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Sample records for tissue show uniform

  1. Tumor and normal tissue responses to fractioned non-uniform dose delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellman, P; Aegren, A; Brahme, A [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1996-08-01

    The volume dependence of the radiation response of a tumor is straight forward to quantify because it depends primarily on the eradication of all its clonogenic cells. A tumor therefore has a parallel organization as any surviving clonogen in principle can repopulate the tumor. The difficulty with the response of the tumor is instead to know the density and sensitivity distribution of the most resistant clonogenic cells. The increase in the 50% tumor control dose and the decrease in the maximum normalized slope of the dose response relation, {gamma}, in presence of small compartments of resistant tumor cells have therefore been quantified to describe their influence on the dose response relation. Injury to normal tissue is a much more complex and gradual process. It depends on earlier effects induced long before depletion of the differentiated and clonogenic cells that in addition may have a complex structural and functional organization. The volume dependence of the dose response relation of normal tissues is therefore described here by the relative seriality, s, of the infrastructure of the organ. The model can also be generalized to describe the response of heterogeneous tissues to non uniform dose distributions. The new model is compared with clinical and experimental data on normal tissue response, and shows good agreement both with regard to the shape of dose response relation and the volume dependence of the isoeffect dose. The response of tumors and normal tissues are quantified for arbitrary dose fractionations using the linear quadratic cell survival parameters {alpha} and {beta}. The parameters of the dose response relation are derived both for a constant dose per fraction and a constant number of dose fractions, thus in the latter case accounting also for non uniform dose delivery. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs.

  2. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

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    Carl Giuffre

    Full Text Available We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof. Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  3. The Ciliate Paramecium Shows Higher Motility in Non-Uniform Chemical Landscapes

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    Giuffre, Carl; Hinow, Peter; Vogel, Ryan; Ahmed, Tanvir; Stocker, Roman; Consi, Thomas R.; Strickler, J. Rudi

    2011-01-01

    We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of “uniform distribution” (or lack thereof). Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants. PMID:21494596

  4. Flow rate of transport network controls uniform metabolite supply to tissue.

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    Meigel, Felix J; Alim, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Life and functioning of higher organisms depends on the continuous supply of metabolites to tissues and organs. What are the requirements on the transport network pervading a tissue to provide a uniform supply of nutrients, minerals or hormones? To theoretically answer this question, we present an analytical scaling argument and numerical simulations on how flow dynamics and network architecture control active spread and uniform supply of metabolites by studying the example of xylem vessels in plants. We identify the fluid inflow rate as the key factor for uniform supply. While at low inflow rates metabolites are already exhausted close to flow inlets, too high inflow flushes metabolites through the network and deprives tissue close to inlets of supply. In between these two regimes, there exists an optimal inflow rate that yields a uniform supply of metabolites. We determine this optimal inflow analytically in quantitative agreement with numerical results. Optimizing network architecture by reducing the supply variance over all network tubes, we identify patterns of tube dilation or contraction that compensate sub-optimal supply for the case of too low or too high inflow rate. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

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    Betul Kul Babur

    Full Text Available We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions < 10 μm diameter; we termed this microscopic donor matrix "cartilage dust (CD". Using a microwell platform, we show that ~0.83 μg CD can be rapidly and efficiently incorporated into single multicellular aggregates formed from 180 bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC each. The microwell platform enabled the rapid manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage

  6. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

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    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  7. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Klein, Travis Jacob; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage tissues; the incorporation of CD enhanced tissue size and matrix content, but did not enhance chondrogenic gene expression.

  9. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

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    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  10. A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, Michael; Hornegger, Joachim; Zheng Yefeng; Comaniciu, Dorin; Huber, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average

  11. A new formula for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) as a function of equivalent uniform dose (EUD).

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    Luxton, Gary; Keall, Paul J; King, Christopher R

    2008-01-07

    To facilitate the use of biological outcome modeling for treatment planning, an exponential function is introduced as a simpler equivalent to the Lyman formula for calculating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The single parameter of the exponential function is chosen to reproduce the Lyman calculation to within approximately 0.3%, and thus enable easy conversion of data contained in empirical fits of Lyman parameters for organs at risk (OARs). Organ parameters for the new formula are given in terms of Lyman model m and TD(50), and conversely m and TD(50) are expressed in terms of the parameters of the new equation. The role of the Lyman volume-effect parameter n is unchanged from its role in the Lyman model. For a non-homogeneously irradiated OAR, an equation relates d(ref), n, v(eff) and the Niemierko equivalent uniform dose (EUD), where d(ref) and v(eff) are the reference dose and effective fractional volume of the Kutcher-Burman reduction algorithm (i.e. the LKB model). It follows in the LKB model that uniform EUD irradiation of an OAR results in the same NTCP as the original non-homogeneous distribution. The NTCP equation is therefore represented as a function of EUD. The inverse equation expresses EUD as a function of NTCP and is used to generate a table of EUD versus normal tissue complication probability for the Emami-Burman parameter fits as well as for OAR parameter sets from more recent data.

  12. A new formula for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) as a function of equivalent uniform dose (EUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxton, Gary; Keall, Paul J; King, Christopher R

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate the use of biological outcome modeling for treatment planning, an exponential function is introduced as a simpler equivalent to the Lyman formula for calculating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The single parameter of the exponential function is chosen to reproduce the Lyman calculation to within ∼0.3%, and thus enable easy conversion of data contained in empirical fits of Lyman parameters for organs at risk (OARs). Organ parameters for the new formula are given in terms of Lyman model m and TD 50 , and conversely m and TD 50 are expressed in terms of the parameters of the new equation. The role of the Lyman volume-effect parameter n is unchanged from its role in the Lyman model. For a non-homogeneously irradiated OAR, an equation relates d ref , n, v eff and the Niemierko equivalent uniform dose (EUD), where d ref and v eff are the reference dose and effective fractional volume of the Kutcher-Burman reduction algorithm (i.e. the LKB model). It follows in the LKB model that uniform EUD irradiation of an OAR results in the same NTCP as the original non-homogeneous distribution. The NTCP equation is therefore represented as a function of EUD. The inverse equation expresses EUD as a function of NTCP and is used to generate a table of EUD versus normal tissue complication probability for the Emami-Burman parameter fits as well as for OAR parameter sets from more recent data

  13. Ionic Colloidal Molding as a Biomimetic Scaffolding Strategy for Uniform Bone Tissue Regeneration.

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    Zhang, Jian; Jia, Jinpeng; Kim, Jimin P; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Meng; Bi, Wenzhi; Wang, Xing; Yang, Jian; Wu, Decheng

    2017-05-01

    Inspired by the highly ordered nanostructure of bone, nanodopant composite biomaterials are gaining special attention for their ability to guide bone tissue regeneration through structural and biological cues. However, bone malformation in orthopedic surgery is a lingering issue, partly due to the high surface energy of traditional nanoparticles contributing to aggregation and inhomogeneity. Recently, carboxyl-functionalized synthetic polymers have been shown to mimic the carboxyl-rich surface motifs of non-collagenous proteins in stabilizing hydroxyapatite and directing intrafibrillar mineralization in-vitro. Based on this biomimetic approach, it is herein demonstrated that carboxyl functionalization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) can achieve great material homogeneity in nanocomposites. This ionic colloidal molding method stabilizes hydroxyapatite precursors to confer even nanodopant packing, improving therapeutic outcomes in bone repair by remarkably improving mechanical properties of nanocomposites and optimizing controlled drug release, resulting in better cell in-growth and osteogenic differentiation. Lastly, better controlled biomaterial degradation significantly improved osteointegration, translating to highly regular bone formation with minimal fibrous tissue and increased bone density in rabbit radial defect models. Ionic colloidal molding is a simple yet effective approach of achieving materials homogeneity and modulating crystal nucleation, serving as an excellent biomimetic scaffolding strategy to rebuild natural bone integrity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Probabilistic uniformities of uniform spaces

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    Rodriguez Lopez, J.; Romaguera, S.; Sanchis, M.

    2017-07-01

    The theory of metric spaces in the fuzzy context has shown to be an interesting area of study not only from a theoretical point of view but also for its applications. Nevertheless, it is usual to consider these spaces as classical topological or uniform spaces and there are not too many results about constructing fuzzy topological structures starting from a fuzzy metric. Maybe, H/{sup o}hle was the first to show how to construct a probabilistic uniformity and a Lowen uniformity from a probabilistic pseudometric /cite{Hohle78,Hohle82a}. His method can be directly translated to the context of fuzzy metrics and allows to characterize the categories of probabilistic uniform spaces or Lowen uniform spaces by means of certain families of fuzzy pseudometrics /cite{RL}. On the other hand, other different fuzzy uniformities can be constructed in a fuzzy metric space: a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity /cite{GGPV06}; a fuzzifiying uniformity /cite{YueShi10}, etc. The paper /cite{GGRLRo} gives a study of several methods of endowing a fuzzy pseudometric space with a probabilistic uniformity and a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity. In 2010, J. Guti/'errez Garc/'{/i}a, S. Romaguera and M. Sanchis /cite{GGRoSanchis10} proved that the category of uniform spaces is isomorphic to a category formed by sets endowed with a fuzzy uniform structure, i. e. a family of fuzzy pseudometrics satisfying certain conditions. We will show here that, by means of this isomorphism, we can obtain several methods to endow a uniform space with a probabilistic uniformity. Furthermore, these constructions allow to obtain a factorization of some functors introduced in /cite{GGRoSanchis10}. (Author)

  15. BnDGAT1s Function Similarly in Oil Deposition and Are Expressed with Uniform Patterns in Tissues of Brassica napus

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    Cuizhu Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an allotetraploid oilcrop, Brassica napus contains four duplicated Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 genes, which catalyze one of the rate-limiting steps in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in plants. While all four BnDGAT1s have been expressed functionally in yeast, their expression patterns in different germplasms and tissues and also consequent contribution to seed oil accumulation in planta remain to be elucidated. In this study, the coding regions of the four BnDGAT1s were expressed in an Arabidopsis dgat1 mutant. All four BnDGAT1s showed similar effects on oil content and fatty acid composition, a result which is different from that observed in previous studies of their expression in yeast. Expression patterns of BnDGAT1s were analyzed in developing seeds of 34 B. napus inbred lines and in different tissues of 14 lines. Different expression patterns were observed for the four BnDGAT1s, which suggests that they express independently or randomly in different germplasm sources. Higher expression of BnDGAT1s was correlated with higher seed oil content lines. Tissue-specific analyses showed that the BnDGAT1s were expressed in a uniform pattern in different tissues. Our results suggest that it is important to maintain expression of the four BnDGAT1s for maximum return on oil content.

  16. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  17. Human active X-specific DNA methylation events showing stability across time and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jihoon Eric; Novakovic, Boris; Cruickshank, Mark; Doyle, Lex W; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation in female mammals is well characterised and remains the archetypal example of dosage compensation via monoallelic expression. The temporal series of events that culminates in inactive X-specific gene silencing by DNA methylation has revealed a ‘patchwork' of gene inactivation along the chromosome, with approximately 15% of genes escaping. Such genes are therefore potentially subject to sex-specific imbalance between males and females. Aside from XIST, the non-coding RNA on the X chromosome destined to be inactivated, very little is known about the extent of loci that may be selectively silenced on the active X chromosome (Xa). Using longitudinal array-based DNA methylation profiling of two human tissues, we have identified specific and widespread active X-specific DNA methylation showing stability over time and across tissues of disparate origin. Our panel of X-chromosome loci subject to methylation on Xa reflects a potentially novel mechanism for controlling female-specific X inactivation and sex-specific dimorphisms in humans. Further work is needed to investigate these phenomena. PMID:24713664

  18. Uniformly-dispersed nanohydroxapatite-reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone) composite films for tendon tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Shi Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Zuyong, E-mail: zuyong.nus@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Lim, Poon Nian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Wilson [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119 074 (Singapore); Thian, Eng San, E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of injuries at tendon-to-bone interface (TBI) remains a challenging issue due to the complex tissue composition involving both soft tendon tissues and relatively hard bone tissues. Tissue engineering using polymeric/ceramic composites has been of great interest to generate scaffolds for tissue's healing at TBI. Herein, we presented a novel method to blend polymers and bioceramics for tendon tissue engineering application. A homogeneous composite comprising of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix was obtained using a combination of solvent and mechanical blending process. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-fabricated PCL/nHA composite film retained phase-pure apatite and semi-crystalline properties of PCL. Infrared spectroscopy spectra confirmed that the PCL/nHA composite film exhibited the characteristics functional groups of PCL and nHA, without alteration to the chemical properties of the composite. The incorporation of nHA resulted in PCL/nHA composite film with improved mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and ultimate tensile stress, which were comparable to that of the native human rotator tendon. Seeding with human tenocytes, cells attached on the PCL/nHA composite film, and after 14 days of culturing, these cells could acquire elongated morphology without induced cytotoxicity. PCL/nHA composite film could also result in increased cell metabolism with prolonged culturing, which was comparable to that of the PCL group and higher than that of the nHA group. All these results demonstrated that the developed technique of combining solvent and mechanical blending could be applied to fabricate composite films with potential for tendon tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • A novel method fabricating polymeric/nanoceramic composite film was proposed. • The method involved solvent and mechanical blending to form a homogeneous film. • The film retained physicochemical

  19. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Lindinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  20. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Peter W; Christe, Martine; Eberle, Alex N; Kern, Beatrice; Peterli, Ralph; Peters, Thomas; Jayawardene, Kamburapola J I; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  1. Arterial spin labelling shows functional depression of non-lesion tissue in chronic Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Specht, Karsten; Beaumont, Helen; Parkes, Laura M; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants. Joint independent component analysis (jICA) investigated the relationship between structural lesion and hypoperfusion. Partial correlations explored the relationship between lesion, hypoperfusion and language measures. Joint ICA revealed significant differences between the control and WA groups reflecting a large area of structural lesion in the left posterior hemisphere and an associated area of hypoperfusion extending into grey matter surrounding the lesion. Small regions of remote cortical hypoperfusion were observed, ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Significant correlations were observed between the neuropsychological measures (naming, repetition, reading and semantic association) and the jICA component of interest in the WA group. Additional ROI analyses found a relationship between perfusion surrounding the core lesion and the same neuropsychological measures. This study found that core language impairments in chronic WA are associated with a combination of structural lesion and abnormal perfusion in non-lesioned tissue. This indicates that post-stroke impairments are due to a wider disruption of neural function than observable on structural T1w MRI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Achieving uniform dose with the use of a custom tissue compensator and a leveled beam for tangential breast fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, L.; Luttrell, L.; Lake, D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to achieve uniform dose distribution in intact breast treatments, wedges can be employed. This paper will describe a custom compensator made from brass chips used in conjunction with a leveled beam and a custom cast to treat breast shapes that are less suited to a standard wedge set up. Materials and design, dosimetry, criteria, efficacy and results will be described

  3. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with

  4. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3−) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small

  5. Characterization of Smoc-1 uncovers two transcript variants showing differential tissue and age specific expression in Bubalus bubalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Kumar, Sudhir; Parwez, Iqbal; Ali, Sher

    2007-01-01

    Background Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered the Smoc-1 transcript tagged with this repeat. The main objective of this study was to gain an insight into its structural and functional organization, and expressional status of Smoc-1 in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Results We cloned and characterized the buffalo Smoc-1, including its copy number status, in-vitro protein expression, tissue & age specific transcription/translation, chromosomal mapping and localization to the basement membrane zone. Buffalo Smoc-1 was found to encode a secreted matricellular glycoprotein containing two EF-hand calcium binding motifs homologous to that of BM-40/SPARC family. In buffalo, this single copy gene consisted of 12 exons and was mapped onto the acrocentric chromosome 11. Though this gene was found to be evolutionarily conserved, the buffalo Smoc-1 showed conspicuous nucleotide/amino acid changes altering its secondary structure compared to that in other mammals. In silico analysis of the Smoc-1 proposed its glycoprotein nature with a calcium dependent conformation. Further, we unveiled two transcript variants of this gene, varying in their 3'UTR lengths but both coding for identical protein(s). Smoc-1 evinced highest expression of both the variants in liver and modest to negligible in other tissues. The relative expression of variant-02 was markedly higher compared to that of variant-01 in all the tissues examined. Moreover, expression of Smoc-1, though modest during the early ages, was conspicuously enhanced after 1 year and remained consistently higher during the entire life span of buffalo with gradual

  6. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  7. The Fate of DDH Hips Showing Cartilaginous or Fibrous Tissue-filled Joint Spaces Following Primary Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui Taek; Lee, Tae Hoon; Ahn, Tae Young; Jang, Jae Hoon

    Because the use of magnetic resonance imaging is still not universal for the patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip patients, orthopaedists do not generally distinguish widened joint spaces which are "empty" after primary treatment (and therefore still reducible), from those which are filled and much more difficult to treat. To date no studies have focused on the latter hips. We treated and observed the outcomes for 19 hips which showed filled joint spaces after primary treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 19 cases of developmental dysplasia of the hip: (1) who showed a widened joint space on radiographs after primary treatment; and (2) whose magnetic resonance imaging showed that the widened joint space was accompanied by acetabular cartilage hypertrophy and/or was filled with fibrous tissues. All patients were over 1 year old at the time of primary reduction (reduction was closed in 4 patients, open in 6, and open with pelvic osteotomy in 9). Thirteen patients received at least 1 secondary treatment. Final results were classified using a modified Severin classification. Final outcomes were satisfactory in 10 (52.6%) and unsatisfactory in 9 (47.4%). The widened joint spaces gradually filled with bone, resulting in a shallow acetabulum in the patients with unsatisfactory results. Of 9 patients who underwent combined pelvic osteotomy at the time of primary reduction, results were satisfactory in 6 (66.7%), whereas all patients who had only closed or open primary reduction had unsatisfactory results. Combined pelvic osteotomy at the time of primary reduction is advisable in hips with widened joint spaces. However, hips with filled joint spaces after primary treatment often have unsatisfactory results even after additional pelvic and/or femoral osteotomy. Level IV-prognostic study.

  8. A model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with ferromagnets. Application to modelling tissue response in a uniform field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, O. N.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with magnetic systems. The main benefit of this approach is that it allowed us to apply powerful methods of statistical mechanics. The model exploits the similarity between how spin-spin interactions result in correlations of spin states in ferromagnets, and how signalling from a damaged cell reduces chances of survival of neighbour cells, resulting in correlated cell states. At the root of the model is a classical Hamiltonian, similar to that of an Ising ferromagnet with long-range interactions. The formalism is developed in the framework of the Mean Field Theory. It is applied to modelling tissue response in a uniform radiation field. In this case the results are remarkably simple and at the same time nontrivial. They include cell survival curves, expressions for the tumour control probability and effects of fractionation. The model extends beyond of what is normally considered as bystander effects. It offers an insight into low-dose hypersensitivity and into mechanisms behind threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  9. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rysnik, Oliwia; McHugh, Kirsty; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie; van Tok, Melissa; Taurog, Joel; Kollnberger, Simon; Baeten, Dominique; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC) heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG(1)) rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA.

  10. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  11. Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehn, Matthias; Yan Di; Liang Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade ≥ 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed worse

  12. Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)

  13. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  14. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  15. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  16. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Rysnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG1 rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA. Expression of NC-B27 was determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using HC10 and HD6 antibodies. These data are the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Non-conventional forms of HLA-B27 are expressed in Spondyloarthritis joints and gut tissue” (O. Rysnik, K. McHugh, L. M. van Duivenvoorde, M. N. van Tok, G. Guggino, J. D. Taurog, S. Kollnberger, F. Ciccia, D. L. Baeten, P. Bowness, 2016 [1].

  17. Duplicated Gephyrin Genes Showing Distinct Tissue Distribution and Alternative Splicing Patterns Mediate Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis, Glycine Receptor Clustering, and Escape Behavior in Zebrafish*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Ramsden, Sarah L.; Keib, Natalie; Schwarz, Günter; Harvey, Robert J.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    Gephyrin mediates the postsynaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) and GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses and molybdenum-dependent enzyme (molybdoenzyme) activity in non-neuronal tissues. Gephyrin knock-out mice show a phenotype resembling both defective glycinergic transmission and molybdenum cofactor (Moco) deficiency and die within 1 day of birth due to starvation and dyspnea resulting from deficits in motor and respiratory networks, respectively. To address whether gephyrin function is conserved among vertebrates and whether gephyrin deficiency affects molybdoenzyme activity and motor development, we cloned and characterized zebrafish gephyrin genes. We report here that zebrafish have two gephyrin genes, gphna and gphnb. The former is expressed in all tissues and has both C3 and C4 cassette exons, and the latter is expressed predominantly in the brain and spinal cord and harbors only C4 cassette exons. We confirmed that all of the gphna and gphnb splicing isoforms have Moco synthetic activity. Antisense morpholino knockdown of either gphna or gphnb alone did not disturb synaptic clusters of GlyRs in the spinal cord and did not affect touch-evoked escape behaviors. However, on knockdown of both gphna and gphnb, embryos showed impairments in GlyR clustering in the spinal cord and, as a consequence, demonstrated touch-evoked startle response behavior by contracting antagonistic muscles simultaneously, instead of displaying early coiling and late swimming behaviors, which are executed by side-to-side muscle contractions. These data indicate that duplicated gephyrin genes mediate Moco biosynthesis and control postsynaptic clustering of GlyRs, thereby mediating key escape behaviors in zebrafish. PMID:20843816

  18. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  19. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  20. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  1. Decidability of uniform recurrence of morphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Durand , Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the uniform recurrence of morphic sequences is decidable. For this we show that the number of derived sequences of uniformly recurrent morphic sequences is bounded. As a corollary we obtain that uniformly recurrent morphic sequences are primitive substitutive sequences.

  2. School Uniforms Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  3. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  4. Mandatory School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Carl A.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)

  5. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities

  6. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities.

  7. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rotting potato tuber tissue showing antagonism to Dickeya sp. biovar 3 in vitro and in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities for biocontrol of biovar 3 Dickeya sp. in potato were investigated, using bacteria from rotting potato tissue isolated by dilution plating on nonselective agar media. In a plate assay, 649 isolates were screened for antibiosis against Dickeya sp. IPO2222 and for the production of

  8. Spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    We use the generalized Fermi–Walker transport to construct a one-parameter family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the weak hypothesis of locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K′ to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. (paper)

  9. Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg or a control diet (135 µg/kg for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured. Histopathology of the livers did not reveal major abnormalities. Feeding an ENN B-contaminated diet could possibly inhibit the proliferation of enterocytes in the duodenal crypts, but did not affect villus length, crypt depth, or villus length-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum. ENN B levels in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the ENN B-fed group and ranged between <25–264 pg/mL and <0.05–0.85 ng/g, respectively. ENN B carry-over rates from feed to liver tissue were 0.005–0.014% and 0.034–0.109% in the ENN B and control group, respectively. Carry-over rates were low and indicated a limited contribution of poultry tissue-derived products to the total dietary ENN B intake for humans. The above results support the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority stating that adverse health effects from ENN B in broiler chickens are unlikely.

  10. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  11. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  13. Sunitinib DDI with paracetamol, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen shows sex-divergent effects on the tissue uptake and distribution pattern of sunitinib in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Yean; Wong, Mei Mei; Tiew, Angela Lu Wun; Choo, Yai Wen; Lim, Suat Hun; Ooi, Ing Hong; Modamio, Pilar; Fernández, Cecilia; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic interaction of sunitinib with diclofenac, paracetamol, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen was evaluated due to their P450 mediated metabolism and OATP1B1, OATP1B3, ABCB1, ABCG2 transporters overlapping features. Male and female mice were administered 6 sunitinib doses (60 mg/kg) PO every 12 h and 30 min before the last dose were administered vehicle (control groups), 250 mg/kg paracetamol, 30 mg/kg diclofenac, 50 mg/kg mefenamic acid or 30 mg/kg ibuprofen (study groups), euthanized 6 h post last administration and sunitinib plasma, liver, kidney, brain concentrations analyzed. Ibuprofen halved sunitinib plasma concentration in female mice (p Diclofenac and paracetamol female mice showed 45 and 25 % higher plasma concentrations than male mice which were 27 % lower in mefenamic acid female mice. Paracetamol increased 2.2 (p diclofenac, paracetamol, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen (p diclofenac group in male mice (liver, brain) and female mice (liver, kidney). These results portray gender-based sunitinib pharmacokinetic differences and NSAIDs selective effects on male or female mice, with potential clinical translatability.

  14. Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

    1998-12-01

    Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

  15. Transversals in 4-uniform hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    with maximum degree ∆(H) ≤ 3, then τ (H) ≤ n/4 + m/6, which proves a known conjecture. We show that an easy corollary of our main result is that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph with n vertices and n edges, then τ (H) ≤3/7 n, which was the main result of the Thomassé-Yeo paper [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473...

  16. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  17. Restricting uniformly open surjections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kania, Tomasz; Rmoutil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 355, č. 9 (2017), s. 925-928 ISSN 1631-073X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * uniform spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631073X17302261?via%3Dihub

  18. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  19. Devaney's chaos on uniform limit maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Kesong; Zeng Fanping; Zhang Gengrong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The transitivity may not been inherited even if the sequence functions mixing. → The sensitivity may not been inherited even if the iterates of sequence have some uniform convergence. → Some equivalence conditions for the transitivity and sensitivity for uniform limit function are given. → A non-transitive sequence may converge uniformly to a transitive map. - Abstract: Let (X, d) be a compact metric space and f n : X → X a sequence of continuous maps such that (f n ) converges uniformly to a map f. The purpose of this paper is to study the Devaney's chaos on the uniform limit f. On the one hand, we show that f is not necessarily transitive even if all f n mixing, and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions may not been inherited to f even if the iterates of the sequence have some uniform convergence, which correct two wrong claims in . On the other hand, we give some equivalence conditions for the uniform limit f to be transitive and to have sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Moreover, we present an example to show that a non-transitive sequence may converge uniformly to a transitive map.

  20. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V; Brown, J; Beaver, W; Da Silva, J V L

    2011-01-01

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  1. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V [Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brown, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Beaver, W [York Technical College, Rock Hill, SC (United States); Da Silva, J V L, E-mail: mironovv@musc.edu [Renato Archer Information Technology Center-CTI, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  2. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...

  3. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  4. Impact of Uniform Methods on Interlaboratory Antibody Titration Variability: Antibody Titration and Uniform Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Cheng, Yan H; Long, Thomas; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-01-01

    -Substantial variability between different antibody titration methods prompted development and introduction of uniform methods in 2008. -To determine whether uniform methods consistently decrease interlaboratory variation in proficiency testing. -Proficiency testing data for antibody titration between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the College of American Pathologists. Each laboratory was supplied plasma and red cells to determine anti-A and anti-D antibody titers by their standard method: gel or tube by uniform or other methods at different testing phases (immediate spin and/or room temperature [anti-A], and/or anti-human globulin [AHG: anti-A and anti-D]) with different additives. Interlaboratory variations were compared by analyzing the distribution of titer results by method and phase. -A median of 574 and 1100 responses were reported for anti-A and anti-D antibody titers, respectively, during a 5-year period. The 3 most frequent (median) methods performed for anti-A antibody were uniform tube room temperature (147.5; range, 119-159), uniform tube AHG (143.5; range, 134-150), and other tube AHG (97; range, 82-116); for anti-D antibody, the methods were other tube (451; range, 431-465), uniform tube (404; range, 382-462), and uniform gel (137; range, 121-153). Of the larger reported methods, uniform gel AHG phase for anti-A and anti-D antibodies had the most participants with the same result (mode). For anti-A antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube room temperature) and 1 of 8 (uniform versus other tube AHG), and for anti-D antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube) and 0 of 8 (uniform versus other gel) proficiency tests showed significant titer variability reduction. -Uniform methods harmonize laboratory techniques but rarely reduce interlaboratory titer variance in comparison with other methods.

  5. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  6. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  7. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  8. Uniforms, status and professional boundaries in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; East, Linda

    2011-11-01

    Despite their comparative neglect analytically, uniforms play a key role in the delineation of occupational boundaries and the formation of professional identity in healthcare. This paper analyses a change to the system of uniforms in one UK hospital, where management have required all professions (with the exception of doctors) to wear the same 'corporate' uniform. Focus groups were conducted with the professionals and patients. We analyse this initiative as a kind of McDonaldisation, seeking to create a new 'corporate' worker whose allegiance is principally to the organisation, rather than a profession. Our findings show how important uniforms are to their wearers, both in terms of the defence of professional boundaries and status, as well as the construction of professional identity. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. UVIS Flat Field Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jessica Kim

    2009-07-01

    The stability and uniformity of the low-frequency flat fields {L-flat} of the UVIS detector will be assessed by using multiple-pointing observations of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae {NGC104} and Omega Centauri {NGC5139}, thus imaging moderately dense stellar fields. By placing the same star over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine local variations in the response of the UVIS detector. Based on previous experience with STIS and ACS, it is deemed that a total of 9 different pointings will suffice to provide adequate characterization of the flat field stability in any given band. For each filter to be tested, the baseline consists of 9 pointings in a 3X3 box pattern with dither steps of about 25% of the FOV, or 40.5", in either the x or y direction {useful also for CTE measurements, if needed in the future}. During SMOV, the complement of filters to be tested is limited to the following 6 filters: F225W, F275W, F336W, for Omega Cen, and F438W, F606W, and F814W for 47 Tuc. Three long exposures for each target are arranged such that the initial dither position is observed with the appropriate filters for that target within one orbit at a single pointing, so that filter-to-filter differences in the observed star positions can be checked. In addition to the 9 baseline exposures, two sets of short exposures will be taken:a} one short exposure will be taken of OmegaCen with each of the visible filters {F438W, F606W and F814W} in order to check the geometric distortion solution to be obtained with the data from proposal 11444;b} for each target, a single short exposure will be taken with each filter to facilitate the study of the PSF as a function of position on the detector by providing unsaturated images of sparsely-spaced bright stars.This proposal corresponds to Activity Description ID WF39. It should execute only after the following proposal has executed:WF21 - 11434

  11. School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…

  12. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  13. Comments on Beckmann's Uniform Reducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Arnold Beckmann defined the uniform reduct of a propositional proof system f to be the set of those bounded arithmetical formulas whose propositional translations have polynomial size f-proofs. We prove that the uniform reduct of f + Extended Frege consists of all true bounded arithmetical formulas iff f + Extended Frege simulates every proof system.

