (Premier Implant Cement [PIC], Premier® Dental Products Company, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA) had been used for cementation. In 16 additional patients with 28 implants, the suprastructures were retained with a zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Temp Bond [TB], Kerr Sybron Dental Specialities, Glendora, CA, USA). These patients were evaluated in the course of routine treatment. In both populations, the retention time of the suprastructures was similar (TB 3.77 years, PIC 4.07 years). In the PIC cases, 62% of all implants had excess cement. In the TB cases, excess cement was not detectable on any of the implants. Bleeding on probing was significantly more frequent on implants cemented with PIC (100% with and 94% without excess cement) than on implants cemented with TB (46%). Pocket suppuration was observed on 89% of the PIC-cemented implants with excess cement (PIC without excess cement 24%), whereas implants with TB were not affected by it at all. The peri-implant bone loss was significantly greater in the PIC patients (with excess cement 1.37 mm, without excess cement 0.41 mm) than it was in the TB patients (0.07 mm). The frequency of undetected excess cement depends essentially on the type of cement used. Cements that tend to leave more undetected excess have a higher prevalence for peri-implant inflammation and cause a more severe peri-implant bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the suspicious (paranoid) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergis, G

    2013-01-01

    Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.

  20. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Bim Orientation: Grades of Generation and Information for Different Type of Analysis and Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.

    2017-08-01

    Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is facing a great process re-engineering of the management procedures for new constructions, and recent studies show a significant increase of the benefits obtained through the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodologies. This innovative approach needs new developments for information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to improve cooperation and interoperability among different actors and scientific disciplines. Accordingly, BIM could be described as a new tool capable of collect/analyse a great quantity of information (Big data) and improve the management of building during its life of cycle (LC). The main aim of this research is, in addition to a reduction in production times, reduce physical and financial resources (economic impact), to demonstrate how technology development can support a complex generative process with new digital tools (modelling impact). This paper reviews recent BIMs of different historical Italian buildings such as Basilica of Collemaggio in L'Aquila, Masegra Castle in Sondrio, Basilica of Saint Ambrose in Milan and Visconti Bridge in Lecco and carries out a methodological analysis to optimize output information and results combining different data and modelling techniques into a single hub (cloud service) through the use of new Grade of Generation (GoG) and Information (GoI) (management impact). Finally, this study shows the need to orient GoG and GoI for a different type of analysis, which requires a high Grade of Accuracy (GoA) and an Automatic Verification System (AVS ) at the same time.

  2. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  3. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhu; Zeng, Manman; Liu, Y I; Yang, Xiaotao; Li, Yanan; Li, X U; Yu, Qiubo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.

  4. An estimation framework for building information modeling (BIM)-based demolition waste by type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Park, Jae-Woo; Cha, Gi-Wook

    2017-12-01

    Most existing studies on demolition waste (DW) quantification do not have an official standard to estimate the amount and type of DW. Therefore, there are limitations in the existing literature for estimating DW with a consistent classification system. Building information modeling (BIM) is a technology that can generate and manage all the information required during the life cycle of a building, from design to demolition. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of research regarding its application to the demolition stage of a building. For an effective waste management plan, the estimation of the type and volume of DW should begin from the building design stage. However, the lack of tools hinders an early estimation. This study proposes a BIM-based framework that estimates DW in the early design stages, to achieve an effective and streamlined planning, processing, and management. Specifically, the input of construction materials in the Korean construction classification system and those in the BIM library were matched. Based on this matching integration, the estimates of DW by type were calculated by applying the weight/unit volume factors and the rates of DW volume change. To verify the framework, its operation was demonstrated by means of an actual BIM modeling and by comparing its results with those available in the literature. This study is expected to contribute not only to the estimation of DW at the building level, but also to the automated estimation of DW at the district level.

  5. Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Claus, Heike; Jünemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes invasive meningococcal disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents worldwide. DNA sequence-based typing, including multilocus sequence typing, analysis of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance, and sequence typing of vaccine antigens, has become the standard for molecular epidemiology of the organism. However, PCR of multiple targets and consecutive Sanger sequencing provide logistic constraints to reference laboratories. Taking advantage of the recent development of benchtop next-generation sequencers (NGSs) and of BIGSdb, a database accommodating and analyzing genome sequence data, we therefore explored the feasibility and accuracy of Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing for genomic typing of meningococci. Three strains from a previous meningococcus serogroup B community outbreak were selected to compare conventional typing results with data generated by semiconductor chip-based sequencing. In addition, sequencing of the meningococcal type strain MC58 provided information about the general performance of the technology. The PGM technology generated sequence information for all target genes addressed. The results were 100% concordant with conventional typing results, with no further editing being necessary. In addition, the amount of typing information, i.e., nucleotides and target genes analyzed, could be substantially increased by the combined use of genome sequencing and BIGSdb compared to conventional methods. In the near future, affordable and fast benchtop NGS machines like the PGM might enable reference laboratories to switch to genomic typing on a routine basis. This will reduce workloads and rapidly provide information for laboratory surveillance, outbreak investigation, assessment of vaccine preventability, and antibiotic resistance gene monitoring.

  6. Knowledge sharing and innovation in relationships interorganizational type of information technology outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rodrigues Faoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this paper presents an analysis of the sharing of knowledge and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type outsourcing of Information Technology. Objective: analyze the existence of relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type of outsourcing information technology (IT. Methodology: research is exploratory, qualitative and using as a strategy the multiple case study, which analyzed 12 companies in IT outsourcing environments, 4 suppliers of IT and IT 8 client companies. Data were collected through semi structured interviews, documentary and direct observation. Results: it can be noted that the sharing of knowledge showed contribute to the existence of innovation in IT outsourcing environment. The suppliers prioritize the codification of shared knowledge, while customers prefer the sharing of knowledge through informal conversations. It was identified that the motives for outsourcing IT may be related to the sharing of knowledge and innovation. Conclusions: this research contributes to the advancement of knowledge about the knowledge and innovation sharing phenomena in outsourcing of IT environments.

  7. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (Pstress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired autoregulation of blood flow in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Vagn Nielsen, H; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow was studied in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue in seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients (median age: 36 years) with nephropathy and retinopathy and in eight normal subjects of the same age. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe washout...... technique. Reduction in arterial perfusion pressure was produced by elevating the limb 20 and 40 cm above heart level. Blood flow remained within 10% of control values when the limb was elevated in normal subjects. In five of the seven diabetic subjects blood flow fell significantly in both tissues when...

  9. Disrupted G1 to S phase clearance via cyclin signaling impairs liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported that a nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats because of irreversible acute liver injury owing to inhibited hepatic tissue repair, primarily due to blockage of G 0 to S phase progression of cell division cycle. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic (NDB) rats receiving 300 mg TA/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from liver injury and survival. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that impaired cyclin-regulated progression of G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle may explain inhibited liver tissue repair, hepatic failure, and death, contrasted with delayed liver tissue repair but survival observed in the DB rats receiving 300 in contrast to 30 mg TA/kg. In the TA-treated NDB rats sustained MAPKs and cyclin expression resulted in higher phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (pRb), explaining prompt tissue repair and survival. In contrast, DB rats receiving the same dose of TA (300 mg/kg) exhibited suppressed MAPKs and cyclin expression that led to inhibition of pRb, inhibited tissue repair, and death. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited delayed up regulation of MAPK signaling that delayed the expression of CD1 and pRb, explaining delayed stimulation of tissue repair observed in this group. In conclusion, the hepatotoxicant TA has a dose-dependent adverse effect on cyclin-regulated pRb signaling: the lower dose causes a recoverable delay, whereas the higher dose inhibits it with corresponding effect on the ultimate outcomes on hepatic tissue repair; this dose-dependent adverse effect is substantially shifted to the left of the dose response curve in diabetes

  10. Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Herr, I.; Lansink, M.; Angel, P.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a

  11. Factors associated to the imposition of types of violence against women informed in sentry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and the factors associated to the imposition of the different types of violence against women informed in sentry services. METHOD: transversal study accomplished through 939 notification forms of cases of violence against women, referring to the three years from 2006 to 2008 in Fortaleza, Ceará. Univariate and multiple analyses by logistic regression were realized. RESULT: the results showed a positive association between the imposition of types of violence against women with a schooling varying from illiterate to basic education and the aggression which had occurred other times. CONCLUSION: this knowledge contributes to the delineation of specific actions that aim at facing this problem, as well as generates subsidies for adequate attendance proposals and guidance for the victims who call on health services.

  12. Understanding self-monitoring of blood glucose among individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: an information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Schachner, Holly; Stenger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) information deficits, motivational obstacles, and behavioral skills limitations in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and to assess the relationship of these deficits with SMBG frequency. Individuals with type 1 (n = 208; 103 male, 105 female) and type 2 (n = 218; 107 male, 111 female) diabetes participated in an online survey assessing SMBG information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behavior. A substantial proportion of participants scored as SMBG uninformed, unmotivated, and unskilled on specific assessment items. SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were significantly correlated with SMBG frequency, such that individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who were less informed, less motivated, and less behaviorally skilled, reported lower frequency of SMBG. Common and consequential SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were present, and patients with these gaps were less likely to test frequently. Clinical education focusing on relevant SMBG information, motivation to act, and behavioral skills for acting effectively may be a priority.

  13. Identifying Contributors of DNA Mixtures by Means of Quantitative Information of STR Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    identified using polymorphic genetic markers. However, modern typing techniques supply additional quantitative data, which contain very important information about the observed evidence. This is particularly true for cases of DNA mixtures, where more than one individual has contributed to the observed......Abstract Estimating the weight of evidence in forensic genetics is often done in terms of a likelihood ratio, LR. The LR evaluates the probability of the observed evidence under competing hypotheses. Most often, probabilities used in the LR only consider the evidence from the genomic variation...... biological stain. This article presents a method for including the quantitative information of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA mixtures in the LR. Also, an efficient algorithmic method for finding the best matching combination of DNA mixture profiles is derived and implemented in an on-line tool for two...

  14. Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Emma; Jansson, Per Anders; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent...... case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed...... genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution...

  15. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...

  16. BIM ORIENTATION: GRADES OF GENERATION AND INFORMATION FOR DIFFERENT TYPE OF ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Banfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC industry is facing a great process re-engineering of the management procedures for new constructions, and recent studies show a significant increase of the benefits obtained through the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM methodologies. This innovative approach needs new developments for information and communication technologies (ICT in order to improve cooperation and interoperability among different actors and scientific disciplines. Accordingly, BIM could be described as a new tool capable of collect/analyse a great quantity of information (Big data and improve the management of building during its life of cycle (LC. The main aim of this research is, in addition to a reduction in production times, reduce physical and financial resources (economic impact, to demonstrate how technology development can support a complex generative process with new digital tools (modelling impact. This paper reviews recent BIMs of different historical Italian buildings such as Basilica of Collemaggio in L’Aquila, Masegra Castle in Sondrio, Basilica of Saint Ambrose in Milan and Visconti Bridge in Lecco and carries out a methodological analysis to optimize output information and results combining different data and modelling techniques into a single hub (cloud service through the use of new Grade of Generation (GoG and Information (GoI (management impact. Finally, this study shows the need to orient GoG and GoI for a different type of analysis, which requires a high Grade of Accuracy (GoA and an Automatic Verification System (AVS at the same time.

  17. A new stable GIP-Oxyntomodulin hybrid peptide improved bone strength both at the organ and tissue levels in genetically-inherited type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Sity Aishah; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Flatt, Peter R; Bouvard, Beatrice; Chappard, Daniel; Irwin, Nigel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progress worldwide with detrimental effects on several physiological systems including bone tissue mainly by affecting bone quality. Several gut hormones analogues have been proven potent in ameliorating bone quality. In the present study, we used the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice as a model of obesity and severe T2DM to assess the extent of bone quality alterations at the organ and tissue levels. We also examined the beneficial effects of gut hormone therapy in this model by using a new triple agonist ([d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm) active at the GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. As expected, db/db mice presented with dramatic alterations of bone strength at the organ level associated with deterioration of trabecular and cortical microarchitectures and an augmentation in osteoclast numbers. At the tissue level, these animals presented also with alterations of bone strength (reduced hardness, indentation modulus and dissipated energy) with modifications of tissue mineral distribution, collagen glycation and collagen maturity. The use of [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm considerably improved bone strength at the organ level with modest effects on trabecular microarchitecture. At the tissue level, [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm ameliorated bone strength reductions with positive effects on collagen glycation and collagen maturity. This study provides support for including gut hormone analogues as possible new therapeutic strategies for improving bone quality in bone complications associated to T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivation and self-regulated learning in secondary vocational education : information-processing type and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, JS; Minnaert, A; Boekaerts, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article, information-processing type and gender differences in the interplay between motivational aspects (i.e., interest, persistence, test anxiety, and performance anxiety) and information processing were investigated. We argue that the two common information-processing modes, surface- and

  19. INVESTIGATION OF ALTERNATIVE TOURISM TYPES AND SIGHTS VIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: THE EXAPLE OF SAFRANBOLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aydın

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alternative tourism types and sights belonging to Safranbolu were identified through Geographic Information System (GIS tools. In this manner, most favorable tourism activities, which are specific to field, and evaluation factors of these activities were determined. “Suitability classification values” of these factors were charted by receiving opinions from experts. Natural and cultural properties of study area were determined in the light of evaluation factors and a database was set via GIS. This database was examined according to evaluation factors of the activities and the most suitable and conditional suitable areas were determined. In this study, it is aimed to carry out the suitable place analysis for alternative tourism types of Safranbolu, which is a tourism town, such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. 486 km2 area for riding, 319 m2 for trekking, 209 km2 for mountain biking and 148 km² for camping were figured out as suitable. These results reveal that tourism activities should be more professionally organized in order to apply alternative tourism types such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. In addition, organizations such as festivals and fairs should be arranged in order to introduce products special to Safranbolu.

  20. Investigation of Alternative Tourism Types and Sights via Geographic Information Systems: the Exaple of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, F.; Çepni, O.; Turgut, T.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, alternative tourism types and sights belonging to Safranbolu were identified through Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. In this manner, most favorable tourism activities, which are specific to field, and evaluation factors of these activities were determined. "Suitability classification values" of these factors were charted by receiving opinions from experts. Natural and cultural properties of study area were determined in the light of evaluation factors and a database was set via GIS. This database was examined according to evaluation factors of the activities and the most suitable and conditional suitable areas were determined. In this study, it is aimed to carry out the suitable place analysis for alternative tourism types of Safranbolu, which is a tourism town, such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. 486 km2 area for riding, 319 m2 for trekking, 209 km2 for mountain biking and 148 km2 for camping were figured out as suitable. These results reveal that tourism activities should be more professionally organized in order to apply alternative tourism types such as riding, mountain biking, camping, trekking. In addition, organizations such as festivals and fairs should be arranged in order to introduce products special to Safranbolu.

  1. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  2. Radiological criteria in assessing different types of proliferation in the mammary tissue with the help of microradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    26 tissue blocks of female patients with proliferating mastopathy were prepared as 2 mm-thick slices and a specimen radiogram was made of each. In all cases, the assessment of the histopathological examination lead to the result: benign. As complicated mastopathies must be regarded as risk factors with regard to later occurrence of a carcinoma, a microradiography of the sample tissue was made initially. This can help to show especially calcified micro spots in the tissue which might be an indication of malignant growth. Slices of 70 μm in thickness were taken pictures of in the microradiography chamber. The microcalcifications which could be recognized were compared to the results of the specimen radiography and the histological findings. In 15 cases, a far bigger number of micro-carlcifications (5 fold) could be established in the microradiogram; there were no such significant differences in the presentation of the calcifications in the other cases. As the tissue slice in specimen radiography is 2.5 times as thick, also the quantity of calcification must be correspondingly more. As, however, in 15 cases microradiography showed even more calcification than in the specimen radiogram, this proves the efficiency of microradiography for imaging microcalcifications. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Measurement of temperature elevation in tissue for the optimum and safe use of scalpel-type ultrasonic surgery devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C; Nuernberger, H; Reimann, H P

    2004-01-01

    Using temperature sensors of specific design, the temperature elevation during application of a Harmonic Scalpel was determined in liver tissue. The influence of different treatment techniques and application parameters on the heat produced was determined. The measurements can be used to assess the risk of harmful bioeffects and to optimise performance and treatment techniques with respect to minimum thermal load

  4. Immunodetection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human mineralocorticoid target tissues: evidence for nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, M; Ricketts, M L; Petrelli, M D; Moradi, P; Johnson, G D; Bradwell, A R; Hewison, M; Howie, A J; Stewart, P M

    1997-03-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSI) is an enzyme complex responsible for the conversion of hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone; two isoforms of the enzyme have been cloned and characterized. Clinical observations from patients with the hypertensive syndrome apparent mineralocorticoid excess, recently explained on the basis of mutations in the human 11 beta HSD2 gene, suggest that it is the 11 beta HSD2 isoform that serves a vital role in dictating specificity upon the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We have raised a novel antibody in sheep against human 11 beta HSD2 using synthetic multiantigenic peptides and have examined the localization and subcellular distribution of 11 beta HSD2 in mineralocorticoid target tissues. The immunopurified antibody recognized a single band of approximately 44 kDa in placenta, trophoblast, and distal colon. In kidney tissue, two bands of approximately 44 and 48 kDa were consistently observed. No signal was seen in decidua, adrenal, or liver. Immunoperoxidase studies on the mineralocorticoid target tissues, kidney, colon, and parotid gland indicated positive staining in epithelial cells known to express the MR: respectively, renal collecting ducts, surface and crypt colonic epithelial cells, and parotid duct epithelial cells. No staining was seen in these tissues in other sites. The intracellular localization of 11 beta HSD2 in kidney and colon epithelial cells was addressed using confocal laser microscopy. Parallel measurements of 11 beta HSD2 and nuclear propidium iodide fluorescence on sections scanned through an optical section of approximately 0.1 micron indicated significant 11 beta HSD2 immunofluorescence in the nucleus. In human kidney, colon, and salivary gland, 11 beta HSD2 protects the MR from glucocorticoid excess in an autocrine fashion. Furthermore, within these tissues, 11 beta HSD2, which had been considered to be a microsomal enzyme, is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that the

  5. Comparison of rat connective tissue reaction to two types of foreign and Iranian white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosough Hosseini S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Three Dimensional obturation of root canal is one of the main goals of root canal therapy to preserve health or reach the regeneration or healing of periapical tissues. Root end filling materials are used in numerous situations to reach the mentioned goals. One of the common root end- filling materials is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA which the foreign and Iranian ones are different in their prices. The aim of this study was to compare the rat connective tissue reaction to Iranian and foreign MTA. "nMaterials and Methods: This was an animal study in which 40 rats were divided into 5 groups of each 8. The polyethylene tubes filled with foreign (Pro Root MTA and Iranian (Root MTA white MTA and were implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue. Similarly, the empty tubes were inserted in subcutaneous connective tissue as control group. The samples were examined histologically after 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days and were scored as followings: 0, was characterized to samples without inflammatory cells; without inflammatory reaction 1, for samples with less than 25 inflammatory cells; mild inflammatory reaction. 2, for samples with 25 to 125 inflammatory cells; moderate inflammatory reaction and 3, for ones with more than 125 inflammatory cells; severe inflammatory reaction. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and p<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: In general, inflammatory reactions were reduced in all groups. Experimental groups had moderate to severe inflammation in the 7th day which had significant difference with the control group having mild to moderate inflammation (p=0.04. There was not any significant differences between experimental and control group in 14th, 30th, 60th and 90th days (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the findings of this investigation, inflammatory subcutaneous connective tissue reaction to Iranian (Root MTA and foreign (Pro Root MTA MTA was the same.

