WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue parametric imaging

  1. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).

  2. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Kropholler, Marc A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to

  3. Parametric techniques for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 1): T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Palazón, R J; Ortiz Pérez, J T; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Solé Arqués, M

    2016-01-01

    The development of myocardial fibrosis is a common process in the appearance of ventricular dysfunction in many heart diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to accurately evaluate the structure and function of the heart, and its role in the macroscopic characterization of myocardial fibrosis by late enhancement techniques has been widely validated clinically. Recent studies have demonstrated that T1-mapping techniques can quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis and the expansion of the myocardial extracellular space in absolute terms. However, further studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of this technique in the early detection of tissue remodeling at a time when implementing early treatment would improve a patient's prognosis. This article reviews the state of the art for T1 mapping of the myocardium, its clinical applications, and its limitations. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Parametric methods for characterizing myocardial tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (part 2): T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Palazón, R J; Solé Arqués, M; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Ortiz Pérez, J T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered the reference technique for characterizing myocardial tissue; for example, T2-weighted sequences make it possible to evaluate areas of edema or myocardial inflammation. However, traditional sequences have many limitations and provide only qualitative information. Moreover, traditional sequences depend on the reference to remote myocardium or skeletal muscle, which limits their ability to detect and quantify diffuse myocardial damage. Recently developed magnetic resonance myocardial mapping techniques enable quantitative assessment of parameters indicative of edema. These techniques have proven better than traditional sequences both in acute cardiomyopathy and in acute ischemic heart disease. This article synthesizes current developments in T2 mapping as well as their clinical applications and limitations. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de

  6. Variance in parametric images: direct estimation from parametric projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to apply linear kinetic models to dynamic projection data in PET in order to calculate parameter projections. These can subsequently be back-projected to form parametric images - maps of parameters of physiological interest. Critical to the application of these maps, to test for significant changes between normal and pathophysiology, is an assessment of the statistical uncertainty. In this context, parametric images also include simple integral images from, e.g., [O-15]-water used to calculate statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This paper revisits the concept of parameter projections and presents a more general formulation of the parameter projection derivation as well as a method to estimate parameter variance in projection space, showing which analysis methods (models) can be used. Using simulated pharmacokinetic image data we show that a method based on an analysis in projection space inherently calculates the mathematically rigorous pixel variance. This results in an estimation which is as accurate as either estimating variance in image space during model fitting, or estimation by comparison across sets of parametric images - as might be done between individuals in a group pharmacokinetic PET study. The method based on projections has, however, a higher computational efficiency, and is also shown to be more precise, as reflected in smooth variance distribution images when compared to the other methods. (author)

  7. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to detail the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach that combines parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Experiments were performed in 21 male Wistar rats. In vivo modulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was achieved by brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), local cortical and medullary tissue pO2, and blood flux were simultaneously recorded together with T2*, T2 mapping, and magnetic resonance-based kidney size measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on a 9.4-T small-animal magnetic resonance system. Relative changes in the invasive quantitative parameters were correlated with relative changes in the parameters derived from MRI using Spearman analysis and Pearson analysis. Changes in T2* qualitatively reflected tissue pO2 changes induced by the interventions. T2* versus pO2 Spearman rank correlations were significant for all interventions, yet quantitative translation of T2*/pO2 correlations obtained for one intervention to another intervention proved not appropriate. The closest T2*/pO2 correlation was found for hypoxia and recovery. The interlayer comparison revealed closest T2*/pO2 correlations for the outer medulla and showed that extrapolation of results obtained for one renal layer to other renal layers must be made with due caution. For T2* to RBF relation, significant Spearman correlations were deduced for all renal layers and for all interventions. T2*/RBF correlations for the cortex and outer medulla were even superior to those between T2* and tissue pO2. The closest T2*/RBF correlation occurred during hypoxia and recovery. Close correlations were observed between T2* and kidney size during hypoxia and recovery and for occlusion and recovery. In both cases, kidney size correlated well with renal vascular conductance

  8. Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.

  9. A soft double regularization approach to parametric blind image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Yap, Kim-Hui

    2005-05-01

    This paper proposes a blind image deconvolution scheme based on soft integration of parametric blur structures. Conventional blind image deconvolution methods encounter a difficult dilemma of either imposing stringent and inflexible preconditions on the problem formulation or experiencing poor restoration results due to lack of information. This paper attempts to address this issue by assessing the relevance of parametric blur information, and incorporating the knowledge into the parametric double regularization (PDR) scheme. The PDR method assumes that the actual blur satisfies up to a certain degree of parametric structure, as there are many well-known parametric blurs in practical applications. Further, it can be tailored flexibly to include other blur types if some prior parametric knowledge of the blur is available. A manifold soft parametric modeling technique is proposed to generate the blur manifolds, and estimate the fuzzy blur structure. The PDR scheme involves the development of the meaningful cost function, the estimation of blur support and structure, and the optimization of the cost function. Experimental results show that it is effective in restoring degraded images under different environments.

  10. Image sequence analysis in nuclear medicine: (1) Parametric imaging using statistical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liehn, J.C.; Hannequin, P.; Valeyre, J.

    1989-01-01

    This is a review of parametric imaging methods on Nuclear Medicine. A Parametric Image is an image in which each pixel value is a function of the value of the same pixel of an image sequence. The Local Model Method is the fitting of each pixel time activity curve by a model which parameter values form the Parametric Images. The Global Model Method is the modelling of the changes between two images. It is applied to image comparison. For both methods, the different models, the identification criterion, the optimization methods and the statistical properties of the images are discussed. The analysis of one or more Parametric Images is performed using 1D or 2D histograms. The statistically significant Parametric Images, (Images of significant Variances, Amplitudes and Differences) are also proposed [fr

  11. A generalized parametric response mapping method for analysis of multi-parametric imaging: A feasibility study with application to glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Anthony; Yeung, Timothy Pok-Chi; Chen, Jeff; Law, Elton; Wang, Yong; Urbini, Benedetta; Donelli, Filippo; Manco, Luigi; Fainardi, Enrico; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene

    2017-11-01

    Parametric response map (PRM) analysis of functional imaging has been shown to be an effective tool for early prediction of cancer treatment outcomes and may also be well-suited toward guiding personalized adaptive radiotherapy (RT) strategies such as sub-volume boosting. However, the PRM method was primarily designed for analysis of longitudinally acquired pairs of single-parameter image data. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a generalized parametric response map analysis framework, which enables analysis of multi-parametric data while maintaining the key advantages of the original PRM method. MRI-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps acquired at 1 and 3-months post-RT for 19 patients with high-grade glioma were used to demonstrate the algorithm. Images were first co-registered and then standardized using normal tissue image intensity values. Tumor voxels were then plotted in a four-dimensional Cartesian space with coordinate values equal to a voxel's image intensity in each of the image volumes and an origin defined as the multi-parametric mean of normal tissue image intensity values. Voxel positions were orthogonally projected onto a line defined by the origin and a pre-determined response vector. The voxels are subsequently classified as positive, negative or nil, according to whether projected positions along the response vector exceeded a threshold distance from the origin. The response vector was selected by identifying the direction in which the standard deviation of tumor image intensity values was maximally different between responding and non-responding patients within a training dataset. Voxel classifications were visualized via familiar three-class response maps and then the fraction of tumor voxels associated with each of the classes was investigated for predictive utility analogous to the original PRM method. Independent PRM and MPRM analyses of the contrast

  12. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  13. Parametric biomedical imaging - what defines the quality of quantitative radiological approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueer, C.C.; Barkmann, R.; Bolte, H.; Heller, M.; Hahn, H.K.; Dicken, V.; Majumdar, S.; Eckstein, F.; Nickelsen, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative parametric imaging approaches provide new perspectives for radiological imaging. These include quantitative 2D, 3D, and 4D visualization options along with the parametric depiction of biological tissue properties and tissue function. This allows the interpretation of radiological data from a biochemical, biomechanical, or physiological perspective. Quantification permits the detection of small changes that are not yet visually apparent, thus allowing application in early disease diagnosis and monitoring therapy with enhanced sensitivity. This review outlines the potential of quantitative parametric imaging methods and demonstrates this on the basis of a few exemplary applications. One field of particular interest, the use of these methods for investigational new drug application studies, is presented. Assessment criteria for judging the quality of quantitative imaging approaches are discussed in the context of the potential and the limitations of these methods. While quantitative parametric imaging methods do not replace but rather supplement established visual interpretation methods in radiology, they do open up new perspectives for diagnosis and prognosis and in particular for monitoring disease progression and therapy. (orig.)

  14. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Lau, R.W.; Gabriel, C.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric model was developed to describe the variation of dielectric properties of tissues as a function of frequency. The experimental spectrum from 10 Hz to 100 GHz was modelled with four dispersion regions. The development of the model was based on recently acquired data, complemented by data surveyed from the literature. The purpose is to enable the prediction of dielectric data that are in line with those contained in the vast body of literature on the subject. The analysis was carried out on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Parameters are given for 17 tissue types. (author)

  15. Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    . The beamformer consists of a number of identical beamforming blocks, each processing data from several channels and producing part of the image. A number of these blocks can be accommodated in a modern field-programmable gate array device (FPGA), and a whole synthetic aperture system can be implemented using...... with 255 levels. A beamforming block uses input data from 4 elements and produces a set of 10 lines. Linear interpolation is used to implement sub-sample delays. The VHDL code for the beamformer has been synthesized for a Xilinx V4FX100 speed grade 11 FPGA, where it can operate at a maximum clock frequency...

  16. A physiology-based parametric imaging method for FDG-PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussolini, Mara; Garbarino, Sara; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Caviglia, Giacomo; Piana, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Parametric imaging is a compartmental approach that processes nuclear imaging data to estimate the spatial distribution of the kinetic parameters governing tracer flow. The present paper proposes a novel and efficient computational method for parametric imaging which is potentially applicable to several compartmental models of diverse complexity and which is effective in the determination of the parametric maps of all kinetic coefficients. We consider applications to [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data and analyze the two-compartment catenary model describing the standard FDG metabolization by an homogeneous tissue and the three-compartment non-catenary model representing the renal physiology. We show uniqueness theorems for both models. The proposed imaging method starts from the reconstructed FDG-PET images of tracer concentration and preliminarily applies image processing algorithms for noise reduction and image segmentation. The optimization procedure solves pixel-wise the non-linear inverse problem of determining the kinetic parameters from dynamic concentration data through a regularized Gauss-Newton iterative algorithm. The reliability of the method is validated against synthetic data, for the two-compartment system, and experimental real data of murine models, for the renal three-compartment system.

  17. Real time implementation of the parametric imaging correlation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogorodski, Piotr; Wolek, Tomasz; Wasielewski, Jaroslaw; Piatkowski, Adam [Medical and Nuclear Electronics Division, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Nowowiejska 15/19 (Poland)

    1999-12-31

    A novel method for functional image evaluation from image set obtained in contrast aided Ultrafast Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging will be presented. The method converts temporal set of images of first-pass transit of injected contrast, to a single parametric image. The main difference between proposed procedure and other widely accepted methods is fast, that our method applies correlation and discrimination analysis to each concentration-time curve, instead of fitting them to the given a priori tracer kinetics model. A stress will be put on execution speed (i.e. shortening of the time required to obtain a perfusion relevant image), and easiest user interface allowing the physician to utilize the system without any technical assistance. Both execution speed and user interface should satisfy requirements in the interventional procedures. (authors)

  18. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  19. Parametric imaging of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    A new image processing strategy is detailed for the simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. A technique for locally mapping tumor perfusion parameters using skeletonized neovascular data is also introduced. Simulated images were used to test the neovascular skeletonization technique and variance (error) of relevant parametric estimates. Preliminary DCE-US image datasets were collected in 6 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 MHz transducer and Definity contrast agent. Simulation data demonstrates that neovascular morphology parametric estimation is reproducible albeit measurement error can occur at a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental results indicate the feasibility of our approach to performing both tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology measurements from DCE-US images. Future work will expand on our initial clinical findings and also extent our image processing strategy to 3-dimensional space to allow whole tumor characterization.

  20. Polyaffine parametrization of image registration based on geodesic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Thorup, Signe Strann; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Image registration based on geodesic flows has gained much popularity in recent years. We describe a novel parametrization of the velocity field in a stationary flow equation. We show that the method offers both precision, flexibility, and simplicity of evaluation. With our representation, which ...... of geodesic shooting for computational anatomy. We avoid to do warp field convolution by interpolation in a dense field, we can easily calculate warp derivatives in a reference frame of choice, and we can consequently avoid interpolation in the image space altogether....