  14. Uniform Sampling Table Method and its Applications II--Evaluating the Uniform Sampling by Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new method of uniform sampling is evaluated in this paper. The items and indexes were adopted to evaluate the rationality of the uniform sampling. The evaluation items included convenience of operation, uniformity of sampling site distribution, and accuracy and precision of measured results. The evaluation indexes included operational complexity, occupation rate of sampling site in a row and column, relative accuracy of pill weight, and relative deviation of pill weight. They were obtained from three kinds of drugs with different shape and size by four kinds of sampling methods. Gray correlation analysis was adopted to make the comprehensive evaluation by comparing it with the standard method. The experimental results showed that the convenience of uniform sampling method was 1 (100%), odds ratio of occupation rate in a row and column was infinity, relative accuracy was 99.50-99.89%, reproducibility RSD was 0.45-0.89%, and weighted incidence degree exceeded the standard method. Hence, the uniform sampling method was easy to operate, and the selected samples were distributed uniformly. The experimental results demonstrated that the uniform sampling method has good accuracy and reproducibility, which can be put into use in drugs analysis.

  15. On Uniformly finitely extensible Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Jesús M. F.; Ferenczi, Valentin; Moreno, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of Uniformly Finitely Extensible Banach spaces (in short, UFO) initiated in Moreno-Plichko, \\emph{On automorphic Banach spaces}, Israel J. Math. 169 (2009) 29--45 and Castillo-Plichko, \\emph{Banach spaces in various positions.} J. Funct. Anal. 259 (2010) 2098-2138. We show that they have the Uniform Approximation Property of Pe\\l czy\\'nski and Rosenthal and are compactly extensible. We will also consider their connection with the automorphic space problem of Lindenstraus...

  16. Uniform topology on EQ-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use filters of an EQ-algebra E to induce a uniform structure (E, , and then the part induce a uniform topology in E. We prove that the pair (E, is a topological EQ-algebra, and some properties of (E, are investigated. In particular, we show that (E, is a first-countable, zero-dimensional, disconnected and completely regular space. Finally, by using convergence of nets, the convergence of topological EQ-algebras is obtained.

  17. The Uniformity Illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marte; Pinto, Yair; Paffen, C.L.E.; Seth, Anil; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-01-01

    Vision in the fovea, the center of the visual field, is much more accurate and detailed than vision in the periphery. This is not in line with the rich phenomenology of peripheral vision. Here, we investigated a visual illusion that shows that detailed peripheral visual experience is partially based

  18. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  19. 7 CFR 51.1407 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1407 Section 51.1407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... in color. Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color to...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2085 - Fairly uniform color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform color. 51.2085 Section 51.2085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... color. Fairly uniform color means that the shells do not show excessive variation in color, whether...

  1. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  2. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  3. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  4. Uniformity calibration for ICT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Gang; Liu Li; Que Jiemin; Zhang Yingping; Yin Yin; Wang Yanfang; Yu Zhongqiang; Yan Yonglian

    2004-01-01

    The uniformity of ICT image is impaired by beam hardening and the inconsistency of detector units responses. The beam hardening and the nonlinearity of the detector's output have been analyzed. The correction factors are determined experimentally by the detector's responses with different absorption length. The artifacts in the CT image of a symmetrical aluminium cylinder have been eliminated after calibration. (author)

  5. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  6. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  7. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping MARITIME...

  8. Vertical uniformity of cells and nuclei in epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Srujana; Hayes, Peter Robert; Zhang, Qiao; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-22

    Morphological variability in cytoskeletal organization, organelle position and cell boundaries is a common feature of cultured cells. Remarkable uniformity and reproducibility in structure can be accomplished by providing cells with defined geometric cues. Cells in tissues can also self-organize in the absence of directing extracellular cues; however the mechanical principles for such self-organization are not understood. We report that unlike horizontal shapes, the vertical shapes of the cell and nucleus in the z-dimension are uniform in cells in cultured monolayers compared to isolated cells. Apical surfaces of cells and their nuclei in monolayers were flat and heights were uniform. In contrast, isolated cells, or cells with disrupted cell-cell adhesions had nuclei with curved apical surfaces and variable heights. Isolated cells cultured within micron-sized square wells displayed flat cell and nuclear shapes similar to cells in monolayers. Local disruption of nuclear-cytoskeletal linkages resulted in spatial variation in vertical uniformity. These results suggest that competition between cell-cell pulling forces that expand and shorten the vertical cell cross-section, thereby widening and flattening the nucleus, and the resistance of the nucleus to further flattening results in uniform cell and nuclear cross-sections. Our results reveal the mechanical principles of self-organized vertical uniformity in cell monolayers.

  9. A range modulator to produce uniform 38K yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbert, R.F.; Koehler, A.M.; Sisterson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    A range modulator has been designed for use with a monoenergetic proton beam to achieve uniform yield of a nuclear reaction with depth in a tissue equivalent medium. Uniform yield to +- 1.5% over a 10 cm depth for the reaction 40 Ca(p, 2pn) 38 K has been demonstrated using protons of 160 MeV initial energy. The modulator is a rotating stepped absorber made of stacked acrylic plastic sheets. The angular extent of each sheet is determined by a computer program which also calculates the resultant depth of dose curve. Peaks in the dose curve may be reduced with slight effect on the yield curve. (author)

  10. Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki

    2001-09-01

    Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions.

  11. Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki

    2001-09-01

    Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions

  12. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  13. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  14. Uniformity: The key to better inventory management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshears, G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how uniformity in describing parts and materials can be the key ingredient to more effective inventory management. Although most nuclear utilities have some type of computer system for maintenance management as well as materials tracking, few have a system to provide the various users with complete information about parts and material in stock. One of the industry's most perplexing problems is How do you know, and find, the item you need to repair a particular piece of equipment or component? In many instances it is easier to order a new one from the manufacturer rather than try to find it on-site, which can result in inaccurate usage records, over-stocking, frustration, and strain on cash flow. What is needed is a higher degree of uniformity within a station, and a utility, of catalog descriptions for parts and material that will satisfy all users-planners, craftsmen, warehouse personnel, and buyers. The results of attaining this uniformity are improved performance through searchability, duplicate stock avoidance, interchangeability, substitutability, and more accurate bills of material; economic benefits will also be noted

  15. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  16. A quantitative experimental phantom study on MRI image uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Doaa; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Iwamoto, Yuri; Uchiyama, Yuka; Kakimoto, Naoya; Kreiborg, Sven; Murakami, Shumei

    2018-05-02

    Our goal was to assess MR image uniformity by investigating aspects influencing said uniformity via a method laid out by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Six metallic materials embedded in a glass phantom were scanned (i.e., Au, Ag, Al, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, Ti and Co-Cr alloy) as well as a reference image. Sequences included Spin Echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) scanned in three planes (i.e., Axial, Coronal, and Sagittal). Moreover, three surface coil types (i.e., Head and Neck or HN, Brain, and TMJ coils) and two image correction methods (i.e., Surface Coil Intensity Correction or SCIC, Phased array Uniformity Enhancement or PURE) were employed to evaluate their effectiveness on image uniformity. Image uniformity was assessed using the NEMA peak-deviation non-uniformity method. Results showed that TMJ coils elicited the least uniform image and Brain coils outperformed HN coils when metallic materials were present. Additionally, when metallic materials were present, SE outperformed GRE especially for Co-Cr (particularly in the axial plane). Furthermore, both SCIC and PURE improved image uniformity compared to uncorrected images, and SCIC slightly surpassed PURE when metallic metals were present. Lastly, Co-Cr elicited the least uniform image while other metallic materials generally showed similar patterns (i.e., no significant deviation from images without metallic metals). Overall, a quantitative understanding of the factors influencing MR image uniformity (e.g., coil type, imaging method, metal susceptibility, and post-hoc correction method) is advantageous to optimize image quality, assists clinical interpretation, and may result in improved medical and dental care.

  17. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  18. A uniform Tauberian theorem in dynamic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopin, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Antagonistic dynamic games including games represented in normal form are considered. The asymptotic behaviour of value in these games is investigated as the game horizon tends to infinity (Cesàro mean) and as the discounting parameter tends to zero (Abel mean). The corresponding Abelian-Tauberian theorem is established: it is demonstrated that in both families the game value uniformly converges to the same limit, provided that at least one of the limits exists. Analogues of one-sided Tauberian theorems are obtained. An example shows that the requirements are essential even for control problems. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  19. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  20. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  1. Effects of Potential Lane-Changing Probability on Uniform Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Shang Huayan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use the car-following model with the anticipation effect of the potential lane-changing probability (Acta Mech. Sin. 24 (2008) 399) to investigate the effects of the potential lane-changing probability on uniform flow. The analytical and numerical results show that the potential lane-changing probability can enhance the speed and flow of uniform flow and that their increments are related to the density.

  2. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.

  5. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  6. Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{n}}\\big) . Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{mn}}\\big) . In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{n}\\big) .

  7. Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Karadayi, E; Saito, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O(1/√n). Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O(1/√(mn)). In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O(1/n)

  8. UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C-obstacles and a set of uniformly distributed fixed-length segments in C-space. The results show that this new sampling method yields samples that are more uniformly distributed than previous obstacle-based methods such as OBPRM, Gaussian sampling, and Bridge test sampling. UOBPRM is shown to have nodes more uniformly distributed near C-obstacle surfaces and also requires the fewest nodes and edges to solve challenging motion planning problems with varying narrow passages. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Uniformity across 200 mm silicon wafers printed by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Tallal, J; Lazzarino, F; Landis, S; Joubert, O; Pelzer, R

    2005-01-01

    Uniformity of the printing process is one of the key parameters of nanoimprint lithography. This technique has to be extended to large size wafers to be useful for several industrial applications, and the uniformity of micro and nanostructures has to be guaranteed on large surfaces. This paper presents results of printing on 200 mm diameter wafers. The residual thickness uniformity after printing is demonstrated at the wafer scale in large patterns (100 μm), in smaller lines of 250 nm and in sub-100 nm features. We show that a mould deformation occurs during the printing process, and that this deformation is needed to guarantee printing uniformity. However, the mould deformation is also responsible for the potential degradation of the patterns

  10. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  11. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  12. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  13. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  14. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  16. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  17. Memory effect in uniformly heated granular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizac, E.; Prados, A.

    2014-07-01

    We evidence a Kovacs-like memory effect in a uniformly driven granular gas. A system of inelastic hard particles, in the low density limit, can reach a nonequilibrium steady state when properly forced. By following a certain protocol for the drive time dependence, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature coincides with its long time value. The temperature subsequently does not remain constant but exhibits a nonmonotonic evolution with either a maximum or a minimum, depending on the dissipation and on the protocol. We present a theoretical analysis of this memory effect at Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation level and show that when dissipation exceeds a threshold, the response can be called anomalous. We find excellent agreement between the analytical predictions and direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Harder, Ross; Hwu, Yeukuang; Robinson, Ian K; Chu, Yong S

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate the advantages of imaging with ptychography scans that follow a Fermat spiral trajectory. This scan pattern provides a more uniform coverage and a higher overlap ratio with the same number of scan points over the same area than the presently used mesh and concentric [13] patterns. Under realistically imperfect measurement conditions, numerical simulations show that the quality of the reconstructed image is improved significantly with a Fermat spiral compared with a concentric scan pattern. The result is confirmed by the performance enhancement with experimental data, especially under low-overlap conditions. These results suggest that the Fermat spiral pattern increases the quality of the reconstructed image and tolerance to data with imperfections.

  19. Dental tissue as a thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, F.; Zahmatkesh, M.H.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of the dosimetry procedures used widely as routine and personal dosimeters. In order to extend this kind of dosimeters, dental tissue has been examined and was found promising as a Thermoluminescence Dosimetry dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, 70 health teeth were collected. The only criterion, wich was considered for selection of the teeth, was the healthiness of them regardless of age and gender of the donors. All collected samples were washed and cleaned and milled uniformly. The final powder had a uniform grain size between 100-300 micrometer. The sample was divided into four groups. Group A and B were used for measurement of density and investigation of variation of thermoluminescent characteristics with temperature respectively. Groups C and D were used for investigation of variation of thermoluminescent intensity with dose and fading of this intensity with time. In all cases the results obtained with dental tissue were compared to a standard LiF, thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter. Results: It was found that, average density of the dental tissue was 1.570 g/cm 3 , which is comparable to density of LiF, which is 1.612g/cm 3 . It was also concluded that the range of 0-300 d ig C , dental tissue has a simple curve with two specific peaks at 140 and 25 d ig C respectively. The experiment also showed that, the variation of relative intensity versus dose is linear in the range of 0.04-0.1 Gy. The fading rate of dental tissue is higher than LiF but still in the acceptable range (14% per month in compare to 5.2% per month). Conclusion: Dental tissue as a natural dosimeter is comparable with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry and can be used in accidental events with a good approximation

  20. School uniforms: tradition, benefit or predicament?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aardt, Annette Marie; Wilken, Ilani

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the controversies surrounding school uniforms. Roleplayers in this debate in South Africa are parents, learners and educators, and arguments centre on aspects such as identity, economy and the equalising effect of school uniforms, which are considered in the literature to be benefits. Opposing viewpoints highlight the fact that compulsory uniforms infringe on learners’ constitutional rights to self-expression. The aim of this research was to determine the perspectives ...

  1. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  2. Flood field uniformity testing - effects of crystal hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Doldurova, M.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    The most basic and sensitive routine quality control (QC) of gamma camera is that of intrinsic flood-field uniformity. The routine QC test must be assessed daily and any nonuniformity must be eliminated before patient testing to eliminate artifacts and false positive or false-negative patient results. The purpose of this study was to compare uniformity analysis results for scintillation crystal hydration with symmetric and asymmetric energy window on the Siemens Symbia T2 SPECTCT camera. Integral and differential uniformity analysis was performed by placing a point source 99m Tc in front of the detector with removed collimator to measure the effect of correction matrix, a count rate and activity volume on intrinsic uniformity. A 15% energy window set symmetrically over the 99m Tc photo peak is equivalent to 140±10% keV or a window spanning 126-154 keV. The results, received from Detector 2 gave the following uniformity parameter values: Both asymmetric energy window images show clearly multiple focal spots due to crystal hydration: discrete hot spots in the asymmetric low window image and discrete cold spots in the asymmetric high window image. The above results are not seen yet on the symmetric window image. We had replaced Detector 2 in order to avoid spots become visible in flood images obtained with the clinical energy window. The uniformity of a gamma camera is maybe the most important parameter that expresses the quality of the camera's performance. Non uniform areas in the field of view can result in misdiagnosed patients and low quality of clinical services. (authors)

  3. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  4. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  5. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  6. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and…

  7. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  8. A School Uniform Program That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    According to advocates, school uniforms reduce gang influence, decrease families' clothing expenditures, and help mitigate potentially divisive cultural and economic differences. Aiming to improve school climate, a California elementary school adopted uniforms as a source of pride and affiliation. This article describes the development of the…

  9. Growth functions for some uniformly amenable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronka Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple constructive proof of the fact that every abelian discrete group is uniformly amenable. We improve the growth function obtained earlier and find the optimal growth function in a particular case. We also compute a growth function for some non-abelian uniformly amenable group.

  10. On Uniform Exponential Trichotomy in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Monteola Ilona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider three concepts of uniform exponential trichotomy on the half-line in the general framework of evolution operators in Banach spaces. We obtain a systematic classification of uniform exponential trichotomy concepts and the connections between them.

  11. A Uniform Syntax and Discourse Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    I present arguments in favor of the Uniformity Hypothesis: the hypothesis that discourse can extend syntax dependencies without conflicting with them. I consider arguments that Uniformity is violated in certain cases involving quotation, and I argue that the cases presented in the literature...

  12. Evaluation of bacterial nanocellulose-based uniform wound dressing for large area skin transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Lina [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Nano-Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Ping [Institute of Organ Transplant of Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Shengmin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yang, Guang, E-mail: yang_sunny@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Nano-Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) was biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The surface area, physicochemical structure and morphology of the materials were characterized. Here provides a method for an efficient production of uniform BNC, which is beneficial for the fast characterization and evaluation of BNC. In vitro cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated by the proliferation, the adhesion, the viability and the morphology of NIH/3T3 cells. Low cytotoxicity of the BNC was observed, and micrographs demonstrate a good proliferation and adhesion of NIH/3T3 cells on BNC. Large area full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of C57BL/6 mice in animal surgery. The wounds were transplanted with BNC films and the results compared to those in a control group. The rehabilitation of the wound surfaces and the pathological sections of mice were investigated and are discussed. Histological examinations demonstrated faster and better healing effect and lower inflammatory response in the BNC group than those in the control group. Preliminary results on wound dressings from BNC show a curative effect promoting the healing of epithelial tissue. BNC is a promising natural polymer with medical applications in wound dressings. - Highlights: • BNC is expected to be a promising material in wound healing and skin transplantation. • We studied surface area, physicochemical structures and morphology of uniform BNC. • Cyto-evaluation results of BNC-based wound dressing show a good biocompatibility. • Large area skin transplantation experiments suggest a good performance of healing.

  13. Evaluation of bacterial nanocellulose-based uniform wound dressing for large area skin transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lina; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Shengmin; Yang, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) was biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The surface area, physicochemical structure and morphology of the materials were characterized. Here provides a method for an efficient production of uniform BNC, which is beneficial for the fast characterization and evaluation of BNC. In vitro cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated by the proliferation, the adhesion, the viability and the morphology of NIH/3T3 cells. Low cytotoxicity of the BNC was observed, and micrographs demonstrate a good proliferation and adhesion of NIH/3T3 cells on BNC. Large area full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of C57BL/6 mice in animal surgery. The wounds were transplanted with BNC films and the results compared to those in a control group. The rehabilitation of the wound surfaces and the pathological sections of mice were investigated and are discussed. Histological examinations demonstrated faster and better healing effect and lower inflammatory response in the BNC group than those in the control group. Preliminary results on wound dressings from BNC show a curative effect promoting the healing of epithelial tissue. BNC is a promising natural polymer with medical applications in wound dressings. - Highlights: • BNC is expected to be a promising material in wound healing and skin transplantation. • We studied surface area, physicochemical structures and morphology of uniform BNC. • Cyto-evaluation results of BNC-based wound dressing show a good biocompatibility. • Large area skin transplantation experiments suggest a good performance of healing

  14. Power dependence of supercontinuum noise in uniform and tapered PCFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Jakobsen, C.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the noise properties of picosecond supercontinuum spectra generated at different power levels in uniform and tapered photonic crystal fibers. We show that the noise at the spectral edges of the generated supercontinuum is at a constant level independent on the pump...

  15. Uniform design based SVM model selection for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihong; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Weiguo

    2010-02-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) has been proved to be a powerful tool for face recognition. The generalization capacity of SVM depends on the model with optimal hyperparameters. The computational cost of SVM model selection results in application difficulty in face recognition. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we utilize the advantage of uniform design--space filling designs and uniformly scattering theory to seek for optimal SVM hyperparameters. Then we propose a face recognition scheme based on SVM with optimal model which obtained by replacing the grid and gradient-based method with uniform design. The experimental results on Yale and PIE face databases show that the proposed method significantly improves the efficiency of SVM model selection.

  16. On Uniform Weak König's Lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The so-called weak Konig's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an infinite path b in any infinite binary tree (given by a representing function f). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higher-order arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics...... which-relative to PRA -implies the schema of 10-induction). In this setting one can consider also a uniform version UWKL of WKL which asserts the existence of a functional which selects uniformly in a given infinite binary tree f an infinite path f of that tree. This uniform version of WKL...

  17. Developing Work Uniforms for Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerck, Mari

    2016-01-01

    This article is makes use of fieldwork to discuss and analyse a Norwegian product development project aimed at developing workwear for women in male dominated manual occupations. Making use of ethnographic methods and analysis can be valuable in showing how users’ experiences and practices can...... be studied also where there are poorly developed concepts and language for formulating and discussing products, such as workwear in use. The article aims at answering how ethnographic studies may contribute to the development of products and services. Understanding people and things in their everyday...

  18. Phase diagram and tricritical behavior of an metamagnet in uniform and random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yaqiu; Wei Guozhu; Xu Xiaojuan; Song Guoli

    2010-01-01

    A two-sublattice Ising metamagnet in both uniform and random fields is studied within the mean-field approach based on Bogoliubov's inequality for the Gibbs free energy. We show that the qualitative features of the phase diagrams are dependent on the parameters of the model and the uniform field values. The tricritical point and reentrant phenomenon can be observed on the phase diagram. The reentrance is due to the competition between uniform and random interactions.

  19. Burnout in a channel with non-uniform circumferential heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-03-01

    Burnout experiments are reported for uniform flux and circumferential flux tilt (maximum/average flux about 1.25) with tubes and annuli, all the experiments having uniform axial heating. These show similar results, the burnout power with flux tilt being within 10% of that with uniform flux. For the same mean exit steam quality, the local maximum flux is higher than the predicted burnout value and generally a better prediction is obtained using the average flux. (author)

  20. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS), formerly the National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Unit Survey or NDATUS, was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse...

  1. Uniform Facility Data Set US (UFDS-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) was designed to measure the scope and use of drug abuse treatment services in the United States. The survey collects information...

  2. Nonimaging solar concentrator with uniform irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Gee, Randy C.

    2004-09-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken under NREL/DOE auspices to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators.

  3. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  4. Tolerancing a lens for LED uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jieun; Sasian, Jose

    2017-08-01

    A method to evaluate tolerance sensitivities for lenses used to produce uniform illumination is presented. Closed form surfaces are used to define optical surfaces and relative illumination is calculated from light etendue considerations.

  5. Uniform emergency codes: will they improve safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    There are pros and cons to uniform code systems, according to emergency medicine experts. Uniformity can be a benefit when ED nurses and other staff work at several facilities. It's critical that your staff understand not only what the codes stand for, but what they must do when codes are called. If your state institutes a new system, be sure to hold regular drills to familiarize your ED staff.

  6. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  7. Crystallographically uniform arrays of ordered (In)GaN nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gačević, Ž., E-mail: gacevic@isom.upm.es; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Albert, S.; Calleja, E. [ETSIT-ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Torres-Pardo, A.; González-Calbet, J. M. [Dept. Química Inorgánica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-21

    In this work, through a comparative study of self-assembled (SA) and selective area grown (SAG) (In)GaN nanocolumn (NC) ensembles, we first give a detailed insight into improved crystallographic uniformity (homogeneity of crystallographic tilts and twists) of the latter ones. The study, performed making use of: reflective high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, reveals that unlike their SA counterparts, the ensembles of SAG NCs show single epitaxial relationship to both sapphire(0001) and Si(111) underlying substrates. In the second part of the article, making use of X-ray diffraction, we directly show that the selective area growth leads to improved compositional uniformity of InGaN NC ensembles. This further leads to improved spectral purity of their luminescence, as confirmed by comparative macro-photoluminescence measurements performed on SA and SAG InGaN NC ensembles. An improved crystallographic uniformity of NC ensembles facilitates their integration into optoelectronic devices, whereas their improved compositional uniformity allows for their employment in single-color optoelectronic applications.

  8. Seismic signal of near steady uniform flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, A.; Bachelet, V.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.

    2017-12-01

    The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity. A major challenge in this domain is to retrieve the dynamic properties of the flow from the emitted seismic signal. In this study, we propose laboratory experiments where the dynamic properties of the flow (velocity, granular temperature, density, etc.) are measured together with the generated seismic signal. We investigate near steady uniform flows made of glass beads of 2mm diameter, flowing throughout a thin rectangular channel of 10 cm width, with tunable tilt angle and height flow, thanks to an adjustable opening gate. The flow is monitored from the spine with a fast camera (5000 fps), and the emitted waves are recorded by accelerometers (10Hz - 54 kHz), stuck on the back side of the bottom of the channel. Among others, three seismic parameters are analyzed: the power radiated by the flow, the mean frequency of the signal, and the modulation of its amplitude. We show that they are linked to three dynamical properties: the mean kinetic energy of the flow, the speed of collisions between beads and the vertical oscillation of the beads, respectively.

  9. The mathematical description of uniformity and related theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Chuanwen; Yi Chundi; Wang Gang; Li Longsuo; Wang Chuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Uniform index is a conception that can describe the uniformity of a finite point set in a polyhedron, and is closely related to chaos. In order to study uniform index, the concept of contained uniform index is defined, which is similar to uniform index and has good mathematical properties. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the contained uniform index, and develop the base of proving the convergence of uniform index.

  10. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  11. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  12. X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Yoshikiyo; Adachi, Ichiro; Morita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogels used as radiator in proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors. To obtain high performance in a large-area detector, a key characteristic of radiator is the density (i.e. refractive index) uniformity of an individual aerogel monolith. At a refractive index of n=1.05, our requirement for the refractive index uniformity in the transverse plane direction of an aerogel tile is |δ(n−1)/(n−1)|<4% in a focusing dual layer radiator (with different refractive indices) scheme. We applied the radiographic technique to evaluate the density uniformity of our original aerogels from a trial production and that of Panasonic products (SP-50) as a reference, and to confirm they have sufficient density uniformity within ±1% along the transverse plane direction. The measurement results show that the proposed technique can quantitatively estimate the density uniformity of aerogels.

  13. An experimental comparison between forced convection burn-out in freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.F.; Elliott, D.F.; Wood, R.W.

    1965-05-01

    Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 1005.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... month, the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and...) and (a)(2) of this section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... paragraph (a) of this section times 3.5 pounds of butterfat; and (2) Multiply the uniform skim milk price...

  18. Highly Uniform Epitaxial ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Nanopiezotronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly uniform and c-axis-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated in predefined patterns by a low temperature homoepitaxial aqueous chemical method. The nucleation seed patterns were realized in polymer and in metal thin films, resulting in, all-ZnO and bottom-contacted structures, respectively. Both of them show excellent geometrical uniformity: the cross-sectional uniformity according to the scanning electron micrographs across the array is lower than 2%. The diameter of the hexagonal prism-shaped nanorods can be set in the range of 90–170 nm while their typical length achievable is 0.5–2.3 μm. The effect of the surface polarity was also examined, however, no significant difference was found between the arrays grown on Zn-terminated and on O-terminated face of the ZnO single crystal. The transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The current–voltage characteristics taken on an individual nanorod contacted by a Au-coated atomic force microscope tip reflected Schottky-type behavior. The geometrical uniformity, the designable pattern, and the electrical properties make the presented nanorod arrays ideal candidates to be used in ZnO-based DC nanogenerator and in next-generation integrated piezoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS.

  19. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  20. Experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru; Qian Hang; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. The experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam with SPG-200 pulsed power generator is introduced. SPG-200 is an all-solid-state components pulsed power generator based on SOS, and its open voltage is more than 350 kV. The cathode have the area of 24 mm x 294 mm, and the anode-cathode(A-C)gap spacing is adjustable from 0 to 49 mm. The electron beam of cathode emission is transported to the laser chamber through the diode pressure foil, which sepa-rates the vacuum chamber from the laser chamber. Velvet and graphite cathodes are studied, each generates large area electron beam. The diode parameters are presented, and the uniformity of e-beam is diagnosed. The experimental results show that the diode voltage of the graphite cathode is 240-280 kV, and the diode current is 0.7-1.8 kA. The diode voltage of the velvet cathode is 200-250 kV, and the diode current is 1.5-1.7 kA. The uniformity of the velvet cathode emission is better than that of the graphite cathode. (authors)

  1. Uniformity in radon exhalation from construction materials using can technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amri, E.A.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-06-01

    The uniformity in radon exhalation rates for 46 tiles of granite, marble and ceramic used as construction materials were determined using 'Can Technique' employing CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). On each tile, two sealed cans, each enclosing one NTD fixed at the center of the tile surface area covered by the can, were mounted at two different locations of each individual tiles. The track production rates on the NTDs representing radon exhalation rates were measured. The radon exhalation rates from the surface of individual tiles showed uniform exhalations within the calculated uncertainties of the measured values. This makes Can Technique an alternative simple method to measure radon exhalation rates. Calibration required to convert track production rates into radon exhalation rates for the used can and NTD was done using an active technique. The correlation between the measurements by the two techniques shows a good linear correlation coefficient (0.83)

  2. Ultrasonic transducer design for uniform insonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; McCulloch, D.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques used in transducer development for acoustical imaging have been evaluated for the purpose of producing broad, uniform ultrasonic fields from planar radiators. Such fields should be useful in hyperthermia, physical therapy, and ultrasonic bioeffects studies. Fourier inversion of the circ function yielded a source velocity distribution proportional to (P/r) exp ((-ik/2Z) (2Z/sup 2/+r/sup 2/)) J/sub 1/(krP/Z), where r is the radial source coordinate, k is the wave number, and P is the desired radius of uniform insonation at a depth Z in water. This source distribution can be truncated without significantly degrading the solution. A simpler solution consists of exponentially shading the edge of an otherwise uniformly excited disk transducer. This approach was successfully approximated experimentally

  3. Liquid toroidal drop under uniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarankin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a stationary liquid toroidal drop freely suspended in another fluid and subjected to an electric field uniform at infinity is addressed analytically. Taylor's discriminating function implies that, when the phases have equal viscosities and are assumed to be slightly conducting (leaky dielectrics), a spherical drop is stationary when Q=(2R2+3R+2)/(7R2), where R and Q are ratios of the phases' electric conductivities and dielectric constants, respectively. This condition holds for any electric capillary number, CaE, that defines the ratio of electric stress to surface tension. Pairam and Fernández-Nieves showed experimentally that, in the absence of external forces (CaE=0), a toroidal drop shrinks towards its centre, and, consequently, the drop can be stationary only for some CaE>0. This work finds Q and CaE such that, under the presence of an electric field and with equal viscosities of the phases, a toroidal drop having major radius ρ and volume 4π/3 is qualitatively stationary-the normal velocity of the drop's interface is minute and the interface coincides visually with a streamline. The found Q and CaE depend on R and ρ, and for large ρ, e.g. ρ≥3, they have simple approximations: Q˜(R2+R+1)/(3R2) and CaE∼3 √{3 π ρ / 2 } (6 ln ⁡ρ +2 ln ⁡[96 π ]-9 )/ (12 ln ⁡ρ +4 ln ⁡[96 π ]-17 ) (R+1 ) 2/ (R-1 ) 2.