  6. Histone modification profiles are predictive for tissue/cell-type specific expression of both protein-coding and microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Michael Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated at both the DNA sequence level and through modification of chromatin. However, the effect of chromatin on tissue/cell-type specific gene regulation (TCSR is largely unknown. In this paper, we present a method to elucidate the relationship between histone modification/variation (HMV and TCSR. Results A classifier for differentiating CD4+ T cell-specific genes from housekeeping genes using HMV data was built. We found HMV in both promoter and gene body regions to be predictive of genes which are targets of TCSR. For example, the histone modification types H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were identified as the most predictive for CpG-related promoters, whereas H3K4me3 and H3K79me3 were the most predictive for nonCpG-related promoters. However, genes targeted by TCSR can be predicted using other type of HMVs as well. Such redundancy implies that multiple type of underlying regulatory elements, such as enhancers or intragenic alternative promoters, which can regulate gene expression in a tissue/cell-type specific fashion, may be marked by the HMVs. Finally, we show that the predictive power of HMV for TCSR is not limited to protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells, as we successfully predicted TCSR targeted genes in muscle cells, as well as microRNA genes with expression specific to CD4+ T cells, by the same classifier which was trained on HMV data of protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells. Conclusion We have begun to understand the HMV patterns that guide gene expression in both tissue/cell-type specific and ubiquitous manner.

  7. Treatment of tension-type headache with articulatory and suboccipital soft tissue therapy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Gómez, Anna Arnal; Martínez, Josep Benítez; Pascual-Vaca, Angel Oliva; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez

    2014-10-01

    This study researches the effectiveness of two manual therapy treatments focused on the suboccipital region for tension-type headache. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted over a period of four weeks with a follow-up at one month. Eighty-four patients with a mean age of 39.7 years (SD 11.4) with tension-type headache were assigned to 4 groups which included the following manual therapy treatment: suboccipital soft tissue inhibition; occiput-atlas-axis global manipulation; combination of both techniques; and a control group. The primary assessment consisted of collecting socio-demographic data and headache characteristics in a one-month base period, data such as age, gender, severity of pain, intensity and frequency of headache, among other. Outcome secondary assessment were: impact of headache, disability, ranges of motion of the craniocervical junction, frequency and intensity of headache, and pericranial tenderness. In the month prior to the study, average pain intensity, was rated at 6.49 (SD 1.69), and 66.7% subjects suffered headaches of moderate intensity. After 8 weeks, statistically significant improvements were noted. OAA manipulative treatment and combined therapy treatments proved to be more effective than suboccipital soft tissue inhibition for tension-type headache. The treatment with suboccipital soft tissue inhibition, despite producing less significant results, also has positive effects on different aspects of headache. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Are there differences in health information exchange by health system type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Agyeman, William; Menachemi, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of health information exchange (HIE) to improve safety and reduce cost, hospitals have been slow to adopt HIE with only 30% of U.S. hospitals doing so in 2012. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between different health system types and how they engage in HIE. Data on health system types and engagement in HIE activity were combined with secondary hospital characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between a scale measuring the level of HIE engagement and health system type controlling for hospital and market characteristics. Data from 1552 hospitals were available for analyses. Overall, hospital in a health system of any kind exchanged more patient data elements (e.g., patient demographics, clinical summaries, laboratory results, medication history, and radiology report) compared with stand-alone hospitals (3.82 vs. 1.80, p centralized health systems, 75 (4.8%) were in centralized physician/insurance health system, 284 (18.3%) were in moderately centralized health system, 391 (25.2%) were in decentralized health system, and 91 (5.9%) were in independent health system. In regression analyses, hospitals belonging to a health system were more likely to exchange patient health data with other hospitals in the same system (OR = 3.94, p < .001) but not with hospitals outside their system (OR = 1.89, p = .445). Across health system types, there was no significant difference in the exchange of patient health data. Hospital engagement in HIE is associated with health system membership. These findings will assist hospital leaders and managers to better understand how the structure and nature of their system may influence what their individual hospital can and cannot do in their decision to engage in HIE and other decisions that support the overall system objectives.

  9. Potential radioimmunoassay system for detection of Hanganutziu-Deicher type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukuria, J C; Naiki, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Masato; Nishiura, Katsumi; Okabe, Masahiro; Kato, Shiro

    1985-06-12

    A relatively simple, specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigen(s) and antibodies. The SVI-labeled H-D antigen-active molecule used for the assay is a bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein previously found to have a strong H-D antigen potency. Different H-D antigen-active molecules were compared for heterophile H-D antigen potency. Eight different lung cancer tissues were assayed for H-D antigen. The sera from the 8 lung cancer patients were also screened by ELISA and RIA in an attmept to correlate expression of H-D antigen on tissues with elevation of H-D antibodies.

  10. Modulation of type I iodothyronine 5’-deiodinase activity in white adipose tissue by nutrition: possible involvement of leptin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Kůs, Vladimír; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 561-569 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * obesity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  11. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, Ondřej; Rombaldová, Martina; Janovská, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 3 (2016), s. 731-736 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-04449P; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14040 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue macrophages * omega-3 PUFA * protectin D1 * lipid mediators * lipidomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  12. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Speeding up transmissions of unknown quantum information along Ising-type quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo W J; Wei L F

    2017-01-01

    Quantum teleportation with entanglement channels and a series of two-qubit SWAP gates between the nearest-neighbor qubits are usually utilized to achieve the transfers of unknown quantum state from the sender to the distant receiver. In this paper, by simplifying the usual SWAP gates we propose an approach to speed up the transmissions of unknown quantum information, specifically including the single-qubit unknown state and two-qubit unknown entangled ones, by a series of entangling and disentangling operations between the remote qubits with distant interactions. The generic proposal is demonstrated specifically with experimentally-existing Ising-type quantum channels without transverse interaction; liquid NMR-molecules driven by global radio frequency electromagnetic pulses and capacitively-coupled Josephson circuits driven by local microwave pulses. The proposal should be particularly useful to set up the connections between the distant qubits in a chip of quantum computing. (paper)

  14. Effects of information type on children's interrogative suggestibility: is Theory-of-Mind involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Furia, Augusta

    2009-08-01

    This research was aimed at learning more about the different psychological mechanisms underlying children's suggestibility to leading questions, on the one hand, and children's suggestibility to negative feedback, on the other, by distinguishing between interview questions concerning different types of information. Results showed that, unlike the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to leading questions, the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to negative feedback differed depending on whether the interview questions concerned external facts (physical states and events) or internal facts (mental states and events). This difference was not manifested in response to questions concerning central versus peripheral facts. Results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that children's suggestibility to negative feedback is differently affected by "Theory-of-Mind" abilities than children's suggestibility to leading questions. Further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis.

  15. Development of elevated temperature fatigue design information for type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.; Mindlin, H.; Perrin, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    To develop material properties information for use in elevated-temperature fatigue design, an extensive study of the fatigue and stress-strain behaviour of Type 316 stainless steel was conducted at temperatures from 21 to 649 0 C. Fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curves were developed. Creep-fatigue interaction was evaluated by conducting strain hold-time tests at 566 and 649 0 C. Hold periods at peak tensile strain produced a large reduction in cyclic life. It was found that both a linear damage rule and the strain-partitioning method could be used to assess cumulative creep and fatigue damage. Aging for 1000 h at test temperature before testing caused only small or no changes in continuous cycling fatigue resistance at 566 and 649 0 C and in tension hold-time fatigue resistance at 566 0 C. This aging produced a significant increase in tension hold-time fatigue resistance at 649 0 C. (author)

  16. Types of Forecast and Weather-Related Information Used among Tourism Businesses in Coastal North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Emily P.

    This study profiles the coastal tourism sector, a large and diverse consumer of climate and weather information. It is crucial to provide reliable, accurate and relevant resources for the climate and weather-sensitive portions of this stakeholder group in order to guide them in capitalizing on current climate and weather conditions and to prepare them for potential changes. An online survey of tourism business owners, managers and support specialists was conducted within the eight North Carolina oceanfront counties asking respondents about forecasts they use and for what purposes as well as why certain forecasts are not used. Respondents were also asked about their perceived dependency of their business on climate and weather as well as how valuable different forecasts are to their decision-making. Business types represented include: Agriculture, Outdoor Recreation, Accommodations, Food Services, Parks and Heritage, and Other. Weekly forecasts were the most popular forecasts with Monthly and Seasonal being the least used. MANOVA and ANOVA analyses revealed outdoor-oriented businesses (Agriculture and Outdoor Recreation) as perceiving themselves significantly more dependent on climate and weather than indoor-oriented ones (Food Services and Accommodations). Outdoor businesses also valued short-range forecasts significantly more than indoor businesses. This suggests a positive relationship between perceived climate and weather dependency and forecast value. The low perceived dependency and value of short-range forecasts of indoor businesses presents an opportunity to create climate and weather information resources directed at how they can capitalize on positive climate and weather forecasts and how to counter negative effects with forecasted adverse conditions. The low use of long-range forecasts among all business types can be related to the low value placed on these forecasts. However, these forecasts are still important in that they are used to make more

  17. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release after heparin stimulation is increased in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, PB; van Oerle, R; Hamulyak, K; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    Aims To study heparin-stimulated TFPI release in relation to complications in Type 1 diabetic patients. Subjects and methods Nineteen uncomplicated Type 1 diabetic patients (group I) were compared with 18 patients with retinopathy (group II), and nine patients with retinopathy and albuminuria (group

  18. Early myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients without known heart disease assessed with tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Søgaard, Peter; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes; patients with albuminuria are at greatest risk. We investigated myocardial function and premature myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients with and without albuminuria compared to controls. METHODS:...

  19. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  20. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2013-01-01

    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  1. The number of cell types, information content, and the evolution of complex multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J. Niklas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of different cell types (NCT characterizing an organism is often used to quantify organismic complexity. This method results in the tautology that more complex organisms have a larger number of different kinds of cells, and that organisms with more different kinds of cells are more complex. This circular reasoning can be avoided (and simultaneously tested when NCT is plotted against different measures of organismic information content (e.g., genome or proteome size. This approach is illustrated by plotting the NCT of representative diatoms, green and brown algae, land plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates against data for genome size (number of base-pairs, proteome size (number of amino acids, and proteome functional versatility (number of intrinsically disordered protein domains or residues. Statistical analyses of these data indicate that increases in NCT fail to keep pace with increases in genome size, but exceed a one-to-one scaling relationship with increasing proteome size and with increasing numbers of intrinsically disordered protein residues. We interpret these trends to indicate that comparatively small increases in proteome (and not genome size are associated with disproportionate increases in NCT, and that proteins with intrinsically disordered domains enhance cell type diversity and thus contribute to the evolution of complex multicellularity.

  2. A robust TDT-type association test under informative parental missingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Cheng, K F

    2011-02-10

    Many family-based association tests rely on the random transmission of alleles from parents to offspring. Among them, the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) may be considered to be the most popular statistical test. The TDT statistic and its variations were proposed to evaluate nonrandom transmission of alleles from parents to the diseased children. However, in family studies, parental genotypes may be missing due to parental death, loss, divorce, or other reasons. Under some missingness conditions, nonrandom transmission of alleles may still occur even when the gene and disease are not associated. As a consequence, the usual TDT-type tests would produce excessive false positive conclusions in association studies. In this paper, we propose a novel TDT-type association test which is not only simple in computation but also robust to the joint effect of population stratification and informative parental missingness. Our test is model-free and allows for different mechanisms of parental missingness across subpopulations. We use a simulation study to compare the performance of the new test with TDT and point out the advantage of the new method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact of written information on control and adherence in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Inês Rosendo Carvalho E Silva; Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Marques, Margarida

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes therapeutic education and information by leaflets is important. This study aimed to understand the effectiveness of written information to diabetic patients, after six months, in the control of diabetes and medication adherence. Non-pharmacological clinical trial. Randomized sample of diabetic patients of 65 volunteer doctors, distributed among the five health regions in Portugal. At the first appointment, patients were randomized in four groups (three intervention with validated leaflets and one control), leaflet reading being reinforced at the follow-up appointments in a 6-months period. Variables collected: HbA1c, home blood glucose, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, cigarettes smoked, physical activity level, adherence to medication, medication, height, diabetes progression, age, sex and educational background. Descriptive and inferential statistics. From the 709 patients recruited, 702 were studied in this 6-months period with no statistical differences in the baseline variables studied. After six months of intervention, the adherence to medication improved in the leaflet group (p=0.034). This was noticed in those under 65 years of age (p=0.027), with diabetes for ≤ 5 years (p=0.010), with educational background up to 4 years (p=0.030) and 9 years (p=0.006) and with HbA1c ≥ 7% at the beginning of the study. Interventions with leaflets handed in primary healthcare to people with diabetes type 2 can bring benefits in what concerns adherence to therapeutics, namely in younger people with a less studies.

  4. Safeguarding information intensive critical infrastructures against novel types of emerging failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducelli, C. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.balducelli@casaccia.enea.it; Bologna, S. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Lavalle, L. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Vicoli, G. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    The complexity of information intensive critical infrastructures, like electricity networks, telecommunication networks and public transportation networks is today augmented much more than in the past: such complexity augments the number of possible failures and anomalous working conditions and consequently decreases the survivability of the infrastructures. In this paper, the possibility is investigated to detect early anomalies and failures inside information intensive critical infrastructures by the introduction of anomaly detectors being 'self-aware' about the normal working conditions of the infrastructure itself. This approach has the objective to improve the performance of the most popular signature-based algorithms for intrusion detection, and makes use of different classes of time-oriented algorithms based on artificial intelligence paradigm. It has the advantage to work also in presence of unknown and unexpected types of attacks or failures. The tests, to evaluate the performance of the utilised detectors, are executed inside an emulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of an electrical power transmission grid, and a proposal for the future integration inside real SCADA systems is also reported.

  5. Safeguarding information intensive critical infrastructures against novel types of emerging failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Bologna, S.; Lavalle, L.; Vicoli, G.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of information intensive critical infrastructures, like electricity networks, telecommunication networks and public transportation networks is today augmented much more than in the past: such complexity augments the number of possible failures and anomalous working conditions and consequently decreases the survivability of the infrastructures. In this paper, the possibility is investigated to detect early anomalies and failures inside information intensive critical infrastructures by the introduction of anomaly detectors being 'self-aware' about the normal working conditions of the infrastructure itself. This approach has the objective to improve the performance of the most popular signature-based algorithms for intrusion detection, and makes use of different classes of time-oriented algorithms based on artificial intelligence paradigm. It has the advantage to work also in presence of unknown and unexpected types of attacks or failures. The tests, to evaluate the performance of the utilised detectors, are executed inside an emulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of an electrical power transmission grid, and a proposal for the future integration inside real SCADA systems is also reported

  6. Association of hexachlorobenzene in the serum and adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosallanejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic disease type 2 diabetes is increasing. Numerous studies have to take into consideration in addition to the factors such as low mobility, nutrition and inheritance, environmental factors such as hexachlorobenzene in creation of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it was tried in this study to obtain an exact result regarding the association of hexachlorobenzene with type 2 diabetes by doing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the cross-sectional and prospective studies which were received till 2 March 2016. After searching in the databases SID, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, Embase, ISI and Cochrane, 10 studies with 19 subgroups were considered in final assessment. Geometric mean concentration of Hexachlorobenzene was 12.7 ng/ml and 64.77 ng/g lipids in serum and adipose tissues, respectively. The heterogeneity index of I2 :25.95% (I2<50% and t2 :0.075 were low and hence fixed model was used for meta-analysis of studies' results. The Pearson correlation coefficient between concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in serum and adipose tissue with the odds ratio of type 2 diabetes were R2 :0.27, P value=0.57 and R2 :0.25, P value=0.18, respectively. The highest and lowest odds ratios of type 2 diabetes was [OR:6.2 (0.6-68.1] and [OR:0.99 (0.3-2.6], respectively. Overall, the odds ratio for type 2 diabetes induced to hexachlorobenzene was OR:2.33 (1.82-2.74 P value<0.001. Results of this study supported the role of hexachlorobenzene significantly as an environmental risk factor in type 2 diabetes (P<0.001.

  7. Bone Tissue Collagen Maturity and Mineral Content Increase With Sustained Hyperglycemia in the KK-Ay Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather B; Pearl, Jared C; Diaz, David R; King, Karen B; Donnelly, Eve

    2018-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases fracture risk for a given bone mineral density (BMD), which suggests that T2DM changes bone tissue properties independently of bone mass. In this study, we assessed the effects of hyperglycemia on bone tissue compositional properties, enzymatic collagen crosslinks, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the KK-Ay murine model of T2DM using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to KK-aa littermate controls (n = 8), proximal femoral bone tissue of KK-Ay mice (n = 14) exhibited increased collagen maturity, increased mineral content, and less heterogeneous mineral properties. AGE accumulation assessed by the concentration of pentosidine, as well as the concentrations of the nonenzymatic crosslinks hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), did not differ in the proximal femurs of KK-Ay mice compared to controls. The observed differences in tissue-level compositional properties in the KK-Ay mice are consistent with bone that is older and echo observations of reduced remodeling in T2DM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Detection of GAD65 autoantibodies of type-1 diabetes using anti-GAD65-abs reagent produced from bovine brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko W. Soeatmadji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, type 1 diabetes may presents as type 2 diabetes which sometimes not easily differentiated. Perhaps only autoimmune markers of β-cells destruction could differentiate those two clinical conditions. Due to extremely high cost ( $ 150/test, examination of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 auto-antibodies (anti-GAD65Abs may not be routinely performed in most, if not all, clinical laboratories in Indonesia. Hence, the production of anti-GAD65 Abs reagent in Indonesia may reduce the cost and improve the quality of diabetes care in Indonesia. We produce reagent to detect anti-GAD65-Abs using bovine brain tissue as source of GAD enzyme in 3 steps. Step 1, isolation, purification of GAD65 from bovine brain tissue and used it as a primary antigen to stimulate the generation of anti-GAD65 antibodies in Wistar rat. Step 2, the purified GAD65 antibodies were than used as a secondary antibody to induce the production of anti-anti-GAD65-antibodies in Wistar rat and rabbit. Step 3. Labeling  anti-anti GAD65-antibodies with alkaline phoshpatase and peroxidase, and detecting anti-GAD65Abs previously detected using commercial kit. The anti-anti-GAD65- antibodies reagent produced in our laboratories  successfully identify anti-GAD65-Abs of type 1 diabetic patients previously detected  with commercial reagent. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 197-203Keywords: GAD, type-1 Diabetes

  9. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Nicola; Duggan, Edel; Williams, David J P; Tracey, Joseph A

    2011-07-01

    Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (≥ 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for adults (n = 866) and the major medication

  10. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  11. A JBI Information Object Engineering Environment Utilizing Metadata Fragments for Refining Searches on Semantically-Related Object Types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harlow, Felicia N

    2005-01-01

    .... This enhancement will improve the ability of JBI users to create and store IO type schemas, and query and subscribe to information objects, which may be semantically related by their inclusion...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix IV to Part 960 - Types of Information for the Nomination of Sites as Suitable for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in other areas of similar size in the geologic setting. • Past and present drilling and mining.... The types of information to support this description should include— • Topography of the site...

  13. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  14. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  15. Effects of initiating moderate wine intake on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Witkow, Shula; Friger, Michael; Chassidim, Yoash; Liberty, Idit F; Sarusi, Benjamin; Serfaty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-02-01

    To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3·0 (-8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (-1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1·9 (-5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT -3·2 (-8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (-2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT -0·15 (-3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT. Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

  16. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (P<.001 for all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest frequency and HIT-6 values after the intervention. The application of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The study of features of the structural organization of the au-tomated information processing system of the collective type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. N.; Titov, D. V.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The comparative assessment of the level of channel capacity of different variants of the structural organization of the automated information processing systems is made. The information processing time assessment model depending on the type of standard elements and their structural organization is developed.