  1. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  2. Parametric image reconstruction using spectral analysis of PET projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R.; Matthews, Julian C.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Bailey, Dale L.; Livieratos, Lefteris; Jones, Terry; Price, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Spectral analysis is a general modelling approach that enables calculation of parametric images from reconstructed tracer kinetic data independent of an assumed compartmental structure. We investigated the validity of applying spectral analysis directly to projection data motivated by the advantages that: (i) the number of reconstructions is reduced by an order of magnitude and (ii) iterative reconstruction becomes practical which may improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A dynamic software phantom with typical 2-[ 11 C]thymidine kinetics was used to compare projection-based and image-based methods and to assess bias-variance trade-offs using iterative expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction. We found that the two approaches are not exactly equivalent due to properties of the non-negative least-squares algorithm. However, the differences are small ( 1 and, to a lesser extent, VD). The optimal number of EM iterations was 15-30 with up to a two-fold improvement in SNR over filtered back projection. We conclude that projection-based spectral analysis with EM reconstruction yields accurate parametric images with high SNR and has potential application to a wide range of positron emission tomography ligands. (author)

  3. Direct reconstruction of cardiac PET kinetic parametric images using a preconditioned conjugate gradient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; Ouyang, Jinsong; Guerin, Bastien; Li, Quanzheng; Alpert, Nathaniel M; El Fakhri, Georges

    2013-10-01

    Our research goal is to develop an algorithm to reconstruct cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) kinetic parametric images directly from sinograms and compare its performance with the conventional indirect approach. Time activity curves of a NCAT phantom were computed according to a one-tissue compartmental kinetic model with realistic kinetic parameters. The sinograms at each time frame were simulated using the activity distribution for the time frame. The authors reconstructed the parametric images directly from the sinograms by optimizing a cost function, which included the Poisson log-likelihood and a spatial regularization terms, using the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm with the proposed preconditioner. The proposed preconditioner is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are the ratio of the parameter and the sensitivity of the radioactivity associated with parameter. The authors compared the reconstructed parametric images using the direct approach with those reconstructed using the conventional indirect approach. At the same bias, the direct approach yielded significant relative reduction in standard deviation by 12%-29% and 32%-70% for 50 × 10(6) and 10 × 10(6) detected coincidences counts, respectively. Also, the PCG method effectively reached a constant value after only 10 iterations (with numerical convergence achieved after 40-50 iterations), while more than 500 iterations were needed for CG. The authors have developed a novel approach based on the PCG algorithm to directly reconstruct cardiac PET parametric images from sinograms, and yield better estimation of kinetic parameters than the conventional indirect approach, i.e., curve fitting of reconstructed images. The PCG method increases the convergence rate of reconstruction significantly as compared to the conventional CG method.

  4. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  5. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D.; Le Treut, A.

    1988-01-01

    Modern imaging of soft tissue sarcomas now includes ultrasounds, CT and MRI. These new techniques allow a better evaluation of initial local extension, of the response to treatment and are able to detect local recurrences early [fr

  6. Temporal contrast enhancement and parametric imaging for the visualisation of time patterns in dynamic scintigraphic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, F.; Bossuyt, A.; Lepoudre, R.

    1982-01-01

    Image contrast, photon noise and sampling frequency limit the visual extraction of relevant temporal information in scintigraphic image series. When the Unitation is mainly due to low temporal contrast, temporal contrast enhancement will strongly improve the perceptibility of time patterns in the series. When the limitation is due to photon noise and limited temporal sampling, parametric imaging by means of the Hadamard transform can visualise temporal patterns. (WU)

  7. Cardiac-gated parametric images from 82 Rb PET from dynamic frames and direct 4D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Mary; Carson, Richard E

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac perfusion PET data can be reconstructed as a dynamic sequence and kinetic modeling performed to quantify myocardial blood flow, or reconstructed as static gated images to quantify function. Parametric images from dynamic PET are conventionally not gated, to allow use of all events with lower noise. An alternative method for dynamic PET is to incorporate the kinetic model into the reconstruction algorithm itself, bypassing the generation of a time series of emission images and directly producing parametric images. So-called "direct reconstruction" can produce parametric images with lower noise than the conventional method because the noise distribution is more easily modeled in projection space than in image space. In this work, we develop direct reconstruction of cardiac-gated parametric images for 82 Rb PET with an extension of the Parametric Motion compensation OSEM List mode Algorithm for Resolution-recovery reconstruction for the one tissue model (PMOLAR-1T). PMOLAR-1T was extended to accommodate model terms to account for spillover from the left and right ventricles into the myocardium. The algorithm was evaluated on a 4D simulated 82 Rb dataset, including a perfusion defect, as well as a human 82 Rb list mode acquisition. The simulated list mode was subsampled into replicates, each with counts comparable to one gate of a gated acquisition. Parametric images were produced by the indirect (separate reconstructions and modeling) and direct methods for each of eight low-count and eight normal-count replicates of the simulated data, and each of eight cardiac gates for the human data. For the direct method, two initialization schemes were tested: uniform initialization, and initialization with the filtered iteration 1 result of the indirect method. For the human dataset, event-by-event respiratory motion compensation was included. The indirect and direct methods were compared for the simulated dataset in terms of bias and coefficient of variation as a

  8. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  9. Direct parametric reconstruction in dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging: in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Yoann; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) used in conjunction with tracer kinetic modeling enables the quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF). However, MBF maps computed using the traditional indirect method (i.e. post-reconstruction voxel-wise fitting of kinetic model to PET time-activity-curves-TACs) suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Direct reconstruction of kinetic parameters from raw PET projection data has been shown to offer parametric images with higher SNR compared to the indirect method. The aim of this study was to extend and evaluate the performance of a direct parametric reconstruction method using in vivo dynamic PET MPI data for the purpose of quantifying MBF. Dynamic PET MPI studies were performed on two healthy pigs using a Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. List-mode PET data for each animal were acquired following a bolus injection of ~7-8 mCi of 18F-flurpiridaz, a myocardial perfusion agent. Fully-3D dynamic PET sinograms were obtained by sorting the coincidence events into 16 temporal frames covering ~5 min after radiotracer administration. Additionally, eight independent noise realizations of both scans—each containing 1/8th of the total number of events—were generated from the original list-mode data. Dynamic sinograms were then used to compute parametric maps using the conventional indirect method and the proposed direct method. For both methods, a one-tissue compartment model accounting for spillover from the left and right ventricle blood-pools was used to describe the kinetics of 18F-flurpiridaz. An image-derived arterial input function obtained from a TAC taken in the left ventricle cavity was used for tracer kinetic analysis. For the indirect method, frame-by-frame images were estimated using two fully-3D reconstruction techniques: the standard ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm on one side, and the one-step late maximum a posteriori (OSL-MAP) algorithm on the other

  10. Direct parametric reconstruction in dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging: in-vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Yoann; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Fakhri, Georges El; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) used in conjunction with tracer kinetic modeling enables the quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF). However, MBF maps computed using the traditional indirect method (i.e. post-reconstruction voxel-wise fitting of kinetic model to PET time-activity-curves -TACs) suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Direct reconstruction of kinetic parameters from raw PET projection data has been shown to offer parametric images with higher SNR compared to the indirect method. The aim of this study was to extend and evaluate the performance of a direct parametric reconstruction method using in-vivo dynamic PET MPI data for the purpose of quantifying MBF. Dynamic PET MPI studies were performed on two healthy pigs using a Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. List-mode PET data for each animal were acquired following a bolus injection of ~7-8 mCi of 18F-flurpiridaz, a myocardial perfusion agent. Fully-3D dynamic PET sinograms were obtained by sorting the coincidence events into 16 temporal frames covering ~5 min after radiotracer administration. Additionally, eight independent noise realizations of both scans - each containing 1/8th of the total number of events - were generated from the original list-mode data. Dynamic sinograms were then used to compute parametric maps using the conventional indirect method and the proposed direct method. For both methods, a one-tissue compartment model accounting for spillover from the left and right ventricle blood-pools was used to describe the kinetics of 18F-flurpiridaz. An image-derived arterial input function obtained from a TAC taken in the left ventricle cavity was used for tracer kinetic analysis. For the indirect method, frame-by-frame images were estimated using two fully-3D reconstruction techniques: the standard Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm on one side, and the One-Step Late Maximum a Posteriori (OSL-MAP) algorithm on the other

  11. Kinetic parametric estimation in animal PET molecular imaging based on artificial immune network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuting; Ding Hong; Lu Rui; Huang Hongbo; Liu Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop an accurate,reliable method without the need of initialization in animal PET modeling for estimation of the tracer kinetic parameters based on the artificial immune network. Methods: The hepatic and left ventricular time activity curves (TACs) were obtained by drawing ROIs of liver tissue and left ventricle on dynamic 18 F-FDG PET imaging of small mice. Meanwhile, the blood TAC was analyzed by sampling the tail vein blood at different time points after injection. The artificial immune network for parametric optimization of pharmacokinetics (PKAIN) was adapted to estimate the model parameters and the metabolic rate of glucose (K i ) was calculated. Results: TACs of liver,left ventricle and tail vein blood were obtained.Based on the artificial immune network, K i in 3 mice was estimated as 0.0024, 0.0417 and 0.0047, respectively. The average weighted residual sum of squares of the output model generated by PKAIN was less than 0.0745 with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0084, which indicated that the proposed PKAIN method can provide accurate and reliable parametric estimation. Conclusion: The PKAIN method could provide accurate and reliable tracer kinetic modeling in animal PET imaging without the need of initialization of model parameters. (authors)

  12. Acceleration of the direct reconstruction of linear parametric images using nested algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guobao; Qi Jinyi

    2010-01-01

    Parametric imaging using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) provides important information for biological research and clinical diagnosis. Indirect and direct methods have been developed for reconstructing linear parametric images from dynamic PET data. Indirect methods are relatively simple and easy to implement because the image reconstruction and kinetic modeling are performed in two separate steps. Direct methods estimate parametric images directly from raw PET data and are statistically more efficient. However, the convergence rate of direct algorithms can be slow due to the coupling between the reconstruction and kinetic modeling. Here we present two fast gradient-type algorithms for direct reconstruction of linear parametric images. The new algorithms decouple the reconstruction and linear parametric modeling at each iteration by employing the principle of optimization transfer. Convergence speed is accelerated by running more sub-iterations of linear parametric estimation because the computation cost of the linear parametric modeling is much less than that of the image reconstruction. Computer simulation studies demonstrated that the new algorithms converge much faster than the traditional expectation maximization (EM) and the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms for dynamic PET.

  13. Parametric imaging of the rate constant K[sub i] using 18Fluoro-L-dopa positron emission tomography in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, M. (Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf-Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Snow, B.J. (Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Morrison, S. (TRIUMF, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Sossi, V. (TRIUMF, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Ruth, T.J. (TRIUMF, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Calne, D.B. (Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies using 18F-L-dopa were carried out in 9 patients with supranuclear palsy and 13 controls. For quantification of PET data a rate constant K[sub i] was calculated for the radiotracer using a graphical method. Corrections for nonspecific activity were performed in both arterial plasma and brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that parametric images of the rate constant K mapping can be obtained on a pixel-by-pixel basis using an appropriate mathematical algorithm. K[sub i] values from these parametric images and the graphical approach were compared. Both correlated closely, with y=0.013+0.947[sup *]x, r=0.992 and y=-0.052+1.048[sup *]x, r=0.965 in patients and controls, respectively. Contrast measurements were also performed and showed a striking increase in contrast on parametric images. K mapping offers several advantages over the graphical approach, since parametric images are time-independent, i.e. one image represents the quantitative result of the study. In addition, parmetric images of the rate constant are normalized to arterial plasma radioactivity and corrected for tissue metabolites. Thus, parametric images of K[sub i] in different individuals can be compared directly without further processing in order to assess the nigrostriatal integrity. (orig.)

  14. Parametric Net Influx Rate Images of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE: Quantitative Accuracy and Improved Image Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Ezgi; Sandström, Mattias; Velikyan, Irina; Sundin, Anders; Eriksson, Barbro; Lubberink, Mark

    2017-05-01

    68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE are radiolabeled somatostatin analogs used for the diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and SUV measurements are suggested for treatment monitoring. However, changes in net influx rate ( K i ) may better reflect treatment effects than those of the SUV, and accordingly there is a need to compute parametric images showing K i at the voxel level. The aim of this study was to evaluate parametric methods for computation of parametric K i images by comparison to volume of interest (VOI)-based methods and to assess image contrast in terms of tumor-to-liver ratio. Methods: Ten patients with metastatic NETs underwent a 45-min dynamic PET examination followed by whole-body PET/CT at 1 h after injection of 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE on consecutive days. Parametric K i images were computed using a basis function method (BFM) implementation of the 2-tissue-irreversible-compartment model and the Patlak method using a descending aorta image-derived input function, and mean tumor K i values were determined for 50% isocontour VOIs and compared with K i values based on nonlinear regression (NLR) of the whole-VOI time-activity curve. A subsample of healthy liver was delineated in the whole-body and K i images, and tumor-to-liver ratios were calculated to evaluate image contrast. Correlation ( R 2 ) and agreement between VOI-based and parametric K i values were assessed using regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The R 2 between NLR-based and parametric image-based (BFM) tumor K i values was 0.98 (slope, 0.81) and 0.97 (slope, 0.88) for 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE, respectively. For Patlak analysis, the R 2 between NLR-based and parametric-based (Patlak) tumor K i was 0.95 (slope, 0.71) and 0.92 (slope, 0.74) for 68 Ga-DOTATOC and 68 Ga-DOTATATE, respectively. There was no bias between NLR and parametric-based K i values. Tumor-to-liver contrast was 1.6 and 2.0 times higher in the parametric

  15. Parametric images evaluation of selected phases of the heart cycle with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, U.; Will, E.; Beuthien Baumann, B.; Bredow, J.

    2002-01-01

    The standard evaluation of dynamic heart acquisitions with PET uses image data not corrected for heart wall movement. The evaluation of parametric data sets (Patlak Plot) was investigated for gated studies of selected heart phases (diastolic, systolic) and compared to the standard evaluation. Parametric images of selected heart phases have improved resolution. The values for metabolic rate are different for a ''normal'' and gated evaluation, up to 50% more for the systole compared to the normal one. (orig.)