  4. One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive

  5. Studying uniform thickness II: Transversely nonsimple iterated torus knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFountain, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    We prove that an iterated torus knot type in the standard contact 3-sphere fails the uniform thickness property (UTP) if and only if it is formed from repeated positive cablings, which is precisely when an iterated torus knot supports the standard contact structure. This is the first complete UTP...... classification for a large class of knots. We also show that all iterated torus knots that fail the UTP support cabling knot types that are transversely non-simple....

  6. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  7. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-06-25

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge.

  8. Cantilever arrays with self-aligned nanotips of uniform height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, W W; Peters, T; Berenschot, E; De Boer, M J; Siekman, M H; Abelmann, L

    2012-01-01

    Cantilever arrays are employed to increase the throughput of imaging and manipulation at the nanoscale. We present a fabrication process to construct cantilever arrays with nanotips that show a uniform tip–sample distance. Such uniformity is crucial, because in many applications the cantilevers do not feature individual tip–sample spacing control. Uniform cantilever arrays lead to very similar tip–sample interaction within an array, enable non-contact modes for arrays and give better control over the load force in contact modes. The developed process flow uses a single mask to define both tips and cantilevers. An additional mask is required for the back side etch. The tips are self-aligned in the convex corner at the free end of each cantilever. Although we use standard optical contact lithography, we show that the convex corner can be sharpened to a nanometre scale radius by an isotropic underetch step. The process is robust and wafer-scale. The resonance frequencies of the cantilevers within an array are shown to be highly uniform with a relative standard error of 0.26% or lower. The tip–sample distance within an array of up to ten cantilevers is measured to have a standard error around 10 nm. An imaging demonstration using the AFM shows that all cantilevers in the array have a sharp tip with a radius below 10 nm. The process flow for the cantilever arrays finds application in probe-based nanolithography, probe-based data storage, nanomanufacturing and parallel scanning probe microscopy. (paper)

  9. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  10. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  11. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  12. School Uniform Revisited: Procedure, Pressure and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Damian; Sinclair, Adele

    2006-01-01

    The House of Lords' decision in "R. (on the application of Begum) v. The Headteacher and Governors of Denbigh High School" considered whether a particular school uniform policy infringed a student's right to manifest her religion under Article 9. This paper analyses the content of this decision, and explores how schools should approach…

  13. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  14. Mandatory School Uniforms and Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopat, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    On 10 December 2007 the Akron City School Board--following the precedent set by many school systems across the United States and the world--instituted a policy of mandatory school uniforms for all students in grades K-8. The measure was met with mixed reviews. While many parents supported the measure, a small group of parents from a selective,…

  15. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front c...

  16. An analysis of the uniform core experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterson, R H

    1973-10-15

    This report describes an analysis of the Uniform Core of HITREX using the WIMS E codes, and presents the results of theory/experiment comparisons. The overall picture is one of good agreement for core reaction rate distributions, but theory umderestimating k{sub eff} by about 1.5% {delta}k/k.

  17. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  18. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1987-07-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  19. Magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, Marc; Millev, Yonko

    2009-01-01

    We provide an exhaustive description of the magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus and its derivative self-intersecting (spindle) shapes. In the process, two complementary approaches have been implemented, position-space analysis of the Laplace equation with inhomogeneous boundary condit...

  20. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front can...

  1. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  2. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Gustafsson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  3. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new evaluation method with accompanying software was developed to precisely calculate uniformity from catch-can test data, assuming sprinkler distribution data to be a continuous variable. Two interpolation steps are required to compute unknown water application depths at grid distribution points from radial ...

  4. uniform van die staatspresidentswag - herkoms en tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A blue uniform was inter alia proposed in 1980 but finally rejected by the Prime Minister in 1984. Instructions were issued to put forth new ideas. All the arguments in ..... In 1896 Is die rang van kommandant van die Staatsartlllerie verhoog tot die van lultenant-kolonel. Henning Pretorlus, father and first commandant of the.

  5. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  6. Effect of sprinkler structure on water distribution uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M; Li, H; Chen, C; Tu, Q; Liu, J P

    2012-01-01

    Structures of sprinklers play important roles in the uniformity of water distribution. The advances and achievements to improve the distribution uniformity through the innovation in the sprinkler structures at home and abroad were presented in details. Analyses showed that three types of structure can ameliorate the water distribution efficiently. First, novel nozzle structures were applied, including the application of non-circle nozzle and special spread nozzles. Second, new structures of flow channel were used. Third, assistant device was added so as to improve the uneven water distribution, such as an assistant stream interrupter, pressure or flow rate regulator and so on. Compared to domestic sprinklers, sprinklers produced abroad have novel and special structures with better hydraulic performance. Basic theoretical researches should be strengthened and new materials, new manufacturing processes and new technique should be applied. Then new kinds of sprinkler will be produced and the hydraulic performance of sprinklers will be promoted to a higher level.

  7. Decomposition of macrophytes with uniformly C-14-labelled plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, G.

    1979-01-01

    Uniform labelling of plant such as macrophytes is relatively difficult to obtain. In my experiments I used samples of ripe stems and leaves of labelled maize which had grown for 110 days in a 14 Co 2 atmosphere. These samples were laid in a glass bowl for in situ and in vitro experiments under similar conditions of light and temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the shift of carbon through chosen compartments of a core (water, sediments, bacteria, invertebrates, atmosphere) and to understand the mineralization process with type of particulate organic matter. At low temperature (7 0 C), leaching of organic matter in the first 5 days increases bacteria activity, then radioactivity-incorporation level declines to the 60th day; CO 2 production was measured during experiments and was varying between 60% and 75% of used carbon of the tissue. (orig.) [de

  8. Uniformity testing: assessment of a centralized web-based uniformity analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempa, Meaghan C

    2011-06-01

    Uniformity testing is performed daily to ensure adequate camera performance before clinical use. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's locally built, centralized, Web-based uniformity analysis system by examining the differences between manufacturer and Web-based National Electrical Manufacturers Association integral uniformity calculations measured in the useful field of view (FOV) and the central FOV. Manufacturer and Web-based integral uniformity calculations measured in the useful FOV and the central FOV were recorded over a 30-d period for 4 cameras from 3 different manufacturers. These data were then statistically analyzed. The differences between the uniformity calculations were computed, in addition to the means and the SDs of these differences for each head of each camera. There was a correlation between the manufacturer and Web-based integral uniformity calculations in the useful FOV and the central FOV over the 30-d period. The average differences between the manufacturer and Web-based useful FOV calculations ranged from -0.30 to 0.099, with SD ranging from 0.092 to 0.32. For the central FOV calculations, the average differences ranged from -0.163 to 0.055, with SD ranging from 0.074 to 0.24. Most of the uniformity calculations computed by this centralized Web-based uniformity analysis system are comparable to the manufacturers' calculations, suggesting that this system is reasonably reliable and effective. This finding is important because centralized Web-based uniformity analysis systems are advantageous in that they test camera performance in the same manner regardless of the manufacturer.

  9. 24 CFR 5.801 - Uniform financial reporting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform financial reporting... and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Uniform Financial Reporting Standards § 5.801 Uniform financial reporting standards. (a) Applicability. This subpart H implements uniform...

  10. Uniform photoresponse in thermally oxidized Ni and MoS2 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Peng, Gang; Wang, Fei; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Qin, Shiqiao

    2017-01-01

    Non-uniform photocurrent is usually generated at the overlapped region of the heterostructures, and its potential applications may be hindered by the spatial uniformity issue of the device photoresponse. Here, nearly a uniform photoresponse at the overlapped region of the thermally oxidized Ni and molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) heterostructures is obtained. Further characterizations reveal that several nanometers Ni is rightly under the NiO x layer formed at the surface of the film in the oxidation process. The heterostructures based on layered MoS 2 /NiO x /Ni with highly conductive bottom Ni show a high uniform photoresponse with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.4% at 532 nm. Moreover, successful integration of multiple devices suggests a great priority for such a structure for highly integrated uniform photodetectors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. The effect of uniform color on judging athletes' aggressiveness, fairness, and chance of winning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Bjoern

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others' judgments.

  12. Uniform photoresponse in thermally oxidized Ni and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University (China); Peng, Gang; Wang, Fei [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University (China); Zhang, Xue-Ao; Qin, Shiqiao [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2017-09-15

    Non-uniform photocurrent is usually generated at the overlapped region of the heterostructures, and its potential applications may be hindered by the spatial uniformity issue of the device photoresponse. Here, nearly a uniform photoresponse at the overlapped region of the thermally oxidized Ni and molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) heterostructures is obtained. Further characterizations reveal that several nanometers Ni is rightly under the NiO{sub x} layer formed at the surface of the film in the oxidation process. The heterostructures based on layered MoS{sub 2}/NiO{sub x}/Ni with highly conductive bottom Ni show a high uniform photoresponse with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.4% at 532 nm. Moreover, successful integration of multiple devices suggests a great priority for such a structure for highly integrated uniform photodetectors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  14. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  15. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....

  16. Casimir energy for a piecewise uniform string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, I.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1989-07-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string is calculated. The string consists of two parts I and II, endowed in general with different tensions and mass densities, although adjusted in such a way that the velocity of sound always equals the velocity of light. The dispersion equation is worked out under general conditions, and the frequency spectrum is determined in special cases. When the ratio L II /L I between the string lengths is an integer, it is in principle possible to determine the frequency spectrum through solving algebraic equations of increasingly high degree. The Casimir energy relative to the uniform string is in general found to be negative, although in the special case L I =L II the energy is equal to zero. Delicate points in the regularization procedure are discussed; they point toward an anomaly in the theory. (orig.)

  17. Uniform analytic approximation of Wigner rotation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Scott E.

    2018-02-01

    We derive the leading asymptotic approximation, for low angle θ, of the Wigner rotation matrix elements, dm1m2 j(θ ) , uniform in j, m1, and m2. The result is in terms of a Bessel function of integer order. We numerically investigate the error for a variety of cases and find that the approximation can be useful over a significant range of angles. This approximation has application in the partial wave analysis of wavepacket scattering.

  18. Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.

  19. 78 FR 50359 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Uniform Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Organization (HMO) Benefit--Prime Enrollment Fee Exemption for Survivors of Active Duty Deceased Sponsors and... Enrollment Fee Exemption for Survivors of Active Duty Deceased Sponsors and Medically Retired Uniformed Services [[Page 50360

  20. Coulomb energy of uniformly charged spheroidal shell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; Yao, Zhenwei; Thomas, Creighton K; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

    2015-03-01

    We provide exact expressions for the electrostatic energy of uniformly charged prolate and oblate spheroidal shells. We find that uniformly charged prolate spheroids of eccentricity greater than 0.9 have lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same area. For the volume-constrained case, we find that a sphere has the highest Coulomb energy among all spheroidal shells. Further, we derive the change in the Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged shell due to small, area-conserving perturbations on the spherical shape. Our perturbation calculations show that buckling-type deformations on a sphere can lower the Coulomb energy. Finally, we consider the possibility of counterion condensation on the spheroidal shell surface. We employ a Manning-Oosawa two-state model approximation to evaluate the renormalized charge and analyze the behavior of the equilibrium free energy as a function of the shell's aspect ratio for both area-constrained and volume-constrained cases. Counterion condensation is seen to favor the formation of spheroidal structures over a sphere of equal area for high values of shell volume fractions.

  1. The need for a uniform European environmental health database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Richard M.; Tarkowski, Stanislaw

    1989-01-01

    Data on which to base the setting of priorities for implementing strategies to reduce public health risks must be of sufficient quality to justify semiquantitative risk assessment. Clusters of negative health outcomes have traditionally alerted authorities at local or national levels to the potential need for regulating suspected environmental hazards, although most initial observations neither reach statistical significance nor uniquely identify putative insults. Four classes of risk factors (environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle, individual susceptibility, and access to and quality of primary health care) may each account for approximately one quarter of the observed variations in death from the most common causes (e.g. heart and cerebrovascular disease, cancer, and accidents). Preliminary evidence within Europe shows that local mortality from these and other causes can vary by a factor of 2 to 6 regardless of the scale of the region examined, strongly implying a fractile-like structure to the non-uniformity of possibly random health data. This suggests that efforts to identify causes of variations in health outcome cannot be successful without a region-wide, reasonably uniform data set of health outcomes and potential risk factors. Several alternative strategies for establishing a Uniform European Environmental Health Database are considered, together with possible mechanisms for providing basic information for the management of suspected environmental health hazards and quantified health risks. (author)

  2. A simple uniformity test for ultrasound phased arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to test phased array ultrasound transducers for non functioning elements. We aimed to modify a widely performed test to improve its ease and effectiveness for these arrays. A paperclip was slowly moved along the transducer array, with the scanner operating in M-mode, imaging at a fundamental frequency with automatic gain and grey scale adjustment disabled. Non-functioning elements are identified by a dark vertical line in the image. The test was repeated several times for each transducer, looking for consistency of results. 2 transducers, with faults already shown by electronic transducer testing, were used to validate the method. 23 transducers in clinical use were tested. The results of the modified test on the 2 faulty transducers agreed closely with electronic transducer testing results. The test indicated faults in 5 of the 23 transducers in clinical use: 3 with a single failed element and 2 with non-uniform sensitivity. 1 transducer with non-uniform sensitivity had undergone lens repair; the new lens was visibly non-uniform in thickness and further testing showed a reduction in depth of penetration and a loss of elevational focus in comparison with a new transducer. The modified test is capable of detecting non-functioning elements. Further work is required to provide a better understanding of more subtle faults. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  4. Modeling of chromosome intermingling by partially overlapping uniform random polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, T; Scharein, R; Borgo, B; Varela, R; Diao, Y; Arsuaga, J

    2011-03-01

    During the early phase of the cell cycle the eukaryotic genome is organized into chromosome territories. The geometry of the interface between any two chromosomes remains a matter of debate and may have important functional consequences. The Interchromosomal Network model (introduced by Branco and Pombo) proposes that territories intermingle along their periphery. In order to partially quantify this concept we here investigate the probability that two chromosomes form an unsplittable link. We use the uniform random polygon as a crude model for chromosome territories and we model the interchromosomal network as the common spatial region of two overlapping uniform random polygons. This simple model allows us to derive some rigorous mathematical results as well as to perform computer simulations easily. We find that the probability that one uniform random polygon of length n that partially overlaps a fixed polygon is bounded below by 1 − O(1/√n). We use numerical simulations to estimate the dependence of the linking probability of two uniform random polygons (of lengths n and m, respectively) on the amount of overlapping. The degree of overlapping is parametrized by a parameter [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text] indicates no overlapping and [Formula: see text] indicates total overlapping. We propose that this dependence relation may be modeled as f (ε, m, n) = [Formula: see text]. Numerical evidence shows that this model works well when [Formula: see text] is relatively large (ε ≥ 0.5). We then use these results to model the data published by Branco and Pombo and observe that for the amount of overlapping observed experimentally the URPs have a non-zero probability of forming an unsplittable link.

  5. Characterisation of tissue shrinkage during microwave thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Laura; Weiss, Noam; Nissenbaum, Yitzhak; Cavagnaro, Marta; Lopresto, Vanni; Pinto, Rosanna; Tosoratti, Nevio; Amabile, Claudio; Cassarino, Simone; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in tissue volume during image-guided microwave ablation in order to arrive at a more precise determination of the true ablation zone. The effect of power (20-80 W) and time (1-10 min) on microwave-induced tissue contraction was experimentally evaluated in various-sized cubes of ex vivo liver (10-40 mm ± 2 mm) and muscle (20 and 40 mm ± 2 mm) embedded in agar phantoms (N = 119). Post-ablation linear and volumetric dimensions of the tissue cubes were measured and compared with pre-ablation dimensions. Subsequently, the process of tissue contraction was investigated dynamically during the ablation procedure through real-time X-ray CT scanning. Overall, substantial shrinkage of 52-74% of initial tissue volume was noted. The shrinkage was non-uniform over time and space, with observed asymmetry favouring the radial (23-43 % range) over the longitudinal (21-29%) direction. Algorithmic relationships for the shrinkage as a function of time were demonstrated. Furthermore, the smallest cubes showed more substantial and faster contraction (28-40% after 1 min), with more considerable volumetric shrinkage (>10%) in muscle than in liver tissue. Additionally, CT imaging demonstrated initial expansion of the tissue volume, lasting in some cases up to 3 min during the microwave ablation procedure, prior to the contraction phenomenon. In addition to an asymmetric substantial shrinkage of the ablated tissue volume, an initial expansion phenomenon occurs during MW ablation. Thus, complex modifications of the tissue close to a radiating antenna will likely need to be taken into account for future methods of real-time ablation monitoring.

  6. Study on Improving Thickness Uniformity of Microfluidic Chip Mold in the Electroforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroformed microfluidic chip mold faces the problem of uneven thickness, which decreases the dimensional accuracy of the mold, and increases the production cost. To fabricate a mold with uniform thickness, two methods are investigated. Firstly, experiments are carried out to study how the ultrasonic agitation affects the thickness uniformity of the mold. It is found that the thickness uniformity is maximally improved by about 30% after 2 h electroforming under 200 kHz and 500 W ultrasonic agitation. Secondly, adding a second cathode, a method suitable for long-time electroforming is studied by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that with a 4 mm width second cathode used, the thickness uniformity is improved by about 30% after 2 h of electroforming, and that with electroforming time extended, the thickness uniformity is improved more obviously. After 22 h electroforming, the thickness uniformity is increased by about 45%. Finally, by comparing two methods, the method of adding a second cathode is chosen, and a microfluidic chip mold is made with the help of a specially designed second cathode. The result shows that the thickness uniformity of the mold is increased by about 50%, which is in good agreement with the simulation results.

  7. Canceling the momentum in a phase-shifting algorithm to eliminate spatially uniform errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Kenichi; Kim, Yangjin

    2016-08-10

    In phase-shifting interferometry, phase modulation nonlinearity causes both spatially uniform and nonuniform errors in the measured phase. Conventional linear-detuning error-compensating algorithms only eliminate the spatially variable error component. The uniform error is proportional to the inertial momentum of the data-sampling weight of a phase-shifting algorithm. This paper proposes a design approach to cancel the momentum by using characteristic polynomials in the Z-transform space and shows that an arbitrary M-frame algorithm can be modified to a new (M+2)-frame algorithm that acquires new symmetry to eliminate the uniform error.

  8. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  9. Temperature uniformity in the CERN CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research investigates the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions and their activation into cloud droplets. A key feature of the CLOUD experiment is precise control of the experimental parameters. Temperature uniformity and stability in the chamber are important since many of the processes under study are sensitive to temperature and also to contaminants that can be released from the stainless steel walls by upward temperature fluctuations. The air enclosed within the 26 m3 CLOUD chamber is equipped with several arrays (strings of high precision, fast-response thermometers to measure its temperature. Here we present a study of the air temperature uniformity inside the CLOUD chamber under various experimental conditions. Measurements were performed under calibration conditions and run conditions, which are distinguished by the flow rate of fresh air and trace gases entering the chamber at 20 and up to 210 L min−1, respectively. During steady-state calibration runs between −70 and +20 °C, the air temperature uniformity is better than ±0.06 °C in the radial direction and ±0.1 °C in the vertical direction. Larger non-uniformities are present during experimental runs, depending on the temperature control of the make-up air and trace gases (since some trace gases require elevated temperatures until injection into the chamber. The temperature stability is ±0.04 °C over periods of several hours during either calibration or steady-state run conditions. During rapid adiabatic expansions to activate cloud droplets and ice particles, the chamber walls are up to 10 °C warmer than the enclosed air. This results in temperature differences of ±1.5 °C in the vertical direction and ±1 °C in the horizontal direction, while the air returns to its equilibrium temperature with a time constant of about 200 s.

  10. Tomographical properties of uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work in coded aperture imaging has shown that the uniformly redundant array (URA) can image distant planar radioactive sources with no artifacts. The performance of two URA apertures when used in a close-up tomographic imaging system is investigated. It is shown that a URA based on m sequences is superior to one based on quadratic residues. The m sequence array not only produces less obnoxious artifacts in tomographic imaging, but is also more resilient to some described detrimental effects of close-up imaging. It is shown that in spite of these close-up effects, tomographic depth resolution increases as the source is moved closer to the detector

  11. SAM revisited: uniform semiclassical approximation with absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation is modified to take into account strong absorption. The resulting theory, very similar to the one developed by Frahn and Gross is used to discuss heavy-ion elastic scattering at intermediate energies. The theory permits a reasonably unambiguos separation of refractive and diffractive effects. The systems 12 C+ 12 C and 12 C+ 16 O, which seem to exhibit a remnant of a nuclear rainbow at E=20 Mev/N, are analysed with theory which is built directly on a model for the S-matrix. Simple relations between the fit S-matrix and the underlying complex potential are derived. (Author) [pt

  12. Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2007-01-01

    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation

  13. Nonimaging reflectors for efficient uniform illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M; Kashin, P; Rabl, A

    1992-10-01

    Nonimaging reflectors that are an extension of the design principle that was developed for compound parabolic concentrator type devices are proposed for illumination applications. The optical designs presented offer maximal lighting efficiency while they retain sharp angular control of the radiation and highly uniform flux densities on distant target planes. Our results are presented for symmetrical configurations in two dimensions (troughlike reflectors) for flat and for tubular sources. For fields of view of practical interest (half-angle in the 30-60 degrees range), these devices can achieve minimum-tomaximum intensity ratios of 0.7, while they remain compact and incur low reflective losses.

  14. Formation of Uniform Hollow Silica microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Kim, Chanjoong

    2013-03-01

    Microcapsules are small containers with diameters in the range of 0.1 - 100 μm. Mesoporous microcapsules with hollow morphologies possess unique properties such as low-density and high encapsulation capacity, while allowing controlled release by permeating substances with a specific size and chemistry. Our process is a one-step fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica capsules with a hierarchical pore structure and high size uniformity using double emulsion templates obtained by the glass-capillary microfluidic technique to encapsulate various active ingredients. These hollow silica microcapsules can be used as biomedical applications such as drug delivery and controlled release.

  15. Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brega, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators

  16. Apparatus for uniform pumping of lasing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, W.C.; Eccles, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Electron beam pumping of gaseous or liquid lasing media is carried out by means of electron pulses generated by an electron accelerator. Between the accelerator and the laser cavity, the electron pulse is subjected to a magnetic field to turn the electron pulse approximately through a quarter orbit, so that in essence the direction of pulse travel is changed from axial to lateral. This procedure then enables pumping of the laser cavity uniformly and simultaneously, or in any desired traveling wave mode, over the entire length of the laser cavity with relatively short, and highly intense, electron pulses. (U.S.)

  17. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  18. A stability criterion for HNFDE with non-uniform delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingwen; Zhong Shouming; Zhang Fengli

    2005-01-01

    Stability of functional differential equations (FDE) is an increasingly important problem in both science and engineering. Delays, whether uniform or non-uniform, play an important role in the dynamics of a system. Since non-uniform delay is more general and less focused than uniform delay, this paper concentrates on the stability of high-order neutral functional differential equations (HNFDE) with non-uniform delay, and proposes a sufficient condition for it. This result may be widely helpful, thanks to the frequent emergence of a HNFDE with non-uniform delay in various fields. Its effectiveness is illustrated by some examples

  19. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L.; Oliveira, Alex C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV). Also, was evaluated their

  20. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Sloth Madsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    . Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.......A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B......-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imaging (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence...

  1. Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.

  2. Activation rate uniformity in a bilateral IVNAA facility for two anthropomorphic phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Hakimabad Hashem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation rate uniformity is the first property which is considered in the design of a prompt γ-ray in vivo neutron activation analysis facility. Preliminary studies on the activation rate distribution in the body can be done by use of Monte Carlo codes, such as the MCNP. In this paper, different bilateral configurations of an IVNAA system are considered in order to improve the activation rate uniformity in a water phantom measuring 32 cm x 100 cm x 16 cm. In the best case, uniformity parameters are U = 1.003 and R = 1.67, with the mean activation rate of 1.85×10-6 cm-3. In more accurate calculations, the water phantom is replaced by a body model. The model in question is a 5 year-old ORNL phantom filled with just soft tissue. For uniformity studies, the internal organs are not simulated. Finally, uniformity parameters in this case are U = 1.005 and R = 12.2.

  3. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  4. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  5. Liouville theory and uniformization of four-punctured sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    Few years ago Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov proposed an expression for the 4-point classical Liouville action in terms of the 3-point actions and the classical conformal block. In this paper we develop a method of calculating the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group from the classical Liouville action on n-punctured sphere and discuss the consequences of Zamolodchikovs conjecture for an explicit construction of the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group for the sphere with four ...

  6. Consequences of atomic layer etching on wafer scale uniformity in inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, Chad M.; Lanham, Steven J.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2018-04-01

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) typically divides the etching process into two self-limited reactions. One reaction passivates a single layer of material while the second preferentially removes the passivated layer. As such, under ideal conditions the wafer scale uniformity of ALE should be independent of the uniformity of the reactant fluxes onto the wafers, provided all surface reactions are saturated. The passivation and etch steps should individually asymptotically saturate after a characteristic fluence of reactants has been delivered to each site. In this paper, results from a computational investigation are discussed regarding the uniformity of ALE of Si in Cl2 containing inductively coupled plasmas when the reactant fluxes are both non-uniform and non-ideal. In the parameter space investigated for inductively coupled plasmas, the local etch rate for continuous processing was proportional to the ion flux. When operated with saturated conditions (that is, both ALE steps are allowed to self-terminate), the ALE process is less sensitive to non-uniformities in the incoming ion flux than continuous etching. Operating ALE in a sub-saturation regime resulted in less uniform etching. It was also found that ALE processing with saturated steps requires a larger total ion fluence than continuous etching to achieve the same etch depth. This condition may result in increased resist erosion and/or damage to stopping layers using ALE. While these results demonstrate that ALE provides increased etch depth uniformity, they do not show an improved critical dimension uniformity in all cases. These possible limitations to ALE processing, as well as increased processing time, will be part of the process optimization that includes the benefits of atomic resolution and improved uniformity.

  7. Random lasing in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, Randal C.; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2004-01-01

    A random collection of scatterers in a gain medium can produce coherent laser emission lines dubbed 'random lasing'. We show that biological tissues, including human tissues, can support coherent random lasing when infiltrated with a concentrated laser dye solution. To extract a typical random resonator size within the tissue we average the power Fourier transform of random laser spectra collected from many excitation locations in the tissue; we verified this procedure by a computer simulation. Surprisingly, we found that malignant tissues show many more laser lines compared to healthy tissues taken from the same organ. Consequently, the obtained typical random resonator was found to be different for healthy and cancerous tissues, and this may lead to a technique for separating malignant from healthy tissues for diagnostic imaging

  8. Determining irrigation distribution uniformity and efficiency for nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Thomas Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    A simple method for testing the distribution uniformity of overhead irrigation systems is described. The procedure is described step-by-step along with an example. Other uses of distribution uniformity testing are presented, as well as common situations that affect distribution uniformity and how to alleviate them.

  9. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  10. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 1, 2016, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  11. Barriers to Implementing a Single Joint Combat Camouflage Uniform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses; examines the requirements and role of each of the...SUBJECT TERMS ground combat uniform, combat camouflage uniform history , combat camouflage uniform pattern, camouflage pattern testing 15. NUMBER...methodology applies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses

  12. On the Invariant Uniform Roe Algebra as Crossed Product

    OpenAIRE

    Kankeyanathan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The uniform Roe C*-algebra (also called uniform translation)C^*- algebra provides a link between coarse geometry and C^*- algebra theory. The uniform Roe algebra has a great importance in geometry, topology and analysis. We consider some of the elementary concepts associated with coarse spaces.

  13. 46 CFR 310.63 - Uniforms and textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniforms and textbooks. 310.63 Section 310.63 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.63 Uniforms and textbooks. The Academy shall supply midshipmen uniforms an...

  14. Instruction sequence based non-uniform complexity classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to non-uniform complexity in which single-pass instruction sequences play a key part, and answer various questions that arise from this approach. We introduce several kinds of non-uniform complexity classes. One kind includes a counterpart of the well-known non-uniform

  15. A practical technique for the generation of highly uniform LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, Marcus, E-mail: ma745@hw.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Renishaw PLC, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Weston, Nick [Renishaw PLC, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Formation of uniform LIPSS on stainless steel is greatly aided by polishing in an orthogonal direction to the expected periodic features. Roughness of a sample surface must avoid vector spatial frequency content near to that of the expected LIPSS. • A very simple polishing technique was found to be suitable. • Surface finish requirement was predicted based on the efficacy factor theory; one of the few theories to give qualitatively strong agreement with experimental evidence in a field that is not fully explained by current theories. • Modelled and experimental results presented. • Using a line focused beam from an ultrafast laser facilitated the rapid production of relatively large areas of LIPSS with a modest laser repetition rate. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) can be reliably produced with ultrashort (<10 ps) laser pulses given fluence near the ablation threshold. Neat, parallel, uniform structures are harder to reproduce. Electrodynamic models show a field at normal incidence interacts with the surface resulting in periodicity in intensity along the surface in the direction of the incident E-field producing ridges and toughs on the surface orthogonal to the E-field. A completely smooth surface offers nothing to perturb the eventual periodic feature formation but is very difficult to achieve: we have demonstrated that simply avoiding surface roughness components near the frequency and direction of the emergent features significantly improves uniform feature production. An appropriate unidirectional polishing process can be realised using an inexpensive spinning cloth wheel. By using a cylindrical lens we were also able to process stainless steel surfaces at 5 mm{sup 2} s{sup −1} so indicating useful industrial potential.