  19. Types of Information Expected from a Photometric Search for Extra-Solar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Bell, James, III; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The current theory postulates that planets are a consequence of the formation of stars from viscous accretion disks. Condensation from the hotter, inner portion of the accretion disk favors the formation of small rocky planets in the inner portion and the formation of gas giants in the cuter, cooler part. Consequently, terrestrial-type planets in inner orbits must be commonplace (Wetheril 1991). From the geometry of the situation (Borucki and Summers 1984), it can be shown that 1% of those planetary systems that resemble our solar system should show transits for Earth-sized (or larger) planets. Thus a photometric satellite that uses a wide field of view telescope and a large CCD array to simultaneously monitor 5000 target stars should detect 50 planetary systems. To verify that regularly recurring transits are occurring rather than statistical fluctuations of the stellar flux, demands observations that extend over several orbital periods so that the constancy of the orbital period, signal amplitude, and duration can be measured. Therefore, to examine the region from Mercury's orbit to that of the Earth requires a duration of three years whereas a search out to the orbit of mars requires about six years. The results of the observations should provide estimates of the distributions of planetary size and orbital radius, and the frequency of planetary systems that have Earth-sized planets in inner orbits. Because approximately one half of the star systems observed will be binary systems, the frequency of planetary systems orbit ' ing either one or both of the stars can also be determined. Furthermore, the complexity of the photometric signature of a planet transiting a pair of stars provides enough information to estimate the eccentricities of the planetary orbits. In summary, the statistical evidence from a photometric search of solar-like stars should be able to either confirm or deny the applicability of the current theory of planet formation and provide new

  20. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  1. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  2. Mammalian transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes and are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha

    2014-12-30

    Transcriptional hotspots are defined as genomic regions bound by multiple factors. They have been identified recently as cell type specific enhancers regulating developmentally essential genes in many species such as worm, fly and humans. The in-depth analysis of hotspots across multiple cell types in same species still remains to be explored and can bring new biological insights. We therefore collected 108 transcription-related factor (TF) ChIP sequencing data sets in ten murine cell types and classified the peaks in each cell type in three groups according to binding occupancy as singletons (low-occupancy), combinatorials (mid-occupancy) and hotspots (high-occupancy). The peaks in the three groups clustered largely according to the occupancy, suggesting priming of genomic loci for mid occupancy irrespective of cell type. We then characterized hotspots for diverse structural functional properties. The genes neighbouring hotspots had a small overlap with hotspot genes in other cell types and were highly enriched for cell type specific function. Hotspots were enriched for sequence motifs of key TFs in that cell type and more than 90% of hotspots were occupied by pioneering factors. Though we did not find any sequence signature in the three groups, the H3K4me1 binding profile had bimodal peaks at hotspots, distinguishing hotspots from mono-modal H3K4me1 singletons. In ES cells, differentially expressed genes after perturbation of activators were enriched for hotspot genes suggesting hotspots primarily act as transcriptional activator hubs. Finally, we proposed that ES hotspots might be under control of SetDB1 and not DNMT for silencing. Transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes. In ES cells, they are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs and might be under SetDB1 control for silencing.

  3. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Melissa [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pavlichenko, Vasiliy [Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SIPPB SB RAS), Lermontov Str. 132, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Hydrobiology, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Altenburger, Rolf [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Luckenbach, Till, E-mail: till.luckenbach@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    design with inhibitors was applied in transporter activity assays. • ABCB1- and ABCC-type efflux activities were distinguished in native gill tissue. • Inhibitory action of environmental chemicals targeted ABCB1-type efflux activity.

  4. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Melissa; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Altenburger, Rolf; Barata, Carlos; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-01-01

    design with inhibitors was applied in transporter activity assays. • ABCB1- and ABCC-type efflux activities were distinguished in native gill tissue. • Inhibitory action of environmental chemicals targeted ABCB1-type efflux activity.

  5. Toward angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds with type I collagen and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Geun; Bak, Seon Young; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Woo; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies for liver disease are being studied by many researchers worldwide, but scientific evidence to demonstrate the endocrinologic effects of implanted cells is insufficient, and it is unknown whether implanted cells can function as liver cells. Achieving angiogenesis, arguably the most important characteristic of the liver, is known to be quite difficult, and no practical attempts have been made to achieve this outcome. We carried out this study to observe the possibility of angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds. This study used adipose tissue-derived stem cells that were collected from adult patients with liver diseases with conditions similar to the liver parenchyma. Specifically, microfilaments were used to create an artificial membrane and maintain the structure of an artificial organ. After scratching the stomach surface of severe combined immunocompromised (SCID) mice (n=4), artificial scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and type I collagen were implanted. Expression levels of angiogenesis markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and CD105 were immunohistochemically assessed after 30 days. Grossly, the artificial scaffolds showed adhesion to the stomach and surrounding organs; however, there was no evidence of angiogenesis within the scaffolds; and VEGF, CD34, and CD105 expressions were not detected after 30 days. Although implantation of cells into artificial scaffolds did not facilitate angiogenesis, the artificial scaffolds made with type I collagen helped maintain implanted cells, and surrounding tissue reactions were rare. Our findings indicate that type I collagen artificial scaffolds can be considered as a possible implantable biomaterial.

  6. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  7. Immunological detection of the type V collagen propeptide fragment, PVCP-1230, in connective tissue remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Simonsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Liver fibrosis involves excessive remodeling and deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which leads to malfunction of the organ, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether levels of a type V collagen fragment, the propepti...

  8. [A case of mixed connective tissue disease positive for proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in a patient with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus and chronic thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michitsuji, Tohru; Horai, Yoshiro; Sako, Ayaka; Asano, Taro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

      A female in her sixties with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPT1DM) and chronic thyroiditis was referred to our rheumatology department with swelling in her fingers. A prominent atherosclerotic lesion was revealed upon brain magnetic resonance imaging, and she was found to have mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) positive for proteinase 3 (PR3)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). This rare case of MCTD accompanying SPT1DM and PR3-ANCA suggested that a synergy between MCTD and PR3-ANCA triggers atherosclerosis.

  9. Medical image registration by combining global and local information: a chain-type diffeomorphic demons algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Yuan, Zhenming; Zhu, Junming; Xu, Dongrong

    2013-01-01

    The demons algorithm is a popular algorithm for non-rigid image registration because of its computational efficiency and simple implementation. The deformation forces of the classic demons algorithm were derived from image gradients by considering the deformation to decrease the intensity dissimilarity between images. However, the methods using the difference of image intensity for medical image registration are easily affected by image artifacts, such as image noise, non-uniform imaging and partial volume effects. The gradient magnitude image is constructed from the local information of an image, so the difference in a gradient magnitude image can be regarded as more reliable and robust for these artifacts. Then, registering medical images by considering the differences in both image intensity and gradient magnitude is a straightforward selection. In this paper, based on a diffeomorphic demons algorithm, we propose a chain-type diffeomorphic demons algorithm by combining the differences in both image intensity and gradient magnitude for medical image registration. Previous work had shown that the classic demons algorithm can be considered as an approximation of a second order gradient descent on the sum of the squared intensity differences. By optimizing the new dissimilarity criteria, we also present a set of new demons forces which were derived from the gradients of the image and gradient magnitude image. We show that, in controlled experiments, this advantage is confirmed, and yields a fast convergence. (paper)

  10. Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator, its receptor and type-1 inhibitor in malignant and benign prostate tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Thomsen, Ole Frøkjær; Iversen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plasminogen activation (PA) cascade participates in degradation of extracellular matrix during cancer invasion. We have studied the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNA, uPA receptor (uPAR) mRNA and immunoreactivity, and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) m......RNA and immunoreactivity in 16 prostate adenocarcinomas and 9 benign prostate hyperplasias. uPA mRNA and uPAR mRNA expression were found in 9 and 8 of the adenocarcinomas, respectively, and in 7 and 6 of the benign hyperplasias, respectively. In both malignant and benign lesions, expression of these 2 m...... proximity to cancer cell islands. No immunoreactivity and/or mRNA expression of uPA, uPAR or PAI-1 was observed in cancer cells or in other epithelial cells in any of the cases....

  11. Alzheimer’s Disease Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Brain Tissue Stiffness Compared to Wild-type Mice in both Normoxia and following Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Menal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence from patients and animal models suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and that AD is associated with reduced brain tissue stiffness.AimTo investigate whether intermittent hypoxia (IH alters brain cortex tissue stiffness in AD mutant mice exposed to IH mimicking OSA.MethodsSix-eight month old (B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE985Dbo/J AD mutant mice and wild-type (WT littermates were subjected to IH (21% O2 40 s to 5% O2 20 s; 6 h/day or normoxia for 8 weeks. After euthanasia, the stiffness (E of 200-μm brain cortex slices was measured by atomic force microscopy.ResultsTwo-way ANOVA indicated significant cortical softening and weight increase in AD mice compared to WT littermates, but no significant effects of IH on cortical stiffness and weight were detected. In addition, reduced myelin was apparent in AD (vs. WT, but no significant differences emerged in the cortex extracellular matrix components laminin and glycosaminoglycans when comparing baseline AD and WT mice.ConclusionAD mutant mice exhibit reduced brain tissue stiffness following both normoxia and IH mimicking sleep apnea, and such differences are commensurate with increased edema and demyelination in AD.

  12. Determining Type I and Type II Errors when Applying Information Theoretic Change Detection Metrics for Data Association and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Moyer, E. J.; Hussein, Islam I.; Schumacher, P. W., Jr.

    Correlating new detections back to a large catalog of resident space objects (RSOs) requires solving one of three types of data association problems: observation-to-track, track-to-track, or observation-to-observation. The authors previous work has explored the use of various information divergence metrics for solving these problems: Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, mutual information, and Bhattacharrya distance. In addition to approaching the data association problem strictly from the metric tracking aspect, we have explored fusing metric and photometric data using Bayesian probabilistic reasoning for RSO identification to aid in our ability to correlate data to specific RS Os. In this work, we will focus our attention on the KL Divergence, which is a measure of the information gained when new evidence causes the observer to revise their beliefs. We can apply the Principle of Minimum Discrimination Information such that new data produces as small an information gain as possible and this information change is bounded by ɛ. Choosing an appropriate value for ɛ for both convergence and change detection is a function of your risk tolerance. Small ɛ for change detection increases alarm rates while larger ɛ for convergence means that new evidence need not be identical in information content. We need to understand what this change detection metric implies for Type I α and Type II β errors when we are forced to make a decision on whether new evidence represents a true change in characterization of an object or is merely within the bounds of our measurement uncertainty. This is unclear for the case of fusing multiple kinds and qualities of characterization evidence that may exist in different metric spaces or are even semantic statements. To this end, we explore the use of Sequential Probability Ratio Testing where we suppose that we may need to collect additional evidence before accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis that a change has occurred. In this work, we

  13. Tissue Factor and Toll Like Receptor (TLR)4 in Hyperglycemia-Hyperinsulinemia: Effects in Healthy Subjects, and Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Boden, Guenther; Rao, A. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have increased cardiovascular events. Blood tissue factor-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA), the initiating mechanism for blood coagulation, is elevated in DM. We have shown that hyperglycemia (HG), hyperinsulinemia (HI) and combined HG+HI (induced using 24 hr infusion clamps) increases TF-PCA in healthy and T2DM subjects, but not in T1DM subjects. The mechanisms for this are unknown. DM patients have elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. We postulated that TLR4 plays a role in modulating TF levels. Objectives and Methods We studied the effect of HG+HI on TLR4 and TF-PCA in vivo during 24 hr HG+HI infusion clamps in healthy subjects, and T1DM and T2DM subjects, and in vitro in blood. Results In vivo, in healthy subjects, 24 hr HG + HI infusion increased TLR4 6-fold, which correlated with TF-PCA (r= 0.91, p<0.0001). T2DM patients showed smaller increases in both. In T1DM subjects, TLR4 declined (50%, p<0.05) and correlated with TF-PCA (r=0.55; p<0.05). In vitro, HG (200 mg/dl added glucose) and HI (1-100 nM added insulin) increased TF-PCA in healthy subjects (~2-fold, 2-4 hr). Insulin inhibited by ~30% LPS-induced increase in TF-PCA and high glucose reversed it. TLR4 levels paralleled TF-PCA (r=0.71, p<0.0001); HG and HI increased TLR4 and insulin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 increase. Conclusions This is first evidence that even in healthy subjects, HG of short duration increases TLR4 and TF-PCA, key players in inflammation and thrombosis. TLR4-TF interplay is strikingly different in non-diabetic, T1DM and T2DM subjects. PMID:25653143

  14. Use of synovium-derived stromal cells and chitosan/collagen type I scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Zhongcheng; Lin Zhaoquan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054 (China); Xiong Hui; Long Xing; Wei Lili; Li Jian; Wu Yang, E-mail: xinglong1957@yahoo.com.c [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to investigate synovium-derived stromal cells (SDSCs) coupled with chitosan/collagen type I (CS/COL-I) scaffolds for cartilage engineering. CS/COL-I scaffolds were fabricated through freeze-drying and cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide. SDSCs were isolated from synovium and cultured onto CS/COL-I scaffolds, constructs of which were incubated in serum-free chondrogenic medium with sequential application of TGF-{beta}1 and bFGF for up to 21 days and then implanted into nude mice. The physical characteristics of the scaffolds were examined. The quality of the in vitro constructs was assessed in terms of DNA content by PicoGreen assay and cartilaginous matrix by histological examination. The implants of the constructs were evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examinations and reverse transcription PCR. Results indicated that the CS/COL-I scaffold showed porous structures, and the DNA content of SDSCs in CS/COL-I scaffolds increased at 1 week culture time. Both of the constructs in vitro and the implants were examined with positive stained GAGs histologically and the implants with positive collagen type II immunohistochemically. RT-PCR of the implants indicated that aggrecan and collagen type II expressed. It suggested that SDSCs coupled with CS/COL-I scaffolds treated sequentially with TGF-{beta}1 and bFGF in vitro were highly competent for engineered cartilage formation in vitro and in vivo.

  15. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  16. Web-based information for pregnant women and new mothers with type 1 diabetes- a description of the development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden Karolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process of developing specifically designed web-based maternity information for women with type 1 diabetes. Methods A participatory design was used and the information was evaluated in seven stages by researchers, professional experts and users. All steps of the development process were noted in an online logbook. Results The information developed gradually and its contents were reviewed by nurse-midwives, nurses and physicians specializing in different key areas including diabetes care, paediatrics, obstetrics and breastfeeding, a clinical dietician and mothers with type 1 diabetes. The draft was reviewed in regard to its cultural suitability and the information material was adjusted to meet quality criterions. Finally, the text was adapted for a lay audience. Conclusions Using participatory design required time and resources, however; it proved a functional way of producing appropriate information for the target group.

  17. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation and ALP activity on the modified BCP scaffolds. The modified microporous surfaces showed low contact angles and large surface areas, which enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. Coating of the BCP scaffolds with type I collagen led to enhanced cell-material interactions and improved MG63 functions, such as spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. The micropore/collagen-coated scaffold showed the highest rate of cell response. These results indicate that a combination of micropores and collagen enhances cellular function on bioengineered bone allograft tissue.

  18. CD11b⁺, Ly6G⁺ cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Fischer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is containment of a pathogen at the site of infection prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. However, effector mechanisms must be kept in check to combat the pathogen while simultaneously limiting undesirable destruction of tissue resulting from these actions. Here we demonstrate that innate immune effector cells contain a peripheral poxvirus infection, preventing systemic spread of the virus. These innate immune effector cells are comprised primarily of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁻ monocytes that accumulate initially at the site of infection, and are then supplemented and eventually replaced by CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells. The phenotype of the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells resembles neutrophils, but the infiltration of neutrophils typically occurs prior to, rather than following, accumulation of monocytes. Indeed, it appears that the CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrated the site of VACV infection in the ear are phenotypically distinct from the classical description of both neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. We found that CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells produce Type I interferons and large quantities of reactive oxygen species. We also observed that depletion of Ly6G⁺ cells results in a dramatic increase in tissue damage at the site of infection. Tissue damage is also increased in the absence of reactive oxygen species, although reactive oxygen species are typically thought to be damaging to tissue rather than protective. These data indicate the existence of a specialized population of CD11b⁺Ly6C⁺Ly6G⁺ cells that infiltrates a site of virus infection late and protects the infected tissue from immune-mediated damage via production of reactive oxygen species. Regulation of the action of this population of cells may provide an intervention to prevent innate immune-mediated tissue destruction.

  19. Evaluation of Zinc-alpha-2-Glycoprotein and Proteasome Subunit beta-Type 6 Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Tissue Microarray Technology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-07-23

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is a significant cause of illness and death in males. Current detection strategies do not reliably detect the disease at an early stage and cannot distinguish aggressive versus nonaggressive CaP leading to potential overtreatment of the disease and associated morbidity. Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and proteasome subunit beta-Type 6 (PSMB-6) were found to be up-regulated in the serum of CaP patients with higher grade tumors after 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate if ZAG and PSMB-6 were also overexpressed in prostatic tumor tissue of CaP patients. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on CaP tissue microarrays with samples from 199 patients. Confirmatory gene expression profiling for ZAG and PSMB-6 were performed on 4 cases using Laser Capture Microdissection and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. ZAG expression in CaP epithelial cells was inversely associated with Gleason grade (benign prostatic hyperplasia>G3>G4\\/G5). PSMB-6 was not expressed in either tumor or benign epithelium. However, strong PSMB-6 expression was noted in stromal and inflammatory cells. Our results indicate ZAG as a possible predictive marker of Gleason grade. The inverse association between grade and tissue expression with a rising serum protein level is similar to that seen with prostate-specific antigen. In addition, the results for both ZAG and PSMB-6 highlight the challenges in trying to associate the protein levels in serum with tissue expression.

  20. Estrogen receptor-independent catechol estrogen binding activity: protein binding studies in wild-type, Estrogen receptor-alpha KO, and aromatase KO mice tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Brian J; Ansell, Pete J; Newton, Leslie G; Harada, Nobuhiro; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Rottinghaus, George E; Welshons, Wade V; Lubahn, Dennis B

    2004-06-01

    Primary evidence for novel estrogen signaling pathways is based upon well-documented estrogenic responses not inhibited by estrogen receptor antagonists. In addition to 17beta-E2, the catechol estrogen 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2) has been shown to elicit biological responses independent of classical estrogen receptors in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mice. Consequently, our research was designed to biochemically characterize the protein(s) that could be mediating the biological effects of catechol estrogens using enzymatically synthesized, radiolabeled 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1) and 4OHE2. Scatchard analyses identified a single class of high-affinity (K(d) approximately 1.6 nM), saturable cytosolic binding sites in several ERalphaKO estrogen-responsive tissues. Specific catechol estrogen binding was competitively inhibited by unlabeled catechol estrogens, but not by 17beta-E2 or the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Tissue distribution studies indicated significant binding differences both within and among various tissues in wild-type, ERalphaKO, and aromatase knockout female mice. Ligand metabolism experiments revealed extensive metabolism of labeled catechol estrogen, suggesting that catechol estrogen metabolites were responsible for the specific binding. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence for the interaction of catechol estrogen metabolites with a novel binding protein that exhibits high affinity, specificity, and selective tissue distribution. The extensive biochemical characterization of this binding protein indicates that this protein may be a receptor, and thus may mediate ERalpha/beta-independent effects of catechol estrogens and their metabolites.

  1. Relationship between TCF7L2 Relative Expression in Pancreas Tissue with Changes in Insulin by High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT on fasting glucose, insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissue of T2D rats, 2 to determine the relation between TCF7L2 expression with insulin changes in the HIIT and control groups. Methods: In the present applied-experimental study, T2D male Wistar rats induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin-nicotinamide were assigned to control (no-training and HIIT (5 times/week/12-week groups. Fasting glucose, serum insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues of both groups were measured after lasted exercise and compared between 2 groups by independent T test. Also, the relation between TCF7L2 expression and insulin of HIIT to the control group was assessed by Pearson correlations. Results: The HIIT training in the training group was associated with improved fasting glucose compared with the control group (P<0.001. A significant increase was observed in serum insulin levels (P< 0.001. Also, there was seen a significant decrease in TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues in HIIT group compared with the control group (P= 0.038. Significant negative correlation was found between TCF7L2 expression and insulin changes of the HIIT to control groups (r=0.84, P=0.034. conclusion: HIIT training is associated with improvements in glycemic control and insulin secretion in T2D rats. Based on these data, this improvement can be attributed to decrease in TCF7L2 expression at pancreas tissues by HIIT training.