  16. Pixel-based parametric source depth map for Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altabella, L.; Spinelli, A.E.; Boschi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomography represents a challenging problem in optical imaging because of the intrinsically ill-posed inverse problem due to photon diffusion. Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) for optical photons produced in tissues by several radionuclides (i.e.: 32P, 18F, 90Y), has been investigated using both 3D multispectral approach and multiviews methods. Difficult in convergence of 3D algorithms can discourage to use this technique to have information of depth and intensity of source. For these reasons, we developed a faster 2D corrected approach based on multispectral acquisitions, to obtain source depth and its intensity using a pixel-based fitting of source intensity. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data were used to develop and validate the method to obtain the parametric map of source depth. With this approach we obtain parametric source depth maps with a precision between 3% and 7% for MC simulation and 5–6% for experimental data. Using this method we are able to obtain reliable information about the source depth of Cerenkov luminescence with a simple and flexible procedure

  17. Dynamic PET Image reconstruction for parametric imaging using the HYPR kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Benjamin; Qi, Jinyi; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Wang, Guobao

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic PET image reconstruction is a challenging problem because of the ill-conditioned nature of PET and the lowcounting statistics resulted from short time-frames in dynamic imaging. The kernel method for image reconstruction has been developed to improve image reconstruction of low-count PET data by incorporating prior information derived from high-count composite data. In contrast to most of the existing regularization-based methods, the kernel method embeds image prior information in the forward projection model and does not require an explicit regularization term in the reconstruction formula. Inspired by the existing highly constrained back-projection (HYPR) algorithm for dynamic PET image denoising, we propose in this work a new type of kernel that is simpler to implement and further improves the kernel-based dynamic PET image reconstruction. Our evaluation study using a physical phantom scan with synthetic FDG tracer kinetics has demonstrated that the new HYPR kernel-based reconstruction can achieve a better region-of-interest (ROI) bias versus standard deviation trade-off for dynamic PET parametric imaging than the post-reconstruction HYPR denoising method and the previously used nonlocal-means kernel.

  18. New Parametric Imaging Algorithm for Quantification of Binding Parameter in non-reversible compartment model: MLAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2007-01-01

    Parametric imaging allows us analysis of the entire brain or body image. Graphical approaches are commonly employed to generate parametric imaging through linear or multilinear regression. However, this linear regression method has limited accuracy due to bias in high level of noise data. Several methods have been proposed to reduce bias for linear regression estimation especially in reversible model. In this study, we focus on generating a net accumulation rate (K i ), which is related to binding parameter in brain receptor study, parametric imaging in an irreversible compartment model using multiple linear analysis. The reliability of a newly developed multiple linear analysis method (MLAIR) was assessed through the Monte Carlo simulation, and we applied it to a [ 11 C]MeNTI PET for opioid receptor

  19. Observation of parametric X-ray radiation by an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Shchagin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally the application of an imaging plate for registering the angular distribution of parametric X-ray radiation. The imaging plate was used as a two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector. High-quality images of the fine structure in the angular distributions of the yield around the reflection of the parametric X-ray radiation produced in a silicon crystal by a 255-MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator have been observed in the Laue geometry. A fairly good agreement between results of measurements and calculations by the kinematic theory of parametric X-ray radiation is shown. Applications of the imaging plates for the observation of the angular distribution of X-rays produced by accelerated particles in a crystal are also discussed.

  20. Parametric Imaging Of Digital Subtraction Angiography Studies For Renal Transplant Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe H.; Meaney, Thomas F.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Novick, Andrew C.; Buonocore, Edward

    1981-11-01

    A noninvasive method for diagnosing acute tubular necrosis and rejection would be an important tool for the management of renal transplant patients. From a sequence of digital subtraction angiographic images acquired after an intravenous injection of radiographic contrast material, the parametric images of the maximum contrast, the time when the maximum contrast is reached, and two times the time at which one half of the maximum contrast is reached are computed. The parametric images of the time when the maximum is reached clearly distinguish normal from abnormal renal function. However, it is the parametric image of two times the time when one half of the maximum is reached which provides some assistance in differentiating acute tubular necrosis from rejection.

  1. Non-parametric PSF estimation from celestial transit solar images using blind deconvolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Characterization of instrumental effects in astronomical imaging is important in order to extract accurate physical information from the observations. The measured image in a real optical instrument is usually represented by the convolution of an ideal image with a Point Spread Function (PSF. Additionally, the image acquisition process is also contaminated by other sources of noise (read-out, photon-counting. The problem of estimating both the PSF and a denoised image is called blind deconvolution and is ill-posed. Aims: We propose a blind deconvolution scheme that relies on image regularization. Contrarily to most methods presented in the literature, our method does not assume a parametric model of the PSF and can thus be applied to any telescope. Methods: Our scheme uses a wavelet analysis prior model on the image and weak assumptions on the PSF. We use observations from a celestial transit, where the occulting body can be assumed to be a black disk. These constraints allow us to retain meaningful solutions for the filter and the image, eliminating trivial, translated, and interchanged solutions. Under an additive Gaussian noise assumption, they also enforce noise canceling and avoid reconstruction artifacts by promoting the whiteness of the residual between the blurred observations and the cleaned data. Results: Our method is applied to synthetic and experimental data. The PSF is estimated for the SECCHI/EUVI instrument using the 2007 Lunar transit, and for SDO/AIA using the 2012 Venus transit. Results show that the proposed non-parametric blind deconvolution method is able to estimate the core of the PSF with a similar quality to parametric methods proposed in the literature. We also show that, if these parametric estimations are incorporated in the acquisition model, the resulting PSF outperforms both the parametric and non-parametric methods.

  2. Confocal imaging of butterfly tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular events responsible for morphological change requires the ability to examine gene expression in a wide range of organisms in addition to model systems to determine how the differences in gene expression correlate with phenotypic differences. There are approximately 12,000 species of butterflies, most, with distinct patterns on their wings. The most important tool for studying gene expression in butterflies is confocal imaging of butterfly tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using either cross-reactive antibodies from closely related species such as Drosophila or developing butterfly-specific antibodies. In this report, we describe how indirect immunofluorescence protocols can be used to visualize protein expression patterns on the butterfly wing imaginal disc and butterfly embryo.

  3. Dynamic PET simulator via tomographic emission projection for kinetic modeling and parametric image studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Ida; Beattie, Bradley J; Schmidtlein, C Ross

    2016-06-01

    To develop and evaluate a fast and simple tool called dpetstep (Dynamic PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection), for dynamic PET simulations as an alternative to Monte Carlo (MC), useful for educational purposes and evaluation of the effects of the clinical environment, postprocessing choices, etc., on dynamic and parametric images. The tool was developed in matlab using both new and previously reported modules of petstep (PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection). Time activity curves are generated for each voxel of the input parametric image, whereby effects of imaging system blurring, counting noise, scatters, randoms, and attenuation are simulated for each frame. Each frame is then reconstructed into images according to the user specified method, settings, and corrections. Reconstructed images were compared to MC data, and simple Gaussian noised time activity curves (GAUSS). dpetstep was 8000 times faster than MC. Dynamic images from dpetstep had a root mean square error that was within 4% on average of that of MC images, whereas the GAUSS images were within 11%. The average bias in dpetstep and MC images was the same, while GAUSS differed by 3% points. Noise profiles in dpetstep images conformed well to MC images, confirmed visually by scatter plot histograms, and statistically by tumor region of interest histogram comparisons that showed no significant differences (p dynamic PET and parametric images, and demonstrated that it generates both images and subsequent parametric images with very similar noise properties to those of MC images, in a fraction of the time. They believe dpetstep to be very useful for generating fast, simple, and realistic results, however since it uses simple scatter and random models it may not be suitable for studies investigating these phenomena. dpetstep can be downloaded free of cost from https://github.com/CRossSchmidtlein/dPETSTEP.

  4. Influence of image reconstruction methods on statistical parametric mapping of brain PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayi; Chen Yingmao; Yao Shulin; Shao Mingzhe; Yin Ling; Tian Jiahe; Cui Hongyan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Statistic parametric mapping (SPM) was widely recognized as an useful tool in brain function study. The aim of this study was to investigate if imaging reconstruction algorithm of PET images could influence SPM of brain. Methods: PET imaging of whole brain was performed in six normal volunteers. Each volunteer had two scans with true and false acupuncturing. The PET scans were reconstructed using ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) and filtered back projection (FBP) with 3 varied parameters respectively. The images were realigned, normalized and smoothed using SPM program. The difference between true and false acupuncture scans was tested using a matched pair t test at every voxel. Results: (1) SPM corrected multiple comparison (P corrected uncorrected <0.001): SPM derived from the images with different reconstruction method were different. The largest difference, in number and position of the activated voxels, was noticed between FBP and OSEM re- construction algorithm. Conclusions: The method of PET image reconstruction could influence the results of SPM uncorrected multiple comparison. Attention should be paid when the conclusion was drawn using SPM uncorrected multiple comparison. (authors)

  5. Maximum a posteriori reconstruction of the Patlak parametric image from sinograms in dynamic PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guobao; Fu Lin; Qi Jinyi

    2008-01-01

    Parametric imaging using the Patlak graphical method has been widely used to analyze dynamic PET data. Conventionally a Patlak parametric image is generated by reconstructing a sequence of dynamic images first and then performing Patlak graphical analysis on the time-activity curves pixel-by-pixel. However, because it is rather difficult to model the noise distribution in reconstructed images, the spatially variant noise correlation is simply ignored in the Patlak analysis, which leads to sub-optimal results. In this paper we present a Bayesian method for reconstructing Patlak parametric images directly from raw sinogram data by incorporating the Patlak plot model into the image reconstruction procedure. A preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm is used to find the maximum a posteriori solution. The proposed direct method is statistically more efficient than the conventional indirect approach because the Poisson noise distribution in PET data can be accurately modeled in the direct reconstruction. The computation cost of the direct method is similar to reconstruction time of two dynamic frames. Therefore, when more than two dynamic frames are used in the Patlak analysis, the direct method is faster than the conventional indirect approach. We conduct computer simulations to validate the proposed direct method. Comparisons with the conventional indirect approach show that the proposed method results in a more accurate estimate of the parametric image. The proposed method has been applied to dynamic fully 3D PET data from a microPET scanner

  6. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  8. Direct 4D reconstruction of parametric images incorporating anato-functional joint entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Rahmim, Arman

    2010-08-07

    We developed an anatomy-guided 4D closed-form algorithm to directly reconstruct parametric images from projection data for (nearly) irreversible tracers. Conventional methods consist of individually reconstructing 2D/3D PET data, followed by graphical analysis on the sequence of reconstructed image frames. The proposed direct reconstruction approach maintains the simplicity and accuracy of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by extending the system matrix to include the relation between the parametric images and the measured data. A closed-form solution was achieved using a different hidden complete-data formulation within the EM framework. Furthermore, the proposed method was extended to maximum a posterior reconstruction via incorporation of MR image information, taking the joint entropy between MR and parametric PET features as the prior. Using realistic simulated noisy [(11)C]-naltrindole PET and MR brain images/data, the quantitative performance of the proposed methods was investigated. Significant improvements in terms of noise versus bias performance were demonstrated when performing direct parametric reconstruction, and additionally upon extending the algorithm to its Bayesian counterpart using the MR-PET joint entropy measure.

  9. Parametric Optimization of Lateral NIPIN Phototransistors for Flexible Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seok Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Curved image sensors, which are a key component in bio-inspired imaging systems, have been widely studied because they can improve an imaging system in various aspects such as low optical aberrations, small-form, and simple optics configuration. Many methods and materials to realize a curvilinear imager have been proposed to address the drawbacks of conventional imaging/optical systems. However, there have been few theoretical studies in terms of electronics on the use of a lateral photodetector as a flexible image sensor. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of a Si-based lateral phototransistor as the pixel of a high-efficiency curved photodetector by conducting various electrical simulations with technology computer aided design (TCAD. The single phototransistor is analyzed with different device parameters: the thickness of the active cell, doping concentration, and structure geometry. This work presents a method to improve the external quantum efficiency (EQE, linear dynamic range (LDR, and mechanical stability of the phototransistor. We also evaluated the dark current in a matrix form of phototransistors to estimate the feasibility of the device as a flexible image sensor. Moreover, we fabricated and demonstrated an array of phototransistors based on our study. The theoretical study and design guidelines of a lateral phototransistor create new opportunities in flexible image sensors.

  10. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  11. NMR imaging of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval-Jeantet, M.; Tobolsk, F.; Delepine, N.; Delepine, G.; Roger, B.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary findings on NMR imaging of 30 soft tissue tumors demonstrated the indispensable value of this examination (particularly when a surface antenna is used) for preoperative investigation and diagnosis of tumoral recurrence when compared with other radiologic techniques. The possible potential of NMR imaging for characterization of tissues, apart from lipoma or liposarcoma, cannot be evaluated at the present time [fr

  12. Multi-parametric MR imaging for prostate carcinoma; Multiparametrische MR-Bildgebung beim Prostatakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2017-03-15

    Multi-parametric NMR imaging in case of prostate carcinoma can improve diagnostics, allows reliable prognostic estimations and helps to find the optimum individual therapy. The contribution is focused to deliver the needed methodological tools and background knowledge for the daily routine.