  16. A practical technique for the generation of highly uniform LIPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick; Hand, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of uniform LIPSS on stainless steel is greatly aided by polishing in an orthogonal direction to the expected periodic features. Roughness of a sample surface must avoid vector spatial frequency content near to that of the expected LIPSS. • A very simple polishing technique was found to be suitable. • Surface finish requirement was predicted based on the efficacy factor theory; one of the few theories to give qualitatively strong agreement with experimental evidence in a field that is not fully explained by current theories. • Modelled and experimental results presented. • Using a line focused beam from an ultrafast laser facilitated the rapid production of relatively large areas of LIPSS with a modest laser repetition rate. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) can be reliably produced with ultrashort (<10 ps) laser pulses given fluence near the ablation threshold. Neat, parallel, uniform structures are harder to reproduce. Electrodynamic models show a field at normal incidence interacts with the surface resulting in periodicity in intensity along the surface in the direction of the incident E-field producing ridges and toughs on the surface orthogonal to the E-field. A completely smooth surface offers nothing to perturb the eventual periodic feature formation but is very difficult to achieve: we have demonstrated that simply avoiding surface roughness components near the frequency and direction of the emergent features significantly improves uniform feature production. An appropriate unidirectional polishing process can be realised using an inexpensive spinning cloth wheel. By using a cylindrical lens we were also able to process stainless steel surfaces at 5 mm 2 s −1 so indicating useful industrial potential

  17. Temperature distribution in a uniformly moving medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Joseph D; Petrov, Nikola P

    2009-01-01

    We apply several physical ideas to determine the steady temperature distribution in a medium moving with uniform velocity between two infinite parallel plates. We compute it in the coordinate frame moving with the medium by integration over the 'past' to account for the influence of an infinite set of instantaneous point sources of heat in past moments as seen by an observer moving with the medium. The boundary heat flux is simulated by appropriately distributed point heat sources on the inner side of an adiabatically insulating boundary. We make an extensive use of the Green functions with an emphasis on their physical meaning. The methodology used in this paper is of great pedagogical value as it offers an opportunity for students to see the connection between powerful mathematical techniques and their physical interpretation in an intuitively clear physical problem. We suggest several problems and a challenging project that can be easily incorporated in undergraduate or graduate courses

  18. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  19. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as √(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  20. Customer Driven Uniform Manufacture (CDUM) Program. Customer Driven Uniform Management Apparel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-13

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The DLA and DSCP sponsored Customer Driven Uniform Manufacturing (CDUM) program’s primary goals are to reduce total...functions that make decisions or consume apparel items. PDIT’s CDUM assignments were to create the web accessible database, create decision support tools...Manufacturing Monitoring Processes ....................................................40  Figure 32 – Assign Contract to Buyer

  1. Uniform Effects?: Schools Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the effectiveness of school uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle School, it is the school's policy that all students wear the standard school attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…

  2. On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams Under Uniformly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-uniform continuous beam was replaced by a non-continuous (discrete) system made up of beam elements. The modified elemental and overall stiffness, and mass matrices, the elemental and overall centripetal acceleration matrices as well as the load vector were derived. Next, the Newmark's direct integration ...

  3. Politicas de uniformes y codigos de vestuario (Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals…

  4. Dynamic thermoelectricity in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovichev, I.N., E-mail: vin@ire.kharkov.ua

    2016-07-01

    The theory of the dynamic thermoelectric effect has been developed. The effect lies in an electric current flowing in a closed circuit that consists of a uniform bipolar semiconductor, in which a non-uniform temperature distribution in the form of the traveling wave is created. The calculations are performed for the one-dimensional model in the quasi-neutrality approximation. It was shown that the direct thermoelectric current prevails, despite the periodicity of the thermal excitation, the circuit homogeneity and the lack of rectifier properties of the semiconductor system. Several physical reasons underlining the dynamic thermoelectric effect are found. One of them is similar to the Dember photoelectric effect, its contribution to the current flowing is determined by the difference in the electron and hole mobilities, and is completely independent of the carrier Seebeck coefficients. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current magnitude on the semiconductor parameters, as well as on the temperature wave amplitude, length and velocity is studied. It is shown that the magnitude of the thermoelectric current is proportional to the square of the temperature wave amplitude. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current on the temperature wave length and velocity is the nonmonotonic function. The optimum values for the temperature wave length and velocity, at which the dynamic thermoelectric effect is the greatest, have been deduced. It is found that the thermoelectric short circuit current changes its direction with decreasing the temperature wave length under certain conditions. The prospects for the possible applications of the dynamic thermoelectric effect are also discussed.

  5. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie

    2015-01-01

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies. (paper)

  6. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie; Sun, Wei

    2015-11-04

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies.

  7. The analysis of colour uniformity for a volumetric display based on a rotating LED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Yan, Caijie; Xia, XinXing; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a colour nonuniformity zone existing in three-dimensional (3D) volumetric displays which is based on the rotating colour light-emitting diode (LED) array. We analyse the reason for the colour nonuniformity zone by measuring the light intensity distribution and chromaticity coordinates of the LED in the volumetric display. Two boundaries of the colour nonuniformity zone are calculated. We measure the colour uniformities for a single cuboid of 3*3*4 voxels to display red, green, blue and white colour in different horizontal viewing angles, and for 64 cuboids distributed in the whole cylindrical image space with a fixed viewpoint. To evaluate the colour uniformity of a 3D image, we propose three evaluation indices of colour uniformity: the average of colour difference, the maximum colour difference and the variance of colour difference. The measurement results show that the character of colour uniformity is different for the 3D volumetric display and the two-dimensional display

  8. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  9. Gain uniformity experimental study performed on triple-GEM gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liyuan; Qi Huirong; Lu Xinyu; Ouyang Qun; Chen Yuanbo; Li Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    With the application of the two-dimensional GEM gaseous detector in X-ray imaging, the correction method of gain uniformity caused by triple-GEM avalanche structures and electric field uniformity should be studied. The paper reported the study of the triple-GEM detector with effective area 100 mm × 100 mm used the Pad's size of 9.5 mm × 9.5 mm. In the test, 100 readout channels were designed. Results showed that gain remained stable over time; at air flow increases, gain from increases obviously to changes very little. Particularly, triple-GEM's gain uniformity was very good (more than 80%) and the range of energy resolution was from 0.18 to 0.2. To improve gain consistency of results, the difference value revised was obtained to be about 0.1 by the least square method. It provided a better method to improve gain uniformity of GEM detector. (authors)

  10. Improvement of illumination uniformity for LED flat panel light by using micro-secondary lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2012-11-05

    LED flat panel light is an innovative lighting product in recent years. However, current flat panel light products still contain some drawbacks, such as narrow lighting areas and hot spots. In this study, a micro-secondary lens array technique was proposed and applied for the design of the light guide surface to improve the illumination uniformity. By using the micro-secondary lens array, the candela distribution of the LED flat panel light can be adjusted to similar to batwing distribution to improve the illumination uniformity. The experimental results show that the enhancement of the floor illumination uniformity is about 61%, and that of the wall illumination uniformity is about 20.5%.

  11. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  12. Effects of pions on normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.

    1981-01-01

    Verification of the uniform biological effectiveness of pion beams of various dimensions produced at LAMPF has been made using cultured mammalian cells and mouse jejunum. Normal tissue radiobiology studies at LAMPF are reviewed with regard to biological beam characterization for the therapy program and the current status of acute and late effect studies on rodents

  13. Determination of the tissue inhomogeneity correction in high dose rate Brachytherapy for Iridium-192 source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlanka Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brachytherapy treatment planning, the effects of tissue heterogeneities are commonly neglected due to lack of accurate, general and fast three-dimensional (3D dose-computational algorithms. In performing dose calculations, it is assumed that the tumor and surrounding tissues constitute a uniform, homogeneous medium equivalent to water. In the recent past, three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT based treatment planning for Brachytherapy applications has been popularly adopted. However, most of the current commercially available planning systems do not provide the heterogeneity corrections for Brachytherapy dosimetry. In the present study, we have measured and quantified the impact of inhomogeneity caused by different tissues with a 0.015 cc ion chamber. Measurements were carried out in wax phantom which was employed to measure the heterogeneity. Iridium-192 (192 Ir source from high dose rate (HDR Brachytherapy machine was used as the radiation source. The reduction of dose due to tissue inhomogeneity was measured as the ratio of dose measured with different types of inhomogeneity (bone, spleen, liver, muscle and lung to dose measured with homogeneous medium for different distances. It was observed that different tissues attenuate differently, with bone tissue showing maximum attenuation value and lung tissue resulting minimum value and rest of the tissues giving values lying in between those of bone and lung. It was also found that inhomogeneity at short distance is considerably more than that at larger distances.

  14. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  15. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  16. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) imaging of the development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of the electric field in the discharge. The uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times was analysed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on the applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, which is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is a transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode that correlates to the corresponding decrease of the maximum local electric field in the discharge. (fast track communication)

  17. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge. PMID:25071294

  18. Strain distributions in nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, H L; Karihaloo, B L; Wang, J; Yi, X

    2006-01-01

    Nano-onions are ellipsoidal or spherical particles consisting of a core surrounded by concentric shells of nanometre size. Nano-onions produced by self-assembly and colloidal techniques have different structures and compositions, and thus differ in the state of strains. The mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients and lattice constants between neighbouring shells induces stress/strain fields in the core and shells, which in turn affect their physical/mechanical properties and/or the properties of the composites containing them. In this paper, the strains in embedded and free-standing nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions are studied in detail. It is found that the strains in the nano-onions can be modified by adjusting their compositions and structures. The results are useful for the band structure engineering of semiconductor nano-onions

  19. Uniform Page Migration Problem in Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanj Khorramian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The page migration problem in Euclidean space is revisited. In this problem, online requests occur at any location to access a single page located at a server. Every request must be served, and the server has the choice to migrate from its current location to a new location in space. Each service costs the Euclidean distance between the server and request. A migration costs the distance between the former and the new server location, multiplied by the page size. We study the problem in the uniform model, in which the page has size D = 1 . All request locations are not known in advance; however, they are sequentially presented in an online fashion. We design a 2.75 -competitive online algorithm that improves the current best upper bound for the problem with the unit page size. We also provide a lower bound of 2.732 for our algorithm. It was already known that 2.5 is a lower bound for this problem.

  20. Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Ito, Hideto; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon materials consisting of benzene units oriented in unique geometric patterns, hereafter named nanocarbons, conduct electricity, absorb and emit light, and exhibit interesting magnetic properties. Spherical fullerene C60, cylindrical carbon nanotubes and sheet-like graphene are representative forms of nanocarbons, and theoretical simulations have predicted several exotic 3D nanocarbon structures. At present, synthetic routes to nanocarbons mainly lead to mixtures of molecules with a range of different structures and properties, which cannot be easily separated or refined into pure forms. Some researchers believe that it is impossible to synthesize these materials in a precise manner. Obtaining ‘pure’ nanocarbons is a great challenge in the field of nanocarbon science, and the construction of structurally uniform nanocarbons, ideally as single molecules, is crucial for the development of functional materials in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and biomedical applications. This Review highlights the organic chemistry approach — more specifically, bottom-up construction with atomic precision — that is currently the most promising strategy towards this end.

  1. Non-uniform versus uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPET of healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Koole, M.

    2001-01-01

    Although non-uniform attenuation correction (NUAC) can supply more accurate absolute quantification, it is not entirely clear whether NUAC provides clear-cut benefits in the routine clinical practice of brain SPET imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NUAC versus uniform attenuation correction (UAC) on volume of interest (VOI)-based semi-quantification of a large age- and gender-stratified brain perfusion normal database. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers (46 females and 43 males, aged 20-81 years) underwent standardised high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with 925 MBq 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) on a Toshiba GCA-9300A camera with 153 Gd or 99m Tc transmission CT scanning. Emission images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection and scatter corrected using the triple-energy window correction method. Both non-uniform Chang attenuation correction (one iteration) and uniform Sorenson correction (attenuation coefficient 0.09 cm -1 ) were applied. Images were automatically re-oriented to a stereotactic template on which 35 predefined VOIs were defined for semi-quantification (normalisation on total VOI counts). Small but significant differences between relative VOI uptake values for NUAC versus UAC in the infratentorial region were found. VOI standard deviations were significantly smaller for UAC, 4.5% (range 2.6-7.5), than for NUAC, 5.0% (2.3-9.0) (P 99m Tc-ECD uptake values in healthy volunteers to those obtained with NUAC, although values for the infratentorial region are slightly lower. NUAC produces a slight increase in inter-subject variability. Further study is necessary in various patient populations to establish the full clinical impact of NUAC in brain perfusion SPET. (orig.)

  2. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  3. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Non-uniform dwell times in line source high dose rate brachytherapy: physical and radiobiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Tan, L.T.; Freestone, G.; Bleasdale, C.; Myint, S.; Littler, J.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to vary source dwell times in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy allows for the use of non-uniform dwell times along a line source. This may have advantages in the radical treatment of tumours depending on individual tumour geometry. This study investigates the potential improvements in local tumour control relative to adjacent normal tissue isoeffects when intratumour source dwell times are increased along the central portion of a line source (technique A) in radiotherapy schedules which include a relatively small component of HDR brachytherapy. Such a technique is predicted to increase the local control for tumours of diameters ranging between 2 cm and 4 cm by up to 11% compared with a technique in which there are uniform dwell times along the line source (technique B). There is no difference in the local control rates for the two techniques when used to treat smaller tumours. Normal tissue doses are also modified by the technique used. Technique A produces higher normal tissue doses at points perpendicular to the centre of the line source and lower dose at points nearer the ends of the line source if the prescription point is not in the central plane of the line source. Alternatively, if the dose is prescribed at a point in the central plane of the line source, the dose at all the normal tissue points are lower when technique A is used. (author)

  5. Non-Uniformity Correction Using Nonlinear Characteristic Performance Curves for Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, McKenna Roberts

    Infrared imaging is an expansive field with many applications. Advances in infrared technology have lead to a greater demand from both commercial and military sectors. However, a known problem with infrared imaging is its non-uniformity. This non-uniformity stems from the fact that each pixel in an infrared focal plane array has its own photoresponse. Many factors such as exposure time, temperature, and amplifier choice affect how the pixels respond to incoming illumination and thus impact image uniformity. To improve performance non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration based techniques commonly use a linear model to approximate the nonlinear response. This often leaves unacceptable levels of residual non-uniformity. Calibration techniques often have to be repeated during use to continually correct the image. In this dissertation alternates to linear NUC algorithms are investigated. The goal of this dissertation is to determine and compare nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Ideally the results will provide better NUC performance resulting in less residual non-uniformity as well as reduce the need for recalibration. This dissertation will consider new approaches to nonlinear NUC such as higher order polynomials and exponentials. More specifically, a new gain equalization algorithm has been developed. The various nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms will be compared with common linear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Performance will be compared based on RMS errors, residual non-uniformity, and the impact quantization has on correction. Performance will be improved by identifying and replacing bad pixels prior to correction. Two bad pixel identification and replacement techniques will be investigated and compared. Performance will be presented in the form of simulation results as well as before and after images taken with short wave infrared cameras. The initial results show, using a third order

  6. Development and first validation of a simplified CT-based classification system of soft tissue changes in large-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement: intra- and interrater reliability and association with revision rates in a uniform cohort of 664 arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A.; Lingen, Christiaan P. van; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.P.M.; Maas, Mario

    2015-01-01

    analysis was performed two-tailed using alpha 5 % as the significance level. In total, 664 scores from 664 MoM hips obtained by two observers were available for analyses. Interobserver reliability for the non-simplified version (I-V) was κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.62-0.79), which indicates good agreement between the two musculoskeletal radiologists. Intra- and interobserver reliability for the simplified version (A-C) were respectively κw 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.87), and κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.76). This indicates good agreement within and between the two observers. The simplified A-C version is significantly associated with revision exclusively due to MoM pathology, in both patients with unilateral MoM THA (p < 0.001) and patients with bilateral MoM THA (p < 0.044). The simplified A-C version is associated with several clinical measures. In patients with unilateral MoM THA, with or without contralateral THA, in situ time (p < 0.008), cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In patients with bilateral MoM, cobalt (p < 0.001) and chromium (p < 0.027) were statistically significant. Revision is significantly associated with cup size (p < 0.001), anteversion of the cup (p < 0.004), serum ion levels of cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) and the adapted classification system (p < 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis on revision, cup, anteversion of the cup, cobalt-chromium ion serum levels, and the simplified (A-C) CT category system were statistically significant. The simplified (A-C) CT category system was an independent associate of revision, in several multiple logistic regression models. The presented simplified CT grading system (A-C) in its first clinical validation on 48- and 64-multislice systems is reliable, showing good intra- and interrater reliability and is independently associated with revision surgery. (orig.)

  7. Development and first validation of a simplified CT-based classification system of soft tissue changes in large-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement: intra- and interrater reliability and association with revision rates in a uniform cohort of 664 arthroplasties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek [Isala Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [Isala Hospital, Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Lingen, Christiaan P. van; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.P.M. [Isala Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    analysis was performed two-tailed using alpha 5 % as the significance level. In total, 664 scores from 664 MoM hips obtained by two observers were available for analyses. Interobserver reliability for the non-simplified version (I-V) was κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.62-0.79), which indicates good agreement between the two musculoskeletal radiologists. Intra- and interobserver reliability for the simplified version (A-C) were respectively κw 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.87), and κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.76). This indicates good agreement within and between the two observers. The simplified A-C version is significantly associated with revision exclusively due to MoM pathology, in both patients with unilateral MoM THA (p < 0.001) and patients with bilateral MoM THA (p < 0.044). The simplified A-C version is associated with several clinical measures. In patients with unilateral MoM THA, with or without contralateral THA, in situ time (p < 0.008), cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In patients with bilateral MoM, cobalt (p < 0.001) and chromium (p < 0.027) were statistically significant. Revision is significantly associated with cup size (p < 0.001), anteversion of the cup (p < 0.004), serum ion levels of cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) and the adapted classification system (p < 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis on revision, cup, anteversion of the cup, cobalt-chromium ion serum levels, and the simplified (A-C) CT category system were statistically significant. The simplified (A-C) CT category system was an independent associate of revision, in several multiple logistic regression models. The presented simplified CT grading system (A-C) in its first clinical validation on 48- and 64-multislice systems is reliable, showing good intra- and interrater reliability and is independently associated with revision surgery. (orig.)

  8. In situ ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamin S; Wang, Danling; Li, Xiaoli; Baluyot, Florence; Iliakis, Bernie; Lindquist, Thomas D; Shirakawa, Rika; Shen, Tueng T; Li, Xingde

    2008-08-01

    To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool to perform in situ characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty. A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) was used to characterize donor corneal tissue that had been processed for lamellar keratoplasty. Twenty-seven donor corneas were analyzed. Four donor corneas were used as controls, whereas the rest were processed into donor corneal buttons for lamellar transplantation by using hand dissection, a microkeratome, or a femtosecond laser. UHR-OCT was also used to noninvasively characterize and monitor the viable corneal tissue immersed in storage medium over 3 weeks. The UHR-OCT captured high-resolution images of the donor corneal tissue in situ. This noninvasive technique showed the changes in donor corneal tissue morphology with time while in storage medium. The characteristics of the lamellar corneal tissue with each processing modality were clearly visible by UHR-OCT. The in situ characterization of the femtosecond laser-cut corneal tissue was noted to have more interface debris than shown by routine histology. The effects of the femtosecond laser microcavitation bubbles on the corneal tissue were well visualized at the edges of the lamellar flap while in storage medium. The results of our feasibility study show that UHR-OCT can provide superb, in situ microstructural characterization of eye bank corneal tissue noninvasively. The UHR-OCT interface findings and corneal endothelial disc thickness uniformity analysis are valuable information that may be used to optimize the modalities and parameters for lamellar tissue processing. The UHR-OCT is a powerful approach that will allow us to further evaluate the tissue response to different processing techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. It may also provide information that can be used to correlate with postoperative clinical outcomes. UHR-OCT has the potential to become a routine part of tissue

  9. Das materialidades da escola: o uniforme escolar On the materialities of school: the school uniform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanir Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto dedica-se a situar o uniforme escolar como objeto histórico e como importante fonte do e no universo escolar. Para tanto, empreende-se uma revisão da literatura que aborda a temática e investe-se em uma reflexão que concebe esse artefato como uma das expressões da materialidade que dá contornos à forma escolar, tomando-o na perspectiva da cultura material. Alguns autores servem aqui de referência: Richard Bucaille, Jean-Marie Pesez e Ulpiano Bezerra de Meneses, nos estudos em que se dedicam à cultura material; Agustín Benito Escolano e Rosa Fátima de Souza, nos trabalhos em que voltam o olhar para cultura material escolar; Inês Dussel e Katiene Nogueira da Silva, autoras que abordam diretamente a questão dos uniformes escolares. Não menos importantes para efeitos deste artigo são os trabalhos que tratam do movimento higienista, particularmente aqueles levados a cabo por José Gondra. Os dados levantados e as reflexões efetuadas indiciam dois movimentos (ou tensões nada desprezíveis. Por um lado, são evidentes as dificuldades encontradas para adoção dos uniformes escolares por todos os alunos, tanto por parte do Estado quanto por parte das famílias, devido ao fato de eles representarem um custo elevado, principalmente os calçados, artigos pouco utilizados pela maioria da população até, no mínimo, meados do século XX. Por outro lado, há indícios de que esse traje desempenhava uma função niveladora importante. Por meio dele, criava-se uma ideia de padronização e democratização do ensino, mesmo que em aparência, além de se dar visibilidade pública a uma instituição social cada vez mais importante: a escola.This text is devoted to situate the school uniform as a historical object, and as an important source on and in the school universe. For that, a literature survey is carried out on this theme, and a reflection is conducted envisaging this artifact as one of the expressions of materiality that

  10. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  11. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  12. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2012-01-01

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  13. Photocathode non-uniformity contribution to the energy resolution of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghian, M.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Etaati, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basics of the light transport simulation in scintillators and the wavelength-dependencies in the process. The non-uniformity measurement of the photocathode surface is undertaken, showing that for the photocathode used in this study the quantum efficiency falls to about 4% of its maximum value, especially in areas far from the centre. The wavelength-and position-dependent quantum efficiency is implemented in the Monte Carlo light transport code, showing that, the contribution of the photocathode non-uniformity to the energy resolution is estimated to be around 18%, when all position-and wavelength-dependencies are included. (authors)

  14. Impact of uniform electrode current distribution on ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design impacts on the ETF electrode consolidation network associated with uniform channel electrode current distribution are examined and the alternate consolidation design which occur are presented compared to the baseline (non-uniform current) design with respect to performance, and hardware requirements. A rational basis is given for comparing the requirements for the different designs and the savings that result from uniform current distribution. Performance and cost impacts upon the combined cycle plant are discussed.

  15. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  16. Liouville theory and uniformization of four-punctured sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2006-08-01

    A few years ago Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov proposed an expression for the four-point classical Liouville action in terms of the three-point actions and the classical conformal block [Nucl. Phys. B 477, 577 (1996)]. In this paper we develop a method of calculating the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group from the classical Liouville action on n-punctured sphere and discuss the consequences of Zamolodchikovs conjecture for an explicit construction of the uniformizing map and the uniformizing group for the sphere with four punctures.

  17. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, A I; van Gemert, M J; van der Meulen, F W; Gijsbers, G H; Beek, J F

    1997-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a cubical box, a sphere, a cylinder and a 'bottle-neck' geometry have been investigated experimentally and the results have been compared with computed light distributions obtained using the 'radiosity method'. A high reflection coefficient of the mould and the best uniform direct irradiance possible on the inside of the mould were found to be important determinants for achieving a uniform light distribution.

  18. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics ...

  19. Periodic and uniform nanogratings formed on cemented carbide by femtosecond laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Yunsong; Deng, Jianxin; Xing, Youqiang; Lei, Shuting; Yu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Periodic and uniform nanogratings are fabricated by femtosecond laser scanning on cemented carbide. Specifically, three experiments are designed to study the influence of single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing on the period and the uniformity of the formed nanogratings. The results show that the sample with single pulse energy of 2 μJ, scanning speed of 1000 μm/s, and scanning spacing of 5 μm shows the best quality of nanogratings among all the tested samples at different processing parameters. The uniformity of the nanogratings is largely determined by single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing. Single pulse energy and scanning speed significantly affect the period of the nanogratings, whereas the period of the nanogratings maintains a fixed value under different scanning spacings. The period of the nanogratings increases gradually with the decrease of the single pulse energy and the increase of the scanning speed, respectively.

  20. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested

  1. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to

  2. An alternative time marker for the study of the uniform and uniformly accelerated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a type of time marker set up with materials of low cost for the study of uniform movements as well as those accelerated by gravitacional force. A mechanism used to measure its frequency is coupled to it in order to find the approximate value of the acceleration of the local gravity. The experiment, that is adapted to be used during a kinematics class, can also be presented by the students at a science fair, for being a stimulating factor as it involves the students’ participation in its construction.

  3. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  4. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Guo, Shang; Schwab, Joseph H; Nielsen, G Petur; Choy, Edwin; Ye, Shunan; Zhang, Zhan; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2013-01-01

    Brachyury is a marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, such as chordoma. However, the prognostic relevance of brachyury expression in chordoma is still unknown. The improvement of tissue microarray technology has provided the opportunity to perform analyses of tumor tissues on a large scale in a uniform and consistent manner. This study was designed with the use of tissue microarray to determine the expression of brachyury. Brachyury expression in chordoma tissues from 78 chordoma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray. The clinicopathologic parameters, including gender, age, location of tumor and metastatic status were evaluated. Fifty-nine of 78 (75.64%) tumors showed nuclear staining for brachyury, and among them, 29 tumors (49.15%) showed 1+ (mobile spine. However, there was no significant relationship between brachyury expression and other clinical variables. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, brachyury expression failed to produce any significant relationship with the overall survival rate. In conclusion, brachyury expression is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

  5. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical detection of brachyury is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhang

    Full Text Available Brachyury is a marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, such as chordoma. However, the prognostic relevance of brachyury expression in chordoma is still unknown. The improvement of tissue microarray technology has provided the opportunity to perform analyses of tumor tissues on a large scale in a uniform and consistent manner. This study was designed with the use of tissue microarray to determine the expression of brachyury. Brachyury expression in chordoma tissues from 78 chordoma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray. The clinicopathologic parameters, including gender, age, location of tumor and metastatic status were evaluated. Fifty-nine of 78 (75.64% tumors showed nuclear staining for brachyury, and among them, 29 tumors (49.15% showed 1+ (<30% positive cells staining, 15 tumors (25.42% had 2+ (31% to 60% positive cells staining, and 15 tumors (25.42% demonstrated 3+ (61% to 100% positive cells staining. Brachyury nuclear staining was detected more frequently in sacral chordomas than in chordomas of the mobile spine. However, there was no significant relationship between brachyury expression and other clinical variables. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, brachyury expression failed to produce any significant relationship with the overall survival rate. In conclusion, brachyury expression is not a prognostic indicator in chordoma.

  6. Uniform-related infection control practices of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohani Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yazan Aljohani,1 Mohammed Almutadares,1 Khalid Alfaifi,1 Mona El Madhoun,1 Maysoon H Albahiti,2 Nadia Al-Hazmi3 1Internship Program, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Department of Endodontics, King Abdulaziz University, 3Department of Oral Biology, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim: To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method: A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results: There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion: Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. Keywords: cross-contamination, infection control, dental students, uniforms

  7. Detecting Uniform Areas for Vicarious Calibration using Landsat TM Imagery: A Study using the Arabian and Saharan Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kent; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for detecting spatially uniform sites need for radiometric characterization of remote sensing satellites. Such information is critical for scientific research applications of imagery having moderate to high resolutions (African Saharan and Arabian deserts contained extremely uniform sites with respect to spatial characteristics. We developed an algorithm for detecting site uniformity and applied it to orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over eight uniform regions of interest. The algorithm's results were assessed using both medium-resolution (30-m GSD) Landsat 7 ETM+ and fine-resolution (research shows that Landsat TM products appear highly useful for detecting potential calibration sites for system characterization. In particular, the approach detected spatially uniform regions that frequently occur at multiple scales of observation.

  8. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B 0 . These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B 0 . The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B 0 are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field topologies. The work

  9. Assessment of MODIS RSB Detector Uniformity Using Deep Convective Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    For satellite sensor, the striping observed in images is typically associated with the relative multiple detector gain difference derived from the calibration. A method using deep convective cloud (DCC) measurements to assess the difference among detectors after calibration is proposed and demonstrated for select reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Each detector of MODIS RSB is calibrated independently using a solar diffuser (SD). Although the SD is expected to accurately characterize detector response, the uncertainties associated with the SD degradation and characterization result in inadequacies in the estimation of each detector's gain. This work takes advantage of the DCC technique to assess detector uniformity and scan mirror side difference for RSB. The detector differences for Terra MODIS Collection 6 are less than 1% for bands 1, 3-5, and 18 and up to 2% for bands 6, 19, and 26. The largest difference is up to 4% for band 7. Most Aqua bands have detector differences less than 0.5% except bands 19 and 26 with up to 1.5%. Normally, large differences occur for edge detectors. The long-term trending shows seasonal oscillations in detector differences for some bands, which are correlated with the instrument temperature. The detector uniformities were evaluated for both unaggregated and aggregated detectors for MODIS band 1 and bands 3-7, and their consistencies are verified. The assessment results were validated by applying a direct correction to reflectance images. These assessments can lead to improvements to the calibration algorithm and therefore a reduction in striping observed in the calibrated imagery.