  2. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Palmer, Gaby; Seemayer, Christian; Lamacchia, Celine; Finckh, Axel; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Baeten, Dominique; Reith, Walter; Gabay, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To determine the regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in order to investigate their role as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Expression of class II MHC, class II MHC transactivator (CIITA), and Ciita isoforms PI, PIII, and PIV was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in human synovial tissues, arthritic mouse joints, and human and murine FLS. CIA was induced in mice in which isoform PIV of Ciita was knocked out (PIV(-/-) ), in PIV(-/-) mice transgenic for CIITA in the thymus (K14 CIITA), and in their control littermates. HLA-DRA, total CIITA, and CIITA PIII messenger RNA levels were significantly increased in synovial tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the levels in tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. Human FLS expressed surface class II MHC via CIITA PIII and PIV, while class II MHC expression in murine FLS was entirely mediated by PIV. Mice with a targeted deletion of CIITA PIV lack CD4+ T cells and were protected against CIA. The expression of CIITA was restored in the thymus of PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice, which had a normal CD4+ T cell repertoire and normal surface levels of class II MHC on professional antigen-presenting cells, but did not induce class II MHC on FLS. Synovial inflammation and immune responses against type II collagen were similar in PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice and control mice with CIA, but bone erosion was significantly reduced in the absence of PIV. Overexpression of class II MHC is tightly correlated with CIITA expression in arthritic synovium and in FLS. Selective targeting of Ciita PIV in peripheral tissues abrogates class II MHC expression by murine FLS but does not protect against inflammation and autoimmune responses in CIA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Use of tissue-specific microRNA to control pathology of wild-type adenovirus without attenuation of its ability to kill cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Ryan; Chen, Hannah H; Carroll, Fionnadh; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; van Rooijen, Nico; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-05-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.

  4. Cloning of zebrafish activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) cDNA and mRNA expression of ActRIIB in embryos and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R R; Bally-Cuif, L; Lee, S E; Gong, Z; Ni, X; Hew, C L; Peng, C

    1999-07-20

    A full-length cDNA encoding for activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) was cloned from zebrafish embryos. It encodes a protein with 509 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. The extracellular domain shows 74-91% sequence identity to human, bovine, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus and goldfish activin type IIB receptors, while the transmembrane region and the kinase domain show 67-78% and 82-88% identity to these known activin IIB receptors, respectively. In adult zebrafish, ActRIIB mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the gonads, as well as in non-reproductive tissues, including the brain, heart and muscle. In situ hybridization on ovarian sections further localized ActRIIB mRNA to cytoplasm of oocytes at different stages of development. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, ActRIIB mRNA was found to be expressed at all stages of embryogenesis examined, including the sphere, shield, tail bud, and 6-7 somite. These results provide the first evidence that ActRIIB mRNA is widely distributed in fish embryonic and adult tissues. Cloning of zebrafish ActRIIB demonstrates that this receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and provides a basis for further studies on the role of activin in reproduction and development in lower vertebrates.

  5. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  6. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  7. Type II collagen-hyaluronan hydrogel – a step towards a scaffold for intervertebral disc tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Calderon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc regeneration strategies based on stem cell differentiation in combination with the design of functional scaffolds is an attractive approach towards repairing/regenerating the nucleus pulposus. The specific aim of this study was to optimise a composite hydrogel composed of type II collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA as a carrier for mesenchymal stem cells. Hydrogel stabilisation was achieved by means of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS cross-linking. Optimal hydrogel properties were determined by investigating different concentrations of EDC (8mM, 24mM and 48mM. Stable hydrogels were obtained independent of the concentration of carbodiimide used. The hydrogels cross-linked by the lowest concentration of EDC (8mM demonstrated high swelling properties. Additionally, improved proliferation of seeded rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs and hydrogel stability levels in culture were observed with this 8mM cross-linked hydrogel. Results from this study indicate that EDC/NHS (8mM cross-linked type II collagen/HA hydrogel was capable of supporting viability of rMSCs, and furthermore their differentiation into a chondrogenic lineage. Further investigations should be conducted to determine its potential as scaffold for nucleus pulposus regeneration/repair.

  8. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody (MAb). The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.5 fmol/ml. A linear dose-response is obtained with up to 40 fmol/ml of uPA:uPAR complexes, while uPA and uPAR separately do not cause any response in the ELISA. A buffer which has been used previously for optimal...... extraction of uPAR yields the highest amounts of uPA:uPAR complexes. Absorption of tumor extracts with anti-uPA or anti-uPAR MAbs results in a complete disappearance of the ELISA signal, demonstrating the specificity of the ELISA. The recovery of chemically cross-linked uPA:uPAR complexes added to tumor...

  9. Information Interaction Criteria Among Students in Process of Task-Based Information Searching (Role of Objective Complexity and Type of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Saeedizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  human-information interactions must be considered in order to be able to interactively design Information Retrieval Systems (IRS. In this regard, study of users’ interactions must be based on their socio-cultural context (specifically work tasks. Accordingly, this paper aims to explore the use of information-interaction criteria among students in the information searching process according to different kinds of their work tasks.  Methodology: This research is applied qualitative method using exploratory study. The research population consisted of MSc students of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad enrolled in 2012-13  academic year. In 3 stages of sampling (random stratified, quota, and voluntary sampling, 30 cases were selected. Each of these cases searched 6 different types of simulated work tasks. Interaction criteria were extracted ? Content analysis of aloud thinking reports. Validity of tools was verified through Faculties of KIS at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. Also,0.78  Kripendorff’s alpha ratio based on an agreement between the inter – coder indicates the Dependability  of content analysis. Findings: The findings show that in addition to ‘topic’ criteria, other interaction criteria impact on information- interaction of users, such as: ‘search results ranking’, ‘domain knowledge of user’, ‘layout’, ‘type of information resource’ and etc. based on the level of objective complexity and product of  work tasks, information-interaction criteria change. Conclusion: the users pay attention to different information-interaction criteria in process of information searching, considering to variety of work tasks (level of objective complexity and product. So, it is necessary to pay attention to work task characteristics in order to design interactive and personalized IR systems.

  10. Morphological and chemical information in fresh and vitrified ovarian tissues revealed by X-ray Microscopy and Fluorescence: observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolo, L.; Venturin, I.; Gianoncelli, A.; Salomé, M.; Altissimo, M.; Bedolla, D. E.; Giolo, E.; Martinelli, M.; Luppi, S.; Romano, F.; Zweyer, M.; Ricci, G.

    2018-06-01

    Many clinical circumstances impose the necessity of collection and prolonged storage of gametes and/or ovarian tissue in order to preserve the reproduction potential of subjects. This is particularly appropriate in the case of young women and pre-pubertal girls undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments. The success of later assisted fertilization will depend on the suitable cooling protocols minimizing cryo-damages and preserving their biological function. The freeze-thaw processes of cryopreservation may induce, in fact, morphological and structural damages of oocytes and tissue mainly due to the formation of intracellular ice and to the toxicity of cryoprotectant. The most used cryo-protocol is the slow freezing procedure, but recently many authors have proposed vitrification as an alternative, because of its simplicity. The damage extent and the quality of follicles after cryopreservation are usually evaluated morphologically by conventional histological procedures, light and electron microscopy. Our laboratory, to further improve the evaluation and to better investigate damages, is adopting a combination of Synchrotron soft X-ray Microscopy (at TwinMic – Elettra) and XRF at different incident energies (at TwinMic – Elettra and ID21 – ESRF). X-ray techniques were performed on histological sections at micro and sub-micron resolution. Phase contrast and absorption images revealed changes in the compactness of the tissues, as well as cellular abnormalities revealed at sub-micrometric resolution. The distributions of the elements detected at 7.3 and 1.5 keV were compared and particularly Cl resulted to be indicative of follicle integrity. The results demonstrate the utility and the potential of X-ray microscopy and fluorescence in this research field.

  11. The influence of Simvastatin and Korargin on the clinical course of coronary heart disease, body weight and distribution of adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pogrebniak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most influential risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Incidence of coronary heart diseases (CHD and acute myocardial infarction in diabetic patients is much higher than in people without diabetes. Type 2 DM affects other risk factors of CHD due to the fact that, as a rule, it is accompanied by obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decrease of high density lipoproteins. Purpose of the investigation – to improve the efficiency of treatment of patients with CHD with type 2 DM based on the effect of Simvastatin and Korargin on it’s clinical course, body weight and the distribution of adipose tissue. Materials and methods of the investigation. The study involved 175 patients with CHD aged from 34 to 87, mean age was 61,0 ± 8,0 years, among whom there were 96 (54,9% men and 79 (45,1% women. All surveyed received conventional treatment. Depending on supplementary prescriptions patients were divided into eight groups: 1 group - 22 patients with CHD who were prescribed Simvastatin, 2 group - 20 patients with CHD who were prescribed Korargin, 3 group - 20 patients with coronary artery disease who were prescribed simultaneously both Simvastatin and Korarhin, 4 group - 20 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes treated with Simvastatin, 5 group - 23 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes who took Korargin, 6 group - 27 patients with CHD with type 2 diabetes, who were prescribed both Simvastatin and Korargin in addition to conventional treatments, 7 group - 20 patients with CHD who received only conventional treatments, 8 group - 23 patients with coronary artery disease combined with type 2 diabetes who received only conventional treatments. Simvastatin ("Vazostat-Health" FC "Health", Kharkiv was administered at a daily dose of 20 mg at night during 6 months, Korargin (JSC "Engineer", Uman - 0,1 g of L-arginine hydrochloride with 0.1 g of inosine – was administered at a dose of 3

  12. Identification and tissue distribution of mRNAs encoding salmon-type calcitonins-IV and -V in the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshie; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2004-06-01

    Four types of calcitonin are produced in salmonid fish, although their functional diversity is almost unknown. To explore the significance of these isoforms, we have characterized salmon-type calcitonin (sCT) mRNAs in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and examined their tissue distribution. In addition to the previously isolated sCT-I cDNAs, two new forms of sCT cDNA were cloned from the ultimobranchial gland, and one of them (sCT-IV cDNA) was predicted to encode an N-terminal peptide of 80 amino acid residues, a putative cleavage site Lys-Arg, sCT-IV, a cleavage and amidation sequence Gly-Lys-Lys-Arg, and a C-terminal peptide of 18 amino acids. The sCT-IV precursor was 78% identical with the rainbow trout sCT-I precursors. The other cloned cDNA encoded a precursor for a novel CT, sCT-V. The sCT-V peptide was different from sCT-IV by only one amino acid residue: Val at position 8 in the latter was replaced by Met. The sCT-V precursor had 80 and 90% identity with the sCT-I and -IV precursors respectively. No cDNA clones were obtained for sCTs-II or -III.Tissue distribution of sCT-I, -IV and -V mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and specific cleavage with restriction enzymes. An amplified fragment from sCT-I mRNA was detected not only in the ultimobranchial gland, but also in the gills, testis and ovary. RT-PCR analysis coupled to restriction digestion further revealed that sCT-IV mRNA was expressed in both the testis and the ultimobranchial gland. The expression sites of sCT-IV mRNA were localized to the Leydig cells of the testis and to the parenchymal cells of the ultimobranchial gland, by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Although the amino acid sequence of sCT-V peptide was nearly the same as that of sCT-IV, the sCT-V gene showed a much wider pattern of expression: the band amplified by RT-PCR was detected in all the tissues examined except the kidney, gills and blood cells. The sCT-V mRNA was shown to be localized in the parenchymal cells of the

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma originates from retrovirus infection of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes during pulmonary post-natal development or tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Claudio; Caporale, Marco; Ceesay, Ousman; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Ferri, Nicola; Varasano, Vincenzo; de las Heras, Marcelo; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a unique oncogenic virus with distinctive biological properties. JSRV is the only virus causing a naturally occurring lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, OPA) and possessing a major structural protein that functions as a dominant oncoprotein. Lung cancer is the major cause of death among cancer patients. OPA can be an extremely useful animal model in order to identify the cells originating lung adenocarcinoma and to study the early events of pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that lung adenocarcinoma in sheep originates from infection and transformation of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes (termed here lung alveolar proliferating cells, LAPCs). We excluded that OPA originates from a bronchioalveolar stem cell, or from mature post-mitotic type 2 pneumocytes or from either proliferating or non-proliferating Clara cells. We show that young animals possess abundant LAPCs and are highly susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. On the contrary, healthy adult sheep, which are normally resistant to experimental OPA induction, exhibit a relatively low number of LAPCs and are resistant to JSRV infection of the respiratory epithelium. Importantly, induction of lung injury increased dramatically the number of LAPCs in adult sheep and rendered these animals fully susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. Furthermore, we show that JSRV preferentially infects actively dividing cell in vitro. Overall, our study provides unique insights into pulmonary biology and carcinogenesis and suggests that JSRV and its host have reached an evolutionary equilibrium in which productive infection (and transformation) can occur only in cells that are scarce for most of the lifespan of the sheep. Our data also indicate that, at least in this model, inflammation can predispose to retroviral infection and cancer.

  14. Multiplex PCR with minisequencing as an effective high-throughput SNP typing method for formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Marcus T P; Sanchez, Juan J; Haselkorn, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    , multiplex PCR with minisequencing (MPMS), on 92 DNA extractions performed on six archival FFPE samples of variable DNA quality, which date between 9 and 25 years old. On the three extracts with highest quality, we found the assay efficiency to be near 100%. However, the efficiency of the lowest quality...... extracts varied significantly. In this study, we demonstrate that although direct measures of DNA concentration in the extracts provide no useful information with regard to subsequent MPMS success, the success of the assay can be determined to some degree a priori, through initial screening of the DNA...... quality using a simple quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for nuclear DNA, and/or an assay of the maximum PCR amplifiable size of nuclear DNA. MPMS promises to be of significant use in future genetic studies on FFPE material. It provides a streamlined approach for retrieving a large amount of genetic...

  15. TYPES OF PEDAGOGIC INFORMATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS RELATED TO THE USE OF FRENCH PAST TENSE VERB FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аліна Андрущенко

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author built the types of pedagogic information to develop the programme to teach the usage of the most frequent French past tense verb forms in oral and written speech to students of Linguistic Higher Educational Institutions (faculties, analyzed the selection criteria of all the types of pedagogic information, as well as selected the authentic French texts to provide for the said programme, gave the examples of exercises aimed at the formation of skills related to the use of the past tense verb forms.

  16. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  17. The effects of capsaicin and capsaicinoid analogs on metabolic molecular targets in highly energetic tissues and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Nicholas P; Lambalot, Emily L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in dietary chemicals that may provide benefits for pathologies such as diabetes and obesity. Capsaicinoids found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for the "hot" or "spicy" sensation associated with these foods. Capsaicinoid consumption is also associated with enhanced metabolism, making them potentially therapeutic for metabolic disease by promoting weight loss. This review summarizes much of the current experimental evidence (ranging from basic to applied investigations) of the biochemical and molecular metabolic effects of capsaicinoids in metabolically significant cell types. Along with influencing metabolic rate, findings demonstrate capsaicinoids appear to alter molecular metabolic signaling, regulate hunger and satiety, blood metabolites, and catecholamine release. Notably, the majority of the experiments summarized herein utilized isolated supplemental or research grade capsaicinoids rather than natural food sources for experimental interventions. Additional work should be conducted using primary food sources of capsaicin to explore pharmacological, physiological, and metabolic benefits of both chronic and acute capsaicin consumption. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):229-246, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Effects of prolonged ingestion of epigallocatechin gallate on diabetes type 1-induced vascular modifications in the erectile tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombo, C; Morgado, C; Tavares, I; Neves, D

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 1 is a metabolic disease that predisposes to erectile dysfunction, partly owing to structural and molecular changes in the corpus cavernosum (CC) vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early treatment with the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cavernous diabetes-induced vascular modifications. Diabetes was induced in two groups of young Wistar rats; one group was treated with EGCG for 10 weeks. A reduction in smooth muscle content was observed in the CC of diabetic rats, which was significantly attenuated with EGCG consumption. No differences were observed among groups, neither in the expression of VEGF assayed by western blotting nor in the immunofluorescent labeling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). VEGFR2 was restricted to the endothelium, whereas VEGF and VEGFR1 co-localized in the smooth muscle layer. With regard to the Angiopoietin/Tie-2 system, no quantitative differences in Angiopoietin 1 were observed among the experimental groups. Ang1 localization was restricted to the smooth muscle layer, and receptor Tie2 and Angiopoietin 2 were both expressed in the endothelium. In brief, our results suggest that EGCG consumption prevented diabetes-induced loss of cavernous smooth muscle but does not affect vascular growth factor expression in young rats.

  19. Optimal Labor Contracts with Asymmetric Information and More than Two Types of Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena MARINESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss the optimal labor agreements between workers and firms in the situation of asymmetric information. Using a standard adverse selection model, we analyze the optimality of the labor contracts when it is the firm which has private information affecting the results of the contractual relationship. We propose an alternative procedure to solve the optimization problem, using the informational rents as variables. In the last part of the paper we derive and comment the features of the optimal labor contracts in asymmetric information.

  20. Personalizing Information Retrieval Using Interaction Behaviors in Search Sessions in Different Types of Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    When using information retrieval (IR) systems, users often pose short and ambiguous query terms. It is critical for IR systems to obtain more accurate representation of users' information need, their document preferences, and the context they are working in, and then incorporate them into the design of the systems to tailor retrieval to…

  1. Comparison of Diagnostic Information from Regular Telemetry Equipment and a Novel Patch Type Electrocardiogram Recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to compare the diagnostic information obtained using regular telemetry equipment and the novel ePatch heart monitor. The comparison was conducted by a cardiologist on 24-hour recordings from 11 admitted patients. For all 11 recordings, the same diagnostic inform...

  2. Treated of type 1 diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow and pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumizu, R.; Sugiura, K.; Iwai, H.

    1987-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) can prevent and treat insulitis and overt diabetes in NOD mice. However, ABMT alone could not be used to treat overt diabetes in NOD mice whose islets had been completely destroyed. To provide insulin-producing cells, pancreatic tissue from newborn mice was grafted under the renal capsules in combination with ABMT. The aims of concomitant ABMT are as follows. (i) It induces immunological tolerance to the donor-type major histocompatibility complex determinants and permits the host to accept subsequent pancreatic allografts from the bone marrow donor. (ii) ABMT replaces abnormal stem cells with normal stem cells. After transplantation of bone marrow plus newborn pancreas, NOD mice showed reduction of the glycosuria and a normal response in the glucose-tolerance test. Immunohistological study revealed the presence of clustered insulin-containing beta cells in the grafted pancreatic transplants. ABMT may become a viable treatment of established type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans

  3. Text, pictures or animations in instructions for use : a validation of different media for specific types of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, P.H.; Ensink, T.; Sauer, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Bieger and Glock taxonomy of information types is applied to test the relative effectiveness of text, pictures and animation in on-line help systems. On the basis of this taxonomy seven versions of an on-line help system for telephones were designed, varying text, picture and animation for the

  4. Global gene expression profiling displays a network of dysregulated genes in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skov Vibe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized arterial alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction, medial matrix accumulations, and calcifications are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D. These changes may render the vessel wall more susceptible to injury; however, the molecular characteristics of such diffuse pre-atherosclerotic changes in diabetes are only superficially known. Methods To identify the molecular alterations of the generalized arterial disease in T2D, DNA microarrays were applied to examine gene expression changes in normal-appearing, non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from 10 diabetic and 11 age-matched non-diabetic men scheduled for a coronary by-pass operation. Gene expression changes were integrated with GO-Elite, GSEA, and Cytoscape to identify significant biological pathways and networks. Results Global pathway analysis revealed differential expression of gene-sets representing matrix metabolism, triglyceride synthesis, inflammation, insulin signaling, and apoptosis. The network analysis showed a significant cluster of dysregulated genes coding for both intra- and extra-cellular proteins associated with vascular cell functions together with genes related to insulin signaling and matrix remodeling. Conclusions Our results identify pathways and networks involved in the diffuse vasculopathy present in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue in patients with T2D and confirmed previously observed mRNA-alterations. These abnormalities may play a role for the arterial response to injury and putatively for the accelerated atherogenesis among patients with diabetes.