  13. Selecting a separable parametric spatiotemporal covariance structure for longitudinal imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Brandon; Aban, Inmaculada

    2015-01-15

    Longitudinal imaging studies allow great insight into how the structure and function of a subject's internal anatomy changes over time. Unfortunately, the analysis of longitudinal imaging data is complicated by inherent spatial and temporal correlation: the temporal from the repeated measures and the spatial from the outcomes of interest being observed at multiple points in a patient's body. We propose the use of a linear model with a separable parametric spatiotemporal error structure for the analysis of repeated imaging data. The model makes use of spatial (exponential, spherical, and Matérn) and temporal (compound symmetric, autoregressive-1, Toeplitz, and unstructured) parametric correlation functions. A simulation study, inspired by a longitudinal cardiac imaging study on mitral regurgitation patients, compared different information criteria for selecting a particular separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structure as well as the effects on types I and II error rates for inference on fixed effects when the specified model is incorrect. Information criteria were found to be highly accurate at choosing between separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structures. Misspecification of the covariance structure was found to have the ability to inflate the type I error or have an overly conservative test size, which corresponded to decreased power. An example with clinical data is given illustrating how the covariance structure procedure can be performed in practice, as well as how covariance structure choice can change inferences about fixed effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Parametric imaging for characterizing focal liver lesions in contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognin, Nicolas G; Arditi, Marcel; Mercier, Laurent; Frinking, Peter J A; Schneider, Michel; Perrenoud, Geneviève; Anaye, Anass; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Tranquart, François

    2010-11-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant focal liver lesions plays an important role in diagnosis of liver disease and therapeutic planning of local or general disease. This differentiation, based on characterization, relies on the observation of the dynamic vascular patterns (DVP) of lesions with respect to adjacent parenchyma, and may be assessed during contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging after a bolus injection. For instance, hemangiomas (i.e., benign lesions) exhibit hyper-enhanced signatures over time, whereas metastases (i.e., malignant lesions) frequently present hyperenhanced foci during the arterial phase and always become hypo-enhanced afterwards. The objective of this work was to develop a new parametric imaging technique, aimed at mapping the DVP signatures into a single image called a DVP parametric image, conceived as a diagnostic aid tool for characterizing lesion types. The methodology consisted in processing a time sequence of images (DICOM video data) using four consecutive steps: (1) pre-processing combining image motion correction and linearization to derive an echo-power signal, in each pixel, proportional to local contrast agent concentration over time; (2) signal modeling, by means of a curve-fitting optimization, to compute a difference signal in each pixel, as the subtraction of adjacent parenchyma kinetic from the echopower signal; (3) classification of difference signals; and (4) parametric image rendering to represent classified pixels as a support for diagnosis. DVP parametric imaging was the object of a clinical assessment on a total of 146 lesions, imaged using different medical ultrasound systems. The resulting sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 91%, respectively, which compare favorably with scores of 81 to 95% and 80 to 95% reported in medical literature for sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  15. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  17. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

  18. FITTING OF PARAMETRIC BUILDING MODELS TO OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Panday

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In literature and in photogrammetric workstations many approaches and systems to automatically reconstruct buildings from remote sensing data are described and available. Those building models are being used for instance in city modeling or in cadastre context. If a roof overhang is present, the building walls cannot be estimated correctly from nadir-view aerial images or airborne laser scanning (ALS data. This leads to inconsistent building outlines, which has a negative influence on visual impression, but more seriously also represents a wrong legal boundary in the cadaster. Oblique aerial images as opposed to nadir-view images reveal greater detail, enabling to see different views of an object taken from different directions. Building walls are visible from oblique images directly and those images are used for automated roof overhang estimation in this research. A fitting algorithm is employed to find roof parameters of simple buildings. It uses a least squares algorithm to fit projected wire frames to their corresponding edge lines extracted from the images. Self-occlusion is detected based on intersection result of viewing ray and the planes formed by the building whereas occlusion from other objects is detected using an ALS point cloud. Overhang and ground height are obtained by sweeping vertical and horizontal planes respectively. Experimental results are verified with high resolution ortho-images, field survey, and ALS data. Planimetric accuracy of 1cm mean and 5cm standard deviation was obtained, while buildings' orientation were accurate to mean of 0.23° and standard deviation of 0.96° with ortho-image. Overhang parameters were aligned to approximately 10cm with field survey. The ground and roof heights were accurate to mean of – 9cm and 8cm with standard deviations of 16cm and 8cm with ALS respectively. The developed approach reconstructs 3D building models well in cases of sufficient texture. More images should be acquired for

  19. Parametric renal blood flow imaging using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Liukko, Kaisa E.; Oikonen, Vesa J.; Tolvanen, Tuula [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Metsaerinne, Kaj [University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical-Engineering Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Iozzo, Patricia [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Nuutila, Pirjo [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland)

    2009-04-15

    The quantitative assessment of renal blood flow (RBF) may help to understand the physiological basis of kidney function and allow an evaluation of pathophysiological events leading to vascular damage, such as renal arterial stenosis and chronic allograft nephropathy. The RBF may be quantified using PET with H{sub 2} {sup 15}O, although RBF studies that have been performed without theoretical evaluation have assumed the partition coefficient of water (p, ml/g) to be uniform over the whole region of renal tissue, and/or radioactivity from the vascular space (V{sub A}. ml/ml) to be negligible. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating parametric images of RBF (K{sub 1}, k{sub 2}) as well as V{sub A} without fixing the partition coefficient by the basis function method (BFM). The feasibility was tested in healthy subjects. A simulation study was performed to evaluate error sensitivities for possible error sources. The experimental study showed that the quantitative accuracy of the present method was consistent with nonlinear least-squares fitting, i.e. K{sub 1,BFM}=0.93K{sub 1,NLF}-0.11 ml/min/g (r=0.80, p<0.001), k{sub 2,BFM}=0.96k{sub 2,NLF}-0.13 ml/min/g (r=0.77, p<0.001), and V{sub A,BFM}=0.92V{sub A,NLF}-0.00 ml/ml (r=0.97, p<0.001). Values of the Akaike information criterion from this fitting were the smallest for all subjects except two. The quality of parametric images obtained was acceptable. The simulation study suggested that delay and dispersion time constants should be estimated within an accuracy of 2 s. V{sub A} and p cannot be neglected or fixed, and reliable measurement of even relative RBF values requires that V{sub A} is fitted. This study showed the feasibility of measurement of RBF using PET with H{sub 2} {sup 15}O. (orig.)

  20. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  1. Extracting 3D parametric curves from 2D images of helical objects.

    OpenAIRE

    Willcocks, Chris; Jackson, Philip T.G.; Nelson, Carl J.; Obara, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Helical objects occur in medicine, biology, cosmetics, nanotechnology, and engineering. Extracting a 3D parametric curve from a 2D image of a helical object has many practical applications, in particular being able to extract metrics such as tortuosity, frequency, and pitch. We present a method that is able to straighten the image object and derive a robust 3D helical curve from peaks in the object boundary. The algorithm has a small number of stable parameters that require little tuning, and...

  2. Automated prostate cancer detection via comprehensive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging texture feature models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalvati, Farzad; Wong, Alexander; Haider, Masoom A.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North America. Auto-detection of prostate cancer can play a major role in early detection of prostate cancer, which has a significant impact on patient survival rates. While multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has shown promise in diagnosis of prostate cancer, the existing auto-detection algorithms do not take advantage of abundance of data available in MP-MRI to improve detection accuracy. The goal of this research was to design a radiomics-based auto-detection method for prostate cancer via utilizing MP-MRI data. In this work, we present new MP-MRI texture feature models for radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer. In addition to commonly used non-invasive imaging sequences in conventional MP-MRI, namely T2-weighted MRI (T2w) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), our proposed MP-MRI texture feature models incorporate computed high-b DWI (CHB-DWI) and a new diffusion imaging modality called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI). Moreover, the proposed texture feature models incorporate features from individual b-value images. A comprehensive set of texture features was calculated for both the conventional MP-MRI and new MP-MRI texture feature models. We performed feature selection analysis for each individual modality and then combined best features from each modality to construct the optimized texture feature models. The performance of the proposed MP-MRI texture feature models was evaluated via leave-one-patient-out cross-validation using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained on 40,975 cancerous and healthy tissue samples obtained from real clinical MP-MRI datasets. The proposed MP-MRI texture feature models outperformed the conventional model (i.e., T2w+DWI) with regard to cancer detection accuracy. Comprehensive texture feature models were developed for improved radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer using MP-MRI. Using a

  3. Dynamic PET simulator via tomographic emission projection for kinetic modeling and parametric image studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häggström, Ida, E-mail: haeggsti@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 and Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå 90187 (Sweden); Beattie, Bradley J.; Schmidtlein, C. Ross [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a fast and simple tool called dPETSTEP (Dynamic PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection), for dynamic PET simulations as an alternative to Monte Carlo (MC), useful for educational purposes and evaluation of the effects of the clinical environment, postprocessing choices, etc., on dynamic and parametric images. Methods: The tool was developed in MATLAB using both new and previously reported modules of PETSTEP (PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection). Time activity curves are generated for each voxel of the input parametric image, whereby effects of imaging system blurring, counting noise, scatters, randoms, and attenuation are simulated for each frame. Each frame is then reconstructed into images according to the user specified method, settings, and corrections. Reconstructed images were compared to MC data, and simple Gaussian noised time activity curves (GAUSS). Results: dPETSTEP was 8000 times faster than MC. Dynamic images from dPETSTEP had a root mean square error that was within 4% on average of that of MC images, whereas the GAUSS images were within 11%. The average bias in dPETSTEP and MC images was the same, while GAUSS differed by 3% points. Noise profiles in dPETSTEP images conformed well to MC images, confirmed visually by scatter plot histograms, and statistically by tumor region of interest histogram comparisons that showed no significant differences (p < 0.01). Compared to GAUSS, dPETSTEP images and noise properties agreed better with MC. Conclusions: The authors have developed a fast and easy one-stop solution for simulations of dynamic PET and parametric images, and demonstrated that it generates both images and subsequent parametric images with very similar noise properties to those of MC images, in a fraction of the time. They believe dPETSTEP to be very useful for generating fast, simple, and realistic results, however since it uses simple scatter and random models it may not be suitable for

  4. Dynamic PET simulator via tomographic emission projection for kinetic modeling and parametric image studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häggström, Ida; Beattie, Bradley J.; Schmidtlein, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a fast and simple tool called dPETSTEP (Dynamic PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection), for dynamic PET simulations as an alternative to Monte Carlo (MC), useful for educational purposes and evaluation of the effects of the clinical environment, postprocessing choices, etc., on dynamic and parametric images. Methods: The tool was developed in MATLAB using both new and previously reported modules of PETSTEP (PET Simulator of Tracers via Emission Projection). Time activity curves are generated for each voxel of the input parametric image, whereby effects of imaging system blurring, counting noise, scatters, randoms, and attenuation are simulated for each frame. Each frame is then reconstructed into images according to the user specified method, settings, and corrections. Reconstructed images were compared to MC data, and simple Gaussian noised time activity curves (GAUSS). Results: dPETSTEP was 8000 times faster than MC. Dynamic images from dPETSTEP had a root mean square error that was within 4% on average of that of MC images, whereas the GAUSS images were within 11%. The average bias in dPETSTEP and MC images was the same, while GAUSS differed by 3% points. Noise profiles in dPETSTEP images conformed well to MC images, confirmed visually by scatter plot histograms, and statistically by tumor region of interest histogram comparisons that showed no significant differences (p < 0.01). Compared to GAUSS, dPETSTEP images and noise properties agreed better with MC. Conclusions: The authors have developed a fast and easy one-stop solution for simulations of dynamic PET and parametric images, and demonstrated that it generates both images and subsequent parametric images with very similar noise properties to those of MC images, in a fraction of the time. They believe dPETSTEP to be very useful for generating fast, simple, and realistic results, however since it uses simple scatter and random models it may not be suitable for

  5. Usefulness of myocardial parametric imaging to evaluate myocardial viability in experimental and in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosoglou, G; Hansen, A; Bekeredjian, R; Filusch, A; Hardt, S; Wolf, D; Schellberg, D; Katus, H A; Kuecherer, H

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate whether myocardial parametric imaging (MPI) is superior to visual assessment for the evaluation of myocardial viability. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was assessed in 11 pigs before, during, and after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and in 32 patients with ischaemic heart disease by using intravenous SonoVue administration. In experimental studies perfusion defect area assessment by MPI was compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry. Histological assessment of necrotic tissue was the standard reference. In clinical studies viability was assessed on a segmental level by (1) visual analysis of myocardial opacification; (2) quantitative estimation of myocardial blood flow in regions of interest; and (3) MPI. Functional recovery between three and six months after revascularisation was the standard reference. In experimental studies, compared with visually guided perfusion defect planimetry, planimetric assessment of infarct size by MPI correlated more significantly with histology (r2 = 0.92 versus r2 = 0.56) and had a lower intraobserver variability (4% v 15%, p < 0.05). In clinical studies, MPI had higher specificity (66% v 43%, p < 0.05) than visual MCE and good accuracy (81%) for viability detection. It was less time consuming (3.4 (1.6) v 9.2 (2.4) minutes per image, p < 0.05) than quantitative blood flow estimation by regions of interest and increased the agreement between observers interpreting myocardial perfusion (kappa = 0.87 v kappa = 0.75, p < 0.05). MPI is useful for the evaluation of myocardial viability both in animals and in patients. It is less time consuming than quantification analysis by regions of interest and less observer dependent than visual analysis. Thus, strategies incorporating this technique may be valuable for the evaluation of myocardial viability in clinical routine.

  6. Parametric imaging of collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage using optical polarization tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Mohammadreza; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.; Bozynski, Chantelle C.; Wang, Yuanbo; Yao, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Collagen degeneration is an important pathological feature of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT)-based optical polarization tractography (OPT) can be useful in imaging collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage samples. OPT eliminated the banding artifacts in conventional PSOCT by calculating the depth-resolved local birefringence and fiber orientation. A close comparison between OPT and PSOCT showed that OPT provided improved visualization and characterization of the zonal structure in human cartilage. Experimental results obtained in this study also underlined the importance of knowing the collagen fiber orientation in conventional polarized light microscopy assessment. In addition, parametric OPT imaging was achieved by quantifying the surface roughness, birefringence, and fiber dispersion in the superficial zone of the cartilage. These quantitative parametric images provided complementary information on the structural changes in cartilage, which can be useful for a comprehensive evaluation of collagen damage in osteoarthritic cartilage.