  10. Large-scale syntheses of uniform ZnO nanorods and ethanol gas sensors application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jin; Li Jin; Li Jiahui; Xiao Guoqing; Yang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The uniform ZnO nanorods could be synthesized by a low temperature, solution-based method. → The results showed that the sample had uniform rod-like morphology with a narrow size distribution and highly crystallinity. → Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of these nanorods show an exciton emission around 382 nm and a weak deep level emission, indicating the nanorods have high quality. → The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and fast response to ethanol gas at a work temperature of 400 deg. C. - Abstract: Uniform ZnO nanorods with a gram scale were prepared by a low temperature and solution-based method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the sample had uniform rod-like morphology with a narrow size distribution and highly crystallinity. Room-temperature PL spectra of these nanorods show an exciton emission around 382 nm and a negligible deep level emission, indicating the nanorods have high quality. The gas-sensing properties of the materials have been investigated. The results indicate that the as-prepared nanorods show much better sensitivity and stability. The n-type semiconductor gas sensor exhibited high sensitivity and fast response to ethanol gas at a work temperature of 400 deg. C. ZnO nanorods are excellent potential candidates for highly sensitive gas sensors and ultraviolet laser.

  11. Uniform and Non-Uniform Optimum Scalar Quantizers Performances: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendy Santoso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate source coding, the representation of information source output by finite R bits/symbol. The performance of optimum quantisers subject to an entropy constraint has been studied. The definitive work in this area is best summarised by Shannon’s source coding theorem, that is, a source with entropy H can be encoded with arbitrarily small error probability at any rate R (bits/source output as long as R>H. Conversely, If R the error probability will be driven away from zero, independent of the complexity of the encoder and the decoder employed. In this context, the main objective of engineers is however to design the optimum code. Unfortunately, the rate-distortion theorem does not provide the recipe for such a design. The theorem does, however, provide the theoretical limit so that we know how close we are to the optimum. The full understanding of the theorem also helps in setting the direction to achieve such an optimum. In this research, we have investigated the performances of two practical scalar quantisers, i.e., a Lloyd-Max quantiser and the uniformly defined one and also a well-known entropy coding scheme, i.e., Huffman coding against their theoretically attainable optimum performance due to Shannon’s limit R. It has been shown that our uniformly defined quantiser could demonstrate superior performance. The performance improvements, in fact, are more noticeable at higher bit rates.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1447 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications. ...

  13. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy in Turkey: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of current school uniform policies according to views of stakeholders. Descriptive case study method was used for this study to understand the concerns of the stakeholders about school uniforms. Data was collected through interviews with stakeholders and also reviewing the documents in TOKI…

  14. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  15. 22 CFR 214.42 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of... experts, their compensation shall be fixed in accordance with CSC guidelines and regulations, and the...

  16. 50 CFR 510.9 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 510.9 Section 510... ACT § 510.9 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Compensation of members and staff of, and consultants to the... accordance with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to...

  17. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to the...

  18. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, A. I.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Gijsbers, G. H.; Beek, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a

  19. The FEL-TNO uniform open systems model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Overbeek, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The FEL-TNO Uniform Open Systems Model is based upon the IS0/0SI Basic Reference Model and integrates operating systems, (OSI) networks, equipment and media into one single uniform nodel. Usage of the model stimulates the development of operating systen and network independent applications and puts

  20. Design and validation of a uniform flow microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Kyung Chun; Chang, Seung Cheol [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Min [Global HQ, Hankook Tire Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We present a design method to characterize uniform flows in a microreactor for high performance surface plasmon resonance (SPR) a general-purpose biosensor chips. The shape of the microreactor is designed based on an approximate pressure drop model. The number of micro-pillars and the slopes of the inlet and outlet linear chambers are two dominant parameters used to minimize the velocity difference in the microreactor. The flow uniformity was examined quantitatively by numerical and experimental visualization methods. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis demonstrates that the designed microreactor has a fairly uniform velocity profile in the reaction zone for a wide range of flow rates. The velocity field in the fabricated microreactor was measured using the micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) method, and the flow uniformity was confirmed experimentally. The performance of the uniform flow microreactor was verified using the fluorescence antibody technique.

  1. Weak completeness of the Bourbaki quasi-uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sánchez Granero

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of semicompleteness (weaker than half-completeness is defined for the Bourbaki quasi-uniformity of the hyperspace of a quasi-uniform space. It is proved that the Bourbaki quasi-uniformity is semicomplete in the space of nonempty sets of a quasi-uniform space (X,U if and only if each stable filter on (X,U* has a cluster point in (X,U. As a consequence the space of nonempty sets of a quasi-pseudometric space is semicomplete if and only if the space itself is half-complete. It is also given a characterization of semicompleteness of the space of nonempty U*-compact sets of a quasi-uniform space (X,U which extends the well known Zenor-Morita theorem.

  2. Multiple-energy tissue-cancellation applications of a digital beam attenuator to chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbins, J.T. III.

    1985-01-01

    The digitally-formed primary beam attenuator (DBA) spatially modulates the x-ray fluence incident upon the patient to selectively attenuate regions of interest. The DBA attenuating mask is constructed from CeO 2 powder by a modified printing technique and uses image information from an initial low-dose exposure. Two tissue-cancellation imaging techniques are investigated with the DBA: (1) energy-dependent information is used to form a beam attenuator that attenuates specific tissues in the primary x-ray beam for tissue-cancelled film radiography; (2) the beam attenuator is used to improve image signal-to-noise and scattered radiation properties in traditional energy-subtraction tissue-cancellation imaging with digital detectors. The tissue-cancellation techniques in the primary x-ray beam were capable of adequately removing either soft-tissue or bone from the final compensated film radiograph when using a phantom with well defined soft-tissue and bone sections. However, when tried on an anthropomorphic chest phantom the results were adequate for cancellation of large soft tissue structures, but unsatisfactory for cancellation of bony structures such as the ribs, because of the limited spatial frequency content of the attenuating mask. The second technique (with digital detectors) showed improved uniformity of image signal-to-noise and a two-fold increase in soft-tissue nodule contrast due to improved scattered radiation properties. The tissue-cancelled images contained residual image contributions from the presence of the attenuating mask, but this residual may be correctable by future algorithms

  3. Study of light collection uniformity dependence on reflector type in a large scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astvatsaturov, R.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Knapik, E.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Khachaturyan, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the way to improve uniformity of light collection onto photoelectric multiplier photocathode, for the 100x10x2 cm scintillation counter, has been undertaken. Pulse amplitude versus the point, particles strike a scintillator, relationship, has been demonstrated for several types of reflectors. Used as reflectors were: white papar, aluminium foil, black papar and a combination of above reflectors. Experimental data analysis shows, that the combination of reflectors with different reflection coefficient, provides a means for 1,5 time improvement of counter light collection uniformity, with no impairment of amplitude characteristics

  4. Fabrication and electrorotation of a novel epoxy based micromotor working in a uniform DC electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rita A.; Kelemen, Lóránd; Nakano, Masami; Totsuka, Atsushi; Zrínyi, Miklós

    2015-10-01

    We have presented the first direct observation of electric field induced rotation of epoxy based polymer rotors. Polymer disks, hollow cylinders and gears were prepared in few micrometer dimensions as rotors. Electrorotation of these sub-millimeter sized tools was studied under uniform dc electric field. The effects of shape, size and thickness were investigated. The novel epoxy based micro devices show intensive spinning in a uniform dc electric field. The rotational speed of micron-sized polymer rotors can be conveniently tuned in a wide range (between 300 and 3000 rpm) by the electric field intensity, opening new perspectives for their use in several MEMS applications.

  5. Fabrication and electrorotation of a novel epoxy based micromotor working in a uniform DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Rita A; Zrínyi, Miklós; Kelemen, Lóránd; Nakano, Masami; Totsuka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We have presented the first direct observation of electric field induced rotation of epoxy based polymer rotors. Polymer disks, hollow cylinders and gears were prepared in few micrometer dimensions as rotors. Electrorotation of these sub-millimeter sized tools was studied under uniform dc electric field. The effects of shape, size and thickness were investigated. The novel epoxy based micro devices show intensive spinning in a uniform dc electric field. The rotational speed of micron-sized polymer rotors can be conveniently tuned in a wide range (between 300 and 3000 rpm) by the electric field intensity, opening new perspectives for their use in several MEMS applications. (paper)

  6. Self assembled temperature responsive surfaces for generation of cell patches for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M; ChangWei; Xu Jiahua; Yu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds is the ability of the scaffold to biologically mimic autograft-like tissues. One of the alternate approaches to achieve this is by the application of cell seeded scaffolds with optimal porosity and mechanical properties. However, the current approaches for seeding cells on scaffolds are not optimal in terms of seeding efficiencies, cell penetration into the scaffold and more importantly uniform distribution of cells on the scaffold. Also, recent developments in scaffold geometries to enhance surface areas, pore sizes and porosities tend to further complicate the scenario. Cell sheet-based approaches for cell seeding have demonstrated a successful approach to generate scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. However, the method of generating the temperature responsive surface is quite challenging and requires carcinogenic reagents and gamma rays. Therefore, here, we have developed temperature responsive substrates by layer-by-layer self assembly of smart polymers. Multilayer thin films prepared from tannic acid and poly N-isopropylacrylamide were fabricated based on their electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Cell attachment and proliferation studies on these thin films showed uniform cell attachment on the substrate, matching tissue culture plates. Also, the cells could be harvested as cell patches and sheets from the scaffolds, by reducing the temperature for a short period of time, and seeded onto porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. An enhanced cell seeding efficiency on scaffolds was observed using the cell patch-based technique as compared to seeding cells in suspension. Owing to the already pre-existent cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, the cell patch showed the ability to reattach rapidly onto scaffolds and showed enhanced ability to proliferate and differentiate into a bone-like matrix. (paper)

  7. Do Red and Blue Uniforms Matter in Football and Handball Penalties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Bjoern; Pernhaupt, Niklas; Handsteiner, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Past research has revealed ambiguous results on the impact of red uniforms in sports competition. The current study was aimed at analyzing the role of red and blue uniforms in football and handball penalties. Two experiments were conducted using a within subjects design, where participants rated uniform color-manipulated video clips. In the first study, participants (n = 39) watched footage of football players kicking a penalty, whereas in the second study (n = 118) videos of handball penalty takers, handball goalkeepers and football goalkeepers preparing themselves to score/save a penalty were shown. Participants rated player's/goalkeeper's level of confidence and the expected position of the ball crossing the goal line in the first experiment and additionally the probability of scoring the penalty against the goalkeepers in the second experiment. The videos stopped at the point where the ball was leaving the foot and hand respectively. Results did not show any beneficial impact of red uniforms. Rather, football players wearing blue were rated to kick the ball higher. The study contradicts any positive effect of red versus blue uniforms in the context of football and handball penalties, which emphasizes the need of searching for potential moderators of color's impact on human behavior.

  8. Dynamic behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the dynamics behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected to concentrated loads ravelling at variable velocities. The solution technique is based on the Generalized Galerkin Method and the use of the generating function of the Bessel function type. The results show that, for all the ...

  9. Uniform in Time Description for Weak Solutions of the Hopf Equation with Nonconvex Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivas Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Riemann problem for the Hopf equation with concave-convex flux functions. Applying the weak asymptotics method we construct a uniform in time description for the Cauchy data evolution and show that the use of this method implies automatically the appearance of the Oleinik E-condition.

  10. Uniform product formulae with application to the Feynman-Nelson integral for open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    The product formula for perturbations of propagators by Faris is generalized: we show that one can use arbitrary partitions of a given interval and perform the limit uniformly with respect to the partition norm. The results are applied to express solutions of the Schroedinger equation, in particular for some complex and time-dependent potentials, by means of Nelson-type path integrals. (orig.)

  11. Optical response characteristics of strained uniform fiber Bragg grating using laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, Andi; Widiyatmoko, Bambang; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2015-01-01

    The working principle of the FBG strain sensor using laser diode (λ = 1551.9 - 1553 nm) as a light source is reported. Experimental results show that by straining the bare uniform FBG (λB = 1552 nm) for every 0.01 mm in room temperature, the transmitted and refelcted power were varied according to the state of FBG strains.

  12. Industry structure and collusion with uniform yardstick competition : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter; Haan, Marco A.; Mulder, Machiel

    2014-01-01

    We study cartel stability in an industry that is subject to uniform yardstick regulation. In a theoretical model, we show that the number of symmetric firms does not affect collusion. In a laboratory experiment, however, we do find an effect. If anything, increasing the number of firms facilitates

  13. Polarized Uniform Linear Array System: Beam Radiation Pattern, Beamforming Diversity Order, and Channel Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies regarding antenna polarization; however, there have been few publications on the analysis of the channel capacity for polarized antenna systems using the beamforming technique. According to Chung et al., the channel capacity is determined by the density of scatterers and the transmission power, which is obtained based on the assumption that scatterers are uniformly distributed on a 3D spherical scattering model. However, it contradicts the practical scenario, where scatterers may not be uniformly distributed under outdoor environment, and lacks the consideration of fading channel gain. In this study, we derive the channel capacity of polarized uniform linear array (PULA systems using the beamforming technique in a practical scattering environment. The results show that, for PULA systems, the channel capacity, which is boosted by beamforming diversity, can be determined using the channel gain, beam radiation pattern, and beamforming diversity order (BDO, where the BDO is dependent on the antenna characteristics and array configurations.

  14. Uniform distribution of TiCp in TiCp/Zn-Al composites prepared by XDTM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香; 马旭梁; 李庆芬; 曾松岩

    2002-01-01

    The prefabricated Al/TiC alloy with high TiC particle content was prepared by XDTM process. The uniform distribution process of TiC particles in the stationary zinc melt was studied and analyzed using self-made experimental equipment, and the model of the uniform distribution process was built. The results show that zinc diffuses into the prepared Al/TiC alloy after it is placed in the zinc melt at temperatures below the melting point of aluminum, which leads to the decrease of the liquidus temperature of Al-Zn alloy in the surface layer of Al/TiC alloy. When the liquidus temperature of Al-Zn alloy is equal to or below the temperature of zinc melt, Al-Zn alloy melts and TiC particles drop with it from the Al/TiC alloy and then transfer into the zinc melt and finally distribute uniformly in it.

  15. Achieving uniform layer deposition by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woo Seok, E-mail: kang@kimm.re.kr [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min; Lee, Jin Young [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young-Hoon [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-31

    This work investigates the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure for achieving uniform layer formation. Electrical and optical measurements demonstrated that the counterbalance between oxygen and precursors maintained the homogeneous discharge mode, while creating intermediate species for layer deposition. Several steps of the deposition process of the layers, which were processed on a stationary stage, were affected by flow stream and precursor depletion. This study showed that by changing the flow streamlines using substrate stage motion uniform layer deposition under atmospheric pressure can be achieved. - Highlights: • Zirconium oxide was deposited by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • Homogeneous plasma was maintained by counterbalancing between discharge gas and precursors. • Several deposition steps were observed affected by the gas flow stream and precursor depletion. • Thin film layer was uniformly grown when the substrate underwent a sweeping motion.

  16. Synthesis of uniform-sized bimetallic iron-nickel phosphide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Youl; Jang, Youngjin; Park, Jongnam; Hwang, Yosun; Koo, Bonil; Park, Je-Geun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from the thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. Uniform-sized (Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 P nanorods (0≤x≤1) of various compositions were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Ni-trioctylphosphine (TOP) complex and Fe-TOP complex. By measuring magnetic properties, we found that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods. Both parameters were more sensitive to doping compared with bulk samples. - Graphical abstract: We synthesized uniform-sized nanorods of iron-nickel phosphides from thermal decomposition of metal-phosphine complexes. The magnetic studies showed that blocking temperature and coercive field depend on Ni content in the nanorods

  17. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)

  18. Analysis and Optimization for Uniformity of Magnetic Field Driving the Giant Magnetostriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Ye, H; Liu, Y T; Yao, S M

    2006-01-01

    Giant magnetostriction actuator based on material Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe2 and electromagnetic transform has characteristics of high frequency response, large output power and etc, but it has a high demand for the uniformity of magnetic field driver and magnetic intensity. Object to the problem, a multi-scale external concavity structure is proposed, by means of inducting the hollow column coil structure, building the model of coil magnetic distribution and analyzing by finite element analysis method. The analysis results show that uniformity of the model magnetic field is dependent upon magnetic intensity and scales, and the boundary condition of material. As the scale increases, magnetic uniformity is enhanced, but the magnetic intensity is decreased. Taking consideration both of magnetic field distribution and magnetic intensity, threescale structure is determined as optimum structure

  19. Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.

  20. Highly ordered uniform single-crystal Bi nanowires: fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisrat, Y; Luo, Z P; Davis, D; Lagoudas, D

    2007-01-01

    A mechanical pressure injection technique has been used to fabricate uniform bismuth (Bi) nanowires in the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The AAO template was prepared from general purity aluminum by a two-step anodization followed by heat treatment to achieve highly ordered nanochannels. The nanowires were then fabricated by an injection technique whereby the molten Bi was injected into the AAO template using a hydraulic pressure method. The Bi nanowires prepared by this method were found to be dense and continuous with uniform diameter throughout the length. Electron diffraction experiments using the transmission electron microscope on cross-sectional and free-standing longitudinal Bi nanowires showed that the majority of the individual nanowires were single crystalline, with preferred orientation of growth along the [011] zone axis of the pseudo-cubic structure. The work presented here provides an inexpensive and effective way of fabricating highly ordered single-crystalline Bi nanowires, with uniform size distributions

  1. 3D printing human induced pluripotent stem cells with novel hydroxypropyl chitin bioink: scalable expansion and uniform aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jiang, Xulin; Li, Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Gao, Ge; Yao, Rui; Sun, Wei

    2018-06-28

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are more likely to successfully avoid the immunological rejection and ethical problems that are often encountered by human embryonic stem cells in various stem cell studies and applications. To transfer hiPSCs from the laboratory to clinical applications, researchers must obtain sufficient cell numbers. In this study, 3D cell printing was used as a novel method for iPSC scalable expansion. Hydroxypropyl chitin (HPCH), utilized as a new type of bioink, and a set of optimized printing parameters were shown to achieve high cell survival (> 90%) after the printing process and high proliferation efficiency (~ 32.3 folds) during subsequent 10-day culture. After the culture, high levels of pluripotency maintenance were recognized by both qualitative and quantitative detections. Compared with static suspension (SS) culture, hiPSC aggregates formed in 3D printed constructs showed a higher uniformity in size. Using novel dual-fluorescent labelling method, hiPSC aggregates in the constructs were found more inclined to form by in situ proliferation rather than multicellular aggregation. This study revealed unique advantages of non-ionic crosslinking bioink material HPCH, including high gel strength and rapid temperature response in hiPSC printing, and achieved primed state hiPSC printing for the first time. Features achieved in this study, such as high cell yield, high pluripotency maintenance and uniform aggregation provide good foundations for further hiPSC studies on 3D micro-tissue differentiation and drug screening. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. leaf tissue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... based on gene ontology, the results showed that 221 ESTs showed significant similarities to gene sequences in Nr database and were known genes, 21 ESTs were non-significance and unknown function genes, and 136 ESTs were considered novel genes. Most of the ESTs appeared to be related to.

  3. Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm -1 in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm -1 . These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm -1 . The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease ( n =4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than ∼1mmV mm -. (author)

  4. Low temperature atmospheric microplasma jet array for uniform treatment of polymer surface for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng; Liu, Jingquan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the uniformity of polymer film etching by an atmospheric pressure He/O2 microplasma jet array (μPJA) is first investigated with different applied voltage. Plasma characteristics of μPJA were recorded by optical discharge images. Morphologies and chemical compositions of polymer film etched by μPJA were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By increasing the applied voltage from 8.5 kV to 16.4 kV, the non-uniformity of the luminous intensity of the plasma jets increases. It is interesting that the plasma treated regions are actually composed of an etched region and modification region, with distinct morphologies and chemical compositions. The diameters of the etched parylene-C film show the increase of non-uniformity with higher applied voltage. SEM results show that the non-uniformity of surface morphologies of both the modification regions and etched regions increases with the increase of applied voltage. EDS and XPS results also present the significant effect of higher applied voltage on the non-uniformity of surface chemical compositions of both modification and etched regions. The Coulomb interaction of the streamer heads and the hydrodynamic interaction between the plasma jets and the surrounding air are considered to be responsible for this phenomenon. The results shown in this work can help improve the processing quality of polymer film etched by an atmospheric pressure microplasma jet array and two applications are demonstrated to illustrate the uniform downstream surface treatment.

  5. Uniform electron gases. I. Electrons on a ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Pierre-François; Gill, Peter M W

    2013-04-28

    We introduce a new paradigm for one-dimensional uniform electron gases (UEGs). In this model, n electrons are confined to a ring and interact via a bare Coulomb operator. We use Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory to show that, in the high-density regime, the ground-state reduced (i.e., per electron) energy can be expanded as ε(r(s),n)=ε0(n)r(s)(-2)+ε1(n)r(s)(-1)+ε2(n)+ε3(n)r(s+)⋯ , where r(s) is the Seitz radius. We use strong-coupling perturbation theory and show that, in the low-density regime, the reduced energy can be expanded as ε(r(s),n)=η0(n)r(s)(-1)+η1(n)r(s)(-3/2)+η2(n)r(s)(-2)+⋯ . We report explicit expressions for ε0(n), ε1(n), ε2(n), ε3(n), η0(n), and η1(n) and derive the thermodynamic (large-n) limits of each of these. Finally, we perform numerical studies of UEGs with n = 2, 3, [ellipsis (horizontal)], 10, using Hylleraas-type and quantum Monte Carlo methods, and combine these with the perturbative results to obtain a picture of the behavior of the new model over the full range of n and r(s) values.

  6. Dose uniformity estimations in the blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Use of irradiated blood in transfusions is recognized as the most effective way of preventing Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). This paper shows the study carried out in the dose rate variation for various source arrangements for optimising the source-sample chamber geometry, during the development of the Blood Irradiator, Bl-2000

  7. Effects of deltamethrin treated uniform on malaria prophylaxis in troops of Bahawalpur garrison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, M.; Murtaza, G.; Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of deltamethrin treated uniforms on repellant action against mosquitos in serving soldiers. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Bahawalpur Garrison, from 18 Aug to 24 Aug 2014. Patient and Methods: Two groups were selected for the study, one group comprising of 100 x soldiers wearing deltamethrin treated uniforms and other group comprising 100 x soldiers wearing non-treated (normal working) uniforms-control group. All soldiers were males, their age ranged from 20 years to 41 year. Uniforms were issued centrally with no group knowing which group has been issued treated uniforms, (double blind study was carried out to eliminate subject bias). Coding system was evolved while issuing the uniforms which were only known to the main researchers, president of the study board. Both the groups were made to sit for one hour in a large training ground of the formation in two separate groups at a distance of 50-60 feet between the groups and 10-15 feet between the individuals. All the individuals were asked to count the number of mosquitos attracted towards them, whether sitting/biting on their uniforms or on their bodies. Mosquito counting was also facilitated by the organizing/conducting staff. The study continued for a week from 18-24 Aug 2014. All soldiers were given 2 x tabs Chloroquine stat as prophylaxis for malaria prior to the study. Mean and SD of no of bites of both groups were compared and analyzed. Student t-test was applied to note the statistical significance among the study groups. Results: Out of the two groups the individuals wearing deltamethrin treated uniforms showed about overall 90 percent protection from mosquitos as compared to the control group. The average number of bites by mosquitoes in the control group was 7/person in one hour, whereas it was less than one bite/person in the case group. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the deltamethrin treated uniform is highly effective in

  8. Corrugated round fibers to improve cell adhesion and proliferation in tissue engineering scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli Narasimha, M.S.; Arkesteijn, I.T.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Optimal cell interaction with biomaterial scaffolds is one of the important requirements for the development of successful in vitro tissue-engineered tissues. Fast, efficient and spatially uniform cell adhesion can improve the clinical potential of engineered tissue. Three-dimensional (3-D) solid

  9. Green Design and Sustainable Development of School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yumei; Fang, Xuemeng; Zhou, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the school uniform has gradually become an integral part of campus culture construction. A school uniform is not only an iconic symbol of students and a school, but also the carrier of campus culture, with special education function and cultural connotation. However in the same time, many problems exist in the design, making and material selection of school uniforms, in which, substandard fabric quality is the most serious problem. To ensure the quality, health and safety of school uniforms, in my opinion, priority should be given to green design and sustainable development in the design process of school uniforms, which will be more conducive to promoting the sound development of school uniforms. In today’s economic development, the globalization of mass production is no longer just a symbol of challenging the limits of human beings, but to explore the unlimited potential of human spiritual collaboration. If we want to have a better future on this planet, we need to completely redefine the key issue we need to address, that is, green design. The rise of green products is a great progress of human understanding and solving environmental problems. It is the inevitable development trend of commodity production, and will have a profound impact on human survival and development in the future. School uniform is an important part of campus culture construction. In order to not damage the health of primary and secondary school students, in the school uniform design and production process should follow the concept of “green design” to achieve the school uniform style, color, material design, a comprehensive “green” positioning.

  10. Do uniform tangential interfacial stresses enhance adhesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, Nicola; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    We present theoretical arguments, based on linear elasticity and thermodynamics, to show that interfacial tangential stresses in sliding adhesive soft contacts may lead to a significant increase of the effective energy of adhesion. A sizable expansion of the contact area is predicted in conditions corresponding to such scenario. These results are easily explained and are valid under the assumptions that: (i) sliding at the interface does not lead to any loss of adhesive interaction and (ii) spatial fluctuations of frictional stresses can be considered negligible. Our results are seemingly supported by existing experiments, and show that frictional stresses may lead to an increase of the effective energy of adhesion depending on which conditions are established at the interface of contacting bodies in the presence of adhesive forces.

  11. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  12. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  13. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  14. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  15. Desynchronization boost by non-uniform coordinated reset stimulation in ensembles of pulse-coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134

  16. Uniform magnetic targeting of magnetic particles attracted by a new ferromagnetic biological patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ning; Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Kai; Ma, Jiaqi; Gong, Yongyong; Wang, Qixin; Huang, Zheyong

    2018-02-01

    A new non-toxic ferromagnetic biological patch (MBP) was designed in this paper. The MBP consisted of two external layers that were made of transparent silicone, and an internal layer that was made of a mixture of pure iron powder and silicon rubber. Finite-element analysis showed that the local inhomogeneous magnetic field (MF) around the MBP was generated when MBP was placed in a uniform MF. The local MF near the MBP varied with the uniform MF and shape of the MBP. Therefore, not only could the accumulation of paramagnetic particles be adjusted by controlling the strength of the uniform MF, but also the distribution of the paramagnetic particles could be improved with the different shape of the MBP. The relationship of the accumulation of paramagnetic particles or cells, magnetic flux density, and fluid velocity were studied through in vitro experiments and theoretical considerations. The accumulation of paramagnetic particles first increased with increment in the magnetic flux density of the uniform MF. But when the magnetic flux density of the uniform MF exceeded a specific value, the magnetic flux density of the MBP reached saturation, causing the accumulation of paramagnetic particles to fall. In addition, the adsorption morphology of magnetic particles or cells could be improved and the uniform distribution of magnetic particles could be achieved by changing the shape of the MBP. Also, MBP may be used as a new implant to attract magnetic drug carrier particles in magnetic drug targeting. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:98-107, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Polycaprolactone / Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite for Hard Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baradaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the use of nanomaterials in bone tissue engineering scaffold has been considered due to its imitating the structure of natural bone tissue which contains a nanocomposite structure mixed with a three-dimensional matrix. In the meantime, Polycaprol actone has been used as a bio-polymer in bone tissue engineering applications as a scaffold. The aim of this study is to develop porous scaffolds made of polycaprol actone/layered double hydroxide biocomposite, with appropriate mechanical, bioactive and biological properties, for bone tissue engineering application. The nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by the particulate leaching method and freeze-drying method. In this study, MG63 cells (osteosarcoma was investigated for cellular study. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed uniform distribution of ceramic phase in polycaprol actone matrix. The results of mechanical tests showed the increase in young’s modulus after addition of ceramic phase. The microscopic investigations demonstrated that the pores generated after addition of ceramic phase and the average size of pores was as large as 100-600μm. Also by the addition of LDH, the hydrophilicity of PCL increased but the rate of hydroxyapatite formation was delayed due to presence of magnesium ions. The cell culture experiments confirmed the attachment and proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. The results showed that the fabricated scaffolds have the potential to be used in cancellous bone tissue engineering.