  5. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  6. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of <10 years. Furthermore, HA and IαI amassed in follicular germinal centers and in T-cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  7. Effect of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on acute myocardial infarction; Limitation of infarct size and preservation of left ventricular function evaluated by radionuclide methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Takaya; Inou, Tetsuji; Ashihara, Toshiaki; Ogata, Ikuo; Nabeyama, Shouzou; Yamada, Akira; Murakami, Satoshi; Kodama, Mayuko; Matsui, Kanji (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide studies were performed in 18 patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving i.v. injection of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 12 hr after an attack. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography revealed that infarct size decreased by 42% in the rt-PA treated group, as compared with 25% in the control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction, as found on first-pass radionuclide angiography with Tc-99m PYP, was significantly higher in the rt-PA treated group than the control group (49% vs 38%). Radionuclide imagings were helpful in confirming myocardial salvage after rt-PA intravenous therapy. It was also considered necessary to perform rt-PA therapy as early as possible after an acute myocardial attack. (N.K.).

  8. Programming of adipose tissue miR-483-3p and GDF-3 expression by maternal diet in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferland-McCollough, D; Fernandez-Twinn, D S; Cannell, I G

    2012-01-01

    substantially modulates the capacity of adipocytes to differentiate and store lipids. We show that some of these effects are mediated by translational repression of growth/differentiation factor-3, a target of miR-483-3p. We propose that increased miR-483-3p expression in vivo, programmed by early......Nutrition during early mammalian development permanently influences health of the adult, including increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such programming are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that programmed changes in mi......RNA expression link early-life nutrition to long-term health. Specifically, we show that miR-483-3p is upregulated in adipose tissue from low-birth-weight adult humans and prediabetic adult rats exposed to suboptimal nutrition in early life. We demonstrate that manipulation of miR-483-3p levels in vitro...

  9. Types and Factors Associated With Online Health Information Seeking Among College Men in Latino Fraternities: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Enmanuel Antonio; Chaney, Elizabeth Hensleigh; Stellefson, Michael Leland; Chaney, J Don; Chavarria, Nikita; Dodd, Virginia Jones

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that a large percentage of Americans go online to seek health information, literature pertaining to online health information (OHI) seeking among college men in Latino fraternities (CMLF) has been nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) identify the types of OHI that CMLF seek and (b) to determine the factors motivating OHI seeking among CMLF. Four 1- to 1.5-hour focus groups were conducted in two public universities in Florida with 41 college-aged Latino males in an established Latino fraternity. E-mails were used to recruit fraternity members. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified that CMLF search for a variety of OHI types including searches on symptoms, diagnoses, weight loss, and treatments for conditions or diseases among other types of OHI. Factors motivating OHI seeking included informational needs of others and concerns for others, worries due to lack of health insurance, preoccupations with health condition, concerns over physical appearance, and clarification through social media. CMLF may be elicited to serve as information conduits to increase access to health information on chronic diseases for older non-English-speaking Latino adults. Lack of health insurance along with other factors in this segment of the population have led to self-diagnosis and self-treatment of illness. Thus, empirical research and health promotion on the potential risks due to self-diagnosing and self-treatment of illness is warranted among CMLF.

  10. Review of English Language Library and Information Science Weblogs: Analyzing the Link between Weblog Types and Their Technical /Content Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Karami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weblog has become well established as one of the Web 2.0 products. Given the essential nature of their job, librarians and information professionals, can use weblog as a quick and easy mean for information and knowledge sharing. The present study reviews some 150 LIS weblogs in order to examine and analyze the link between weblog types (personal, library-owned or group operated with their content and technical structure. Webometric methods were deployed for selection of the sample. The findings indicated that there is a significant correlation between the weblog types and their update frequency. The same holds between the weblog types and their content. But no such significance was observed with respect to the weblog publishing tools. The investigators believe that the links uncovered could also hold true for Iranian LIS weblogs.

  11. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens

    2016-12-01

    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between ~30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of ~100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Microscopic study of dental hard tissues in primary teeth with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II: Correlation of 3D imaging using X-ray microtomography and polarising microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R; Fearne, Janice M; Sabel, Nina; Norén, Jörgen G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the histological appearance of dental hard tissues in primary teeth from children with DI using conventional polarised light microscopy and correlate that with 3D imaging using X-ray microtomograpy (XMT) to gain a further understanding of the dentine structure of teeth diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta. Undecalcified sections of primary teeth from patients diagnosed with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II were examined using polarised light microscopy. XMT was employed for 3D-imaging and analysis of the dentine. The polarised light microscopy and XMT revealed tubular structures in the dentine seen as vacuoles coinciding with the path of normal dentinal tubules but not continuous tubules. The size of the tubules was close to that of capillaries. The largest tubular structures had a direction corresponding to where the pulp tissue would have been located during primary dentine formation. The dysfunctional mineralisation of the dentine and obliteration of the pulp evidently leaves blood vessels in the dentine which have in the main been tied off and, in the undecalcified sections, appear as vacuoles. Although from radiographs, the pulp in teeth affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfect type II appears to be completely obliterated, a network of interconnected vessels may remain. The presence of large dentinal tubules and blood vessels, or the remnants of blood vessels, could provide a pathway for bacteria from the oral cavity. This might account for why some of these teeth develop periapical abscesses in spite of apparently having no pulp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Body fat of stock-type horses predicted by rump fat thickness and deuterium oxide dilution and validated by near-infrared spectroscopy of dissected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjak, E N; Cavinder, C A; Burnett, D D; Argo, C Mc; Dinh, T T N

    2017-10-01

    Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (DO) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS. Twenty-four stock-type horses were selected to be humanely euthanized based on 3 primary criteria: geriatric, crippled, and/or unsafe. Approximately 20 h before slaughter, horses were weighed and BCS assessed to be 1 ( = 1; 433 kg), 2 ( = 1; 415 kg), 3 ( = 1; 376 kg), 4 ( = 7; 468 ± 13 kg), 5 ( = 10; 455 ± 11 kg), and 6 ( = 4; 493 ± 12 kg) and RFT was measured using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 4 h after DO infusion (0.12 g/kg BW). Deuterium oxide concentration of plasma was determined by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Horses were housed in a dry lot overnight before being individually sedated (1.1 mg xylazine/kg BW) and anesthetized using a jugular venipuncture (2.2 mg ketamine/kg BW), and potassium chloride (KCl) solution was administered to cease cardiac function before exsanguination. After euthanasia, horse carcasses were processed and dissected and tissues were collected for NIRS analysis. Body fat predicted by DO dilution was correlated with BF measured by NIRS analysis on various weight bases ( = 0.76 to 0.81, horses.

  14. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The principal neuronal gD-type 3-O-sulfotransferases and their products in central and peripheral nervous system tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Roger; Yabe, Tomio; HajMohammadi, Sassan; Rhodes, John; McNeely, Melissa; Liu, Jian; Lamperti, Edward D.; Toselli, Paul A.; Lech, Miroslaw; Spear, Patricia G.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Shworak, Nicholas W.

    2007-01-01

    Within the nervous system, heparan sulfate (HS) of the cell surface and extracellular matrix influences developmental, physiologic and pathologic processes. HS is a functionally diverse polysaccharide that employs motifs of sulfate groups to selectively bind and modulate various effector proteins. Specific HS activities are modulated by 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues, which are generated by a family of seven 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Most isoforms we herein designate as gD-type 3-OSTs because they generate HSgD+, 3-O-sulfated motifs that bind the gD envelope protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and thereby mediate viral cellular entry. Certain gD-type isoforms are anticipated to modulate neurobiologic events, because a Drosophila gD-type 3-OST is essential for a conserved neurogenic signaling pathway regulated by Notch. Information about 3-OST isoforms expressed in the nervous system of mammals is incomplete. Here, we identify the 3-OST isoforms having properties compatible with their participation in neurobiologic events. We show that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are principal isoforms of brain. We find these are gD-type enzymes, as they produce products similar to a prototypical gD-type isoform, and they can modify HS to generate receptors for HSV-1 entry into cells. Therefore, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 catalyze modifications similar or identical to those made by the Drosophila gD-type 3-OST that has a role in regulating Notch signaling. We also find that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the predominant isoforms expressed in neurons of the trigeminal ganglion, and 3-OST-2/4-type 3-O-sulfated residues occur in this ganglion and in select brain regions. Thus, 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-4 are the major neural gD-type 3-OSTs, and so are prime candidates for participating in HS-dependent neurobiologic events. PMID:17482450

  16. Granular computing and intelligent systems design with information granules of higher order and higher type

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold; Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information granules are conceptual entities that aid the perception of complex phenomena. This book looks at granular computing techniques such as algorithmic pursuits and includes diverse applications and case studies from fields such as power engineering.

  17. Utilisation of Cost Type Information in Decision Making Process Approaches on Public Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai (Andreescu) Gabriela; Ionescu (Eftene) Nicoleta; Uta Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Managerial decisions and decision making process stand for the key issues of each entity around which all activities of financial information collection, processing, review, construing, summarizing, and not only, gravitate within every organisation. Moreover, costs (calculation, review and optimization of such) are important as the whole activity of an organisation reflects itself in costs, respectively based on information concerning costs based on which managers may decide on purchasing, pr...

  18. David valve-sparing aortic root replacement: equivalent mid-term outcome for different valve types with or without connective tissue disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Kari, Fabian A; Fischbein, Michael P; Liang, David H; Beraud, Anne-Sophie; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2013-01-01

    Although implicitly accepted by many that the durability of valve-sparing aortic root replacement in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and connective tissue disorders will be inferior, this hypothesis has not been rigorously investigated. From 1993 to 2009, 233 patients (27% bicuspid aortic valve, 40% Marfan syndrome) underwent Tirone David valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Follow-up averaged 4.7 ± 3.3 years (1102 patient-years). Freedom from adverse outcomes was determined using log-rank calculations. Survival at 5 and 10 years was 98.7% ± 0.7% and 93.5% ± 5.1%, respectively. Freedom from reoperation (all causes) on the aortic root was 92.2% ± 3.6% at 10 years; 3 reoperations were aortic valve replacement owing to structural valve deterioration. Freedom from structural valve deterioration at 10 years was 96.1% ± 2.1%. No significant differences were found in survival (P = .805, P = .793, respectively), reoperation (P = .179, P = .973, respectively), structural valve deterioration (P = .639, P = .982, respectively), or any other functional or clinical endpoints when patients were stratified by valve type (tricuspid aortic valve vs bicuspid aortic valve) or associated connective tissue disorder. At the latest echocardiographic follow-up (95% complete), 202 patients (94.8%) had none or trace aortic regurgitation, 10 (4.7%) mild, 0 had moderate to severe, and 1 (0.5%) had severe aortic regurgitation. Freedom from greater than 2+ aortic regurgitation at 10 years was 95.3% ± 2.5%. Six patients sustained acute type B aortic dissection (freedom at 10 years, 90.4% ± 5.0%). Tirone David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement in carefully selected young patients was associated with excellent clinical and echocardiographic outcome in patients with either a tricuspid aortic valve or bicuspid aortic valve. No demonstrable adverse influence was found for Marfan syndrome or connective tissue disorder on durability, clinical outcome

  19. Jelly-type carbohydrate supplement in healthy subjects suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein and improves their satisfactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Oyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Many studies have reported the effects of preoperative clear fluid carbohydrate supplements; however, few studies have reported the effects of preoperative jelly-type carbohydrate supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of a jelly-type oral nutritional supplement (ONS on metabolism, redox balance by using various surrogate markers and to evaluate its excretion from the stomach. Methods: This study was conducted according to a crossover design. Participants underwent a control experiment whereby they fasted after dinner and only ingested water until the experiment. The remaining participants underwent an ONS experiment whereby they ingested 400 g of ONS before bed and another 400 g at 7:00 am. Blood samples were collected at 9:00 am. After a break of at least 24 h, participants underwent the alternate experiment. Results: Thirty minutes after intake of jelly, the gastric antrum appeared flat (the same result as that at baseline on ultrasonography. The ONS group showed significantly lower serum free fatty acid levels (100 μEq/L, p = 0.027, vs. 327 μEq/L, n = 6, total ketone bodies levels, 3-MH/creatinine levels, and oxidative stress surrogate markers. Serum insulin levels were significantly higher and participant's satisfaction was improved in the ONS group. Conclusions: We have the limitations of our methodologies as surrogate markers, compared with direct measurement of lipolysis, proteolysis and redox balance regulation. But Jelly-type ONS suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein, decreases oxidative stress and improves patient satisfaction in healthy participants, without any increased risk of aspiration. Keywords: Crossover design, Jelly-type oral nutritional supplement, Metabolism, Antioxidation, ERAS

  20. Digitization of uranium deposit information in basin. A new strategy of ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2006-01-01

    The discovered ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits in the entire world are mostly blind deposits, many of them occur in bleak desert, gobi desert, and semi-hilly land area. Exploration methods for these deposits mainly depend on great and systematic drilling. There are many large-medium size Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northern China, and over twenty of them are thick overburden basins which are mostly the virgin land for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit. Due to the comprehensive national power, geological background, uranium exploration ability, great and systematic drilling is not favorable for prospecting ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit in China. According to the exploration and prospecting experiences for mineral ore bodies at home and abroad, uranium information mapping based on geochemical survey of the basins is a new strategy for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is an economic, practical, fast and effective method, and has been manifested by the performing information digitization for oil and gas resources, gold mineral resources in China and the mapping of uranium information for whole Europe continent. (authors)

  1. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Results Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01. Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an

  2. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Ranerup, Agneta; Berg, Marie

    2011-07-07

    In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01). Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an arena for belonging instead of creating feelings of

  3. EFFECT OF INFLIXIMAB ON DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL CLASS AND RADIOLOGICAL SIGN OF BONE AND CARTILAGINOUS TISSUES ALTERATION OF JOINTS IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of this trial was evaluation of effect of treatment with blocker of tumor necrosis factor infliximab on dynamics of functional class and radiological changes of bone and cartilaginous tissue of joints in children with different clinical types of juvenile arthritis (JA. Infliximab was used according to standard scheme on 0, 2, 6 and then every 8 week by intravenous infusion. Mean single dose of infliximab was 6,8 ± 2,3 mg/kg. All children were treated with immunosuppressive agents (ciclosporin in 6% of patients, methotrexate in 60%, ciclosporin combined with methotrexate — 20%, ciclosporin with leflunomide — 5%, leflunomide with methotreate — 4% combined with anti cytokine treatment. 7 children were treated with oral glucocorticoids in mean dose 0,37 mg/kg daily. disorders in joint function and structural changes of joints of different severity (radiological sign were discovered in all patients before starting of treatment with infliximab. Duration of observation was 6 week — 2 years. Authors made a conclusion that treatment with infliximab prevents progressing of bone and cartilaginous destruction in all types of AJ, not depending on intensity of its clinical activity. This medication provides for full functional recovery of joints and elimination of features of disablement in patients with good clinical activity.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, infliximab, treatment.

  4. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24 ...

  5. Impact of Alzheimer's-Type Dementia and Information Source on the Assessment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, David W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The level of agreement between the patient and a collateral source with regard to depressive symptomatology was compared for 185 patients with Alzheimer's-type dementia (AD), 57 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 54 nondemented geriatric referrals. Findings highlight the potential insensitivity of patient report in AD. (SLD)

  6. Framing of different types of information needs within simulated work task situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    to reflect verificative, conscious topical and muddled topical information needs of each group of test participants. The study shows that it is challenging to formulate verificative simulated work task situations and to incorporate curiosity in the muddled topical simulated work task situations. The results...

  7. Three types of children’s informational web sites: an inventory of design conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna; Lentz, Leo; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Sanders, Ted

    2012-01-01

    "Purpose: Research on Web design conventions has an almost exclusive focus on Web design for adults. There is far less knowledge about Web design for children. For the first time, an overview is presented of the current design conventions for children's informational Web sites. Method: In this study

  8. 42 CFR 82.14 - What types of information could be used in dose reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment information, including: (1) Gender; (2) Date of birth; and, (3) DOE and/or AWE employment history...), technical area(s), and duration of relevant employment or tasks. (b) Worker monitoring data, including: (1... characterize the monitoring program procedures and evaluate monitoring results. (e) Workplace monitoring data...

  9. Effects of different feedback types on information integration in repeated monetary gambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHaffke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most models of risky decision making assume that all relevant information is taken into account (e.g., Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; von Neumann & Morgenstern, 1944. However, there are also some models supposing that only part of the information is considered (e.g., Brandstätter, Gigerenzer, & Hertwig, 2006; Gigerenzer & Gaissmaier, 2011. To further investigate the amount of information that is usually used for decision making, and how the use depends on feedback, we conducted a series of three experiments in which participants choose between two lotteries and where no feedback, outcome feedback, and error feedback was provided, respectively. The result show that without feedback participants mostly chose the lottery with the higher winning probability, and largely ignored the potential gains. The same result occurred when the outcome of each decision was fed back. Only after presenting error feedback (i.e., signaling whether a choice was optimal or not, participants considered probabilities as well as gains, resulting in more optimal choices. We propose that outcome feedback was ineffective, because of its probabilistic and ambiguous nature. Participants improve information integration only if provided with a consistent and deterministic signal such as error feedback.

  10. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and structure to the skin and internal organs. Epithelial tissue provides a covering for deeper body layers. The ... such as the gastrointestinal system, are made of epithelial tissue. Muscle tissue includes three types of tissue: Striated ...

  11. Development and application of traffic flow information collecting and analysis system based on multi-type video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mujie; Shang, Wenjie; Ji, Xinkai; Hua, Mingzhuang; Cheng, Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, intelligent transportation system (ITS) has already become the new direction of transportation development. Traffic data, as a fundamental part of intelligent transportation system, is having a more and more crucial status. In recent years, video observation technology has been widely used in the field of traffic information collecting. Traffic flow information contained in video data has many advantages which is comprehensive and can be stored for a long time, but there are still many problems, such as low precision and high cost in the process of collecting information. This paper aiming at these problems, proposes a kind of traffic target detection method with broad applicability. Based on three different ways of getting video data, such as aerial photography, fixed camera and handheld camera, we develop a kind of intelligent analysis software which can be used to extract the macroscopic, microscopic traffic flow information in the video, and the information can be used for traffic analysis and transportation planning. For road intersections, the system uses frame difference method to extract traffic information, for freeway sections, the system uses optical flow method to track the vehicles. The system was applied in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, and the application shows that the system for extracting different types of traffic flow information has a high accuracy, it can meet the needs of traffic engineering observations and has a good application prospect.

  12. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  13. Simple schemes for generation of W-type multipartite entangled states and realization of quantum-information concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng-Yu, Zhang; Shi-Qing, Tang; Li-Jun, Xie; Xiao-Gui, Zhan; Yin-Hua, Chen; Feng, Gao

    2010-01-01

    We propose simple schemes for generating W-type multipartite entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). Our schemes involve a largely detuned interaction of Λ-type three-level atoms with a single-mode cavity field and a classical laser, and both the symmetric and asymmetric W states can be created in a single step. Our schemes are insensitive to both the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission. With the above system, we also propose a scheme for realizing quantum-information concentration which is the reverse process of quantum cloning. In this scheme, quantum-information originally coming from a single qubit, but now distributed into many qubits, is concentrated back to a single qubit in only one step. (general)

  14. Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1.5 years of functional loading without oral hygiene: a preliminary study in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzak, Georg; Zechner, Werner; Tangl, Stefan; Vasak, Christoph; Donath, Karl; Watzek, Georg

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension (PSD) and peri-implant bone level (BL) of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures. After 1.5 years of functional loading and plaque accumulation, all implants showed severe peri-implant mucositis and comparatively high BL. A histomorphometric evaluation of the sulcus depth (SD), the dimension of the junctional epithelium (JE) and the connective tissue contact (CTC) resulted in no significant differences between the three implant designs, neither in the maxilla nor in the mandible (P>0.05). The sum of SD, JE and CTC forming the PSD was nearly the same in the maxilla (commercially pure titanium, CpTi: 3.5 mm 2.9/4.1 confidence interval (CI); titanium plasma sprayed (TPS): 3.5 mm 2.9/4.2 CI; sand blasted acid-etched (GBAE): 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI) and in the mandible (CpTi: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; TPS: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; GBAE: 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI; P>0.05). There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs (maxilla: CpTi: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; TPS: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.5CI; GBAE: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; mandible: CpTi: 0.8 mm 0.5/1.2 CI; TPS: 0.6 mm 0.4/0.9 CI; GBAE: 0.7 mm 0.5/1.1 CI; P>0.05). Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1.5 years of functional loading was not influenced by implant design and surface modifications in baboons.