  7. Parametric imaging technique for visualization of esophageal motility and its disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsch, K.; Knesewitsch, P.; Moser, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-eight healthy individuals and patients with esophageal dysfunction (achalasia, reflux, morphea, PSS, Sharp syndrome) were studied with esophageal parametric imaging (EPI) (acquisition of 15-20 swallows per patient; image creation by special ''space time'' matrix) and results were compared with standard esophageal function scintigraphy (EPS). We could demonstrate that normal function and motility disorders result in defined parametric image patterns. Pathologic findings on EFS always showed abnormal findings on EPI. Normal findings on EPI always showed normal findings on EFS. However, ten of 15 patients with normal EFS had pathologic EPI. Compared with EFS, evaluation of dysfunction in EPI is not referred to single but multiple swallowing and demonstrated a higher sensitivity by comparable specificity

  8. Quantitative myocardial perfusion PET parametric imaging at the voxel-level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Rahmim, Arman; Lodge, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) PET has the potential to enhance detection of early stages of atherosclerosis or microvascular dysfunction, characterization of flow-limiting effects of coronary artery disease (CAD), and identification of balanced reduction of flow due to multivessel stenosis. We aim to enable quantitative MP-PET at the individual voxel level, which has the potential to allow enhanced visualization and quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve (MFR) as computed from uptake parametric images. This framework is especially challenging for the 82 Rb radiotracer. The short half-life enables fast serial imaging and high patient throughput; yet, the acquired dynamic PET images suffer from high noise-levels introducing large variability in uptake parametric images and, therefore, in the estimates of MBF and MFR. Robust estimation requires substantial post-smoothing of noisy data, degrading valuable functional information of physiological and pathological importance. We present a feasible and robust approach to generate parametric images at the voxel-level that substantially reduces noise without significant loss of spatial resolution. The proposed methodology, denoted physiological clustering, makes use of the functional similarity of voxels to penalize deviation of voxel kinetics from physiological partners. The results were validated using extensive simulations (with transmural and non-transmural perfusion defects) and clinical studies. Compared to post-smoothing, physiological clustering depicted enhanced quantitative noise versus bias performance as well as superior recovery of perfusion defects (as quantified by CNR) with minimal increase in bias. Overall, parametric images obtained from the proposed methodology were robust in the presence of high-noise levels as manifested in the voxel time-activity-curves. (paper)

  9. Polarization image segmentation of radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    Full Text Available Optical polarimetry has previously imaged the spatial extent of a typical radiofrequency ablated (RFA lesion in myocardial tissue, exhibiting significantly lower total depolarization at the necrotic core compared to healthy tissue, and intermediate values at the RFA rim region. Here, total depolarization in ablated myocardium was used to segment the total depolarization image into three (core, rim and healthy zones. A local fuzzy thresholding algorithm was used for this multi-region segmentation, and then compared with a ground truth segmentation obtained from manual demarcation of RFA core and rim regions on the histopathology image. Quantitative comparison of the algorithm segmentation results was performed with evaluation metrics such as dice similarity coefficient (DSC = 0.78 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.02, sensitivity (Sn = 0.83 ± 0.10 and 0.91 ± 0.08, specificity (Sp = 0.76 ± 0.17 and 0.72 ± 0.17 and accuracy (Acc = 0.81 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.10 for RFA core and rim regions, respectively. This automatic segmentation of parametric depolarization images suggests a novel application of optical polarimetry, namely its use in objective RFA image quantification.

  10. Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.

  11. Realistic tissue visualization using photoacoustic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonghee; Managuli, Ravi; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Visualization methods are very important in biomedical imaging. As a technology that understands life, biomedical imaging has the unique advantage of providing the most intuitive information in the image. This advantage of biomedical imaging can be greatly improved by choosing a special visualization method. This is more complicated in volumetric data. Volume data has the advantage of containing 3D spatial information. Unfortunately, the data itself cannot directly represent the potential value. Because images are always displayed in 2D space, visualization is the key and creates the real value of volume data. However, image processing of 3D data requires complicated algorithms for visualization and high computational burden. Therefore, specialized algorithms and computing optimization are important issues in volume data. Photoacoustic-imaging is a unique imaging modality that can visualize the optical properties of deep tissue. Because the color of the organism is mainly determined by its light absorbing component, photoacoustic data can provide color information of tissue, which is closer to real tissue color. In this research, we developed realistic tissue visualization using acoustic-resolution photoacoustic volume data. To achieve realistic visualization, we designed specialized color transfer function, which depends on the depth of the tissue from the skin. We used direct ray casting method and processed color during computing shader parameter. In the rendering results, we succeeded in obtaining similar texture results from photoacoustic data. The surface reflected rays were visualized in white, and the reflected color from the deep tissue was visualized red like skin tissue. We also implemented the CUDA algorithm in an OpenGL environment for real-time interactive imaging.

  12. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined...... with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  13. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  14. MR imaging of soft-tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Matsubara, T.; Tsumurai, Y.; Masuda, S.; Terauchi, M.; Ozawa, K.; Arimizu, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of T2*-weighted gradient-field-echo (T2*FE) MR imaging to image soft-tissue masses. The series included 26 cases, including 17 benign tumors, four malignant tumors, and five others. Images were obtained on a 0.5-T magnet with T2*FE imaging (300/22 [repetition time msec/echo time msec], 20 degree). Results were compared with those of T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (500/20--40) and T2-weighted SE (T2SE) images (2,000/80). T2*FE images were similar to T2SE images with respect to the signal intensity and internal architecture of the masses in many cases. In some instances, they were superior to T2SE images in depicting special features such as a hemosiderin deposit or in delineating the masses and adjacent fat tissues. Shorter (about one-third or two-thirds) scanning time was required to obtain T2*FE images than to obtain T2SE images

  15. Empirical validation of statistical parametric mapping for group imaging of fast neural activity using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, B; Barnes, G; Dos Santos, G Sato; Aristovich, K; Gilad, O; Ghosh, A; Oh, T; Holder, D

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows for the reconstruction of internal conductivity from surface measurements. A change in conductivity occurs as ion channels open during neural activity, making EIT a potential tool for functional brain imaging. EIT images can have  >10 000 voxels, which means statistical analysis of such images presents a substantial multiple testing problem. One way to optimally correct for these issues and still maintain the flexibility of complicated experimental designs is to use random field theory. This parametric method estimates the distribution of peaks one would expect by chance in a smooth random field of a given size. Random field theory has been used in several other neuroimaging techniques but never validated for EIT images of fast neural activity, such validation can be achieved using non-parametric techniques. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques were used to analyze a set of 22 images collected from 8 rats. Significant group activations were detected using both techniques (corrected p  <  0.05). Both parametric and non-parametric analyses yielded similar results, although the latter was less conservative. These results demonstrate the first statistical analysis of such an image set and indicate that such an analysis is an approach for EIT images of neural activity.

  16. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  17. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with

  18. PET image reconstruction using multi-parametric anato-functional priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Belzunce, Martin A.; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios; Prieto, Claudia; Turkheimer, Federico; Hammers, Alexander; Reader, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of multi-parametric anato-functional (MR-PET) priors for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction of brain PET data in order to address the limitations of the conventional anatomical priors in the presence of PET-MR mismatches. In addition to partial volume correction benefits, the suitability of these priors for reconstruction of low-count PET data is also introduced and demonstrated, comparing to standard maximum-likelihood (ML) reconstruction of high-count data. The conventional local Tikhonov and total variation (TV) priors and current state-of-the-art anatomical priors including the Kaipio, non-local Tikhonov prior with Bowsher and Gaussian similarity kernels are investigated and presented in a unified framework. The Gaussian kernels are calculated using both voxel- and patch-based feature vectors. To cope with PET and MR mismatches, the Bowsher and Gaussian priors are extended to multi-parametric priors. In addition, we propose a modified joint Burg entropy prior that by definition exploits all parametric information in the MAP reconstruction of PET data. The performance of the priors was extensively evaluated using 3D simulations and two clinical brain datasets of [18F]florbetaben and [18F]FDG radiotracers. For simulations, several anato-functional mismatches were intentionally introduced between the PET and MR images, and furthermore, for the FDG clinical dataset, two PET-unique active tumours were embedded in the PET data. Our simulation results showed that the joint Burg entropy prior far outperformed the conventional anatomical priors in terms of preserving PET unique lesions, while still reconstructing functional boundaries with corresponding MR boundaries. In addition, the multi-parametric extension of the Gaussian and Bowsher priors led to enhanced preservation of edge and PET unique features and also an improved bias-variance performance. In agreement with the simulation results, the clinical results

  19. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography and Tissue Synchronization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Hakan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gurlertop, Yekta; Karakelleoglu, Sule

    2008-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography has emerged as a reliable method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and the management of its treatment. Several studies have shown that that this technique works with 80–85% accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods. There are few studies aimed at developing the clinical utility of dobutamine stress echocardiography for the evaluation of normal and abnormal segments that result from dobutamine stress with Tissue Synchronization Imaging. PMID:25610034

  20. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Michèle; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-10-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  1. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kind, Michele; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  2. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Michele [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)], E-mail: kind@bergonie.org; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel [Departement de Pathologie, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  3. Edge Sharpness Assessment by Parametric Modeling: Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Ding, Y; Simonetti, O P

    2015-05-01

    In biomedical imaging, edge sharpness is an important yet often overlooked image quality metric. In this work, a semi-automatic method to quantify edge sharpness in the presence of significant noise is presented with application to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method is based on parametric modeling of image edges. First, an edge map is automatically generated and one or more edges-of-interest (EOI) are manually selected using graphical user interface. Multiple exclusion criteria are then enforced to eliminate edge pixels that are potentially not suitable for sharpness assessment. Second, at each pixel of the EOI, an image intensity profile is read along a small line segment that runs locally normal to the EOI. Third, the profiles corresponding to all EOI pixels are individually fitted with a sigmoid function characterized by four parameters, including one that represents edge sharpness. Last, the distribution of the sharpness parameter is used to quantify edge sharpness. For validation, the method is applied to simulated data as well as MRI data from both phantom imaging and cine imaging experiments. This method allows for fast, quantitative evaluation of edge sharpness even in images with poor signal-to-noise ratio. Although the utility of this method is demonstrated for MRI, it can be adapted for other medical imaging applications.

  4. Near-self-imaging cavity for three-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers using silicon microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Torres, F A; Ma, Yubo; Zhao, C; Ju, L; Blair, D G; Chao, S; Roch-Jeune, I; Flaminio, R; Michel, C; Liu, K-Y

    2014-02-10

    Three-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers (OAPAs), in which a pair of photon modes are strongly coupled to an acoustic mode, provide a general platform for investigating self-cooling, parametric instability and very sensitive transducers. Their realization requires an optical cavity with tunable transverse modes and a high quality-factor mirror resonator. This paper presents the design of a table-top OAPA based on a near-self-imaging cavity design, using a silicon torsional microresonator. The design achieves a tuning coefficient for the optical mode spacing of 2.46  MHz/mm. This allows tuning of the mode spacing between amplification and self-cooling regimes of the OAPA device. Based on demonstrated resonator parameters (frequencies ∼400  kHz and quality-factors ∼7.5×10(5) we predict that the OAPA can achieve parametric instability with 1.6 μW of input power and mode cooling by a factor of 1.9×10(4) with 30 mW of input power.

  5. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  6. Assessment of mechanical properties of isolated bovine intervertebral discs from multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuerda, Maximilien; Périé, Delphine; Gilbert, Guillaume; Beaudoin, Gilles

    2012-10-12

    The treatment planning of spine pathologies requires information on the rigidity and permeability of the intervertebral discs (IVDs). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers great potential as a sensitive and non-invasive technique for describing the mechanical properties of IVDs. However, the literature reported small correlation coefficients between mechanical properties and MRI parameters. Our hypothesis is that the compressive modulus and the permeability of the IVD can be predicted by a linear combination of MRI parameters. Sixty IVDs were harvested from bovine tails, and randomly separated in four groups (in-situ, digested-6h, digested-18h, digested-24h). Multi-parametric MRI acquisitions were used to quantify the relaxation times T1 and T2, the magnetization transfer ratio MTR, the apparent diffusion coefficient ADC and the fractional anisotropy FA. Unconfined compression, confined compression and direct permeability measurements were performed to quantify the compressive moduli and the hydraulic permeabilities. Differences between groups were evaluated from a one way ANOVA. Multi linear regressions were performed between dependent mechanical properties and independent MRI parameters to verify our hypothesis. A principal component analysis was used to convert the set of possibly correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated variables. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was performed on the 3 principal components. Multilinear regressions showed that 45 to 80% of the Young's modulus E, the aggregate modulus in absence of deformation HA0, the radial permeability kr and the axial permeability in absence of deformation k0 can be explained by the MRI parameters within both the nucleus pulposus and the annulus pulposus. The principal component analysis reduced our variables to two principal components with a cumulative variability of 52-65%, which increased to 70-82% when considering the third principal component. The dendograms showed a natural

  7. Application of statistical parametric mapping in PET and SPECT brain functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanhua

    2002-01-01

    Regional of interest (ROI) is the method regularly used to analyze brain functional imaging. But, due to its obvious shortcomings such as subjectivity and poor reproducibility, precise analyzing the brain function was seriously limited. Therefore, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) as an automatic analyze software was developed based on voxel or pixel to resolve this problem. Using numerous mathematical models, it can be used to statistically assess the whole brain pixel. Present review introduces its main principle, modular composition and practical application. It can be concluded, with development of neuroscience, the SPM software will be used more widely in relative field, like neurobiology, cognition and neuropharmacology

  8. Extracting 3D Parametric Curves from 2D Images of Helical Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Chris G; Jackson, Philip T G; Nelson, Carl J; Obara, Boguslaw

    2017-09-01

    Helical objects occur in medicine, biology, cosmetics, nanotechnology, and engineering. Extracting a 3D parametric curve from a 2D image of a helical object has many practical applications, in particular being able to extract metrics such as tortuosity, frequency, and pitch. We present a method that is able to straighten the image object and derive a robust 3D helical curve from peaks in the object boundary. The algorithm has a small number of stable parameters that require little tuning, and the curve is validated against both synthetic and real-world data. The results show that the extracted 3D curve comes within close Hausdorff distance to the ground truth, and has near identical tortuosity for helical objects with a circular profile. Parameter insensitivity and robustness against high levels of image noise are demonstrated thoroughly and quantitatively.