  18. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  19. Hydrodynamic characteristics of steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2002-01-01

    We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data

  20. A survey on locally uniformly A-convex algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadess, M.

    1984-12-01

    Using a bornological technic of M. Akkar, we reduce the study of classical questions (spectrum, boundedness of characters, functional calculus, etc.) in locally uniformly A-convex algebras to the Banach case. (author)

  1. UOBPRM: A uniformly distributed obstacle-based PRM

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Thomas, Shawna; Eppstein, David; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new sampling method for motion planning that can generate configurations more uniformly distributed on C-obstacle surfaces than prior approaches. Here, roadmap nodes are generated from the intersections between C

  2. Uniform irradiation system using beam scanning method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo

    1994-03-01

    JAERI AVF-cyclotron is equipped with an ion beam scanner for large area irradiation. The two-dimensional fluence distribution of ion beam obtained using cellulose triacetate film dosimeter was not uniform. This is resulted from the distortion of excitation current for electromagnet of the scanner. So, the beam scanning condition, i.e., the relation between the ion species, the beam profile and the scanning width, was extremely limited to make a good uniformity. We have developed a beam scanning simulator to get fluence distributions by calculation and then compared the simulated distributions with the measured ones. It was revealed that the both of them are in good agreement and the beam scanning condition to get good uniformity was led by using this simulator. On the basis of these results, the power supply of scanner was improved. A good uniformity of beam distribution was available. (author)

  3. Highly uniform parallel microfabrication using a large numerical aperture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Su, Ya-Hui, E-mail: ustcsyh@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: dongwu@ustc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Zhang, Chen-Chu; Hu, Yan-Lei; Wang, Chao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wen; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong, E-mail: ustcsyh@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: dongwu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-07-11

    In this letter, we report an improved algorithm to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays in a large numerical aperture objective system. It is shown that based on the original diffraction integral, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can be improved from ∼75% to >97%, owing to the critical consideration of the aperture function and apodization effect associated with a large numerical aperture objective. The experimental results, e.g., 3 × 3 arrays of square and triangle, seven microlens arrays with high uniformity, further verify the advantage of the improved algorithm. This algorithm enables the laser parallel processing technology to realize uniform microstructures and functional devices in the microfabrication system with a large numerical aperture objective.

  4. 22 CFR 1203.735-212 - Wearing of uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-212 Wearing of....2b prohibits the purchase from Agency funds of uniforms or any item of personal wearing apparel other...

  5. An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, O.

    2005-01-01

    By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.

  6. Improved Nuclear Medicine Uniformity Assessment with Noise Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Christianson, Olav I.; Harkness, Beth A.; Madsen, Mark T.; Mah, Eugene; Thomas, Stephen R.; Zaidi, Habib; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Because g cameras are generally susceptible to environmental conditions and system vulnerabilities, they require routine evaluation of uniformity performance. The metrics for such evaluations are commonly pixel value-based. Although these metrics are typically successful at identifying regional

  7. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform ... models to evaluate temperatures according to the frictional heat generation, ... of these thermal effects include thermal stress, strain and deformation.

  8. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  9. Accumulation and in vivo tissue distribution of pollutant elements in Erica andevalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Valdes, B.; Leidi, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis. Roots were associated with fungi which formed intra and extra-cellular mycelia. The SEM studies showed that Cu was not sequestrated into the root tissues and was uniformly distributed in leaf tissues. Meanwhile, Pb was only localised within epidermal root tissues which indicates that its sequestration in an external matrix might represent a tolerance mechanism in this species. Iron was uniformly distributed throughout the leaves, while in roots it was predominantly retained on the epidermal cell walls. The exclusion and tolerance mechanisms adopted by this species to survive in mining areas indicate that it can be used successfully in the re-vegetation of contaminated areas

  10. Accumulation and in vivo tissue distribution of pollutant elements in Erica andevalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Apartado de Correo 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: sabina@us.es; Valdes, B. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Apartado de Correo 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Leidi, E.O. [Department of Plant Biotechnology, IRNAS-CSIC, Avda. Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis. Roots were associated with fungi which formed intra and extra-cellular mycelia. The SEM studies showed that Cu was not sequestrated into the root tissues and was uniformly distributed in leaf tissues. Meanwhile, Pb was only localised within epidermal root tissues which indicates that its sequestration in an external matrix might represent a tolerance mechanism in this species. Iron was uniformly distributed throughout the leaves, while in roots it was predominantly retained on the epidermal cell walls. The exclusion and tolerance mechanisms adopted by this species to survive in mining areas indicate that it can be used successfully in the re-vegetation of contaminated areas.

  11. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R; Turner, Ari M; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  12. Fiber optic based optical tomography sensor for monitoring plasma uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, Eric C.; Etemadi, Kasra

    2001-01-01

    A new type of fiber optic based optical tomography sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of plasma uniformity. Optical tomography inverts optical emission measurements into the actual plasma distribution without assuming radial symmetry. The new sensor is designed to operate with only two small windows and acquire the necessary data in less than a second. Optical tomography is being tested on an ICP-GEC RF plasma source. Variations in plasma uniformity are measured as a function of different plasma conditions

  13. CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities

  14. Uniformity analysis for a direct-drive laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, L.D.; Skupsky, S.; Goldman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    We show the results of an analysis of the uniformity for a direct-drive reactor using 20, 32, 60, or 96 beams. Several of these options achieve less than the 1% nonuniformity that is required. These options are considered for the cases where the solid angle fraction of the beam ports is 2% and 8%. The analysis is facilitated by separating the contributions due to the geometrical effects related to the number and orientation of the beams from those due to the spatial profile of the individual beams. Emphasis is placed on the wavelength of the nonuniformities, as the shorter wavelength nonuniformities are more easily smoothed by thermal conduction within the target. The analysis demonstrates that the longer wavelengths can be minimized by suitable choices of geometry and by maintaining beam balance, whereas the shorter wavelength nonuniformities can be reduced by optimizing parameters such as the focal position and the spatial intensity profile of each beam. The tolerances required for beam-to-beam energy balance will be discussed

  15. Standardization of the intrinsic uniformity control of the gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsona Harster, Lluis; Llopis Gonzalez, David; Pavia Segura, Javier

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To verify the Intrinsic Uniformity (Iu) results using different acquisition parameters in the weekly gamma camera Quality Control (Qc). Material And Methods: We made 4 experiments using Tc99 sources and modifying the orientation, distance, activity an volume parameters of a source in ten detectors with I Na photomultipliers applying the following acquisition conditions: 4000 Kc, the source 2 m far from the geometrical centre of the detectors, 0.1 ml into 1 ml syringe, and 150 Tc99m ?Ci. Results: We found better results when the distance between detector/source is getting longer, but the better point we found between 1,5 and 2 m. We also found necessary the collimator position was parallel respect to the geometrical centre field of view, because a little deviation of only two degrees can offer a bad result between +0.5%. We study the dose that we should use, and the results show us that better results are not in the highest or smallest values of activity into the source. In volume parameters, we can see that if we use a source highest than 1 ml we obtained better results. Conclusion: Following our results in the variation of IU values as for as the distance, rotation detector/source, dose and source activity, we recommend to perform this QC applying NEMA rules in same conditions every week and using the different parameters of our study to obtain better IU (Au)

  16. Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single-collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range, 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure, and perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spherical bubble collapses. Luminescence was detected for bubbles of maximum radii within the previously uncovered range, R0=1.5 -6 mm, for laser-induced bubbles. The relative luminescence energy was found to rapidly decrease as a function of the bubble asymmetry quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ , which is the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. As established previously, ζ also dictates the characteristic parameters of bubble-driven microjets. The threshold of ζ beyond which no luminescence is observed in our experiment closely coincides with the threshold where the microjets visibly pierce the bubble and drive a vapor jet during the rebound. The individual fitted blackbody temperatures range between Tlum=7000 and Tlum=11 500 K but do not show any clear trend as a function of ζ . Time-resolved measurements using a high-speed photodetector disclose multiple luminescence events at each bubble collapse. The averaged full width at half-maximum of the pulse is found to scale with R0 and to range between 10 and 20 ns.

  17. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  18. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  19. Compact Flyeye concentrator with improved irradiance uniformity on solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Yu, Feihong

    2013-08-01

    A Flyeye concentrator with improved irradiance distribution on the solar cell in a concentrator photovoltaic system is proposed. This Flyeye concentrator is composed of four surfaces: a refractive surface, mirror surface, freeform surface, and transmissive surface. Based on the principles of geometrical optics, the contours of the proposed Flyeye concentrator are calculated according to Fermat's principle, the edge-ray principle, and the ray reversibility principle without solving partial differential equations or using an optimization algorithm, therefore a slope angle control method is used to construct the freeform surface. The solid model is established by applying a symmetry of revolution around the optical axis. Additionally, the optical performance for the Flyeye concentrator is simulated and analyzed by Monte-Carlo method. Results show that the Flyeye concentrator optical efficiency of >96.2% is achievable with 1333× concentration ratio and ±1.3 deg acceptance angle, and 1.3 low aspect ratio (average thickness to entry aperture diameter ratio). Moreover, comparing the Flyeye concentrator specification to that of the Köhler concentrator and the traditional Fresnel-type concentrator, results indicate that this concentrator has the advantages of improved uniformity, reduced thickness, and increased tolerance to the incident sunlight.

  20. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  1. Uniform risk functionals for characterization of strong earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.G.; Trifunac, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    A uniform risk functional (e.g., Fourier spectrum, response spectrum, duration, etc.) is defined so that the probability that it is exceeded by some earthquake during a selected period of time is independent of the frequency of seismic waves. Such a functional is derived by an independent calculation, at each frequency, for the probability that the quantity being considered will be exceeded. Different aspects of the seismicity can control the amplitude of a uniform risk functional in different frequency ranges, and a uniform risk functional does not necessarily describe the strong shaking from any single earthquake. To be useful for calculating uniform risk functionals, a scaling relationship must provide an independent estimate of amplitudes of the functional in several frequency bands. The scaling relationship of Trifunac (1976) for Fourier spectra satisfies this requirement and further describes the distribution of spectral amplitudes about the mean trend; here, it is applied to find uniform risk Fourier amplitude spectra. In an application to finding the uniform risk spectra at a realistic site, this method is quite sensitive to the description of seismicity. Distinct models of seismicity, all consistent with our current level of knowledge of an area, can give significantly different risk estimates

  2. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  3. Variation in normal and tumor tissue sensitivity of mice to ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Jenkins, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency of DNA strand break formation in normal and tumor tissues of mice was measured using the technique of alkaline elution coupled with a microfluorometric determination of DNA. This methodology allowed measurement of the DNA strand breaks produced in tissues irradiated in vivo with doses of radiation comparable to those used in radiotherapy (i.e., 1.0 gray) without the necessity for the cells to be dividing and incorporating radioactive precursors to label the DNA. The results showed that substantial differences existed among various tissues in terms of the amount of DNA strand break damage produced for a given dose of radiation. Of the normal tissues, the most breaks were produced in bone marrow and the least were produced in gut. Furthermore, strand break production was relatively inefficient in the tumor compared to the normal tissues. The efficiency of DNA strand break formation measured in the cells from the tissues irradiated in vitro was much more uniform and considerably greater than that measured in vivo, suggesting that the normal tissues in the animal may be radiobiologically hypoxic

  4. The prediction of burnout in non-uniformly heated rod clusters from burnout data for uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, P.G.

    1964-11-01

    The practice of using burnout data for uniformly heated round tubes to predict burnout in non-uniformly heated reactor channels having complex cross sections is examined. At least two hypotheses are involved: (i) a relationship exists between uniform and non-uniform heat flux distributions and (ii) a relationship exists between simple and complex channel cross sections. Use of two such hypotheses each accurate to ± 15% and a correlation of uniformly heated round tube data having an R.M.S. error of 5%, could yield errors of ± 40% in any predicted value; this figure of ± 40% is regarded as a realistic upper limit for design purposes. It is shown that no method can exist for relating different channel cross sections to within ± 15% and existing methods for relating different heat flux distributions incur some errors exceeding 20%. Furthermore, any suggested method for relating different heat flux distributions can be adequately checked only when a sufficiently large number of results are available and then the preferable alternative of correlating the data is possible. It is concluded that no reliable method can exist for predicting burnout in rod bundles from uniformly heated round tube data with sufficient accuracy for design purposes. (author)

  5. Heterogeneous analysis of non-uniform neutron field formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, A.M.; Fedosov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated are the specific features of spatial-energy neutron distribution formation in the transient zone between regions, operating at different levels of energy release with accounting for the real structure of fuel element lattice and control elements in the channel reactors of high power. Presented are the calculation results, obtained by heterogeneous method in the two-group monopole approximation by means of the HETLAT code. The analysis, based on the homogeneous model shows, that the efficiency of the transient zone in forming neutron flux qradient can be increased by introducing an additional interlayer of moderator between the layers with extreme multiplying properties. It is stressed, that the most favourable from the point of view of energy release uniformity in zones and width of the transient zone is the variant in which neutron flux gradient is carried out by moving the control elements on the boundaries of regions while the internal rows of control elements create the conditions for flattening the energy release in the zones. The result obtained corresponds to the recommendation on optimal control, coming from the Pontryagin maximum principle. The analysis of neutron field formation using heterogeneous models mainly proves the conclusions following from homogeneous calculations using the maximum principle. At the same time quantitative results for the zones of small dimensions (less than 10 migration lengths) with a vividly expressed heterogeneous structure essentially differ from the forecast, obtained on the basis of the simplified homogeneous one-group model. The heterogeneous analysis shows possibilities for further optimization of the transient zone structure with account of the control element location

  6. Energy Cascade from Internal Modes in Non-uniformly Stratified Fluid through Excitation of Superharmonic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, B. R.

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that two-dimensional internal plane waves and modes in uniformly stratified fluid efficiently transfer energy to smaller scale waves and ultimately turbulent mixing through parametric subharmonic instability (PSI). The numerical simulations of MacKinnon & Winters (GRL 2005) predicted PSI should act efficiently to disrupt the internal tide. However, while in situ observations showed the presence of PSI, it was not found to be appreciable. One reason for the discrepancy between simulations and observations is that the former examined an internal mode in uniformly stratified fluid whereas, in reality, the internal tide exists in non-uniform stratification and is manifest as sinusoidal oscillations of the thermocline. Through theory supported by numerical simulations, it is shown that internal modes in non-uniform stratification immediately excite superharmonics, not subharmonic disturbances. These have double the horizontal wavenumber and double the frequency of the parent mode and hence move with the same horizontal phase speed of the parent mode. As the disturbances grow in amplitude, however, they interact with the parent mode generating small-scale vertically propagating internal waves within the strongly stratified layer. The occurrence of PSI over very long times can occur, as in the simulations of Hazewinkel and Winters (JPO 2011). However, a comprehensive understanding of the energy cascade from the internal tide to small scales must consider the evolution of excited superharmonic disturbances.

  7. A progressively reduced pretension method to fabricate Bradbury-Nielsen gates with uniform tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Yu, Zhou; Cao, Like; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-01-01

    A Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) is often used to modulate ion beams. It consists of two interleaved and electrically isolated sets of wires with uniform tension, which ideally keep parallel, equidistant, and coplanar over a wide temperature range, making the BNG reliable and robust. We have previously analyzed the non-uniformity problem of wire tensions with sequentially winding method and developed a template-based transfer method to solve this problem. In this paper, we introduced a progressively reduced pretension method, which allows directly and sequentially fixing wires onto the substrate without using a template. Theoretical analysis shows that by applying proper pretension to each wire when fixing it, the final wire tensions of all wires can be uniform. The algorithm and flowchart to calculate the pretension sequence are given, and the fabrication process is introduced in detail. Pretensions are generated by weight combination with a weaving device. A BNG with stainless steel wire and a printed circuit board substrate is constructed with this method. The non-uniformity of the final wire tensions is less than 2.5% in theory. The BNG is successfully employed in our ion mobility spectrometer, and the measured resolution is 33.5 at a gate opening time of 350 μs. Compared to the template-based method, this method is simpler, faster, and more flexible with comparable production quality when manufacturing BNGs with different configurations

  8. An improved non-uniformity correction algorithm and its GPU parallel implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuanhong; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Zhao, Dong; Qian, Kun; Rong, Shenghui

    2018-05-01

    The performance of SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction algorithm is seriously affected by the result of SLP filter, which always leads to image blurring and ghosting artifacts. To address this problem, an improved SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction method with curvature constraint was proposed. Here we put forward a new way to estimate spatial low frequency component. First, the details and contours of input image were obtained respectively by minimizing local Gaussian curvature and mean curvature of image surface. Then, the guided filter was utilized to combine these two parts together to get the estimate of spatial low frequency component. Finally, we brought this SLP component into SLP-THP method to achieve non-uniformity correction. The performance of proposed algorithm was verified by several real and simulated infrared image sequences. The experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm can reduce the non-uniformity without detail losing. After that, a GPU based parallel implementation that runs 150 times faster than CPU was presented, which showed the proposed algorithm has great potential for real time application.

  9. Comparisons of uniform and discrete source distributions for use in bioassay laboratory performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R.I.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is sending a torso phantom with radioactive material uniformly distributed in the lungs to in vivo bioassay laboratories for analysis. Although the radionuclides ultimately chosen for the studies had relatively long half-lives, future accreditation testing will require repeated tests with short half-life test nuclides. Computer modeling was used to simulate the major components of the phantom. Radiation transport calculations were then performed using the computer models to calculate dose rates either 15 cm from the chest or at its surface. For 144 Ce and 60 Co, three configurations were used for the lung comparison tests. Calculations show that, for most detector positions, a single plug containing 40 K located in the back of the heart provides a good approximation to a uniform distribution of 40 K. The approximation would lead, however, to a positive bias for the detector reading if the detector were located at the chest surface near the center. Loading the 40 K in a uniform layer inside the chest wall is not a good approximation of the uniform distribution in the lungs, because most of the radionuclides would be situated close to the detector location and the only shielding would be the thickness of the chest wall. The calculated dose rates for 60 Co and 144 Ce were similar at all calculated reference points. 3 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Films with High Uniformity Fabricated via a Dynamic Heating Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yonggao; Chen, Chao; Jia, Dan; Li, Shuxin; Ji, Shulin; Ye, Changhui

    2016-04-20

    The uniformity of the sheet resistance of transparent conductive films is one of the most important quality factors for touch panel applications. However, the uniformity of silver nanowire transparent conductive films is far inferior to that of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). Herein, we report a dynamic heating method using infrared light to achieve silver nanowire transparent conductive films with high uniformity. This method can overcome the coffee ring effect during the drying process and suppress the aggregation of silver nanowires in the film. A nonuniformity factor of the sheet resistance of the as-prepared silver nanowire transparent conductive films could be as low as 6.7% at an average sheet resistance of 35 Ω/sq and a light transmittance of 95% (at 550 nm), comparable to that of high-quality ITO film in the market. In addition, a mechanical study shows that the sheet resistance of the films has little change after 5000 bending cycles, and the film could be used in touch panels for human-machine interactive input. The highly uniform and mechanically stable silver nanowire transparent conductive films meet the requirement for many significant applications and could play a key role in the display market in a near future.

  11. Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David

    To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities.

  12. Leader propagation in uniform background fields in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, M; Niemeyer, L; Bujotzek, M

    2009-01-01

    The breakdown mechanism of compressed SF 6 in gas insulation is known to be controlled by stepped leader propagation. This process is still not well understood in uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields with small electrode protrusions, such as particles or surface roughness. In a previous publication an investigation of partial discharges and breakdown in uniform background fields that focused on streamer and leader inception mechanisms was presented (Seeger et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185204). In this paper we present for the first time a physical leader propagation model that consistently describes the observed phenomena in uniform background fields in SF 6 . The model explains two different types of leader breakdown; these can be associated with the precursor and the stem mechanisms. It also yields the parameters of stepped leader propagation, which include step lengths, associated step charges, step times and fields and temperatures in the leader channel. Further, it explains the features of arrested leaders in uniform background fields. The model predicts the range of parameters under which arrested and breakdown leaders occur in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  14. Improvement of adipose tissue-derived cells by low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priglinger, Eleni; Schuh, Christina M A P; Steffenhagen, Carolin; Wurzer, Christoph; Maier, Julia; Nuernberger, Sylvia; Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Christiane; Suessner, Susanne; Rünzler, Dominik; Redl, Heinz; Wolbank, Susanne

    2017-09-01

    Cell-based therapies with autologous adipose tissue-derived cells have shown great potential in several clinical studies in the last decades. The majority of these studies have been using the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), a heterogeneous mixture of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, pericytes and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) among others. Although possible clinical applications of autologous adipose tissue-derived cells are manifold, they are limited by insufficient uniformity in cell identity and regenerative potency. In our experimental set-up, low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) was performed on freshly obtained human adipose tissue and isolated adipose tissue SVF cells aiming to equalize and enhance stem cell properties and functionality. After ESWT on adipose tissue we could achieve higher cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared with ESWT on the isolated SVF as well as the control. ESWT on adipose tissue resulted in a significantly higher expression of single mesenchymal and vascular marker compared with untreated control. Analysis of SVF protein secretome revealed a significant enhancement in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and placental growth factor (PLGF) after ESWT on adipose tissue. Summarizing we could show that ESWT on adipose tissue enhanced the cellular ATP content and modified the expression of single mesenchymal and vascular marker, and thus potentially provides a more regenerative cell population. Because the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy is dependent on the therapeutic potency of the patient's cells, this technology might raise the number of patients eligible for autologous cell transplantation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  16. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  17. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  18. Climate uniformity: its influence on team communication quality, task conflict, and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romá, Vicente; Hernández, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether climate uniformity (the pattern of climate perceptions of organizational support within the team) is related to task conflict, team communication quality, and team performance. We used a sample composed of 141 bank branches and collected data at 3 time points. The results obtained showed that, after controlling for aggregate team climate, climate strength, and their interaction, a type of nonuniform climate pattern (weak dissimilarity) was directly related to task conflict and team communication quality. Teams with weak dissimilarity nonuniform patterns tended to show higher levels of task conflict and lower levels of team communication quality than teams with uniform climate patterns. The relationship between weak dissimilarity patterns and team performance was fully mediated by team communication quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Classical understanding of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeong Deok [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Woosuk University, Wanju, Cheonbuk, 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Taeseung, E-mail: tschoi@swu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Food System, College of Natural Science, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    Recently, interesting observations on electron vortex beams have been made. We propose a classical model that shows vortex-like motion due to suitably-synchronized motion of each electron's cyclotron motion in a uniform magnetic field. It is shown that some basic features of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field, such as azimuthal currents, the relation between energy and kinetic angular momentum, and the parallel-axis theorem are understandable by using this classical model. We also show that the time-dependence of kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams could be understood as an effect of a specific nonuniform distribution of classical electrons. - Highlights: • A classical model for electron vortex beams is proposed. • The basic features of azimuthal currents could be understood by using this model. • The kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams is intuitively understandable.

  20. Evaporation of nanoscale water on a uniformly complete wetting surface at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuwei; Wan, Rongzheng

    2018-05-03

    The evaporation of nanoscale water films on surfaces affects many processes in nature and industry. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show the evaporation of a nanoscale water film on a uniformly complete wetting surface at different temperatures. With the increase in temperature, the growth of the water evaporation rate becomes slow. Analyses show that the hydrogen bond (H-bond) lifetimes and orientational autocorrelation times of the outermost water film decrease slowly with the increase in temperature. Compared to a thicker water film, the H-bond lifetimes and orientational autocorrelation times of a monolayer water film are much slower. This suggests that the lower evaporation rate of the monolayer water film on a uniformly complete wetting surface may be caused by the constriction of the water rotation due to the substrate. This finding may be helpful for controlling nanoscale water evaporation within a certain range of temperatures.

  1. Analytical inversion formula for uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    In deriving algorithms to reconstruct single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data, it is important that the algorithm compensates for photon attenuation in order to obtain quantitative reconstruction results. A convolution backprojection algorithm was derived by Tretiak and Metz to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) transaxial slices from uniformly attenuated parallel-beam projections. Using transformation of coordinates, this algorithm can be modified to obtain a formulation useful to reconstruct uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections. Unlike that for parallel-beam projections, this formulation does not produce a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm but instead has a formulation that is an inverse integral operator with a spatially varying kernel. This algorithm thus requires more computation time than does the filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for the uniformly attenuated parallel-beam case. However, the fan-beam reconstructions demonstrate the same image quality as that of parallel-beam reconstructions

  2. Function spaces with uniform, fine and graph topologies

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Robert A; Jindal, Varun

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive account of the theory of spaces of continuous functions under uniform, fine and graph topologies. Besides giving full details of known results, an attempt is made to give generalizations wherever possible, enriching the existing literature. The goal of this monograph is to provide an extensive study of the uniform, fine and graph topologies on the space C(X,Y) of all continuous functions from a Tychonoff space X to a metric space (Y,d); and the uniform and fine topologies on the space H(X) of all self-homeomorphisms on a metric space (X,d). The subject matter of this monograph is significant from the theoretical viewpoint, but also has applications in areas such as analysis, approximation theory and differential topology. Written in an accessible style, this book will be of interest to researchers as well as graduate students in this vibrant research area.

  3. Dynamics beyond uniform hyperbolicity a global geometric and probabilistic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatti, Christian; Viana, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    The notion of uniform hyperbolicity, introduced by Steve Smale in the early sixties, unified important developments and led to a remarkably successful theory for a large class of systems: uniformly hyperbolic systems often exhibit complicated evolution which, nevertheless, is now rather well understood, both geometrically and statistically.Another revolution has been taking place in the last couple of decades, as one tries to build a global theory for "most" dynamical systems, recovering as much as possible of the conclusions of the uniformly hyperbolic case, in great generality. This book aims to put such recent developments in a unified perspective, and to point out open problems and likely directions for further progress. It is aimed at researchers, both young and senior, willing to get a quick, yet broad, view of this part of dynamics. Main ideas, methods, and results are discussed, at variable degrees of depth, with references to the original works for details and complementary information.

  4. Preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuejun; Tang Yuefeng; Lv Chuntang; Zhou Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials was reported. In order to obtain uniform porous biomaterials, disk samples were formed by the mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders and monodispersed polystyrene microspheres, and then HAP uniform porous materials with different diameter and different porosity (diameter: 436 ± 25 nm, 892 ± 20 nm and 1890 ± 20 nm, porosity: 46.5%, 41.3% and 34.7%, respectively) were prepared by sintering these disk samples at 1250 deg. C for 5 h. The pure phase of HAP powders fabricated by the hydrothermal technology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface and size distribution of pores in HAP biomaterials were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size distribution in porous HAP biomaterials was tested by mercury intrusion method

  5. Computational modeling and sensitivity in uniform DT burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Jon; Hryniw, Natalia; Kesler, Leigh A.; Li, Frank; Vold, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Understanding deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion is essential to achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion. A burning DT plasma in a three temperature (3T) approximation and uniform in space is modeled as a system of five non-linear coupled ODEs. Special focus is given to the effects of Compton coupling, Planck opacity, and electron-ion coupling terms. Semi-implicit differencing is used to solve the system of equations. Time step size is varied to examine the stability and convergence of each solution. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create analytic fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different high order fits to NDI date (the reaction rate parameter), and using TOPS versus SESAME opacity data is explored, and the sensitivity to several physics parameters in the coupling terms are also examined. The base model recovers the accepted 3T results for the temperature and burn histories. The Compton coupling is found to have a significant impact on the results. Varying a coefficient of this term shows that the model results can give reasonably good agreement with the peak temperatures reported in multi-group results as well as the accepted 3T results. The base model assumes a molar density of 1 mol/cm 3 , as well as a 5 keV intial temperature for all three temperatures. Different intial conditions are explored as well. Intial temperatures are set to 1 and 3 keV, the ratio of D to T is varied (2 and 3 as opposed to 1 in the base model), and densities are set to 10 mol/cm 3 and 100 mol/cm 3 . Again varying the Compton coefficient, the ion temperature results in the higher density case are in reasonable agreement with a recently published kinetic model.

  6. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hryniw, Natalia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Jon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kesler, Leigh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  7. Computational modeling and sensitivity in uniform DT burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hryniw, Natalia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kesler, Leigh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Understanding deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion is essential to achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion. A burning DT plasma in a three temperature (3T) approximation and uniform in space is modeled as a system of five non-linear coupled ODEs. Special focus is given to the effects of Compton coupling, Planck opacity, and electron-ion coupling terms. Semi-implicit differencing is used to solve the system of equations. Time step size is varied to examine the stability and convergence of each solution. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create analytic fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different high order fits to NDI date (the reaction rate parameter), and using TOPS versus SESAME opacity data is explored, and the sensitivity to several physics parameters in the coupling terms are also examined. The base model recovers the accepted 3T results for the temperature and burn histories. The Compton coupling is found to have a significant impact on the results. Varying a coefficient of this term shows that the model results can give reasonably good agreement with the peak temperatures reported in multi-group results as well as the accepted 3T results. The base model assumes a molar density of 1 mol/cm{sup 3}, as well as a 5 keV intial temperature for all three temperatures. Different intial conditions are explored as well. Intial temperatures are set to 1 and 3 keV, the ratio of D to T is varied (2 and 3 as opposed to 1 in the base model), and densities are set to 10 mol/cm{sup 3} and 100 mol/cm{sup 3}. Again varying the Compton coefficient, the ion temperature results in the higher density case are in reasonable agreement with a recently published kinetic model.