  15. [Access to the internet among nurses and type of information sought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Izquierdo, Amparo; Puchades-Simó, Amparo; Marco-Gisbert, Amparo; Piquer-Bosca, Cecilia; Ferrer-Casares, Elena; Canela-Ferrer, Amparo; Gómez-Muñoz, Neus; Costa-Pastrana, M Carmen

    2008-01-01

    To identify how nurses use the Internet through a survey performed in May 2005. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. The information source was a survey sent electronically and through surface mail. The study population consisted of nursing professionals from distinct autonomous regions. The overall response rate was 40% (444 of 1,100). A total of 38.6% (184) of the nursing professionals used the Internet continually, especially men and nursing staff with a high level of English. The 5 most frequent reasons for surfing the net were searching for nursing literature (63% [264]), consulting the web pages of nursing journals (58.6% [256]), seeking information on drugs (55% [230]), seeking protocol manuals (50% [204]), and consulting the web pages of colleges of nursing (48). The behavior of nursing professionals is similar to that found among the general population in the "BBVA Foundation study of the Internet in Spain". Most nursing professionals are women. Male nursing professionals more frequently search for subjects related to nursing theory. Nurses use the Internet to search for nursing literature and consult journals, protocol manuals, and colleges of nursing, as well as to be familiar with the information aimed at patients.

  16. Effects of three types of potentially biasing information on symptom severity judgments for major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Gregory H

    2002-10-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of potentially biasing information on judgments of symptom severity pertaining to the diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE). In both experiments, clinicians viewed videotapes of two actor-simulated patients responding to questions from a standardized diagnostic interview. In Study 1, an expectancy effect was found for both patients such that prior information about a clear-cut history of depression resulted in lower rated severity of current symptoms. In addition, a halo effect was observed for one patient in Study 1 and both patients in Study 2: Clear-cut depressive nonverbal behavior (DNVB) resulted in greater rated severity for symptoms that should not have been affected (e.g., appetite/weight change, suicidal ideation). Clear-cut versus near-threshold information for the two essential criteria for MDE did not affect subsequent judgments in either study. Implications for diagnostic interviewing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 1327-1345, 2002.

  17. A Histologic Evaluation on Tissue Reaction to Three Implanted Materials (MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement Type I in the Mandible of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sasani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Nowadays Mineral Trioxide aggregate (MTA is widely used for root end fillings, pulp capping, perforation repair and other endodontic treatments.Investigations have shown similar physical and chemical properties for Portland cement and Root MTA with those described for MTA.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tissue reaction to implanted MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA in the mandible of cats.Materials and Methods: Under asepsis condition and general anesthesia, a mucoperiosteal flap, following the application of local anesthesia, was elevated to expose mandibular symphysis. Two small holes in both sides of mandible were drilled. MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA were mixed according to the manufacturers, recommendation and placed in bony cavities. In positive control group, the test material was Zinc oxide powder plus tricresoformalin. In negative control group, the bony cavities were left untreated. After 3,6 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the mandibular sections were prepared for histologic examination under light microscope. The presence and thickness of inflammation, presence of fibrosis capsule, the severity of fibrosis and bone formation were investigated. The data were submitted to Exact Fisher test, chi square test and Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis.Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the degree of inflammation,presence of fibrotic capsule, severity of fibrosis and inflammation thickness between Root MTA, Portland cement and MTA (P>0.05. There was no statistical difference in boneformation between MTA and Portland cement (P>0.05. However, bone formation was not found in any of the Root MTA specimens and the observed tissue was exclusively of fibrosis type.Conclusion: The physical and histological results observed with MTA are similar to those of Root MTA and Portland cement. Additionally, all of these three materials are biocompatible

  18. Use of information technologies when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, T. A.; Magerramova, I. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of multilayered plates and covers does not consider anisotropic properties of a construction. Calculation comes down to uniform isotropic covers and definition of one of intense and deformation conditions of constructions. The existing techniques consider work of multilayered designs by means of various coefficients. The article describes the optimized algorithm of operations when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types on the basis of the conducted researches. It is dealt with a development engineering algorithm of calculation of multi-layer constructions of walls. Software is created which allows one to carry out assessment of intense and deformation conditions of constructions of walls.

  19. Informal caregiving as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in individuals with favourable and unfavourable psychosocial work environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J; Clark, A J; Lange, T

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether informal caregiving is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and whether job strain and social support at work modify the association. METHODS: Individual participant's data were pooled from three cohort studies-the French GAZEL study, the Swedish...... Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) and the British Whitehall II study-a total of 21,243 study subjects. Informal caregiving was defined as unpaid care for a closely related person. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model, and questions on co-worker and supervisor support were...... combined in a measure of social support at work. Incident T2D was ascertained using registry-based, clinically assessed and self-reported data. RESULTS: A total of 1058 participants developed T2D during the up to 10 years of follow-up. Neither informal caregiving (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.92-1.30) nor high job...

  20. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-02-09

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  1. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanatorn Tanantong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  2. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation.

  4. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  5. Determining of the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria by means of geographic information system (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria - the catchment area of the largest Bulgarian river which flows into the Black Sea. These types are determined on the base of information about the relief and lithological substrate. The rocks in the investigated area are divided into groups accord­ing to their physical-mechanical and chemical composition, and the relief types are determined in regards to the morphographic features of the catchment area. The research is done on the base of geological and topographic maps in scale 1:200 000 and also terrain observations are taken into account. As a result of the research a map of morpholithological types (1:200 000 is made. The map shows a considerable variety of the morpholithological types in the Kamchia River basin. This variety determines the appearance of the territory and also influences on the landscape differentiation. The analyses and composition of the morpholithology map are done in GIS envi­ronment. For that purpose a GIS database of lithology and relief (topography of the Kamchia River basin is built as spatial 'overlay' analysis is done.

  6. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p periodontitis groups (p periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tissue-type plasminogen activator and C-reactive protein in acute coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the importance of inflammation and fibrinolysis for evolution of ischaemic heart disease in a cohort of initially healthy subjects. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Follow-up periods 7-15 years. SUBJECTS: Included in the study were 133 cases with coronary heart disease...... and 258 controls. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects with ischaemic heart disease identified in 1991 by the Danish National Hospital Register. Protein concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured with ELISA methods in stored serum.......005) and it was present in both the 7-9 years follow-up cohort (CRP: P = 0.014; t-PA: P = 0.001) and the 15 years follow-up cohort (CRP: P = 0.027; t-PA: P = 0.012). The best predictor of CRP was t-PA, whilst the best predictor of t-PA was triglycerides. In a logistic regression analysis model, t-PA still came out...

  8. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zou, Haidong, E-mail: zouhaidong@hotmail.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2010-06-11

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg{sup 54}-Trp{sup 63} of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition{sub .} These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  9. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  11. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing; Zou, Haidong

    2010-01-01

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg 54 -Trp 63 of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition . These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  12. Effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical porosity, non-enzymatic glycation and bone tissue mechanics in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G M; Tiwari, S; Hofbauer, C; Picke, A-K; Rauner, M; Huber, G; Peña, J A; Damm, T; Barkmann, R; Morlock, M M; Hofbauer, L C; Glüer, C-C

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases skeletal fragility; however, the contributing mechanisms and the efficacy of bone-forming agents are unclear. We studied diabetes and parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment effects on cortical porosity (Ct.Po), non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and bone mechanics in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Eleven-week old ZDF diabetic (DB) and non-diabetic (ND) rats were given 75μg/kg PTH (1-84) or vehicle 5days per week over 12weeks. The right femora and L4 vertebrae were excised, micro-CT scanned, and tested in 3-point bending and uniaxial compression, respectively. NEG of the samples was determined using fluorescence. Diabetes increased Ct.Po (vertebra (vert): +40.6%, femur (fem): +15.5% vs. ND group, pbone tissue mechanics where reductions in vertebral maximum strain (-22%) and toughness (-42%) were observed in the DB vs. ND group (pbone mechanics, which were not improved with PTH treatment. PTH therapy alone may worsen diabetic bone mechanics through formation of new bone with high AGEs cross-linking. Optimal treatment regimens must address both improvements of bone mass and glycemic control in order to successfully reduce diabetic bone fragility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Bone and diabetes". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examination of the signal transduction pathways leading to upregulation of tissue type plasminogen activator by Porphyromonas endodontalis in human pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F-M; Chen, Y-J; Chou, M-Y; Chang, Y-C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity in human pulp cells stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in the absence or presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The supernatants of P. endodontalis were used to evaluate t-PA activity in human pulp cells using casein zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, to search for possible signal transduction pathways, SB203580, U0126 and LY294002 were added to test how they modulated the t-PA activity. The main casein secreted by human pulp cells migrated at 70 kDa and represented t-PA. Secretion of t-PA was found to be stimulated with P. endodontalis during 2-day cultured period (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production respectively (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production (P > 0.05). Porphyromonas endodontalis enhances t-PA production in human pulp cells, and the signal transduction pathways p38 and MEK are involved in the inhibition of t-PA.

  14. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianyun; Wang, Yingjun; Wu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  15. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  16. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    livestock types into the operational facility types used by the epidemiological and economic model. Comparison of the resulting database with an independent survey of farms in central California shows excellent agreement between the numbers of farms for the various facility types. This suggests that the NASS data are well suited for providing a consistent set of county-level information on facility numbers and sizes that can be used in epidemiological and economic models.

  17. The Police System Reform in Georgia (Informal Power its Forms, Types and Spheres of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charkviani Tamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted notion that the major change brought by the 2003 November revolution in Georgia was the reform of the public services. Two major tasks were to be achieved for the state institutions: to monopolize the use of legitimate power on the state territory and to start providing services to the citizens. Police reform was at the heart of both these objectives. The major obstacle identified on the way of this reform was corruption. Indeed it was widely known that posts in police forces were to be purchased; policemen were involved in organized crime, extortion, and other illegal pursuits. But the corruption itself was the effect of the broader system in which patrimonial system of not distinguishing between the public office and private sphere was hybridized with the legal-rational rule, having its origin in the Soviet Union. The main subject of our research is to analyze the model of informal power network in Georgian police, to describe its configurations and identify its social actors.

  18. High Rates of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Homeless Women: Informing Public Health Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J Daniel; Cohen, Jennifer; Grimes, Barbara; Philip, Susan S; Weiser, Sheri D; Riley, Elise D

    2016-08-01

    Homeless and unstably housed women living in an urban setting are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, yet the seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) specific to impoverished women are poorly understood. Between April and October 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of sociodemographic, structural, and behavioral factors associated with prevalent HSV-2 infection (recent and historical infections) within a community-recruited cohort of homeless and unstably housed women. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify independent sociobehavioral correlates of HSV-2 infection. Among 213 women (114 HIV positive and 99 HIV negative), the median age was 49, 48% were African American, and 63% had completed high school. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 88%, and only 17% of infected women were aware of their infection. In adjusted analysis, odds of HSV-2 infection were significantly higher for those reporting at-risk drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59, 67.91), heterosexual orientation (AOR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.81, 11.69), and for those who were HIV positive (AOR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.43, 10.30). Odds of HSV-2 infection decreased as current income increased (AOR for each $500 monthly increase = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.997). There is an extremely high seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection among homeless and unstably housed women, and most are unaware of their HSV-2 status. Screening all unstably housed women for HSV-2 infection, with additional counseling for sexual risk and alcohol use, may lead to the identification of more infections and be a first step in reducing additional disease transmission.

  19. [Differences in access to Internet and Internet-based information seeking according to the type of psychiatric disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, P; Bray, A; Rerolle, C; Cognet, S; Gaillard, P; El-Hage, W

    2017-04-01

    Internet has become a major tool for patients to search for health-related information and to communicate on health. We currently lack data on how patients with psychiatric disorders access and use Internet to search for information on their mental health. This study aimed to assess, in patients followed for a psychiatric disorder (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, mood and anxiety disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders and eating disorders), prevalence of Internet access and use, and patient expectations and needs regarding the use of Internet to search for mental-health information depending on the psychiatric disorder. We conducted this cross-sectional study between May 2013 and July 2013 in 648 patients receiving psychiatric care in 8 hospitals from the Region Centre, France. We used multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, socio-educational level and professional status to compare use, expectations and needs regarding Internet-based information about the patient's psychiatric disorder (65-items self-administered questionnaires) as a function of the psychiatric disorders. We identified patients clusters with multiple correspondence analysis and ascending hierarchical classification. Although 65.6% of our population accessed Internet at home, prevalence for Internet access varied depending on the type of psychiatric disorder and was much more related to limited access to a computer and low income than to a lack of interest in the Internet. Most of the patients who used Internet were interested in having access to reliable Internet-based information on their health (76.8%), and most used Internet to search for Internet based health-information about their psychiatric disorder (58.8%). We found important differences in terms of expectations and needs depending on the patient's psychiatric disorder (e.g., higher interest in Internet-based information among patients with bipolar disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders

  20. Intelligent information data base of flow boiling characteristics in once-through steam generator for integrated type marine water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki

    1998-01-01

    Valuable experimental knowledge with flow boiling characteristics of the helical-coil type once-through steam generator was converted into an intelligent information data base program. The program was created as a windows application using the Visual Basic. Main functions of the program are as follows: (1) steady state flow boiling analysis of any helical-coil type once-through steam generator, (2) analysis and comparison with the experimental data, (3) reference and graph display of the steady state experimental data, (4) reference of the flow instability experimental data and display of the instability threshold correlated by each parameter, (5) summary of the experimental apparatus. (6) menu bar such as a help and print. In the steady state analysis, the region lengths of subcooled boiling, saturated boiling, and super-heating, and the temperature and pressure distributions etc. for secondary water calculated. Steady state analysis results agreed well with the experimental data, with the exception of the pressure drop at high mass velocity. The program will be useful for the design of not only the future integrated type marine water reactor but also the small sized water reactor with helical-coil type steam generator

  1. Use of Tissue-Specific MicroRNA to Control Pathology of Wild-Type Adenovirus without Attenuation of Its Ability to Kill Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawood, R.; Chen, H.H.; Carroll, F.; Bazan-Peregrino, M.; Rooijen, van N.; Seymour, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective

  2. In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in control and thrombus-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko

    1992-01-01

    In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Tc-99m-rt-PA) was studied in control rats and thrombus-bearing rats. To compare fibrin binding in vivo with that in vitro, Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was also imaged. Rapid blood clearance and accumulation into the liver and kidneys were observed in both control and thrombus-bearing rats. Accumulation in the stomach, which indicates instability of labeled rt-PA in vivo, was very low until two hours after injection. Tc-99m-rt-PA accumulation in the clots was higher than that in skeletal and heart muscles, although it was lower than in blood, liver, and kidneys. Administration of aprotinin, an antifibrinolytic agent, significantly prolonged clot accumulation of Tc-99m-rt-PA at 30 minutes after injection. These results suggest that fibrinolysis is responsible for the low rt-PA concentration in the clots. A scintigram of a thrombus-bearing rat demonstrated increased radioactivity at the clot forming site. On the other hand, Tc-99m-labeled human albumin, which was used as a control, was not accumulated in the clot. Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was clearly imaged. By comparison, in vivo fibrin binding of Tc-99m-rt-PA was much lower than in vitro. The reasons for low thrombus uptake in vivo may be: (1) biochemical inactivation of extrinsically administered rt-PA by t-PA inhibitor; (2) fibrinolysis by rt-PA activated plasminogen. Overcoming these limitations will enable Tc-99m-rt-PA to reach the stage of clinical trials. (author)

  3. Tissue-specific inactivation of type 2 deiodinase reveals multilevel control of fatty acid oxidation by thyroid hormone in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M L C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ignacio, Daniele L; Moises, Caio C S; Ferreira, Alexander R; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xianyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Gang, E-mail: imwugang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xianyun; Wang Yingjun; Wu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. ► Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. ► Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly(ε-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and 1 H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  6. The Effect of a Vegetarian vs Conventional Hypocaloric Diabetic Diet on Thigh Adipose Tissue Distribution in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Klementova, Marta; Herynek, Vit; Skoch, Antonin; Herynek, Stepan; Hill, Martin; Mari, Andrea; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the effects of a vegetarian and a conventional diet on thigh adipose tissue distribution in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventy-four subjects with T2D were randomly assigned to either follow a vegetarian diet (V, n = 37) or a control group who followed an isocaloric conventional anti-diabetic diet (C, n = 37). Both diets were calorie restricted (-500 kcal/day). To measure insulin sensitivity, the hyperinsulinemic (1 mU.kg -1 .min -1 ) isoglycemic clamp was conducted. β-Cell function was assessed using a mathematical model after a test meal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh was performed. All subjects were examined at 0, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance and a multivariate regression model. Greater reduction was observed in total leg area in V (-13.6 cm 2 [95% confidence interval [CI], -14.2 to -12.9] in V vs -9.9 cm 2 [95% CI, -10.6 to -9.2] in C; Gxt p diets (Gxt, p = 0.64). Subfascial fat was reduced only in response to a vegetarian diet (-0.82 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.55] cm 2 in V vs -0.44 [95% CI, -0.78 to +0.02] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.04). The reduction in intramuscular fat tended to be greater in response to a vegetarian diet (-1.78 [95% CI, -2.26 to -1.27] cm 2 in V vs -0.57 [95% CI, -1.06 to -0.09] cm 2 in C; Gxt, p = 0.12). Changes in subcutaneous and subfascial fat correlated with changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and β-cell insulin sensitivity. After adjustment for changes in body mass index (BMI), correlations remained significant for changes in fasting plasma glucose and β-cell insulin sensitivity and with changes in triglycerides. Our data indicate the importance of both subcutaneous and subfascial fat in relationship to glucose and lipid metabolism. BMI , body mass index; C , control group; FPG , fasting plasma glucose; Gxt , interaction between group and time; HbA1c , glycated hemoglobin; MCR

  7. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  8. Validation of an information-motivation-behavioral skills model of self-care among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Wang, Jingli; Zhu, Yaocheng; Yu, Jinming

    2013-02-04

    Self-care is a crucial component of diabetes management. But comprehensive behavior change frameworks are needed to provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of diabetes self-care programs in diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Chinese adults with Type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 222 Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes was conducted in a primary care center. We collected information on demographics, provider-patient communication (knowledge), social support (motivation), self-efficacy (behavioral skills), and diabetes self-care (behavior). The values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also obtained. Measured variable path analyses were used to the IMB framework. Provider-patient communication (β = 0.12, p = .037), and social support (β = 0.19, p = .007) and self-efficacy (β = 0.41, p motivation and behavioral skills to effect behavior change.