  9. A distribution-based parametrization for improved tomographic imaging of solute plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, Adam; Singha, K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2011-01-01

    Difference geophysical tomography (e.g. radar, resistivity and seismic) is used increasingly for imaging fluid flow and mass transport associated with natural and engineered hydrologic phenomena, including tracer experiments, in situ remediation and aquifer storage and recovery. Tomographic data are collected over time, inverted and differenced against a background image to produce 'snapshots' revealing changes to the system; these snapshots readily provide qualitative information on the location and morphology of plumes of injected tracer, remedial amendment or stored water. In principle, geometric moments (i.e. total mass, centres of mass, spread, etc.) calculated from difference tomograms can provide further quantitative insight into the rates of advection, dispersion and mass transfer; however, recent work has shown that moments calculated from tomograms are commonly biased, as they are strongly affected by the subjective choice of regularization criteria. Conventional approaches to regularization (Tikhonov) and parametrization (image pixels) result in tomograms which are subject to artefacts such as smearing or pixel estimates taking on the sign opposite to that expected for the plume under study. Here, we demonstrate a novel parametrization for imaging plumes associated with hydrologic phenomena. Capitalizing on the mathematical analogy between moment-based descriptors of plumes and the moment-based parameters of probability distributions, we design an inverse problem that (1) is overdetermined and computationally efficient because the image is described by only a few parameters, (2) produces tomograms consistent with expected plume behaviour (e.g. changes of one sign relative to the background image), (3) yields parameter estimates that are readily interpreted for plume morphology and offer direct insight into hydrologic processes and (4) requires comparatively few data to achieve reasonable model estimates. We demonstrate the approach in a series of

  10. Toward uniform implementation of parametric map Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine standard in multisite quantitative diffusion imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya; Fedorov, Andriy; Bell, Laura; Prah, Melissa; Hectors, Stefanie; Arlinghaus, Lori; Muzi, Mark; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Jacobs, Michael; Fung, Maggie; Shukla-Dave, Amita; McManus, Kevin; Boss, Michael; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Quarles, Christopher Chad; Schmainda, Kathleen; Chenevert, Thomas L; Newitt, David C

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on results of a multisite collaborative project launched by the MRI subgroup of Quantitative Imaging Network to assess current capability and provide future guidelines for generating a standard parametric diffusion map Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) in clinical trials that utilize quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Participating sites used a multivendor DWI DICOM dataset of a single phantom to generate parametric maps (PMs) of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) based on two models. The results were evaluated for numerical consistency among models and true phantom ADC values, as well as for consistency of metadata with attributes required by the DICOM standards. This analysis identified missing metadata descriptive of the sources for detected numerical discrepancies among ADC models. Instead of the DICOM PM object, all sites stored ADC maps as DICOM MR objects, generally lacking designated attributes and coded terms for quantitative DWI modeling. Source-image reference, model parameters, ADC units and scale, deemed important for numerical consistency, were either missing or stored using nonstandard conventions. Guided by the identified limitations, the DICOM PM standard has been amended to include coded terms for the relevant diffusion models. Open-source software has been developed to support conversion of site-specific formats into the standard representation.

  11. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation-maximization reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Casey, Michael E.; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the

  12. Image-rotating cavity designs for improved beam quality in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Bowers, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    We show by computer simulation that high beam quality can be achieved in high-energy, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators by use of image-rotating resonators. Lateral walk-off between the signal and the idler beams in a nonlinear crystal creates correlations across the beams in the walk off direction, or equivalently, creates a restricted acceptance angle. These correlations can improve the beam quality in the walk-off plane. We show that image rotation or reflection can be used to improve beam quality in both planes. The lateral walk-off can be due to birefringent walk-off in type II mixing or to noncollinear mixing in type I or type II mixing

  13. An automated approach for segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vard, Alireza; Jamshidi, Kamal; Movahhedinia, Naser

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated approach to detect the intima and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models. To detect the intima border, we compute a new image feature applying a combination of short-term autocorrelations calculated for the contour pixels. These feature values are employed to define an energy function of the active contour called normalized cumulative short-term autocorrelation. Exploiting this energy function, the intima border is separated accurately from the blood region contaminated by high speckle noise. To extract media-adventitia boundary, we define a new form of energy function based on edge, texture and spring forces for the active contour. Utilizing this active contour, the media-adventitia border is identified correctly even in presence of branch openings and calcifications. Experimental results indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrates high conformity between manual tracing and the results obtained by the proposed approaches.

  14. Automatic extraction of myocardial mass and volumes using parametric images from dynamic nongated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hendrik Johannes; Hansson, Nils Henrik Stubkjær; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) is used to quantify molecular processes in vivo. However, measurements of left-ventricular (LV) mass and volumes require electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated PET data. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of measuring LV geometry using non......-gated dynamic cardiac PET. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with aortic-valve stenosis and 10 healthy controls (HC) underwent a 27-min 11C-acetate PET/CT scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). HC were scanned twice to assess repeatability. Parametric images of uptake rate K1 and the blood pool were......LV and WT only and an overestimation for LVEF at lower values. Intra- and inter-observer correlations were >0.95 for all PET measurements. PET repeatability accuracy in HC was comparable to CMR. CONCLUSION: LV mass and volumes are accurately and automatically generated from dynamic 11C-acetate PET without...

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  16. Tissues segmentation based on multi spectral medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Each band image contains the most obvious tissue feature according to the optical characteristics of different tissues in different specific bands for multispectral medical images. In this paper, the tissues were segmented by their spectral information at each multispectral medical images. Four Local Binary Patter descriptors were constructed to extract blood vessels based on the gray difference between the blood vessels and their neighbors. The segmented tissue in each band image was merged to a clear image.

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Penalized Maximum-Likelihood Patlak Parametric Image Reconstruction in Dynamic PET for Lesion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-04-01

    Detecting cancerous lesions is a major clinical application of emission tomography. In a previous work, we studied penalized maximum-likelihood (PML) image reconstruction for lesion detection in static PET. Here we extend our theoretical analysis of static PET reconstruction to dynamic PET. We study both the conventional indirect reconstruction and direct reconstruction for Patlak parametric image estimation. In indirect reconstruction, Patlak parametric images are generated by first reconstructing a sequence of dynamic PET images, and then performing Patlak analysis on the time activity curves (TACs) pixel-by-pixel. In direct reconstruction, Patlak parametric images are estimated directly from raw sinogram data by incorporating the Patlak model into the image reconstruction procedure. PML reconstruction is used in both the indirect and direct reconstruction methods. We use a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) to assess lesion detectability in Patlak parametric images. Simplified expressions for evaluating the lesion detectability have been derived and applied to the selection of the regularization parameter value to maximize detection performance. The proposed method is validated using computer-based Monte Carlo simulations. Good agreements between the theoretical predictions and the Monte Carlo results are observed. Both theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulation results show the benefit of the indirect and direct methods under optimized regularization parameters in dynamic PET reconstruction for lesion detection, when compared with the conventional static PET reconstruction.

  18. Strategies for the generation of parametric images of [11C]PIB with plasma input functions considering discriminations and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Paul; Brooks, David J; Turkheimer, Federico E; Archer, Hilary A; Hinz, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Pittsburgh compound B or [11C]PIB is an amyloid imaging agent which shows a clear differentiation between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls. However the observed signal difference in other forms of dementia such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is smaller, and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) subjects and some healthy elderly normals may show intermediate levels of [11C]PIB binding. The cerebellum, a commonly used reference region for non-specific tracer uptake in [11C]PIB studies in AD may not be valid in Prion disorders or monogenic forms of AD. The aim of this work was to: 1-compare methods for generating parametric maps of [11C]PIB retention in tissue using a plasma input function in respect of their ability to discriminate between AD subjects and controls and 2-estimate the test-retest reproducibility in AD subjects. 12 AD subjects (5 of which underwent a repeat scan within 6 weeks) and 10 control subjects had 90 minute [11C]PIB dynamic PET scans, and arterial plasma input functions were measured. Parametric maps were generated with graphical analysis of reversible binding (Logan plot), irreversible binding (Patlak plot), and spectral analysis. Between group differentiation was calculated using Student's t-test and comparisons between different methods were made using p values. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). We found that the 75 min value of the impulse response function showed the best group differentiation and had a higher ICC than volume of distribution maps generated from Logan and spectral analysis. Patlak analysis of [11C]PIB binding was the least reproducible.

  19. Direct reconstruction of parametric images for brain PET with event-by-event motion correction: evaluation in two tracers across count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Mary; Gallezot, Jean-Dominque; Yan, Jianhua; Carson, Richard E.

    2017-07-01

    Parametric images for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) are typically generated by an indirect method, i.e. reconstructing a time series of emission images, then fitting a kinetic model to each voxel time activity curve. Alternatively, ‘direct reconstruction’, incorporates the kinetic model into the reconstruction algorithm itself, directly producing parametric images from projection data. Direct reconstruction has been shown to achieve parametric images with lower standard error than the indirect method. Here, we present direct reconstruction for brain PET using event-by-event motion correction of list-mode data, applied to two tracers. Event-by-event motion correction was implemented for direct reconstruction in the Parametric Motion-compensation OSEM List-mode Algorithm for Resolution-recovery reconstruction. The direct implementation was tested on simulated and human datasets with tracers [11C]AFM (serotonin transporter) and [11C]UCB-J (synaptic density), which follow the 1-tissue compartment model. Rigid head motion was tracked with the Vicra system. Parametric images of K 1 and distribution volume (V T  =  K 1/k 2) were compared to those generated by the indirect method by regional coefficient of variation (CoV). Performance across count levels was assessed using sub-sampled datasets. For simulated and real datasets at high counts, the two methods estimated K 1 and V T with comparable accuracy. At lower count levels, the direct method was substantially more robust to outliers than the indirect method. Compared to the indirect method, direct reconstruction reduced regional K 1 CoV by 35-48% (simulated dataset), 39-43% ([11C]AFM dataset) and 30-36% ([11C]UCB-J dataset) across count levels (averaged over regions at matched iteration); V T CoV was reduced by 51-58%, 54-60% and 30-46%, respectively. Motion correction played an important role in the dataset with larger motion: correction increased regional V T by 51% on average in the [11C

  20. Multispectral imaging of acute wound tissue oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Huong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the appropriate range of values for the transcutaneous blood oxygen saturation (StO2 of granulating tissues and the surrounding tissue that can ensure timely wound recovery. This work has used a multispectral imaging system to collect wound images at wavelengths ranging between 520nm and 600nm with a resolution of 10nm. As part of this research, a pilot study was conducted on three injured individuals with superficial wounds of different wound ages at different skin locations. The StO2 value predicted for the examined wounds using the Extended Modified Lambert–Beer model revealed a mean StO2 of 61±10.3% compared to 41.6±6.2% at the surrounding tissues, and 50.1±1.53% for control sites. These preliminary results contribute to the existing knowledge on the possible range and variation of wound bed StO2 that are to be used as indicators of the functioning of the vasomotion system and wound health. This study has concluded that a high StO2 of approximately 60% and a large fluctuation in this value should precede a good progression in wound healing.

  1. Comparative Analysis and Modification of Imaging Techniques in the Parametric Studies of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauman Moscow State Technical University, MoscowКалининградский государственный технический университет, КалининградThe article considers practical application aspects of various imaging techniques for parametric analysis of control systems. It is interpreted as a multivariate analysis aimed at studying the influence of external and internal parameters of the system on the quality of its functioning determined by direct and indirect quality criteria. The ultimate goal is to identify regions in the parameter space to provide an appropriate quality of the system. It is noted that visualization is a very important task-supporting aid for a designer to make decision. Stressed that the problem of parametric studies, in most cases, intersects with the major problem of inconsistency of separate partial criteria, i.e., the problem of multi-criteria optimization (MCO. Therefore, the aim of the article was to solve a joint task of visualization and multi-criteria optimization.The article considers traditional types of visualization in deterministic tasks (a 3-D graphics, plotting contour lines, gradient fields, Andrews curves, parallel coordinates, as well as methods used in statistics (graph matrices, etc.. Testing these methods as applied to the practical task of studying a double-circuit stabilization system allowed formulation of requirements for imaging techniques with multiple criteria.Provides a new perspective on using the traditional means to significantly enhance information capacity of imaging. A generic method of visualization is represented as a three-phase study agreed with the task of finding the compromise solutions. The first phase of the research involved identifying the monotony and contra-monotony domains. The second phase was aimed at identifying a region of compromise, or a weak Pareto optimum. The third phase involved the search for a consistent optimum (strong Pareto

  2. Brain tissues volume measurements from 2D MRI using parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, A. A.; Toropova, O. A.; Litovka, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose a fully automated method of volume assessment of structures within human brain. Our statistical approach uses maximum interdependency principle for decision making process of measurements consistency and unequal observations. Detecting outliers performed using maximum normalized residual test. We propose a statistical model which utilizes knowledge of tissues distribution in human brain and applies partial data restoration for precision improvement. The approach proposes completed computationally efficient and independent from segmentation algorithm used in the application.

  3. Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for brain disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze data from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients with brain disorders and to assess its potential utility for analyzing brain function. DTI was obtained by performing 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), and the data were analyzed using Matlab-based SPM software. The two-sample t-test was used for error analysis of the location of the activated pixels. We compared regions of white matter where the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were low and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were increased. In the AD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right sub-lobar insula, and right occipital lingual gyrus whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. In the VD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right limbic cingulate gyrus, and right sub-lobar caudate tail whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the left lateral globus pallidus and left medial globus pallidus. In conclusion by using DTI and SPM analysis, we were able to not only determine the structural state of the regions affected by brain disorders but also quantitatively analyze and assess brain function.

  4. Fluid flow in porous media using image-based modelling to parametrize Richards' equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L J; Daly, K R; Hallett, P D; Naveed, M; Koebernick, N; Bengough, A G; George, T S; Roose, T

    2017-11-01

    The parameters in Richards' equation are usually calculated from experimentally measured values of the soil-water characteristic curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The complex pore structures that often occur in porous media complicate such parametrization due to hysteresis between wetting and drying and the effects of tortuosity. Rather than estimate the parameters in Richards' equation from these indirect measurements, image-based modelling is used to investigate the relationship between the pore structure and the parameters. A three-dimensional, X-ray computed tomography image stack of a soil sample with voxel resolution of 6 μm has been used to create a computational mesh. The Cahn-Hilliard-Stokes equations for two-fluid flow, in this case water and air, were applied to this mesh and solved using the finite-element method in COMSOL Multiphysics. The upscaled parameters in Richards' equation are then obtained via homogenization. The effect on the soil-water retention curve due to three different contact angles, 0°, 20° and 60°, was also investigated. The results show that the pore structure affects the properties of the flow on the large scale, and different contact angles can change the parameters for Richards' equation.