  8. Toward uniform probabilistic seismic hazard assessments for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. H.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Ornthammarath, T.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Thant, M.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nguyen, L. M.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Irsyam, M.; Hidayati, S.; Sieh, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although most Southeast Asian countries have seismic hazard maps, various methodologies and quality result in appreciable mismatches at national boundaries. We aim to conduct a uniform assessment across the region by through standardized earthquake and fault databases, ground-shaking scenarios, and regional hazard maps. Our earthquake database contains earthquake parameters obtained from global and national seismic networks, harmonized by removal of duplicate events and the use of moment magnitude. Our active-fault database includes fault parameters from previous studies and from the databases implemented for national seismic hazard maps. Another crucial input for seismic hazard assessment is proper evaluation of ground-shaking attenuation. Since few ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) have used local observations from this region, we evaluated attenuation by comparison of instrumental observations and felt intensities for recent earthquakes with predicted ground shaking from published GMPEs. We then utilize the best-fitting GMPEs and site conditions into our seismic hazard assessments. Based on the database and proper GMPEs, we have constructed regional probabilistic seismic hazard maps. The assessment shows highest seismic hazard levels near those faults with high slip rates, including the Sagaing Fault in central Myanmar, the Sumatran Fault in Sumatra, the Palu-Koro, Matano and Lawanopo Faults in Sulawesi, and the Philippine Fault across several islands of the Philippines. In addition, our assessment demonstrates the important fact that regions with low earthquake probability may well have a higher aggregate probability of future earthquakes, since they encompass much larger areas than the areas of high probability. The significant irony then is that in areas of low to moderate probability, where building codes are usually to provide less seismic resilience, seismic risk is likely to be greater. Infrastructural damage in East Malaysia during the 2015

  9. Ideal flood field images for SPECT uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, B.E.; Appledorn, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Since as little as 2.5% camera non-uniformity can cause disturbing artifacts in SPECT imaging, the ideal flood field images for uniformity correction would be made with the collimator in place using a perfectly uniform sheet source. While such a source is not realizable the equivalent images can be generated by mapping the activity distribution of a Co-57 sheet source and correcting subsequent images of the source with this mapping. Mapping is accomplished by analyzing equal-time images of the source made in multiple precisely determined positions. The ratio of counts detected in the same region of two images is a measure of the ratio of the activities of the two portions of the source imaged in that region. The activity distribution in the sheet source is determined from a set of such ratios. The more source positions imaged in a given time, the more accurate the source mapping, according to results of a computer simulation. A 1.9 mCi Co-57 sheet source was shifted by 12 mm increments along the horizontal and vertical axis of the camera face to 9 positions on each axis. The source was imaged for 20 min in each position and 214 million total counts were accumulated. The activity distribution of the source, relative to the center pixel, was determined for a 31 x 31 array. The integral uniformity was found to be 2.8%. The RMS error for such a mapping was determined by computer simulation to be 0.46%. The activity distribution was used to correct a high count flood field image for non-uniformities attributable to the Co-57 source. Such a corrected image represents camera plus collimator response to an almost perfectly uniform sheet source

  10. Creation of the uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnouskaya, Alena; Kotava, Aksana; Ivanov, Victor; Maksutov, Marat

    2008-01-01

    Creation of operation of uniform medical and dosimetric data banks for carrying out of collateral wide-scale radiation epidemiological researches and prediction of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident (ChA) in territory of Russia and Belarus. On the basis of medical and dosimetric data banks of the national registers of Russia and Belarus the uniform technology of collection personal of a state information of health of the population, injured from ChA . Three levels of observation are created. The first level - Bryansk area of Russia and Gomel area of Belarus, interests of research - radiation hazards of oncologic diseases of various localizations for the population living in these territories. The second level - Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol area of Russia and Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilyov area of Belarus, preferred direction of researches - thyroid cancer. The third level all territory of Russia and Belarus, area of research - medical consequences for health of the liquidators, their children and persons migrating from polluted territories. Personal uniform sub-registers are created and function on a stationary value to a basis. Is sub-registers containing information about diseases by a thyroid cancer, leukemia and breast cancer, uniform register of the liquidators and their children, uniform cancer-register of the liquidators and uniform cancer-register of the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 . The personal information on 20440 cases of thyroid cancer, 5234 cases of a leukemia, 16679 cases of breast cancer, 252884 liquidators, 6882 cases of a cancer of various localizations among the liquidators, 35423 children of the liquidators, 11407 cases of oncologic diseases among the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 is accumulated. (author)

  11. RF Magnetic Field Uniformity of Rectangular Planar Coils for Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    magnetic, potassium chlorate , nuclear quadrupole resonance, uniform field, coil, surface coil I. INTRODUCTION QR is a magnetic resonance phenomenon...material that will be used is this investigation is potassium chlorate (KCLO3). This paper utilizes the NQR signals detection from KCLO3 to determine the...frequency of potassium chlorate (KCLO3), and matched to a 50 ohm input impedance using L-network circuit of capacitors. Fig.1 shows a diagram of the

  12. Uniformity studies in large area triple-GEM based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, M. Abi [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Bouhali, O., E-mail: othmane.bouhali@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, PO Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Castaneda, A.; Maghrbi, Y.; Mohamed, T. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors have been used in many applications since their introduction in 1997. Large areas, e.g. exceeding 30×30 cm{sup 2}, of GEM detectors are foreseen in future experiments which puts stringent requirements on the uniformity of response across the detection area. We investigate the effect of small variations of several parameters that could affect the uniformity. Parameters such as the anode pitch, the gas gap, the size and the shape of the holes are investigated. Simulation results are presented and compared to previous experimental data.

  13. On a Generalisation of Uniform Distribution and its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayakumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nadarajah et al.(2013 introduced a family life time models using truncated negative binomial distribution and derived some properties of the family of distributions. It is a generalization of Marshall-Olkin family of distributions. In this paper, we introduce Generalized Uniform Distribution (GUD using the approach of Nadarajah et al.(2013. The shape properties of density function and hazard function are discussed. The expression for moments, order statistics, entropies are obtained. Estimation procedure is also discussed.The GDU introduced here is a generalization of the Marshall-Olkin extended uniform distribution studied in Jose and Krishna(2011.

  14. Coating strategy for enhancing illumination uniformity in a lithographic condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, D.P.; Vernon, S.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; Kania, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A three-element Koehler condenser system has been fabricated, characterized, and integrated into an EUV lithographic system. The multilayer coatings deposited on the optics were designed to provide optimal radiation transport efficiency and illumination uniformity. Extensive EUV characterization measurements performed on the individual optics and follow-on system measurements indicated that the condenser was operating close to design goals. Multilayer d-spacings were within 0.05 nm of specifications, and reflectances were approximately 60%. Illumination uniformity was better than ±10%. The broadband transport efficiency was 11%

  15. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe 3 O 4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  16. Atomically resolved tissue integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Johan; Sundell, Gustav; Thuvander, Mattias; Andersson, Martin

    2014-08-13

    In the field of biomedical technology, a critical aspect is the ability to control and understand the integration of an implantable device in living tissue. Despite the technical advances in the development of biomaterials, the elaborate interplay encompassing materials science and biology on the atomic level is not very well understood. Within implantology, anchoring a biomaterial device into bone tissue is termed osseointegration. In the most accepted theory, osseointegration is defined as an interfacial bonding between implant and bone; however, there is lack of experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we show that atom probe tomography can be used to study the implant-tissue interaction, allowing for three-dimensional atomic mapping of the interface region. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated that direct contact between Ca atoms and the implanted titanium oxide surface is formed without the presence of a protein interlayer, which means that a pure inorganic interface is created, hence giving experimental support to the current theory of osseointegration. We foresee that this result will be of importance in the development of future biomaterials as well as in the design of in vitro evaluation techniques.

  17. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)], E-mail: nazly@batan.go.id; Febrida, A.; Basril, A. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)

    2007-11-15

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  18. In vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium alloy for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-17

    We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  19. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Nano-Whisker Hydroxyapatite Coating on Magnesium Alloy for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  20. Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations...

  2. A charged black hole in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Chaudhury, S.; Dowerah, S.

    1983-01-01

    We present here an investigation of the event horizon of a charged black hole embedded in a uniform magnetic field studying the Gaussian curvature. It is shown that the Gauss-Bonnet theorem holds for this magnetized black hole and for a magnetized Kerr black hole

  3. Perceived Articulation Uniformity between Trumpet and Violin Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shelly C.; Hamann, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Directors strive for a unified sound throughout their wind and orchestra ensembles. Articulation affects sound uniformity among winds and strings. This baseline study examined whether a trumpet player could better match a violin player's articulation, as perceived by participants listening to a recording of two performances, when: (a) performing…

  4. Consensus in the network with uniform constant communication delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xu; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Grip, H°avard Fjær; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus among identical agents that are at most critically unstable and coupled through networks with uniform constant communication delay. An upper bound for delay tolerance is obtained which explicitly depends on agent dynamics and network topology. The dependence on network

  5. Uniforms in Public Schools: A Decade of Research and Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to what one reads in the headlines and texts of the nation's most prominent newspapers, what one hears from the mouths of politicians and educational administrators, and what one sees on the evening news, there is absolutely nothing simplistic and straightforward about the current movement to uniform public school students in the United…

  6. Gamma-ray monitor for plutonium uniformity in fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Plutonium fuel tubes must be examined for abnormal PuO 2 densities. A fuel-gamma densitometer (FGD) was developed to measure the PuO 2 content within 3.2-mm-diameter areas. The FGD measurement of hot spot densities is an extension of the usual gamma-scanner application of verifying fuel uniformity within a few percent

  7. On locally uniformly linearizable high breakdown location and scale functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives two constructions of a weighted mean which has a large domain, is affinely equivariant, has a locally high breakdown point and is locally uniformly linearizable. One construction is based on $M$-functionals with smooth defining $\\psi$- and $\\chi$ -functions which are used to

  8. Stability of common fixed points in uniform spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stability results for a pair of sequences of mappings and their common fixed points in a Hausdorff uniform space using certain new notions of convergence are proved. The results obtained herein extend and unify several known results. AMS(MOS Subject classification 2010: 47H10; 54H25.

  9. Uniform convergence of the empirical spectral distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Norvaisa, R

    1997-01-01

    Let X be a linear process having a finite fourth moment. Assume F is a class of square-integrable functions. We consider the empirical spectral distribution function J(n,X) based on X and indexed by F. If F is totally bounded then J(n,X) satisfies a uniform strong law of large numbers. If, in

  10. Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments

  11. 48 CFR 14.201-1 - Uniform contract format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulation that are inconsistent with the uniform contract format. (5) Firm-fixed-price or fixed-price with economic price adjustment acquisitions that use the simplified contract format (see 14.201-9). (b... shall retain it in the contract file. (See 4.1201(c).) Award by acceptance of a bid on the award portion...

  12. 75 FR 71344 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FSIS-2010-0031] RIN 0583-AD Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety... regulations that require changes in the labeling of meat and poultry food products. Many meat and poultry... for new food labeling regulations is consistent with FDA's approach in this regard. FDA is also...

  13. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Social Unity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    We examine how different forms of co-action (uniform vs. complementary co-action) give rise to feelings of solidarity. Five studies reveal that both forms of co-action increase solidarity, but have different consequences for the role of the individual within the group.

  14. Spiking mode operation for a uniform-period wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Goldstein, J.C.; Newnam, B.E.

    1985-01-01

    The onset of saturation in a uniform-period wiggler has been examined experimentally and through numerical simulations. Models have been constructed that explain the observations in simple and consistent ways. The models are based upon the development of strong frequency and amplitude modulation of the optical wave as a way to increase extraction efficiency and optical power

  15. Exact Finite Differences. The Derivative on Non Uniformly Spaced Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Martínez-Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We define a finite-differences derivative operation, on a non uniformly spaced partition, which has the exponential function as an exact eigenvector. We discuss some properties of this operator and we propose a definition for the components of a finite-differences momentum operator. This allows us to perform exact discrete calculations.

  16. Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.

  17. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide; Hirata, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt n (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al 2 O 3 /NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  18. Uniform deposition of size-selected clusters using Lissajous scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Hirata, Hirohito [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Size-selected clusters can be deposited on the surface using size-selected cluster ion beams. However, because of the cross-sectional intensity distribution of the ion beam, it is difficult to define the coverage of the deposited clusters. The aggregation probability of the cluster depends on coverage, whereas cluster size on the surface depends on the position, despite the size-selected clusters are deposited. It is crucial, therefore, to deposit clusters uniformly on the surface. In this study, size-selected clusters were deposited uniformly on surfaces by scanning the cluster ions in the form of Lissajous pattern. Two sets of deflector electrodes set in orthogonal directions were placed in front of the sample surface. Triangular waves were applied to the electrodes with an irrational frequency ratio to ensure that the ion trajectory filled the sample surface. The advantages of this method are simplicity and low cost of setup compared with raster scanning method. The authors further investigated CO adsorption on size-selected Pt{sub n} (n = 7, 15, 20) clusters uniformly deposited on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl(110) surface and demonstrated the importance of uniform deposition.

  19. Communication Network Integration and Group Uniformity in a Complex Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper contains a discussion of the limitations of research on group processes in complex organizations and the manner in which a procedure for network analysis in on-going systems can reduce problems. The research literature on group uniformity processes and on theoretical models of these processes from an information processing perspective…

  20. Post-Buckling Strength of Uniformly Compressed Plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Rosmanit, M.; Hofmeyer, H.; Camotim, D; Silvestre, N; Dinis, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is discussed how existing analytical and semi-analytical formulas for describing the elastic-post-buckling behavior of uniformly compressed square plates with initial imperfections, for loads up to three times the buckling load can be simplified and improved. For loads larger than

  1. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  2. Remarks on Hawking radiation as tunneling from a uniformly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the Hamilton–Jacobi method of Angheben et al, we investigate the Hawking tunneling radiation from a uniformly accelerating rectilinear black hole for which the horizons and entropy are functions of θ. After several coordinate transforma- tions, we conclude that when the self-gravitational interaction ...

  3. Optimizing the LSST Dither Pattern for Survey Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Humna; Gawiser, Eric J.; Kurczynski, Peter; Carroll, Christopher M.; LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will gather detailed data of the southern sky, enabling unprecedented study of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations, which are an important probe of dark energy. These studies require a survey with highly uniform depth, and we aim to find an observation strategy that optimizes this uniformity. We have shown that in the absence of dithering (large telescope-pointing offsets), the LSST survey will vary significantly in depth. Hence, we implemented various dithering strategies, including random and repulsive random pointing offsets and spiral patterns with the spiral reaching completion in either a few months or the entire ten-year run. We employed three different implementations of dithering strategies: a single offset assigned to all fields observed on each night, offsets assigned to each field independently whenever the field is observed, and offsets assigned to each field only when the field is observed on a new night. Our analysis reveals that large dithers are crucial to guarantee survey uniformity and that assigning dithers to each field independently whenever the field is observed significantly increases this uniformity. These results suggest paths towards an optimal observation strategy that will enable LSST to achieve its science goals.We gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation REU program at Rutgers, PHY-1263280, and the Department of Energy, DE-SC0011636.

  4. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  5. Uniformity of plants regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S

    1987-05-01

    Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.

  6. Two forms for 3-uniform states of eight-qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xinwei; Da, Zhang; Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relations between average bipartite entanglement and the n-tangle of eight-qubits. We have derived two forms for 3-uniform states of eight-qubits. One form has the n-tangle equal to zero; the other form has the n-tangle equal to unity.

  7. Instruction sequences and non-uniform complexity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop theory concerning non-uniform complexity in a setting in which the notion of single-pass instruction sequence considered in program algebra is the central notion. We define counterparts of the complexity classes P/poly and NP/poly and formulate a counterpart of the complexity theoretic

  8. Dressing symmetry of the uniformization solution of Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianmin.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the relations between monodromy group and dressing group for Liouville equation in uniformization theorem are discussed. The representation of monodromy transformation, acting on the chiral components of the solution of Liouville equation, is obtained. The non-trivial exchange algebra for monodromy transformation is calculated. (author). 14 refs

  9. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    -uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k...

  10. MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. The analytical solutions are obtained for concentration, temperature and velocity fields using an asymptotic approximation, similar to that of Ayeni et al 2004. It is shown that the temperature ...

  11. Leveraging Non-Uniform Resources for Parallel Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayr, Tobias; Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Modular clusters are now composed of non- uniform nodes with different CPUs, disks or network cards so that customers can adapt the cluster configuration to the changing technologies and to their changing needs. This challenges dataflow parallelism as the primary load balancing technique of exist...

  12. Evaluation of protocol uniformity concerning laparoscopic cholecystectomy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S.G.L. Wauben; R.H.M. Goossens (Richard); D.J. van Eijk (Daan); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the "critical view of safety" concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid

  13. Impact of School Uniforms on Student Discipline and the Learning Climate: A Comparative Case Study of Two Middle Schools with Uniform Dress Codes and Two Middle Schools without Uniform Dress Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Charles Dewitt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of uniform dress codes on a school's climate for student behavior and learning in four middle schools in North Carolina. The research will compare the perceptions of parents, teachers, and administrators in schools with uniform dress codes against schools without uniform dress codes. This…

  14. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  15. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  16. Experimental research on the flow field uniformity in the filter house of a nuclear air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Feng; Yang Jun; Ye Suisheng

    2000-01-01

    The filter house structure is designed using similarity laws showing that the filter house structure causes a non-uniform flow field. The flow field is also measured experimentally. The air flow field is analyzed for different conditions. The results show that: (1) The HEPA filters affect the dispersion of the air flow; (2) The appropriate angle for air input to the rectifier satisfies the requirements for uniform air flow for the test conditions; (3) The rectifier has little influence on the air flow for operating conditions

  17. Tobacco clones derived from tissue culture with supersensitivity to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, E.J.; Kang, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    New tobacco clones supersensitive to ozone were obtained from tissue culture. - At least two supersensitive tobacco somaclones were obtained from tissue culture (TC) , when this approach was used to asexually propagate Bel-W3 tobacco indicator plants. These somaclones can detect as low as 30 ppb ozone for a 4-h exposure duration both within CSTR exposure chambers and in ambient air. Comparison of the injury index and their coefficient of variance showed that the TC plantlets usually have more uniform performance in response to ozone in addition to their higher sensitivity. A quick regeneration procedure was established to preserve the supersensitive germplasm immediately when it was found. The TC plantlets will flower and produce seed similar to seed-grown tobacco. The TC approach proved to be a better propagation system for valuable indicator plant species. The mechanism that causes the variation and the possible difference in their genome from seed-grown tobacco is still unknown. Further studies are needed in the future to determine if factors in the TC system may be responsible for the sensitivity difference

  18. Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamai, Noriyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Several porous calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been used clinically as bone substitutes, but most of them possessed few interpore connections, resulting in pathological fracture probably due to poor bone formation within the substitute. We recently developed a fully interconnected porous HA ceramic (IP-CHA) by adopting the ‘foam-gel’ technique. The IP-CHA had a three-dimensional structure with spherical pores of uniform size (average 150 μm, porosity 75%), which were interconnected by window-like holes (average diameter 40 μm), and also demonstrated adequate compression strength (10–12 MPa). In animal experiments, the IP-CHA showed superior osteoconduction, with the majority of pores filled with newly formed bone. The interconnected porous structure facilitates bone tissue engineering by allowing the introduction of mesenchymal cells, osteotropic agents such as bone morphogenetic protein or vasculature into the pores. Clinically, we have applied the IP-CHA to treat various bony defects in orthopaedic surgery, and radiographic examinations demonstrated that grafted IP-CHA gained radiopacity more quickly than the synthetic HA in clinical use previously. We review the accumulated data on bone tissue engineering using the novel scaffold and on clinical application in the orthopaedic field. PMID:19106069

  19. LED Uniform Illumination Using Double Linear Fresnel Lenses for Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a linear Fresnel lens design for light-emitting diode (LED uniform illumination applications. The LED source is an array of LEDs. An array of collimating lens is applied to collimate output from the LED array. Two linear Fresnel lenses are used to redistribute the collimated beam along two dimensions in the illumination area. Collimating lens and linear Fresnel lens surfaces are calculated by geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. The collimated beam output from the collimating lens array is divided into many fragments. Each fragment is refracted by a segment of Fresnel lens and distributed over the illumination area, so that the total beam can be distributed to the illumination target uniformly. The simulation results show that this design has a compact structure, high optical efficiency of 82% and good uniformity of 76.9%. Some consideration of the energy savings and optical performance are discussed by comparison with other typical light sources. The results show that our proposed LED lighting system can reduce energy consumption five-times in comparison to using a conventional fluorescent lamp. Our research is a strong candidate for low cost, energy savings for indoor and outdoor lighting applications.

  20. Five-dimensional rotating black hole in a uniform magnetic field: The gyromagnetic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.N.; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2004-01-01

    In four-dimensional general relativity, the fact that a Killing vector in a vacuum spacetime serves as a vector potential for a test Maxwell field provides one with an elegant way of describing the behavior of electromagnetic fields near a rotating Kerr black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field. We use a similar approach to examine the case of a five-dimensional rotating black hole placed in a uniform magnetic field of configuration with biazimuthal symmetry that is aligned with the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry spacetime. Assuming that the black hole may also possess a small electric charge we construct the five-vector potential of the electromagnetic field in the Myers-Perry metric using its three commuting Killing vector fields. We show that, like its four-dimensional counterparts, the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole rotating in a uniform magnetic field produces an inductive potential difference between the event horizon and an infinitely distant surface. This potential difference is determined by a superposition of two independent Coulomb fields consistent with the two angular momenta of the black hole and two nonvanishing components of the magnetic field. We also show that a weakly charged rotating black hole in five dimensions possesses two independent magnetic dipole moments specified in terms of its electric charge, mass, and angular momentum parameters. We prove that a five-dimensional weakly charged Myers-Perry black hole must have the value of the gyromagnetic ratio g=3

  1. [Labour factors associated with post-traumatic stress in uniformed workers in Medellín].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Penagos, Catalina; Moreno-Bedoya, Juan P; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy Y; Segura-Cardona, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Determining the labor factors associated with post-traumatic stress in uniformed workers in Medellin. A cross-sectional study was made of 124 uniformed workers aged 20 to 48 years-old. A survey was made using an adults' post-traumatic stress instrument which had been validated in Medellin. Statistical analysis was carried out. Post-traumatic stress disorder risk prevalence was 52.2 %. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest risk situations were those related to previous mental health diagnosis (PR=7.67), working schedule (4.24), violent episodes (PR=3.59) and community relationships (PR=2.73). A person's current labor situation seemed to be a risk factor for developing post-traumatic stress in the target population.

  2. A uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Mount, T.; Schulze, W.; Zimmerman, R.; Thomas, R.

    1999-01-01

    Competitive electricity markets which rely on centralized dispatch require a mechanism to solicit offers from competing generators. Ideally, such an auction mechanism, provides incentives to submit offers equal to the marginal cost of generation for each generator. Economic theory suggests that the Uniform Price auction is an appropriate institution. However, an efficient implementation of this auction in an electricity context requires that the offers used in the auction reflect the appropriate locational price adjustments for transmission losses and congestion. This paper describes a uniform price auction that incorporates locational price adjustments on a Web-based platform suitable for experimentation. Preliminary results show dramatically different price and revenue results when compared with a simple continuous Discriminative auction. (author)

  3. The effect of increased irradiation uniformity on imprinting by 351-nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehly, T.R.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Bradley, D.K.; Verdon, C.P.; Kalantar, D.

    1997-01-01

    The acceleration-driven growth of perturbations initially seeded (or imprinted) by irradiation nonuniformities is a major concern for direct-drive ICF. We report on experiments where unperturbed, CH 2 targets were irradiated with 3-ns square pulses at 2x10 14 W/cm 2 using five overlapped UV beams. The uniformity of these beams was varied and subsequent unstable growth of irradiation imprinting was observed using time-gated x-radiography. We demonstrate that increased irradiation uniformity reduces imprinting, and we show the beneficial effects of distributed polarization rotators a new beam-smoothing device. In addition, we discuss experiments using a ' perturbing beam' to study the time dependence of imprinting. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Uniform lateral etching of tungsten in deep trenches utilizing reaction-limited NF3 plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Mori, Masahito; Nishida, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The reaction-limited etching of tungsten (W) with NF3 plasma was performed in an attempt to achieve the uniform lateral etching of W in a deep trench, a capability required by manufacturing processes for three-dimensional NAND flash memory. Reaction-limited etching was found to be possible at high pressures without ion irradiation. An almost constant etching rate that showed no dependence on NF3 pressure was obtained. The effect of varying the wafer temperature was also examined. A higher wafer temperature reduced the threshold pressure for reaction-limited etching and also increased the etching rate in the reaction-limited region. Therefore, the control of the wafer temperature is crucial to controlling the etching amount by this method. We found that the uniform lateral etching of W was possible even in a deep trench where the F radical concentration was low.

  5. Determining and uniformly estimating the gauge potential corresponding to a given gauge field on M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostow, M.; Shnider, S.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1986-01-01

    In an earlier paper on the field copy problem, we proved that there exists a generic set of connections (gauge potentials) on a principle bundle with a semi-simple structure group over a four-dimensional base manifold for which the connection is uniquely determined by its curvature (gauge field). We conjectured that there exists a smaller, but still generic, set of connections for which the curvature map sending a connection to its curvature admits a continuous inverse with respect to the appropriate function space topologies. The conjecture says, in other words, that restricting to certain generic curvature 2-forms, one can determine and uniformly estimate the connection and its derivatives from the curvature and uniform estimates of its derivatives. In this Letter we give an affirmative answer to the conjecture and show, moreover, that the set of such connections contains an open dense set in the Whitney C ∞ topology. (orig.)

  6. Uniform convergence of multigrid V-cycle iterations for indefinite and nonsymmetric problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, James H.; Kwak, Do Y.; Pasciak, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of a multigrid method for nonsymmetric and/or indefinite elliptic problems. In this multigrid method various types of smoothers may be used. One type of smoother which we consider is defined in terms of an associated symmetric problem and includes point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel iterations. We also study smoothers based entirely on the original operator. One is based on the normal form, that is, the product of the operator and its transpose. Other smoothers studied include point and line, Jacobi, and Gauss-Seidel. We show that the uniform estimates for symmetric positive definite problems carry over to these algorithms. More precisely, the multigrid iteration for the nonsymmetric and/or indefinite problem is shown to converge at a uniform rate provided that the coarsest grid in the multilevel iteration is sufficiently fine (but not depending on the number of multigrid levels).

  7. Voltage uniformity study in large-area reactors for RF plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonnens, L.; Pletzer, A.; Magni, D.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Schmitt, J.P.M. [Balzers Process Systems, Palaiseau (France)

    1996-09-01

    Non-uniform voltage distribution across the electrode area results in inhomogeneous thin-film RF plasma deposition in large area reactors. In this work, a two-dimensional analytic model for the calculation of the voltage distribution across the electrode area is presented. The results of this model are in good agreement with measurements performed without plasma at 13.56 MHz and 70 MHz in a large area reactor. The principal voltage inhomogeneities are caused by logarithmic singularities in the vicinity of RF connections and not by standing waves. These singularities are only described by a two-dimensional model and cannot be intuitively predicted by analogy to a one-dimensional case. Plasma light emission measurements and thickness homogeneity studies of a-Si:H films show that the plasma reproduces these voltage inhomogeneities. Improvement of the voltage uniformity is investigated by changing the number and position of the RF connections. (author) 13 figs., 20 refs.

  8. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in uniform fast-fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the performance of several continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols in the presence of uniform fading channels. These are lossy channels whose transmissivity changes according to a uniform probability distribution. We assume the worst-case scenario where an eavesdropper induces a fast-fading process, where she chooses the instantaneous transmissivity while the remote parties may only detect the mean statistical effect. We analyze coherent-state protocols in various configurations, including the one-way switching protocol in reverse reconciliation, the measurement-device-independent protocol in the symmetric configuration, and its extension to a three-party network. We show that, regardless of the advantage given to the eavesdropper (control of the fading), these protocols can still achieve high rates under realistic attacks, within reasonable values for the variance of the probability distribution associated with the fading process.

  9. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L W

    2015-01-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries. (paper)

  10. $L^{p}$-square function estimates on spaces of homogeneous type and on uniformly rectifiable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Steve; Mitrea, Marius; Morris, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The authors establish square function estimates for integral operators on uniformly rectifiable sets by proving a local T(b) theorem and applying it to show that such estimates are stable under the so-called big pieces functor. More generally, they consider integral operators associated with Ahlfors-David regular sets of arbitrary codimension in ambient quasi-metric spaces. The local T(b) theorem is then used to establish an inductive scheme in which square function estimates on so-called big pieces of an Ahlfors-David regular set are proved to be sufficient for square function estimates to hold on the entire set. Extrapolation results for L^p and Hardy space versions of these estimates are also established. Moreover, the authors prove square function estimates for integral operators associated with variable coefficient kernels, including the Schwartz kernels of pseudodifferential operators acting between vector bundles on subdomains with uniformly rectifiable boundaries on manifolds.

  11. Non-Uniform Sampling and J-UNIO Automation for Efficient Protein NMR Structure Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Tatiana; Proudfoot, Andrew; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-08-24

    High-resolution structure determination of small proteins in solution is one of the big assets of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. Improvements in the efficiency of NMR structure determination by advances in NMR experiments and automation of data handling therefore attracts continued interest. Here, non-uniform sampling (NUS) of 3D heteronuclear-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY data yielded two- to three-fold savings of instrument time for structure determinations of soluble proteins. With the 152-residue protein NP_372339.1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the 71-residue protein NP_346341.1 from Streptococcus pneumonia we show that high-quality structures can be obtained with NUS NMR data, which are equally well amenable to robust automated analysis as the corresponding uniformly sampled data. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Many-junction photovoltaic device performance under non-uniform high-concentration illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wilkins, Matthew M.; Chahal, Sanmeet S.; Proulx, Francine; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-09-01

    A parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxial vertically-stacked pn junctions. PPC devices are designed with many pn junctions to realize higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. Performance impacts of non-uniform illumination were greatly reduced with increasing number of junctions, with simulations comparing PPC devices with 3 to 20 junctions. Experimental results using Azastra Opto's 12- and 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser show high performance even with a small gap between the PPC and optical fiber output, until the local tunnel junction limit is reached.