  9. Perceptions of Radiation Oncologists and Urologists on Sources and Type of Evidence to Inform Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Leona C.; Delpe, Sophia; Shah, Nilay D.; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Nguyen, Paul L.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Ranasinghe, Weranja K.B.; Kim, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists about the type of resources used and the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice in localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From a random sample, 1422 physicians were mailed a survey assessing the types of information used and what level of evidence could alter their clinical practice in prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify differences in physician characteristics for each outcome. Results: Survey response rates were similar for radiation oncologists and urologists (44% vs 46%; P=.46). Specialty-specific journals represented the most commonly used resource for informing the clinical practice for radiation oncologists (65%) and urologists (70%). Relative to radiation oncologists, urologists were less likely to report utilizing top-tier medical journals (25% vs 39%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; P=.01) or cancer journals (22% vs 51%; adjusted OR 0.50; P<.001) but more likely to rely on clinical guidelines (46% vs 38%; adjusted OR 1.6; P=.006). Both radiation oncologists and urologists most commonly reported large randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence to change treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer (85% vs 77%; P=.009). Conclusions: Both specialties rely on their own specialty-specific journals and view randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice. Our study provides a context on meaningful ways of disseminating evidence for localized prostate cancer

  10. PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue sarcoma: accuracy, reliability and practicality of interactive point-based and automated mutual information techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somer, Edward J.R.; Marsden, Paul K.; Benatar, Nigel A.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Goodey, Joanne; Smith, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The fusion of functional positron emission tomography (PET) data with anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography images, using a variety of interactive and automated techniques, is becoming commonplace, with the technique of choice dependent on the specific application. The case of PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue is complicated by a lack of conspicuous anatomical features and deviation from the rigid-body model. Here we compare a point-based external marker technique with an automated mutual information algorithm and discuss the practicality, reliability and accuracy of each when applied to the study of soft tissue sarcoma. Ten subjects with suspected sarcoma in the knee, thigh, groin, flank or back underwent MR and PET scanning after the attachment of nine external fiducial markers. In the assessment of the point-based technique, three error measures were considered: fiducial localisation error (FLE), fiducial registration error (FRE) and target registration error (TRE). FLE, which represents the accuracy with which the fiducial points can be located, is related to the FRE minimised by the registration algorithm. The registration accuracy is best characterised by the TRE, which is the distance between corresponding points in each image space after registration. In the absence of salient features within the target volume, the TRE can be measured at fiducials excluded from the registration process. To assess the mutual information technique, PET data, acquired after physically removing the markers, were reconstructed in a variety of ways and registered with MR. Having applied the transform suggested by the algorithm to the PET scan acquired before the markers were removed, the residual distance between PET and MR marker-pairs could be measured. The manual point-based technique yielded the best results (RMS TRE =8.3 mm, max =22.4 mm, min =1.7 mm), performing better than the automated algorithm (RMS TRE =20.0 mm, max =30.5 mm, min =7.7 mm) when

  11. Evaluation of the Precision ID Ancestry Panel for crime case work: A SNP typing assay developed for typing of 165 ancestral informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vania; Mogensen, Helle S; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2017-05-01

    The application of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) methodologies in forensic genetics is promising and it is gradually being implemented in forensic genetic case work. One of the major advantages of these technologies is that several traditional electrophoresis assays can be combined into one single MPS assay. This reduces both the amount of sample used and the time of the investigations. This study assessed the utility of the Precision ID Ancestry Panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, USA) in forensic genetics. This assay was developed for the Ion Torrent PGM™ System and genotypes 165 ancestry informative SNPs. The performance of the assay and the accompanying software solution for ancestry inference was assessed by typing 142 Danes and 98 Somalis. Locus balance, heterozygote balance, and noise levels were calculated and future analysis criteria for crime case work were estimated. Overall, the Precision ID Ancestry Panel performed well, and only minor changes to the recommended protocol were implemented. Three out of the 165 loci (rs459920, rs7251928, and rs7722456) had consistently poor performance, mainly due to misalignment of homopolymeric stretches. We suggest that these loci should be excluded from the analyses. The different statistical methods for reporting ancestry in forensic genetic case work are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of cognitive structures in conditioned-reflex behavior in monkeys: Relationship with type of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, K N; Chueva, I V

    2009-02-01

    The characteristics of learning processes and long-term memory (LTM) were studied in rhesus macaques discriminating visual stimuli (geometrical figures of different shapes, sizes, and orientations, and with different spatial relationships between image components). Trained monkeys were tested for the ability to perform invariant recognition after stimulus transformation, i.e., changes in size, shape, number of objects, and spatial relationships. Analysis of behavioral characteristics (correct solutions, refusals to decide, motor response times) revealed differences associated with the type of visual information. When monkeys discriminated between black and white geometrical figures of different shapes and orientations, as well as black-and-white figures with different shapes or orientations, the learning time was short and transformation of the stimuli had no effect on correct solutions: there was complete transfer of learning. When monkeys discriminated figures of different sizes or complex images with different spatial relationships, the learning time was significantly greater. Changes in the size and shape of figures led to significant reductions in correct solutions and significant increases in refusals to solve the task and in motor reaction times. Invariance of discrimination in this case appeared after additional training. The results obtained here showed that in conditioned reflex learning, the sensory processing of stimuli has the result that discriminatory features are formed in LTM, i.e., cognitive structures (functional neurophysiological mechanisms), these supporting the classification of visual images. The temporal conditioned link of the executive reaction is established with these. Their formation is determined by the type of sensory information and the existence in LTM of separate subsystems for spatial and non-spatial information.

  13. Longitudinal testing of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of self-care among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean; Houle, Janie

    2016-11-01

    The study's aim was to test prospective associations between information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB model) and self-care behaviors (diet, exercise, and blood glucose testing) among patients with type 2 diabetes. 295 participants were surveyed one (T1), six (T2), and 12 (T3) months after a diabetes course. Cross-lagged panel analyses were performed to test unidirectional and bidirectional relationships between IMB model variables and self-care behaviors. Blood-glucose testing at T1 was positively related to information at T2, which in turn was positively related to blood-glucose testing at T3. Controlled motivation at T1 was positively related to exercise at T2. Autonomous motivation at T2 was positively associated with exercise at T3. There was a positive bidirectional relationship across time between behavioral skills and general diet. Patterns of prospective associations between IMB model variables and diabetes self-care depend on the self-care behavior considered. This model offers an interesting framework for examining how diabetes self-care behaviors evolve. Diabetes education programs should provide information about current health status and promote experiential learning to help patients realize the impact of their behaviors on glycemic control; should foster autonomous motivation for long-term change; and should build on patients' strengths and skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  15. Information and Risk Modification Trial (INFORM): design of a randomised controlled trial of communicating different types of information about coronary heart disease risk, alongside lifestyle advice, to achieve change in health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silarova, Barbora; Lucas, Joanne; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Girling, Christine; Lawrence, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Stuart; Moore, Carmel; Payne, Rupert A; Sharp, Stephen J; Shefer, Guy; Tolkien, Zoe; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Danesh, John; Griffin, Simon

    2015-09-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Primary prevention of CVD requires cost-effective strategies to identify individuals at high risk in order to help target preventive interventions. An integral part of this approach is the use of CVD risk scores. Limitations in previous studies have prevented reliable inference about the potential advantages and the potential harms of using CVD risk scores as part of preventive strategies. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of providing different types of information about coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, alongside lifestyle advice, on health-related behaviours. In a parallel-group, open randomised trial, we are allocating 932 male and female blood donors with no previous history of CVD aged 40-84 years in England to either no intervention (control group) or to one of three active intervention groups: i) lifestyle advice only; ii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic characteristics; and iii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include: objectively measured dietary behaviours; cardiovascular risk factors; current medication and healthcare usage; perceived risk; cognitive evaluation of provision of CHD risk scores; and psychological outcomes. The follow-up assessment takes place 12 weeks after randomisation. The experiences, attitudes and concerns of a subset of participants will be also studied using individual interviews and focus groups. The INFORM study has been designed to provide robust findings about the short-term effects of providing different types of information on estimated 10-year CHD risk and lifestyle advice on health-related behaviours. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17721237 . Registered 12 January 2015.

  16. Application of risk-informed methods to in-service piping inspection in Framatome type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hoi; Lee, Jeong Seok; Yun, Eun Sub

    2014-01-01

    The Pressurized water reactor owners group (PWROG) developed and applied a risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) program, as an alternative to the existing ASME Section XI sampling inspection method. The RI-ISI programs enhance overall safety by focusing inspections of piping at high safety significance (HSS) locations where failure mechanisms are likely to be present. Additionally, the RI-ISI program can reduce nondestructive evaluation (NDE) exams, man-rem exposure for inspectors, and inspection time, among other benefits. The RI-ISI method of in-service piping inspection was applied to 3 units (KSNPs: Korea standard nuclear power plants) and is being deployed to the other units. In this paper, the results of RI-ISI for a Framatome type (France CPI) nuclear power plant are presented. It was concluded that application of RI-ISI to the plant could enhance and maintain plant safety, as well as provide the benefits of greater reliability.

  17. An application of risk-informed evaluation on MOVs and AOVs for Taiwan BWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, K.; Chen, K.T.; Li, Y.C.; Hwang, S.H.; Chien, F.T.; Kang, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Implementing a risk-informed inservice testing (RI-IST) program provides a good aspect to the nuclear power plant licensee as an alternating program in the current ASME Section XI and 10 CFR 50.55a relevant testing programs. RI-IST concentrates testing resources on highly significant components, reduces excess testing burden, increases plant's availability, decreases dose rate on the plant's staff and also reduces cost on plant's operation and maintenance under nuclear safety expectations. Furthermore, RI-IST also gives a feature on prospective licensing change basis to a nuclear power plant's licensee. This study will focus on safety-related and PRA-molded motor-operated valves (MOVs) and air-operated valves (AOVs) under the inservice testing program in boiling water reactor (BWR)-type nuclear power plant. As MOVs and AOVs have crucial safety functions throughout the nuclear power plant's safety systems, the steady operation and performance of MOVs and AOVs will definitely ensure that the nuclear power plant operates under safety expectations; therefore, this is the key reason to implement risk-informed evaluation for MOVs and AOVs in this study and being able to provide the safety significance classification for MOVs and AOVs under the current IST program to the plant's management. As a pilot study of RI-IST, the methodology of qualitative assessment will incorporate with probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyzing MOVs' and AOVs' safety significance within the current PRA model. The evaluating result will then classify its safety significance into a high-safety significant component (HSSC) and a low-safety significant component (LSSC) for MOVs and AOVs based on relevant regulatory criteria. With this initiating achievement, it can provide a cornerstone for further studies on the other types of valves and pumps in RI-IST program and also provide a valuable reference as proposing license change to the licensee

  18. An Examination of How Ratings of Airlines are Effected by Different Types of Information: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Abdullah Selim

    Many dynamics directly or indirectly influence the decision-making process. An individual's demographic features, such as gender, country of origin, and emotions are some of the dynamics. In the aviation domain, air passengers purchase their air travel tickets under those dynamics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the airline type, gender of participants, and participants' country of origin had an effect on ratings of an individual's perception of safety and willingness to fly, and which emotions had a mediating effect on this relationship. The study included Lufthansa Airlines and Turkish Airlines from Europe. The affect was the participants' feeling outcomes of presented airline information. The feelings were Ekman and Friesen's (1971) universal emotions that include happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness. The results of the study indicated that airline type, gender, and country of origin had a statistically significant effect and significant interaction on safety perception and willingness to fly. Also, emotions were found significant mediators on the mediation paths. Particularly happiness, fear, anger, and disgust emotions had a significant influence on participants' decision outcomes.

  19. Long-Term Results Comparing Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Autogenous Connective Tissue Grafts With Coronally Advanced Flaps for Treatment of Dehiscence-Type Recession Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd

    2016-03-01

    Although connective tissue grafts with coronally advanced flaps (CTG + CAF) have been deemed the gold standard for recession defect treatment, to provide adequate recession coverage, the periodontal profession continues to pursue lower-morbidity, patient-preferred substitutes that are more convenient and of unlimited supply. Using a randomized, controlled, and masked contralateral comparison of matched-pair, within-patient recession defects, collagen matrix (CMX) + CAF therapy was compared with CTG + CAF at 6 months and 5 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of root coverage (RC). Secondary efficacy parameters included width of keratinized tissue (KTw), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinician rating of color and texture compared with surrounding tissues, and patient esthetic satisfaction. Seventeen patients were available for the 5-year recall. Mean RC between 6 months and 5 years changed from 89.5% to 77.6% for CMX + CAF test sites and 97.5% to 95.5% for CTG + CAF control sites. KTw averaged >3 mm for both test and control sites at 5 years. PD was equivalent at all time points. The 6-month to 5-year changes for RC, KTw, and PD were not significantly different between therapies. CAL change from 6 months to 5 years was greater for CTG + CAF (0.26 mm) than CMX + CAF (-0.21 mm). Tissue color match to surrounding tissues remained similar for both therapies throughout the study. There was a difference in tissue texture at both 6 months and 5 years, with CMX + CAF sites tending to be "equally firm" and CTG + CAF sites "more firm." Patient satisfaction was high, with no statistical difference in satisfaction between therapies at any time point. When balanced with patient-reported satisfaction, clinical rankings of esthetics, and control and historical RC results reported by other investigators, CMX + CAF appears to present a viable and long-term alternative to traditional CTG + CAF therapy.

  20. The role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promsudthi, A; Poomsawat, S; Limsricharoen, W

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes is one important risk factor of chronic periodontitis. However, the roles of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4, which are implicated in the inflammatory process in both chronic periodontitis and diabetes, have not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether TLR2 and TLR4 might be involved in the relationship between chronic periodontitis and diabetes by examining TLR2 and TLR4 expression in gingival tissues from subjects with chronic periodontitis without diabetes (CP) and with diabetes (CP+DM) and from periodontally healthy subjects without diabetes (PH) and with diabetes (PH+DM). Gingival tissues were collected from 23 CP subjects, 21 CP+DM subjects, 22 PH subjects and 20 PH+DM subjects. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in gingival tissues was determined using an immunohistochemical method. In gingival epithelium, staining patterns and intensity levels of TLR2 and TLR4 expression were studied. In connective tissues, the percentages of TLR2- and TLR4-positive cells were calculated. The intensity levels and the percentages of positive cells were statistically analyzed. Chronic periodontitis or diabetes showed no significant effect on TLR2 expression in the oral epithelium. However, diabetes increased the expression of TLR2 in sulcular epithelium and changed the pattern of TLR2 expression in gingival epithelium. Chronic periodontitis decreased the expression of TLR4 in gingival epithelium. In connective tissue under sulcular epithelium, CP+DM subjects showed statistically significant higher percentages of TLR2- and TLR4-positive cells compared with PH and PH+DM subjects. Our results suggest that hyperglycemia and chronic periodontitis had effects on TLR2 and TLR4 expression in gingival tissue. The differences in TLR2 and TLR4 expression could contribute to a greater inflammatory response, leading to periodontal disease initiation and progression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cost effectiveness and value of information analyses of islet cell transplantation in the management of 'unstable' type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Klemens; Shapiro, A M James; Senior, Peter A; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-04-09

    Islet cell transplantation is a method to stabilize type 1 diabetes patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and unstable blood glucose levels by reducing insulin dependency and protecting against severe hypoglycemia through restoring endogenous insulin secretion. This study analyses the current cost-effectiveness of this technology and estimates the value of further research to reduce uncertainty around cost-effectiveness. We performed a cost-utility analysis using a Markov cohort model with a mean patient age of 49 to simulate costs and health outcomes over a life-time horizon. Our analysis used intensive insulin therapy (IIT) as comparator and took the provincial healthcare provider perspective. Cost and effectiveness data for up to four transplantations per patient came from the University of Alberta hospital. Costs are expressed in 2012 Canadian dollars and effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and life years. To characterize the uncertainty around expected outcomes, we carried out a probabilistic sensitivity analysis within the Bayesian decision-analytic framework. We performed a value-of-information analysis to identify priority areas for future research under various scenarios. We applied a structural sensitivity analysis to assess the dependence of outcomes on model characteristics. Compared to IIT, islet cell transplantation using non-generic (generic) immunosuppression had additional costs of $150,006 ($112,023) per additional QALY, an average gain of 3.3 life years, and a probability of being cost-effective of 0.5 % (28.3 %) at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. At this threshold the non-generic technology has an expected value of perfect information (EVPI) of $260,744 for Alberta. This increases substantially in cost-reduction scenarios. The research areas with the highest partial EVPI are costs, followed by natural history, and effectiveness and safety. Current transplantation technology provides substantial

  2. Type I STS markers are more informative than cytochrome B in phylogenetic reconstruction of the Mustelidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K

    2003-10-01

    We compared the utility of five nuclear gene segments amplified with type I sequence-tagged site (STS) primers versus the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae, a large and ecomorphologically diverse family of mammalian carnivores. Maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of separate and combined data sets were used to address questions regarding the levels of homoplasy, incongruence, and information content within and among loci. All loci showed limited resolution in the separate analyses because of either a low amount of informative variation (nuclear genes) or high levels of homoplasy (cyt b). Individually or combined, the nuclear gene sequences had less homoplasy, retained more signal, and were more decisive, even though cyt b contained more potentially informative variation than all the nuclear sequences combined. We obtained a well-resolved and supported phylogeny when the nuclear sequences were combined. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the total combined data (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences) were able to better accommodate the high levels of homoplasy in the cyt b data than was an equally weighted maximum parsimony analysis. Furthermore, partition Bremer support analyses of the total combined tree showed that the relative support of the nuclear and mitochondrial genes differed according to whether or not the homoplasy in the cyt b gene was downweighted. Although the cyt b gene contributed phylogenetic signal for most major groupings, the nuclear gene sequences were more effective in reconstructing the deeper nodes of the combined tree in the equally weighted parsimony analysis, as judged by the variable-length bootstrap method. The total combined data supported the monophyly of the Lutrinae (otters), whereas the Melinae (badgers) and Mustelinae (weasels, martens) were both paraphyletic. The American badger, Taxidea taxus (Taxidiinae), was the most

  3. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  4. P2X receptor-ion channels in the inflammatory response in adipose tissue and pancreas-potential triggers in onset of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Solini, Anna

    2018-01-01

    -cell and adipose tissue. In the former, P2Y and possibly some P2X receptors-ion channels regulate insulin secretion, but it is still debated whether excessive ATP can via P2X receptors impair β-cell function directly or whether cell damage is due to an excessive systemic release of cytokines. In human adipocytes......, the P2X7 receptor promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines, at least in part via inflammasome activation, likely contributing to systemic insulin resistance. This receptor-inflammasome system is also strongly activated in macrophages infiltrating both pancreas and adipose tissue, mediating...

  5. Bilgi Politikalari Açısından Kapitalist Ekonomik Sistemde Bilgi Toplumu Olgusu / Information Policies of Information Societies in the Realm of Capitalistic Type of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Fenerci

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information society which is a contemporary fact, represents a new economic, social and political era where information and information technologies are primary instruments of production. Actually this fact flourishes and disseminates in the capitalist system. Both capitalist system and information society offer oppurtunities and consist challenges especially for developing countries. In order to get benefit from oppurtunities and reduce risks, the information policies should be formulated rationally. However the information policies should not be asserted only as a problem of implementing infrastructure.

  6. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  7. Three-Dimensional Coculture of Meniscal Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Collagen Type I Hydrogel on a Small Intestinal Matrix-A Pilot Study Toward Equine Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antje; Ribitsch, Iris; Reboredo, Jenny; Dürr, Julia; Egerbacher, Monika; Jenner, Florien; Walles, Heike

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal injuries are the most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries in the equine stifle joint. Due to the inherent limited repair potential of meniscal tissue, meniscal injuries do not only affect the meniscus itself but also lead to impaired joint homeostasis and secondary osteoarthritis. The presented study compares 3D coculture constructs of primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and meniscus cells (MC) seeded on three different scaffolds-a cell-laden collagen type I hydrogel (Col I gel), a tissue-derived small intestinal matrix scaffold (SIS-muc) and a combination thereof-for their qualification to be applied for meniscus tissue engineering. To investigate cell attachment of primary MC and MSC on SIS-muc matrix SEM pictures were performed. For molecular analysis, lyophilized samples of coculture constructs with different cell ratios (100% MC, 100% MSC, and 50% MC and 50% MSC, 20% MC, and 80% MSC) were digested and analyzed for DNA and GAG content. Active matrix remodeling of 3D coculture models was indicated by matrix metalloproteinases detection. For comparison of tissue-engineered constructs with the histologic architecture of natural equine menisci, paired lateral and medial menisci of 15 horses representing different age groups were examined. A meniscus phenotype with promising similarity to native meniscus tissue in its GAG/DNA expression in addition to Col I, Col II, and Aggrecan production was achieved using a scaffold composed of Col I gel on SIS-muc combined with a coculture of MC and MSC. The results encourage further development of this scaffold-cell combination for meniscus tissue engineering.