  5. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  6. Automatic Extraction of Myocardial Mass and Volume Using Parametric Images from Dynamic Nongated PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Hendrik Johannes; Stubkjær Hansson, Nils Henrik; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kim, Won Yong; Jakobsen, Steen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Wiggers, Henrik; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic cardiac PET is used to quantify molecular processes in vivo. However, measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass and volume require electrocardiogram-gated PET data. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of measuring LV geometry using nongated dynamic cardiac PET. Thirty-five patients with aortic-valve stenosis and 10 healthy controls underwent a 27-min (11)C-acetate PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI (CMR). The controls were scanned twice to assess repeatability. Parametric images of uptake rate K1 and the blood pool were generated from nongated dynamic data. Using software-based structure recognition, the LV wall was automatically segmented from K1 images to derive functional assessments of LV mass (mLV) and wall thickness. End-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were calculated using blood pool images and applied to obtain stroke volume and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). PET measurements were compared with CMR. High, linear correlations were found for LV mass (r = 0.95), end-systolic volume (r = 0.93), and end-diastolic volume (r = 0.90), and slightly lower correlations were found for stroke volume (r = 0.74), LVEF (r = 0.81), and thickness (r = 0.78). Bland-Altman analyses showed significant differences for mLV and thickness only and an overestimation for LVEF at lower values. Intra- and interobserver correlations were greater than 0.95 for all PET measurements. PET repeatability accuracy in the controls was comparable to CMR. LV mass and volume are accurately and automatically generated from dynamic (11)C-acetate PET without electrocardiogram gating. This method can be incorporated in a standard routine without any additional workload and can, in theory, be extended to other PET tracers. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Static whole body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15–20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole body PET acquisition protocol of ~45min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6-min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (6 passes x 7 bed positions, each scanned for 45sec). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares (OLS) Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of 10 different clinically

  8. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  9. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ∼15–20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ∼45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different

  10. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ˜15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ˜45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  11. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... the possibility of using high-field experimental MR scanners and long scanning times, thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and anatomical resolution. Moreover, many of the degrading effects observed in vivo, such as physiological noise, are no longer present. However, the post mortem...

  12. Modelling of Cortical Bone Tissue as a Fluid Saturated Double-Porous Material - Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana TURJANICOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cortical bone tissue is considered as a poroelastic material with periodic structure represented at microscopic and mesoscopic levels. The pores of microscopic scale are connected with the pores of mesoscopic scale creating one system of connected network filled with compressible fluid. The method of asymptotic homogenization is applied to upscale the microscopic model of the fluid-solid interaction under a static loading. Obtained homogenized coefficients describe material properties of the poroelastic matrix fractured by fluid-filled pores whose geometry is described at the mesoscopic level. The second-level upscaling provides homogenized poroelastic coefficients relevant on the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, we study the dependence of these coefficients on geometrical parameters on related microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  13. Personalized precision radiotherapy by integration of multi-parametric functional and biological imaging in prostate cancer. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Daniela [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section for Biomedical Physics; Notohamiprodjo, Mike [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Zips, Daniel; Mueller, Arndt-Christan [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2017-05-01

    To increase tumour control probability (TCP) in prostate cancer a method was developed integrating multi-parametric functional and biological information into a dose painting treatment plan aiming focal dose-escalation to tumour sub-volumes. A dose-escalation map was derived considering individual, multi-parametric estimated tumour aggressiveness. Multi-parametric functional imaging (MRI, Choline-/PSMA-/FMISO-PET/CT) was acquired for a high risk prostate cancer patient with a high level of tumour load (cT3b cN0 cM0) indicated by subtotal involvement of prostate including the right seminal vesicle and by PSA-level >100. Probability of tumour presence was determined by a combination of multi-parametric functional image information resulting in a voxel-based map of tumour aggressiveness. This probability map was directly integrated into dose optimization in order to plan for inhomogeneous, biological imaging based dose painting. Histograms of the multi-parametric prescription function were generated in addition to a differential histogram of the planned inhomogeneous doses. Comparison of prescribed doses with planned doses on a voxel level was realized using an effective DVH, containing the ratio of prescribed vs. planned dose for each tumour voxel. Multi-parametric imaging data of PSMA, Choline and FMISO PET/CT as well as ADC maps derived from diffusion weighted MRI were combined to an individual probability map of tumour presence. Voxel-based prescription doses ranged from 75.3 Gy up to 93.4 Gy (median: 79.6 Gy), whereas the planned dose painting doses varied only between 72.5 and 80.0 Gy with a median dose of 75.7 Gy. However, inhomogeneous voxel-based dose prescriptions can only be implemented into a treatment plan until a certain level. Multi-parametric probability based dose painting in prostate cancer is technically and clinically feasible. However, detailed calibration functions to define the necessary probability functions need to be assessed in future

  14. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  15. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  16. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  17. An automated four-point scale scoring of segmental wall motion in echocardiography using quantified parametric images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenoura, N; Delouche, A; Ruiz Dominguez, C; Frouin, F; Diebold, B; Nardi, O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an automated method which operates on echocardiographic dynamic loops for classifying the left ventricular regional wall motion (RWM) in a four-point scale. A non-selected group of 37 patients (2 and 4 chamber views) was studied. Each view was segmented according to the standardized segmentation using three manually positioned anatomical landmarks (the apex and the angles of the mitral annulus). The segmented data were analyzed by two independent experienced echocardiographists and the consensual RWM scores were used as a reference for comparisons. A fast and automatic parametric imaging method was used to compute and display as static color-coded parametric images both temporal and motion information contained in left ventricular dynamic echocardiograms. The amplitude and time parametric images were provided to a cardiologist for visual analysis of RWM and used for RWM quantification. A cross-validation method was applied to the segmental quantitative indices for classifying RWM in a four-point scale. A total of 518 segments were analyzed. Comparison between visual interpretation of parametric images and the reference reading resulted in an absolute agreement (Aa) of 66% and a relative agreement (Ra) of 96% and kappa (κ) coefficient of 0.61. Comparison of the automated RWM scoring against the same reference provided Aa = 64%, Ra = 96% and κ = 0.64 on the validation subset. Finally, linear regression analysis between the global quantitative index and global reference scores as well as ejection fraction resulted in correlations of 0.85 and 0.79. A new automated four-point scale scoring of RWM was developed and tested in a non-selected database. Its comparison against a consensual visual reading of dynamic echocardiograms showed its ability to classify RWM abnormalities.

  18. Rapid computation of single PET scan rest-stress myocardial blood flow parametric images by table look up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, Nicolas J; Normandin, Marc D; Wooten, Dustin W; Rozen, Guy; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Shoup, Timothy M; Woo, Jonghye; Ptaszek, Leon M; Fakhri, Georges El; Alpert, Nathaniel M

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported a method for measuring rest-stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) using a single, relatively short, PET scan session. The method requires two IV tracer injections, one to initiate rest imaging and one at peak stress. We previously validated absolute flow quantitation in ml/min/cc for standard bull's eye, segmental analysis. In this work, we extend the method for fast computation of rest-stress MBF parametric images. We provide an analytic solution to the single-scan rest-stress flow model which is then solved using a two-dimensional table lookup method (LM). Simulations were performed to compare the accuracy and precision of the lookup method with the original nonlinear method (NLM). Then the method was applied to 16 single scan rest/stress measurements made in 12 pigs: seven studied after infarction of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory, and nine imaged in the native state. Parametric maps of rest and stress MBF as well as maps of left (f LV ) and right (f RV ) ventricular spill-over fractions were generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) for 17 myocardial segments were defined in bull's eye fashion on the parametric maps. The mean of each ROI was then compared to the rest (K 1r ) and stress (K 1s ) MBF estimates obtained from fitting the 17 regional TACs with the NLM. In simulation, the LM performed as well as the NLM in terms of precision and accuracy. The simulation did not show that bias was introduced by the use of a predefined two-dimensional lookup table. In experimental data, parametric maps demonstrated good statistical quality and the LM was computationally much more efficient than the original NLM. Very good agreement was obtained between the mean MBF calculated on the parametric maps for each of the 17 ROIs and the regional MBF values estimated by the NLM (K 1map LM  = 1.019 × K 1 ROI NLM  + 0.019, R 2  = 0.986; mean difference = 0.034 ± 0.036 mL/min/cc). We developed a table lookup method for fast

  19. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  20. Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kořínek R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the visualization of the cells (ESEs and mucilage (ECMSN in an embryogenic tissue via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI relaxometry measurement combined with the subsequent multi-parametric segmentation. The computed relaxometry maps T1 and T2 show a thin layer (transition layer between the culture medium and the embryogenic tissue. The ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer differ in their relaxation times T1 and T2; thus, these times can be used to characterize the individual parts within the embryogenic tissue. The observed mean values of the relaxation times T1 and T2 of the ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer are as follows: 1469 ± 324 and 53 ± 10 ms, 1784 ± 124 and 74 ± 8 ms, 929 ± 164 and 32 ± 4.7 ms, respectively. The multi-parametric segmentation exploiting the T1 and T2 relaxation times as a classifier shows the distribution of the ESEs and mucilage within the embryogenic tissue. The discussed T1 and T2 indicators can be utilized to characterize both the growth-related changes in an embryogenic tissue and the effect of biotic/abiotic stresses, thus potentially becoming a distinctive indicator of the state of any examined embryogenic tissue.

  1. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δϕ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with

  2. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  3. Oscillating intensity display of soft tissue lesions in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Levin, D.N.; Beck, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-aided tissue characterization scheme is used to separate abnormal from normal tissues on the basis of their intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. The intensity of an abnormal tissue on a T1-weighted image is then made to oscillate so that the amplitude (or frequency) of oscillation is directly proportional to the difference between the lesion's intensity and the intensities of normal tissues. The result is a ''movie'' in which the abnormal tissue churns or oscillates on the screen, drawing the attention because of the eye's sensitivity to motion

  4. Automatic extraction of left ventricular mass and volumes using parametric images from non-ECG-gated 15O-water PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, J; Harms, Hans; Lubberink, Mark

    of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring LV geometry using dynamic 15O-water PET/CT without ECG-gating. Methods: Parametric images of MBF, perfusable tissue fraction (PTF) and LV blood pool were generated automatically using kinetic modelling. Segmentation of the LV wall using PTF......Introduction: 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the gold standard for non-invasive quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). It has been shown to identify patients with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) with high accuracy. Hypertrophy with or without dilatation...... combined to measure stroke volume (SV=EDV-ESV) and ejection fraction (EF=SV/EDV). Accuracy was determined by comparing PET to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 30 asymptomatic patients with high grade LV regurgitation (group A). Precision was determined as inter-observer variation in group...

  5. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from

  6. Digital double random amplitude image encryption method based on the symmetry property of the parametric discrete Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkouche, Toufik; Bouguezel, Saad

    2018-03-01

    We propose a real-to-real image encryption method. It is a double random amplitude encryption method based on the parametric discrete Fourier transform coupled with chaotic maps to perform the scrambling. The main idea behind this method is the introduction of a complex-to-real conversion by exploiting the inherent symmetry property of the transform in the case of real-valued sequences. This conversion allows the encrypted image to be real-valued instead of being a complex-valued image as in all existing double random phase encryption methods. The advantage is to store or transmit only one image instead of two images (real and imaginary parts). Computer simulation results and comparisons with the existing double random amplitude encryption methods are provided for peak signal-to-noise ratio, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis, and key sensitivity.

  7. Joint reconstruction of dynamic PET activity and kinetic parametric images using total variation constrained dictionary sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Chen, Shuhang; Chen, Yunmei; Liu, Huafeng

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of providing both spatial and temporal information of radio tracers in vivo. In this paper, we present a novel joint estimation framework to reconstruct temporal sequences of dynamic PET images and the coefficients characterizing the system impulse response function, from which the associated parametric images of the system macro parameters for tracer kinetics can be estimated. The proposed algorithm, which combines statistical data measurement and tracer kinetic models, integrates a dictionary sparse coding (DSC) into a total variational minimization based algorithm for simultaneous reconstruction of the activity distribution and parametric map from measured emission sinograms. DSC, based on the compartmental theory, provides biologically meaningful regularization, and total variation regularization is incorporated to provide edge-preserving guidance. We rely on techniques from minimization algorithms (the alternating direction method of multipliers) to first generate the estimated activity distributions with sub-optimal kinetic parameter estimates, and then recover the parametric maps given these activity estimates. These coupled iterative steps are repeated as necessary until convergence. Experiments with synthetic, Monte Carlo generated data, and real patient data have been conducted, and the results are very promising.