  13. Evaluation of intrinsic uniformity of gamma camera in the Servicio de Medicina Nuclear at the Hospital San Juan de Dios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, Erick

    2007-01-01

    The quality assurance program in a nuclear medicine department aims to minimize errors and artifacts that cover all aspects of clinical practice. The quality control can be seen such as one particular procedure used to meet measurements that can be followed along the time. The intrinsic flood-field uniformity is one of the quality control procedures to evaluate the response of a gamma camera to a spatially uniform flux of an incident gamma radiation over the field of view. The gamma cameras, recording the integral and differential uniformity figures of the intrinsic uniformity during the 2007, were evaluated in order to establish how well the instruments were working. An evaluation of the acquisition protocol which implies the variation of the acquired counts, the energy window width and its placement was performed at the beginning. After that the recorded data were analyzed creating plots which were showing the performance of the systems. Using an energy window placed at 140 keV at 20 %, with matrix size of 512 x 512, acquiring 15 million counts and the source activity close to 700 μC; it was thought that good enough images and uniformities are obtained. Both are within the manufactures requirements; however, increasing the number of acquired counts, images are much better and an improvement in the evaluated parameters can be seen. The performance evaluation of the three gamma cameras was taking into account for approximately 240 days, showing an integral uniformity range of 1.04 - 3.5 % and the range for differential uniformity vary from 0.88 up to 2.7 %. It concludes that the gamma cameras were working quite well, no need to vary the acquisition protocol because it is good enough to perform this test. Also, factors affecting the quality of the images are radioactive waste material not very well shielded and temperature room variations, especially at the beginning of the workday. (author) [es

  14. Fibrovascular tissue in bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D; Schatz, H; McDonald, H R; Johnson, R N

    1996-09-01

    To study the natural history and retinal findings associated with the intraretinal and subretinal fibrovascular tissues that develop in the late phases of bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis. The records of 10 patients (11 eyes) with bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis who developed these fibrovascular tissues were examined. Throughout the follow-up period (average 44 months), only 2 eyes (18%) lost 2 or more lines of vision; the final visual acuities were similar for the eyes both with and without fibrovascular tissues. Sixty-four percent of fibrovascular tissues showed little to no growth. Eyes with fibrovascular tissue commonly had retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia (72%), draining retinal venules (82%), and retinal vascular distortion (64%). Fibrovascular tissues of bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis have little proliferative potential and minimal effects on visual acuity. Nevertheless, these fibrovascular tissues do remodel over time, leading to retinal vascular distortion. Given these benign findings, the role of laser photocoagulation treatment of these tissues is questionable.

  15. Dynamics of anisotropic tissue growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittig, Thomas; Juelicher, Frank [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wartlick, Ortrud; Kicheva, Anna; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos [Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Biology, Geneva University, Sciences II, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Marcos.Gonzalez@biochem.unige.ch, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-06-15

    We study the mechanics of tissue growth via cell division and cell death (apoptosis). The rearrangements of cells can on large scales and times be captured by a continuum theory which describes the tissue as an effective viscous material with active stresses generated by cell division. We study the effects of anisotropies of cell division on cell rearrangements and show that average cellular trajectories exhibit anisotropic scaling behaviors. If cell division and apoptosis balance, there is no net growth, but for anisotropic cell division the tissue undergoes spontaneous shear deformations. Our description is relevant for the study of developing tissues such as the imaginal disks of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which grow anisotropically.

  16. Application of process analytical technology in tablet process development using NIR spectroscopy : Blend uniformity, content uniformity and coating thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Johannes J; Ruijken, Marco M; Gout, Erik; Frijlink, Henderik W; Ugwoke, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR)spectroscopy was employed as a process analytical technique in three steps of tabletting process: to monitor the blend homogeneity, evaluate the content uniformity of tablets and determine the tablets coating thickness. A diode-array spectrometer mounted on a lab blender (SP15 NIR

  17. A new mini-extrapolation chamber for beta source uniformity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    According to recent international recommendations, beta particle sources should be specified in terms of absorbed dose rates to water at the reference point. However, because of the clinical use of these sources, additional information should be supplied in the calibration reports. This additional information include the source uniformity. A new small volume extrapolation chamber was designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Brazil, for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y ophthalmic plaques. This chamber can be used as a primary standard for the calibration of this type of source. Recent additional studies showed the feasibility of the utilization of this chamber to perform source uniformity measurements. Because of the small effective electrode area, it is possible to perform independent measurements by varying the chamber position by small steps. The aim of the present work was to study the uniformity of a 90 Sr+ 90 Y plane ophthalmic plaque utilizing the mini extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN. The uniformity measurements were performed by varying the chamber position by steps of 2 mm in the source central axis (x-and y-directions) and by varying the chamber position off-axis by 3 mm steps. The results obtained showed that this small volume chamber can be used for this purpose with a great advantage: it is a direct method, being unnecessary a previously calibration of the measurement device in relation to a reference instrument, and it provides real -time results, reducing the time necessary for the study and the determination of the uncertainties related to the measurements. (authors)

  18. The influence of printing substrate on macro non-uniformity and line reproduction quality of imprints printed with electrophotographic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Vujčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.

  19. Non-uniform dispersion of the source-sink relationship alters wavefront curvature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Romero

    Full Text Available The distribution of cellular source-sink relationships plays an important role in cardiac propagation. It can lead to conduction slowing and block as well as wave fractionation. It is of great interest to unravel the mechanisms underlying evolution in wavefront geometry. Our goal is to investigate the role of the source-sink relationship on wavefront geometry using computer simulations. We analyzed the role of variability in the microscopic source-sink relationship in driving changes in wavefront geometry. The electrophysiological activity of a homogeneous isotropic tissue was simulated using the ten Tusscher and Panfilov 2006 action potential model and the source-sink relationship was characterized using an improved version of the Romero et al. safety factor formulation (SFm2. Our simulations reveal that non-uniform dispersion of the cellular source-sink relationship (dispersion along the wavefront leads to alterations in curvature. To better understand the role of the source-sink relationship in the process of wave formation, the electrophysiological activity at the initiation of excitation waves in a 1D strand was examined and the source-sink relationship was characterized using the two recently updated safety factor formulations: the SFm2 and the Boyle-Vigmond (SFVB definitions. The electrophysiological activity at the initiation of excitation waves was intimately related to the SFm2 profiles, while the SFVB led to several counterintuitive observations. Importantly, with the SFm2 characterization, a critical source-sink relationship for initiation of excitation waves was identified, which was independent of the size of the electrode of excitation, membrane excitability, or tissue conductivity. In conclusion, our work suggests that non-uniform dispersion of the source-sink relationship alters wavefront curvature and a critical source-sink relationship profile separates wave expansion from collapse. Our study reinforces the idea that the

  20. Making the Case for Uniformity in Professional State Licensure Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice A. Brannon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth, the use of communication and information technologies to deliver health services, was initially envisioned as a way for persons in rural or remote settings to receive otherwise unavailable healthcare services. Now, in addition to overcoming personnel shortages for underserved populations, telehealth shows promise in meeting the needs of a constantly mobile U.S. society and workforce.  Fortunately, telerehabilitation can meet the needs of a mobile society and workforce by enabling continuity of care for individuals who are out-of-town, on vacation, in temporary residence as a university student, or on business travel. Unfortunately, outdated legislative and regulatory policies and inhospitable infrastructures currently stand in the way of a seamless continuum of care.In 2010, the American Telemedicine Association’s Telerehabilitation Special Interest Group (TR SIG convened a License Portability Sub-Committee to explore ways to diminish barriers for state licensure portability with a particular focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and audiology.  In 2011, the Subcommittee published a factsheet that detailed the challenges and potential solutions that surround the difficult issue of licensure portability.  Concurrently, the American Telemedicine Association is advocating for national reform of professional licensure.At the heart of all licensure requirements is the ability to determine who should be granted the authority to practice in a particular profession.  This is done by focusing on educational, examination and behavioral requirements that are deemed the minimum necessary to protect the public from harm.  States, however, with whom authority for licensure of health professionals rests, have independently determined those minimum requirements.  This approach has led to a myriad of requirements that vary from state to state. Licensure portability will best succeed when variability between

  1. Facile synthesis of uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yifan; Du, Ning, E-mail: dna1122@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A uniform SiO{sub 2} layer was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube. • Synthesis of uniform (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction. • The MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cyclability. • Enhanced performance is attributed to porous nanostructure, introduction of MWCNTs. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction of pre-synthesized MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables. At first, the acid vapor steaming is used to treat the surface, which can facilitate the uniform deposition of SiO{sub 2} layer via the TEOS hydrolysis. Then, the uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites are obtained on the basis of MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables via a simple magnesiothermic reduction. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cycling performance, which is better than bulk Si and bare MWCNTs. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the novel porous nanostructure and the introduction of MWCNTs that can buffer the volume change, maintain the electrical conductive network, and enhance the electronic conductivity and lithium-ion transport.

  2. A novel scene-based non-uniformity correction method for SWIR push-broom hyperspectral sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin-Lin; Hao, Shi-Jing; Sun, De-Xin; Liu, Yin-Nian

    2017-09-01

    A novel scene-based non-uniformity correction (NUC) method for short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) push-broom hyperspectral sensors is proposed and evaluated. This method relies on the assumption that for each band there will be ground objects with similar reflectance to form uniform regions when a sufficient number of scanning lines are acquired. The uniform regions are extracted automatically through a sorting algorithm, and are used to compute the corresponding NUC coefficients. SWIR hyperspectral data from airborne experiment are used to verify and evaluate the proposed method, and results show that stripes in the scenes have been well corrected without any significant information loss, and the non-uniformity is less than 0.5%. In addition, the proposed method is compared to two other regular methods, and they are evaluated based on their adaptability to the various scenes, non-uniformity, roughness and spectral fidelity. It turns out that the proposed method shows strong adaptability, high accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose novel microparticles for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaihre, Bipin [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we developed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) microparticles through ionic crosslinking with the aqueous ion complex of zirconium (Zr) and further complexing with chitosan (CS) and determined the physio-chemical and biological properties of these novel microparticles. In order to assess the role of Zr, microparticles were prepared in 5% and 10% (w/v) zirconium tetrachloride solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results showed that Zr was uniformly distributed on the surface of the microparticles as a result of which uniform groovy surface was obtained. We found that Zr enhances the surface roughness of the microparticles and stability studies showed that it also increases the stability of microparticles in phosphate buffered saline. The crosslinking of anionic CMC with cationic Zr and CS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. The response of murine pre-osteoblasts (OB-6) when cultured with microparticles was investigated. Live/dead cell assay showed that microparticles did not induce any cytotoxic effects as cells were attaching and proliferating on the well plate as well as along the surface of microparticles. In addition, SEM images showed that microparticles support the attachment of cells and they appeared to be directly interacting with the surface of microparticle. Within 10 days of culture most of the top surface of microparticles was covered with a layer of cells indicating that they were proliferating well throughout the surface of microparticles. We observed that Zr enhances the cell attachment and proliferation as more cells were present on microparticles with 10% Zr. These promising results show the potential applications of CMC-Zr microparticles in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Zirconium ions crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles were fabricated. • The microparticles were further stabilized by complexation with chitosan.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose novel microparticles for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaihre, Bipin; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) microparticles through ionic crosslinking with the aqueous ion complex of zirconium (Zr) and further complexing with chitosan (CS) and determined the physio-chemical and biological properties of these novel microparticles. In order to assess the role of Zr, microparticles were prepared in 5% and 10% (w/v) zirconium tetrachloride solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results showed that Zr was uniformly distributed on the surface of the microparticles as a result of which uniform groovy surface was obtained. We found that Zr enhances the surface roughness of the microparticles and stability studies showed that it also increases the stability of microparticles in phosphate buffered saline. The crosslinking of anionic CMC with cationic Zr and CS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. The response of murine pre-osteoblasts (OB-6) when cultured with microparticles was investigated. Live/dead cell assay showed that microparticles did not induce any cytotoxic effects as cells were attaching and proliferating on the well plate as well as along the surface of microparticles. In addition, SEM images showed that microparticles support the attachment of cells and they appeared to be directly interacting with the surface of microparticle. Within 10 days of culture most of the top surface of microparticles was covered with a layer of cells indicating that they were proliferating well throughout the surface of microparticles. We observed that Zr enhances the cell attachment and proliferation as more cells were present on microparticles with 10% Zr. These promising results show the potential applications of CMC-Zr microparticles in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Zirconium ions crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles were fabricated. • The microparticles were further stabilized by complexation with chitosan.

  5. Buttoned down: Are School Uniform Policies a Perfect Fit for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messitt, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    In the 1999-2000 school year, only about 12 percent of U.S. public schools required their students to wear uniforms. Since then, the number of schools requiring uniforms has risen. Uniform policies are now in place at about a fifth of all public schools in the United States--but do school uniforms really level the playing field? New research has…

  6. Thermal stability improvement of a multiple finger power SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor under different power dissipations using non-uniform finger spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Zhang Wan-Rong; Jin Dong-Yue; Shen Pei; Xie Hong-Yun; Ding Chun-Bao; Xiao Ying; Sun Bo-Tao; Wang Ren-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A method of non-uniform finger spacing is proposed to enhance thermal stability of a multiple finger power SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor under different power dissipations. Temperature distribution on the emitter fingers of a multi-finger SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is studied using a numerical electro-thermal model. The results show that the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor with non-uniform finger spacing has a small temperature difference between fingers compared with a traditional uniform finger spacing heterojunction bipolar transistor at the same power dissipation. What is most important is that the ability to improve temperature non-uniformity is not weakened as power dissipation increases. So the method of non-uniform finger spacing is very effective in enhancing the thermal stability and the power handing capability of power device. Experimental results verify our conclusions. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Nurses' uniform color and feelings/emotions in school-aged children receiving health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Burke, Jane; Bena, James F; Morrison, Shannon M; Forney, Jennifer; Krajewski, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Children may fear nurses wearing white uniforms. When emotions and uniform color were studied in 233 children, many positive emotions were most often associated with blue, bold pink-patterned, or yellow-patterned tops (all p ≤ .002). Negative emotions were not associated with uniform top colors (all p uniform color does not matter," 8 negative emotions were most often associated with white uniform color (p uniform tops were preferred. In conclusion, children's emotions were associated with nurse uniform color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  9. The existence of panchromatic colourings for uniform hypergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanov, Dmitrii A

    2010-01-01

    The well-known extremal problem concerning panchromatic colouring of hypergraphs is investigated. An r-colouring of the set of vertices of a hypergraph is said to be panchromatic if each link of the hypergraph is incident to vertices of all colours. The quantity p(n,r) defined as the minimum number of links in an n-uniform hypergraph which admits no panchromatic r-colourings is studied. New lower and upper bounds for p(n,r) are obtained, which improve earlier results for many of the relations between the parameters n and r. In addition, a sufficient condition for the existence of a panchromatic r-colouring of an n-uniform hypergraph is obtained. Bibliography: 18 items.

  10. Uniformity of material in the SME and MFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF will satisfy the product consistency specification in the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications through control of the chemical composition of the glass product. This control will be achieved by ensuring that each batch of feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) will produce glass which satisfies the specification. The purpose of this report is to determine what degree of uniformity can be expected of material in the SME and Metter Feed Tank (MFT). These vessels were designed based on a design development process which had proven successful for similar hard-to-mix feeds in the past. This process resulted in a design of the SME and MFT agitation systems which was intended to provide highly uniform melter feed material. Based on the results of extensive tests in protoypic equipment, the SME and MFT designs have met this design goal

  11. Dynamical chaos and uniformly hyperbolic attractors: from mathematics to physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Sergei P [Saratov Branch, Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    Research is reviewed on the identification and construction of physical systems with chaotic dynamics due to uniformly hyperbolic attractors (such as the Plykin attraction or the Smale-Williams solenoid). Basic concepts of the mathematics involved and approaches proposed in the literature for constructing systems with hyperbolic attractors are discussed. Topics covered include periodic pulse-driven models; dynamics models consisting of periodically repeated stages, each described by its own differential equations; the construction of systems of alternately excited coupled oscillators; the use of parametrically excited oscillations; and the introduction of delayed feedback. Some maps, differential equations, and simple mechanical and electronic systems exhibiting chaotic dynamics due to the presence of uniformly hyperbolic attractors are presented as examples. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Achieving uniform efficient illumination with multiple asymmetric compound parabolic luminaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Kashin, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Luminaire designs based on multiple asymmetric nonimaging compound parabolic reflectors are proposed for 2-D illumination applications that require highly uniform far-field illuminance, while ensuring maximal lighting efficiency and sharp angular cutoffs. The new designs derive from recent advances in nonimaging secondary concentrators for line-focus solar collectors. The light source is not treated as a single entity, but rather is divided into two or more separate adjoining sources. An asymmetric compound parabolic luminaire is then designed around each half-source. Attaining sharp cutoffs requires relatively large reflectors. However, severe truncation of the reflectors renders these devices as compact as many conventional luminaires, at the penalty of a small fraction of the radiation being emitted outside the nominal cutoff. The configurations that maximize the uniformity of far-field illuminance offer significant improvements in flux homogeneity relative to alternative designs to date.

  13. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelevina, D.A.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  14. Dynamics of leaching a uniformly fissured ore body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.A.; Proskurin, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical simulation was used to study the dynamics of mass transfer during the percolation of a reagent solution through a packing of coarse ore particles. The uniformly fissured ore body was represented by a cubic packing of spherical particles of constant radius, formed from a chemically inert silicate cement with a uniformly distributed soluble mineral component. The rate of percolation of the reagent through the packing was constant. The proposed model can be used to find the conditions for underground hydrodynamic leaching. The rate of non-catalytic solid-liquid reaction was deduced on the basis of both the kinetics of dissolution of the mineral component of the ore and the rate of diffusion of the dissolved substance

  15. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  16. Ethics, law, and commercial surrogacy: a call for uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabiak, Katherine; Wegner, Carole; Fredland, Valita; Helft, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    In the United States at this time, no uniform federal law exists regarding commercial surrogacy, and state statutory schemes vary vastly, ranging from criminalization to legal recognition with contract enforcement. The authors examine how commercial surrogacy agencies utilize the Internet as a means for attracting parents and surrogates by employing emotional cultural rhetoric. By inducing both parents and surrogates to their jurisdiction, agencies circumvent vast discrepancies in state statutory regulative schemes and create a distinct interstate business, absent an efficient regulatory framework or legal recourse in some circumstances. The authors propose a uniform federal regulatory scheme premised upon regulating interstate business transactions to create accountability and legal remedies for both the parents and the surrogate.

  17. Uniform electromagnetic field as viscous medium for moving particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Baltenkov, A.S.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A.Z.; Voitkiv, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of transverse radiation viscosity acting on free charges, atomic, and small macroscopic particles in uniform electromagnetic fields is analyzed. It is shown that in the process of light scattering by these particles, besides the force accelerating them in the direction of propagation of the radiation, there is a force in the transverse direction slowing them down. The general expression for this force is obtained. It is considered how this force can influence: (i) the motion of ultrarelativistic electrons in transverse photon fluxes; (ii) the behavior of a beam of nonrelativistic electrons moving in a copropagating uniform electromagnetic field; (iii) the transverse motion of atoms under the action of resonant radiation and (iv) the motion of small macroscopic particles

  18. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, D.A., E-mail: pelevina.daria@gmail.com; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-06-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  19. Non-uniformity measurements of PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depasse, P.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Ille, B.; Martin, F.; Rosset, C.; Zach, F.

    1998-11-01

    Two independent methods have been used to measure the longitudinal non-uniformity scintillation response of 3 different (23-cm long) PbWO 4 crystals. The first one is the classical 60 Co source method. The source is collimated along the crystal, each 1,5-cm, and the scintillation signal is measured with a photomultiplier (a hybrid photomultiplier in our case). The second one is the use of cosmic particles (Minimum Ionizing Particles). A cosmic bench allows reconstructing the track of the MIP's and thus the energy deposit with the help of a full GEANT simulation of the setup. Variations of E along the crystal artificially cut in 1,5-cm divisions, leads to determine the non-uniformity. The conclusion is that both methods agree quite well. Furthermore, a good estimation of crystal light yield can be obtained. (author)

  20. Electrostatic lens to focus an ion beam to uniform density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    A focusing lens for an ion beam having a gaussian or similar density profile is described. The lens is constructed to provide an inner zero electrostatic field, and an outer electrostatic field such that ions entering this outer field are deflected by an amount that is a function of their distance from the edge of the inner field. The result is a beam that focuses to uniform density in a manner analogous to that of an optical ring lens. In one embodiment, a conically-shaped network of fine wires is enclosed within a cylindrical anode. The wire net together with the anode produces a voltage field that re-directs the outer particles of the beam while the axial particles pass undeflected through a zero field inside the wire net. The result is a focused beam having a uniform intensity over a given target area and at a given distance from the lens

  1. Fabrication of Slanted Cu Nanopillars with Uniform Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woon Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Slanted Cu nanopillars with uniform arrays were fabricat‐ ed using slanted Si channel structures as templates. A slanted plasma etching technique was employed, utilizing a Faraday cage system for the formation of these slanted channel structures. The angle of the slanted channel structures was accurately controlled because ions entering the Faraday cage maintained their direction. After the slanted channel structures were formed, they were filled with Cu by electroless deposition. Chemical mechanical polishing was then used to remove the excess Cu film and the SiO2 masks. Finally, the remaining poly Si of the channel structures was removed by wet chemical etching. This work offers a novel method for the fabrication of slanted metal nanostructures with uniform arrays covering a large area.

  2. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D convencional, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para planejamento de manto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: pm.lais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  3. Non-uniformity of phase structure in immiscible polymer blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Lapčíková, Monika; Lednický, František; Starý, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2008), s. 564-571 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729; GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * melt mixing * non-uniform morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.245, year: 2008

  4. Uniform separation of plastic wastes; Sortenreine Trennung von Kunststoffabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, R [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    The position of raw material recycling is defined by comparison of different recycling levels. Means and limits of the main applicable methods for separating uniform plastic fractions from mixed wastes are summarized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch Vergleich der verschiedenen Recyclingebenen wird der Stellenwert des werkstofflichen Recycling bestimmt. Eine Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten derzeit verfuegbaren Verfahren zur Abtrennung sortenreiner Kunststoff-Fraktionen aus Abfallgemischen zeigt Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der einzelnen Methoden. (orig.)

  5. Optimal and online preemptive scheduling on uniformly related machines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebenlendr, Tomáš; Sgall, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2009), s. 517-527 ISSN 1094-6136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : online scheduling * preemption * uniformly related machines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2009

  6. Uniformity factor of temperature difference in heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang; Cui, Guo-min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A uniformity factor of temperature (UFTD) is proposed to heat exchanger network (HEN). • A novel stage-wise superstructure with inner utilities is presented based on UFTD. • New model and DE method is combined as an optimization method. • Optimal HEN structures with inner utilities can be obtained with new method. - Abstract: A uniformity factor of temperature difference (UFTD) is proposed and set up to guide the optimization of Heat exchanger network (HEN). At first, the factor is presented to evaluate the whole enhancement of HEN by handling the logical mean temperature difference as two-dimensional discrete temperature field in system. Then, the factor is applied to different HENs, of which the comparison indicates that a more uniform discrete temperature field leads to a lower UFTD which correlated with a better whole enhancement to improve the optimization level of HEN. A novel stage-wise superstructure model where inner utility can be generated is presented for further analysis of correlation between UFTD and the efficiency of HEN, and more optimal HEN structures can be obtained as inner utility added. Inner utility appears to violate the thermodynamic law, but it makes the discrete temperature field more uniform and improves the heat transfer efficiency of the whole HEN, which brings much more profit than the side effect of inner utility. In sum, the UFTD can not only evaluate the optimization level of the HEN, but also be an optimization object to design new HEN with higher efficiency of energy utilization and lower total annual cost.

  7. High-quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Lee, Woo K; Sheehan, Paul E; Hines, Daniel R; Robinson, Jeremy T; Tosado, Jacob; Fuhrer, Michael S; Hernández, Sandra C; Walton, Scott G

    2012-01-11

    In this paper we demonstrate high-quality, uniform dry transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil to polystyrene. The dry transfer exploits an azide linker molecule to establish a covalent bond to graphene and to generate greater graphene-polymer adhesion compared to that of the graphene-metal foil. Thus, this transfer approach provides a novel alternative route for graphene transfer, which allows for the metal foils to be reused. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. A RICH with aerogel: a study of refractive index uniformity

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L; Easo, S

    2004-01-01

    The use of aerogel as a radiator in the RICH detectors of LHCb is a challenge due to the hot environment of the hadron collider LHC. Large size tiles of silica aerogel were recently produced with unprecedented optical quality for such dimensions. Results of laboratory measurements and beam tests are briefly reported. A description of a method to measure the uniformity of the index of refraction within the tile is given.

  9. Uniform relativistic universe models with pressure. Part 2. Observational tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempec, J.; Krygier, B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnitude-redshift and angular diameter-redshift relations are discussed for the uniform (homogeneous and isotropic) relativistic Universe models with pressure. The inclusion of pressure into the energy-momentum tensor has given larger values of the deceleration parameter q. An increase of the deceleration parameter has led to the brightening of objects as well as to a little larger angular diameters. (author)

  10. Pseudodifference operators and uniform convergence of divided differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    2002-01-01

    The concept of pseudodifference operator is introduced. The properties of a class of pseudodifference operators in spaces of fractional quotients are studied. A local theorem on the uniform convergence of divided differences of arbitrary order for an approximate solution is established. In particular, the local infinite differentiability of a precise solution of operator equations of elliptic type with locally infinitely differentiable right-hand side is proved on the basis of a numerical method. Examples related to applications are presented

  11. Environmental radionuclide concentrations: statistical model to determine uniformity of distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, C.N.; Fenyves, E.J.; Spitzberg, D.B.; Wiorkowski, J.; Chehroudi, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of data from environmental sampling and measurement, a basic question is whether the radionuclide (or pollutant) is distributed uniformly. Since physical measurements have associated errors, it is inappropriate to consider the measurements alone in this determination. Hence, a statistical model has been developed. It consists of a weighted analysis of variance with subsequent t-tests between weighted and independent means. A computer program to perform the calculations is included

  12. Applying a uniform marked morphism to a word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frid

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relationship between different parameters of the initial word and its image obtained by application of a uniform marked morphism. The functions described include the subword complexity, frequency of factors, and the recurrence function. The relations obtained for the image of a word can be used also for the image of a factorial language. Using induction, we give a full description of the involved functions of the fixed point of the morphism considered.

  13. Uniform Bounds for Black--Scholes Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael Rummine

    2016-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimization problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulas for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities. the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 10.1137/14095248X

  14. Uniform bounds for Black--Scholes implied volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimisation problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulae for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities.

  15. Depreciation Accounting in the Uniform Chart of Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    footage of building occupied. Reason( s ) for Compute full cost of Rate setting, cash accounting for patient care flow generation and fund- depreciation ing... Horngren , Charles T., Cost Accounting ; A Managerial Emphasis, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972. 32. Sawyer, Lawrence B., The Practice of Modern Internal Auditing...Awd ubtlft) S . TYPE or RE PORT a PE*IoO CovIERWO Master’s Thesis; Depreciation Accounting in the Uniform Dembr18 Chart of Accounts .PSOiwON.EORlumm

  16. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  17. Formalities, good faith, and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1994-10-01

    After a patient died in a Veterans Administration hospital, a resident physician asked the next of kin to sign two identical autopsy forms, one of which was stamped "Eye Donor." The family signed, despite orally objecting to donation of tissue. Nevertheless, the patient's eyes were removed because other hospital staff were unaware of the objection. The family sued the hospital and eye bank. The Federal District Court in Minnesota dismissed the case before trial on the basis that both defendants were immune from liability because of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Clear policies communicated to staff and separate autopsy and donation forms can help to avoid confusion and legal difficulties.

  18. Uniform, optimal signal processing of mapped deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vibhor; Muratani, Masafumi; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas; Ng, Huck Hui; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2013-07-01

    Despite their apparent diversity, many problems in the analysis of high-throughput sequencing data are merely special cases of two general problems, signal detection and signal estimation. Here we adapt formally optimal solutions from signal processing theory to analyze signals of DNA sequence reads mapped to a genome. We describe DFilter, a detection algorithm that identifies regulatory features in ChIP-seq, DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq data more accurately than assay-specific algorithms. We also describe EFilter, an estimation algorithm that accurately predicts mRNA levels from as few as 1-2 histone profiles (R ∼0.9). Notably, the presence of regulatory motifs in promoters correlates more with histone modifications than with mRNA levels, suggesting that histone profiles are more predictive of cis-regulatory mechanisms. We show by applying DFilter and EFilter to embryonic forebrain ChIP-seq data that regulatory protein identification and functional annotation are feasible despite tissue heterogeneity. The mathematical formalism underlying our tools facilitates integrative analysis of data from virtually any sequencing-based functional profile.

  19. Uniform and Conformal Carbon Nanofilms Produced Based on Molecular Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and uniform carbon nanofilms (CNFs are prepared by pyrolysis of polyimide films which are produced by molecular layer deposition (MLD. The film thickness can be easily controlled at nanometer scale by altering the cycle numbers. During the annealing process at 600 °C, the polyimide film is subject to shrinkage of 70% in thickness. The obtained CNFs do not exhibit a well-graphitized structure due to the low calcination temperature. No clear pore structures are observed in the produced films. CNFs grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1.4 nm shows almost 98% optical transmittance in the visible spectrum range. Au nanoparticles coated with CNFs are produced by this method. Carbon nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are obtained using anodic aluminum oxide as a template by depositing polyimide films into its pores. Our results demonstrate that this method is very effective to coat conformal and uniform CNFs on various substrates, such as nanoparticles and porous templates, to produce functional composite nanomaterials.

  20. Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciou, F. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Pan, C. T.; Lin, P. H.; Lin, P. H.; Hsu, F. T.

    2015-03-01

    In the exposure process, the intensity and uniformity of light in the exposure area directly influenced the precision of products. UV-LED (Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode) exposure system was established to reduce the radiation leakage and increase the energy efficiency for energy saving. It is a trend that conventional mercury lamp could be replaced with UV-LED exposure system. This study was based on the law of conservation of energy and law of refraction of optical field distributing on the target plane. With these, a freeform lens with uniform light field of main exposure area could be designed. The light outside the exposure area could be concentrated into the area to improve the intensity of light. The refraction index and UV transmittance of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is 1.43 at 385 nm wavelength and 85-90%, respectively. The PDMS was used to fabricate the optics lens for UV-LEDs. The average illumination and the uniformity could be obtained by increasing the number of UV-LEDs and the spacing of different arrangement modes. After exposure process with PDMS lens, about 5% inaccuracy was obtained. Comparing to 10% inaccuracy of general exposure system, it shows that it is available to replace conventional exposure lamp with using UV-LEDs.