  8. Positive- and negative-acting regulatory elements contribute to the tissue-specific expression of INNER NO OUTER, a YABBY-type transcription factor gene in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Marissa K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INNER NO OUTER (INO gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element that when present in quadruplicate can produce low-level expression in the normal INO pattern. Results Significant redundancy in activity between different regions of the INO promoter is demonstrated. For specific regulatory elements, multimerization or the addition of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S general enhancer was able to activate expression of reporter gene constructs that were otherwise incapable of expression on their own. A new promoter element, POS6, is defined and is shown to include sufficient positive regulatory information to reproduce the endogenous pattern of expression in ovules, but other promoter regions are necessary to fully suppress expression outside of ovules. The full-length INO promoter, but not any of the INO promoter deletions tested, is able to act as an enhancer-blocking insulator to prevent the ectopic activation of expression by the 35S enhancer. Sequence conservation between the promoter regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa aligns closely with the functional definition of the POS6 and POS9 regions, and with a defined INO minimal promoter. The B. oleracea INO promoter is sufficient to promote a similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis to that observed for the Arabidopsis promoter. Conclusions At least two independent regions of the INO promoter contain sufficient regulatory information to direct the specific pattern but not the level of INO gene expression. These regulatory regions act in a partially redundant manner to promote the expression in a specific pattern in the ovule and

  9. The working out of architectural concept for a new type public building — multi-information and education center by using information technologies and mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Владимирович Боровиков

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural concept of multifunctional information and educational center and its implementation is given in the author's project. Advanced information technology and mathematical models used in the development of the author project.

  10. Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Scintigraphy of the Lower Limbs in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of tissue perfusion as a hemodynamic consequence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD in diabetic patients is of great importance in the management of these patients.We present a noninvasive, functional method of 99mTc-MIBI (methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile tissue-muscle perfusion scintigraphy (TMPS of the lower limbs, which assesses tissue perfusion in basal conditions (“rest” study and exercise conditions (“stress” study. Emphasis is given on perfusion reserve (PR as an important indicator of preservation of microcirculation and its local autoregulatory mechanisms in PAD. We present a case of a 71-year-old male diabetic patient with skin ulcers of the right foot and an ankle-brachial index >1.2 (0.9-1.1. Dynamic phase TMPS of the lower limbs showed decreased and late arterial vascularization of the right calf (RC with lower percentage of radioactivity in the 1st minute: RC 66%, left calf (LC 84%. PR was borderline with a value of 57% for LC and decreased for RC (42%. Functional assessment of hemodynamic consequences of PAD is important in evaluating both advanced and early PAD, especially the asymptomatic form. The method used to determine the TMPS of the lower limbs, can differentiate subtle changes in microcirculation and tissue perfusion

  11. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  12. Composite cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: crosstalk between different types of MSCs in cell sheet facilitates complex periodontal-like tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Shiyu; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Qiu; Ding, Yin; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-14

    Tissue-engineering strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell sheets have been widely used for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, given the complexity in periodontal structure, the regeneration methods using a single species of MSC could not fulfill the requirement for periodontal regeneration. We researched the interaction between the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSCs), and constructed a composite cell sheet comprising both of the above MSCs to regenerate complex periodontium-like structures in nude mice. Our results show that by co-culturing PDLSCs and JBMMSCs, the expressions of bone and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes and proteins were significantly improved in both MSCs. Further investigations showed that, compared to the cell sheet using PDLSCs or JBMMSCs, the composite stem cell sheet (CSCS), which comprises these two MSCs, expressed higher levels of bone- and ECM-related genes and proteins, and generated a composite structure more similar to the native periodontal tissue physiologically in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the crosstalk between PDLSCs and JBMMSCs in cell sheets facilitate regeneration of complex periodontium-like structures, providing a promising new strategy for physiological and functional regeneration of periodontal tissue.

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 02: Developing personal responsibility for fuels reduction: Types of information to encourage proactive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fuels management responsibilities may include providing local property owners with the information for taking responsibility for reducing fuels on their land. This fact sheet discusses three different types of information that may be useful in programs to engage property owners in fuel reduction activities.

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess outcome disparities in patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Estella M; Balsbaugh, Thomas; Nuovo, Jim; Tandon, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) tools can help expand our understanding of disparities in health outcomes within a community. The purpose of this project was (1) to demonstrate the methods to link a disease management registry with a GIS mapping and analysis program, (2) to address the challenges that occur when performing this link, and (3) to analyze the outcome disparities resulting from this assessment tool in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used registry data derived from the University of California Davis Health System's electronic medical record system to identify patients with diabetes mellitus from a network of 13 primary care clinics in the greater Sacramento area. This information was converted to a database file for use in the GIS software. Geocoding was performed and after excluding those who had unknown home addresses we matched 8528 unique patient records with their respective home addresses. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the Geolytics, Inc. (East Brunswick, NJ), a provider of US Census Bureau data, with 2008 estimates and projections. Patient, socioeconomic, and demographic data were then joined to a single database. We conducted regression analysis assessing A1c level based on each patient's demographic and laboratory characteristics and their neighborhood characteristics (socioeconomic status [SES] quintile). Similar analysis was done for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After excluding ineligible patients, the data from 7288 patients were analyzed. The most notable findings were as follows: There was, there was found an association between neighborhood SES and A1c. SES was not associated with low-density lipoprotein control. GIS methodology can assist primary care physicians and provide guidance for disease management programs. It can also help health systems in their mission to improve the health of a community. Our analysis found that neighborhood SES was a barrier to optimal glucose

  15. A portrait of tissue phosphoprotein stability in the clinical tissue procurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Virginia; Edmiston, Kirsten H; Heiby, Michael; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Sciro, Manuela; Merritt, Barbara; Banks, Stacey; Deng, Jianghong; VanMeter, Amy J; Geho, David H; Pastore, Lucia; Sennesh, Joel; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the preanalytical fluctuations of phosphoproteins during tissue procurement for molecular profiling. This information is crucial to establish guidelines for the reliable measurement of these analytes. To develop phosphoprotein profiles of tissue subjected to the trauma of excision, we measured the fidelity of 53 signal pathway phosphoproteins over time in tissue specimens procured in a community clinical practice. This information provides strategies for potential surrogate markers of stability and the design of phosphoprotein preservative/fixation solutions. Eleven different specimen collection time course experiments revealed augmentation (+/-20% from the time 0 sample) of signal pathway phosphoprotein levels as well as decreases over time independent of tissue type, post-translational modification, and protein subcellular location (tissues included breast, colon, lung, ovary, and uterus (endometrium/myometrium) and metastatic melanoma). Comparison across tissue specimens showed an >20% decrease of protein kinase B (AKT) Ser-473 (p 20% increases within 90-min postprocurement. Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase Ser-1177 did not change over the time period evaluated with breast or leiomyoma tissue. Treatment with phosphatase or kinase inhibitors alone revealed that tissue kinase pathways are active ex vivo. Combinations of kinase and phosphatase inhibitors appeared to stabilize proteins that exhibited increases in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors alone (ATF-2 Thr-71, SAPK/JNK Thr-183/Tyr-185, STAT1 Tyr-701, JAK1 Tyr-1022/1023, and PAK1/PAK2 Ser-199/204/192/197). This time course study 1) establishes the dynamic nature of specific phosphoproteins in excised tissue, 2) demonstrates augmented phosphorylation in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors, 3) shows that kinase inhibitors block the upsurge in phosphorylation of phosphoproteins, 4) provides a rational strategy for room temperature preservation of proteins, and 5) constitutes a

  16. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  17. In-vivo quantitative measurement of tissue oxygen saturation of human webbing using a transmission type continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizimu, Tuerxun; Adachi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Takashi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takahashi, Nozomi; Nakada, Taka-aki; Oda, Shigeto; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for monitoring tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Many commercial NIRS devices are presently available. However, the precision of those devices is relatively poor because they are using the reflectance-model with which it is difficult to obtain the blood volume and other unchanged components of the tissue. Human webbing is a thin part of the hand and suitable to measure spectral transmittance. In this paper, we present a method for measuring StO2 of human webbing from a transmissive continuous-wave nearinfrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) data. The method is based on the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and it consists of two steps. In the first step, we give a pressure to the upstream region of the measurement point to perturb the concentration of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin as remaining the other components and measure the spectral signals. From the measured data, spectral absorbance due to the components other than hemoglobin is calculated. In the second step, spectral measurement is performed at arbitrary time instance and the spectral absorbance obtained in the step 1 is subtracted from the measured absorbance. The tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is estimated from the remained data. The method was evaluated on an arterial occlusion test (AOT) and a venous occlusion test (VOT). In the evaluation experiment, we confirmed that reasonable values of StO2 were obtained by the proposed method.

  18. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH 3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH 2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH 3 symmetric) and 2848 cm -1 (CH 2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH 3 to CH 2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed

  19. Expression of Leptin and Visfatin in Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, Noha A; Amr, Eman M; Shaker, Olfat G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the protein and gene expression of leptin and visfatin in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), patients with CP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and healthy individuals. The study includes 50 individuals: 10 healthy individuals, 20 patients with CP, and 20 patients with CP and T2DM. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss were measured, and gingival biopsies were obtained. Leptin and visfatin protein expression in gingival tissues was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest leptin mRNA and protein expression was observed in the control group and was significantly (P ≤0.05) different from the CP and CP+T2DM groups. Gingival tissues from patients with CP and T2DM had a significant increase in visfatin and a decrease in leptin gene and protein expression (P <0.05) compared with both controls and patients with CP. Expression of leptin and visfatin in the gingival tissues suggests a possible role for these adipokines in the pathogenesis of CP and T2DM.

  20. Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Sinaii, Ninet; Szarek, Eva; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-09-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling system is widely expressed and has a central role in regulating cellular metabolism in all organ systems affected by obesity. PKA has four regulatory (RIα, RIIα, RIβ, RIIβ) and four catalytic (Cα, Cβ, Cγ, Prkx) subunit isoforms that have tissue-specific expression profiles. In mice, knockout (KO) of RIIβ, the primary PKA regulatory subunit in adipose tissue or knockout of the catalytic subunit Cβ resulted in a lean phenotype that resists diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications. Here we report that the disruption of the ubiquitously expressed PKA RIIα subunit in mice (RIIαKO) confers resistance to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. After 2-week high-fat diet exposure, RIIαKO mice weighed less than wild-type littermates. Over time this effect was more pronounced in female mice that were also leaner than their wild-type counterparts, regardless of the diet. Decreased intake of a high-fat diet contributed to the attenuated weight gain in RIIαKO mice. Additionally, RIIα deficiency caused differential regulation of PKA in key metabolic organs: cAMP-stimulated PKA activity was decreased in liver and increased in gonadal adipose tissue. We conclude that RIIα represents a potential target for therapeutic interventions in obesity, glucose intolerance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Tissue response and wound healing after placement of two types of bioengineered grafts containing vital cells in submucosal maxillary pouches: an experimental pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Reichart, Peter A; Buser, Daniel; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the wound healing and tissue response after placement of two different skin substitutes in subgingival mucosal pouches in rabbits. Four rabbits were selected to receive a commercially available skin substitute consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts and an epithelial layer (test membrane 1) and a prototype device consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts only (test membrane 2). In each rabbit, two horizontal incisions were made in the buccal alveolar mucosa of the maxilla bilaterally to create submucosal pouches. Three pouches in each animal were filled with either the test 1 or test 2 membranes, and one pouch was left without a membrane (sham-operated control). All rabbits were sacrificed after a healing period of 4 weeks, and histologic samples were prepared and examined. After a healing period of 1 month, both tested membranes were still visible in the sections. Test membrane 1 was still bilayered, contained inflammatory cells in its center, and was encapsulated by a thick fibrous tissue. Numerous ectopic calcifications were evident in the collagenous part of the membrane and in association with some basal epithelial cells. Test membrane 2 was also encapsulated in fibrous tissue, with inflammatory cells present only between the fibrous encapsulation and the remnants of the membrane. For test membrane 2, no calcifications were visible. Test membrane 1 seemed to be more resistant to degradation, but there was also a more pronounced inflammatory reaction in comparison to test membrane 2, especially in the vicinity of the keratinocytes. The significance of the ectopic calcifications, along with that of the resorption or degradation processes of both tested membranes, must be evaluated in future experimental studies, with different time points after implantation examined.

  2. Y-90 SPECT ML image reconstruction with a new model for tissue-dependent bremsstrahlung production using CT information: a proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hongki; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Wilderman, Scott J.; Brooks, Allen F.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2018-06-01

    While the yield of positrons used in Y-90 PET is independent of tissue media, Y-90 SPECT imaging is complicated by the tissue dependence of bremsstrahlung photon generation. The probability of bremsstrahlung production is proportional to the square of the atomic number of the medium. Hence, the same amount of activity in different tissue regions of the body will produce different numbers of bremsstrahlung photons. Existing reconstruction methods disregard this tissue-dependency, potentially impacting both qualitative and quantitative imaging of heterogeneous regions of the body such as bone with marrow cavities. In this proof-of-concept study, we propose a new maximum-likelihood method that incorporates bremsstrahlung generation probabilities into the system matrix, enabling images of the desired Y-90 distribution to be reconstructed instead of the ‘bremsstrahlung distribution’ that is obtained with existing methods. The tissue-dependent probabilities are generated by Monte Carlo simulation while bone volume fractions for each SPECT voxel are obtained from co-registered CT. First, we demonstrate the tissue dependency in a SPECT/CT imaging experiment with Y-90 in bone equivalent solution and water. Visually, the proposed reconstruction approach better matched the true image and the Y-90 PET image than the standard bremsstrahlung reconstruction approach. An XCAT phantom simulation including bone and marrow regions also demonstrated better agreement with the true image using the proposed reconstruction method. Quantitatively, compared with the standard reconstruction, the new method improved estimation of the liquid bone:water activity concentration ratio by 40% in the SPECT measurement and the cortical bone:marrow activity concentration ratio by 58% in the XCAT simulation.

  3. Information entropy properties of the atoms in the system of coupled Λ-type three-level atoms interacting with coherent field in Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke; Ling Weijun

    2011-01-01

    The information entropy properties of the atoms of coupled Λ-type three-level atoms interacting with coherent field are studied by means of quantum theory, and discussed the time evolutions of the information entropy of the atoms via the average photon number, initial state of the atoms, detuning, coupling constant between the atoms and the coefficient of Kerr medium. Numerical calculation results show that the time evolutions of the information entropy properties of the atoms strongly dependent on the initial state of the system and the average photon number. Detuning, coupling constant between the atoms and the Kerr coefficient still make influence on the information entropy of the atoms. (authors)

  4. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  5. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  6. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  7. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  8. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  9. Preparation and characterization of photocured poly (ε-caprolactone) diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate/chitosan for photopolymerization-type 3D printing tissue engineering scaffold application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Chen, Freeman

    2017-12-01

    Because of its biocompatible, biodegradable and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is an attractive biomaterial for use in tissue engineering scaffolds. This work builds on previous research by incorporating 95% DD chitosan into a visible-light curable resin which is compatible with a digital light processing (DLP™) projection additive manufacturing (3D printing) system. Different concentrations of chitosan were added to a poly (ε-caprolactone)-diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate baseline resin and the samples were extensively characterized. Thermal and mechanical analysis conformed to established scaffold requirements. L929 cells were cultured on the photo-crosslinked films and MTT assays were performed at 1, 3, and 5days to assess cytocompatibility of the resins. Data and SEM images verified a correlation between the concentration of chitosan in the photocurable resin and the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of cell cultures. Finally, the processability of the resins with the dynamic masking DLP system was demonstrated by constructing multi-layer scaffolds with actual measurements that were consistent with the CAD models. These findings encourage the use of chitosan as an additive in visible-light curable resins to improve desired properties in tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  11. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  12. The Informative Value of N-Terminal Pro-type B Natriuretic Peptide in Cardiac Surgical Patients with Hypercreatininemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Burzhunova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the informative value of a dramatic increase in the preoperative blood level of the inactive moiety of the precursor of N-terminal pro-type B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP in cardiac surgical patients with hypercreatininemia. Subjects and materials. Twenty-one patients with a preoperative NT-proBNP level of 1000 pg/ml or more, who underwent myocardial revascularization under extracorporeal circulation (ECC, were examined. The patients were divided into groups with normal (up to 120 ^mol/l (Group 1; n=11 and elevated (Group 2; n=10 creatinine concentrations. The values of circulation were processed after skin incision and at the end of surgery. The clinical features of a perioperative period were analyzed. Results. Creatininemia was 103±3.3 and 183±12.9 ^mol/l in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.05; NT-proBNP was 1397±139 and 1908±170 pg/ml (p<0.05. EuroSCORE-predicted mortality ran to 9.8±1.6 and 9.1±1.7% (p>0.05. There were no intergroup differences in intraoperative circulatory parameters. The intensity of sympatomimetic therapy after ECC was equal in the identified patient groups and there were either no differences (p>0.05 in the frequency of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (18.2 and 10.0%, the length of mechanical ventilation (15±1.5 and 18.7±2.3 hours and intensive care unit stay (1.8±0.5 and 2.0±0.7 days in survivors, and inpatient mortality (23.7 and 20.0% that proved to be substantially higher than the EuroSCORE-predicted one. Regression analysis showed that in the entire group of operated patients, the level of NT-proBNP turned out to be a more significant predictor of inpatient mortality (p=0.012 than EuroSCORE-predicted one (p = 0.04. The similar regularity was characteristic for patients with hypercreatininemia. In the patients with hypercholesterolemia, the EuroSCORE-predicted mortality completely lost its significance (p=0.61 in predicting actual mortality rates. In this group, NT

  13. FNDC5 Gene Expression and Irisin Protein Level of Visceral Fat Tissue after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: It seems that FNDC5 gene and Irisin protein have an important role in metabolic diseases and can be affected by resistance training. Perhaps the changes in the levels of these metabolic indicators is a potential new target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as T2DM (type 2 diabetes.

  14. Insulin resistance in multiple tissues in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is present in lean patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with matched healthy controls. We studied eight patients (four men and four women) with

  15. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms confe...

  16. Genome-wide prediction and analysis of human tissue-selective genes using microarray expression data

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    Teng Shaolei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed specifically in particular tissues is a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissue-specific genes are involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. However, experimental identification of tissue-specific genes is time consuming and difficult. The accurate predictions of tissue-specific gene targets could provide useful information for biomarker development and drug target identification. Results In this study, we have developed a machine learning approach for predicting the human tissue-specific genes using microarray expression data. The lists of known tissue-specific genes for different tissues were collected from UniProt database, and the expression data retrieved from the previously compiled dataset according to the lists were used for input vector encoding. Random Forests (RFs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs were used to construct accurate classifiers. The RF classifiers were found to outperform SVM models for tissue-specific gene prediction. The results suggest that the candidate genes for brain or liver specific expression can provide valuable information for further experimental studies. Our approach was also applied for identifying tissue-selective gene targets for different types of tissues. Conclusions A machine learning approach has been developed for accurately identifying the candidate genes for tissue specific/selective expression. The approach provides an efficient way to select some interesting genes for developing new biomedical markers and improve our knowledge of tissue-specific expression.

  17. Plasma concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of clusterin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia, very-low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloučková, J; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Trachta, P; Kasalický, M; Haluzíková, D; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2016-07-18

    Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with wide range of functions. To further explore its possible regulatory role in energy homeostasis and in adipose tissue, we measured plasma clusterin and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 15 healthy lean women, 15 obese women (OB) and 15 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent a 2-week very low-calorie diet (VLCD), 10 obese women without T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 8 patients with T2DM, 8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 8 normoglycemic patients who underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). VLCD decreased plasma clusterin in OB but not in T2DM patients while LSG and HEC had no effect. Clusterin mRNA expression in SCAT at baseline was increased in OB and T2DM patients compared with controls. Clusterin mRNA expression decreased 6 months after LSG and remained decreased 12 months after LSG. mRNA expression of clusterin was elevated at the end of HEC compared with baseline only in normoglycemic but not in IGT or T2DM patients. In summary, our data suggest a possible local regulatory role for clusterin in the adipose tissue rather than its systemic involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  18. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  19. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s. In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC, a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs, spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  20. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    O