  8. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  9. Quantitative Multi-Parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J L Schreurs

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize response to photodynamic therapy (PDT in a mouse cancer model using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI protocol and to identify MR parameters as potential biomarkers for early assessment of treatment outcome.CT26.WT colon carcinoma tumors were grown subcutaneously in the hind limb of BALB/c mice. Therapy consisted of intravenous injection of the photosensitizer Bremachlorin, followed by 10 min laser illumination (200 mW/cm2 of the tumor 6 h post injection. MRI at 7 T was performed at baseline, directly after PDT, as well as at 24 h, and 72 h. Tumor relaxation time constants (T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were quantified at each time point. Additionally, Gd-DOTA dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI was performed to estimate transfer constants (Ktrans and volume fractions of the extravascular extracellular space (ve using standard Tofts-Kermode tracer kinetic modeling. At the end of the experiment, tumor viability was characterized by histology using NADH-diaphorase staining.The therapy induced extensive cell death in the tumor and resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth, as compared to untreated controls. Tumor T1 and T2 relaxation times remained unchanged up to 24 h, but decreased at 72 h after treatment. Tumor ADC values significantly increased at 24 h and 72 h. DCE-MRI derived tracer kinetic parameters displayed an early response to the treatment. Directly after PDT complete vascular shutdown was observed in large parts of the tumors and reduced uptake (decreased Ktrans in remaining tumor tissue. At 24 h, contrast uptake in most tumors was essentially absent. Out of 5 animals that were monitored for 2 weeks after treatment, 3 had tumor recurrence, in locations that showed strong contrast uptake at 72 h.DCE-MRI is an effective tool for visualization of vascular effects directly after PDT. Endogenous contrast parameters T1, T2, and ADC, measured at 24 to 72 h after PDT, are

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral soft tissue hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M C; Stull, M A; Patt, R H; Freedman, M T [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Teitelbaum, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Lack, E E [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Pathology; Bogumill, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1990-10-01

    Ten patients with soft tissue hemangiomas outside the central nervous system were studied with MR imaging. Eight patients were studied at 1.5 Tesla (T) with T{sub 1}-weighted and triple echo T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Two additional patients were imaged on a 0.5-T system. The MR images were correlated with images from other modalities. It was found that prolonged T{sub 2}-weighted imaging together with standard spin echo T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pulse sequences is a good substitute for contrast-enhanced CT and arteriographic evaluation of soft tissue hemangiomas. (orig./DG).

  11. Cardiac tissue Doppler imaging in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Anne; Scharhag, Jürgen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Urhausen, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The differentiation of training-induced cardiac adaptations from pathological conditions is a key issue in sports cardiology. As morphological features do not allow for a clear delineation of early stages of relevant pathologies, the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function is the technique of first choice in this regard. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a relatively recent method for the assessment of cardiac function that provides direct, local measurements of myocardial velocities throughout the cardiac cycle. Although it has shown a superior sensitivity in the detection of ventricular dysfunction in clinical and experimental studies, its application in sports medicine is still rare. Besides technical factors, this may be due to a lack in consensus on the characteristics of ventricular function in relevant conditions. For more than two decades there has been an ongoing debate on the existence of a supernormal left ventricular function in athlete's heart. While results from traditional echocardiography are conflicting, TDI studies established an improved diastolic function in endurance-trained athletes with athlete's heart compared with controls.The influence of anabolic steroids on cardiac function also has been investigated by standard echocardiographic techniques with inconsistent results. The only TDI study dealing with this topic demonstrated a significantly impaired diastolic function in bodybuilders with long-term abuse of anabolic steroids compared with strength-trained athletes without abuse of anabolic steroids and controls, respectively.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cause of sudden death in young athletes. However, in its early stages, it is difficult to distinguish from athlete's heart. By means of TDI, ventricular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be disclosed even before the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, a differentiation of left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertrophic

  12. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W [Carmichael, CA; Hoefer, Richard A [Newport News, VA; Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; McKisson, John [Hampton, VA; Kross, Brian [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Stolin, Alexander [Newport News, VA; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  13. Teaching the physics of medical imaging: an active learning approach involving imaging of biological tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to medical imaging is an experimentally oriented course in the physics of medical imaging, where the students record, process and analyse 3D data of an unknown piece of formalin fixed animal tissue embedded in agar in order to estimate the tissue types present. Planar X-ray, CT, MRI......, ultrasound and SPECT/PET images are recorded, showing the tissue in very different ways. In order for the students to estimate the tissue type, they need to study the physical principles of the imaging modalities. The “true” answer is subsequently revealed by slicing the tissue....

  14. Acoustic Imaging of Selected Areas of Gdansk Bay with the Aid of Parametric Echosounder and Side-Scan Sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelowska Grażyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyses the data recorded during sounding of the Gdansk Bay seabed with the aid of a parametric echosounder and a side-scan sonar. The accuracy of seabed structure examination, as a condition for obtaining valuable results, requires correct configuration of echolocation devices and proper calibration of peripheral devices, such as the survey unit geographical position sensor - GPS, the navigation unit, the MRU-Z sensor of pitch, roll and heave, and the sound velocity meter, which deliver the data to the bathymetric measurement system. Parametric seabed profilers deliver two types of data: the envelope, and the detailed echo signal without processing. The envelope is used for data visualisation in the form of online echograms, while the echo signal is stored for further analyses, to be performed using dedicated software or, after relevant conversion, in arbitrary programming environment1. The presented data analysis is illustrated by selected sample images recorded by the parametric echosounder and the side-scan sonar during Gdansk Bay sounding.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  16. Imaging of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We review the imaging appearance of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck. Bilateral sialadenitis and dacryoadenitis are seen in Sjögren’s syndrome; ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint with sclerosis of the crico-arytenoid joint are reported in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus panniculitis with atypical infection are reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Relapsing polychondritis shows subglottic stenosis, prominent ear and saddle nose; progressive systemic sclerosis shows osteolysis of the mandible, fibrosis of the masseter muscle with calcinosis of the subcutaneous tissue and dermatomyositis/polymyositis shows condylar erosions and autoimmune thyroiditis. Vascular thrombosis is reported in antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome; cervical lymphadenopathy is seen in adult-onset Still’s disease, and neuropathy with thyroiditis reported in mixed connective tissue disorder. Imaging is important to detect associated malignancy with connective tissue disorders. Correlation of the imaging findings with demographic data and clinical findings are important for the diagnosis of connective tissue disorders. PMID:26988082

  17. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of early inflammatory sacroiliitis according to ASAS criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, Fatma Nur, E-mail: nursoylu@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Uzeri, 34752 Atasehir, Istanbul (Turkey); Kayhan, Arda, E-mail: arda_kayhan@yahoo.com [Health Services Vocational School, Esenyurt University, Dogan Arasli Bulvari No 120, Esenyurt, Istanbul (Turkey); Karakas, Hakki Muammer, E-mail: hakki.karakas@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Uzeri, 34752 Atasehir, Istanbul (Turkey); Unlu-Ozkan, Feyza, E-mail: feyzamd@yahoo.com [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Uzeri, 34752 Atasehir, Istanbul (Turkey); Silte, Duygu, E-mail: drduygusilte@hotmail.com [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Uzeri, 34752 Atasehir, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktas, İlknur, E-mail: iaktas@hotmail.com [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Uzeri, 34752 Atasehir, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of multi-parametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including fat saturated (FS) T2-weighted, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), diffusion-weighted (DW-MR), and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MR (DCE-MR) imaging techniques in the diagnosis of early inflammatory sacroiliitis and determine the additional value of DW-MR and DCE-MR images according to recently defined ‘Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society’ criteria. Materials and methods: The study included 45 patients with back pain. Two radiologists estimated the likelihood of osteitis in 4 independent viewing sessions including FS T2-weighted, STIR, DW-MR and DCE-MR images. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were calculated. Results: Of the 45 patients, 31 had inflammatory back pain. Of 31, 28 (90.3%) patients had inflammatory sacroiliitis diagnosed by clinical and laboratory analysis. FS T2-weighted MR images had the highest sensitivity (42.8% for both radiologists) for detecting osteitis in patients with inflammaory sacroiliitis when compared to other imaging sequences. For specificity, PPV, NPV, accuracy, and AUC levels there were no statistically significant difference between image viewing settings. However, adding STIR, DW-MR and DCE-MR images to the FS T2-weighted MR images did not improve the above stated indices. Conclusion: FS T2-weighted MR imaging had the highest sensitivity when compared to other imaging sequences. The addition of DW-MR and DCE-MR images did not significantly improve the diagnostic value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of osteitis for both experienced and less experienced radiologists.

  18. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of early inflammatory sacroiliitis according to ASAS criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Fatma Nur; Kayhan, Arda; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Unlu-Ozkan, Feyza; Silte, Duygu; Aktas, İlknur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of multi-parametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including fat saturated (FS) T2-weighted, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), diffusion-weighted (DW-MR), and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MR (DCE-MR) imaging techniques in the diagnosis of early inflammatory sacroiliitis and determine the additional value of DW-MR and DCE-MR images according to recently defined ‘Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society’ criteria. Materials and methods: The study included 45 patients with back pain. Two radiologists estimated the likelihood of osteitis in 4 independent viewing sessions including FS T2-weighted, STIR, DW-MR and DCE-MR images. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were calculated. Results: Of the 45 patients, 31 had inflammatory back pain. Of 31, 28 (90.3%) patients had inflammatory sacroiliitis diagnosed by clinical and laboratory analysis. FS T2-weighted MR images had the highest sensitivity (42.8% for both radiologists) for detecting osteitis in patients with inflammaory sacroiliitis when compared to other imaging sequences. For specificity, PPV, NPV, accuracy, and AUC levels there were no statistically significant difference between image viewing settings. However, adding STIR, DW-MR and DCE-MR images to the FS T2-weighted MR images did not improve the above stated indices. Conclusion: FS T2-weighted MR imaging had the highest sensitivity when compared to other imaging sequences. The addition of DW-MR and DCE-MR images did not significantly improve the diagnostic value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of osteitis for both experienced and less experienced radiologists

  19. Noninvasive parametric blood flow imaging of head and neck tumours using [15O]H2O and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Gaber; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu; Seppänen, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple noninvasive method for measuring blood flow using [15O]H2O PET/CT for the head and neck area applicable in daily clinical practice. Fifteen dynamic [15O]H2O PET emission scans with simultaneous online radioactivity measurements of radial arterial blood [Blood-input functions (IFs)] were performed. Two noninvasively obtained population-based input functions were calculated by averaging all Blood-IF curves corrected for patients' body mass and injected dose [standardized uptake value (SUV)-IF] and for body surface area (BSA-IF) and injected dose. Parametric perfusion images were calculated for each set of IFs using a linearized two-compartment model, and values for several tissues were compared using Blood-IF as the gold standard. On comparing all tissues, the correlation between blood flow obtained with the invasive Blood-IF and both SUV-IF and BSA-IF was significant (R2=0.785 with P<0.001 and R2=0.813 with P<0.001, respectively). In individual tissues, the performance of the two noninvasive methods was most reliable in resting muscle and slightly less reliable in tumour and cerebellar regions. In these two tissues, only BSA-IF showed a significant correlation with Blood-IF (R2=0.307 with P=0.032 in tumours and R2=0.398 with P<0.007 in the cerebellum). The BSA-based noninvasive method enables clinically relevant delineation between areas of low and high blood flow in tumours. The blood flow of low-perfusion tissues can be reliably quantified using either of the evaluated noninvasive methods.

  20. Combined spectroscopic imaging and chemometric approach for automatically partitioning tissue types in human prostate tissue biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kidder, Linda H.; Lewis, E. Neil

    2001-07-01

    We have applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (FPA) and a Michelson step scan interferometer, to the investigation of various states of malignant human prostate tissue. The MCT FPA used consists of 64x64 pixels, each 61 micrometers 2, and has a spectral range of 2-10.5 microns. Each imaging data set was collected at 16-1 resolution, resulting in 512 image planes and a total of 4096 interferograms. In this article we describe a method for separating different tissue types contained within FTIR spectroscopic imaging data sets of human prostate tissue biopsies. We present images, generated by the Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm, which demonstrate the successful partitioning of distinct tissue type domains. Additionally, analysis of differences in the centroid spectra corresponding to different tissue types provides an insight into their biochemical composition. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to partition tissue type regions in a different data set using centroid spectra calculated from the original data set. This has implications for the use of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm as an automated technique for the separation and examination of tissue domains in biopsy samples.

  1. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  2. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  3. Nanoscale X-Ray Microscopic Imaging of Mammalian Mineralized Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Joy C.; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Chialing; Liu, Yijin; Chen, Jie; Meirer, Florian; Feser, Michael; Gelb, Jeff; Rudati, Juana; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun, Wenbing; Pianetta, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 µm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30–40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 µm), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro- and nanostructure. To test this...

  4. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  5. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.

    2009-01-01

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  6. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renallesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; Sandhu, Manavjit S.; Lal, A.; Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Sud, K.; Kohli, Harbir S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging inevaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings withconventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected withcystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July2004 to December 2005) at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education andResearch Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. Allpatients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followedby tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advancetechnology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography ofabdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. Allimages were evaluated for size, number and location of lesions. The findingsof THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in theirrespective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI and contrast enhancedCT were also evaluated for image, quality, lesion conspicuity and fluid-soliddifferentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cysticlesions and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions whencompared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSIin 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overallimage quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but wasnon-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonicimaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation and superiorcharacterization than conventional gray scale sonography. (author)

  7. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  8. Quantitative imaging of single upconversion nanoparticles in biological tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Nadort

    Full Text Available The unique luminescent properties of new-generation synthetic nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, enabled high-contrast optical biomedical imaging by suppressing the crowded background of biological tissue autofluorescence and evading high tissue absorption. This raised high expectations on the UCNP utilities for intracellular and deep tissue imaging, such as whole animal imaging. At the same time, the critical nonlinear dependence of the UCNP luminescence on the excitation intensity results in dramatic signal reduction at (∼1 cm depth in biological tissue. Here, we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of this trade-off aiming at the identification of optimal application niches of UCNPs e.g. biological liquids and subsurface tissue layers. As an example of such applications, we report on single UCNP imaging through a layer of hemolyzed blood. To extend this result towards in vivo applications, we quantified the optical properties of single UCNPs and theoretically analyzed the prospects of single-particle detectability in live scattering and absorbing bio-tissue using a human skin model. The model predicts that a single 70-nm UCNP would be detectable at skin depths up to 400 µm, unlike a hardly detectable single fluorescent (fluorescein dye molecule. UCNP-assisted imaging in the ballistic regime thus allows for excellent applications niches, where high sensitivity is the key requirement.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Dewhurst, R J

    2010-01-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  10. Automated prediction of tissue outcome after acute ischemic stroke in computed tomography perfusion images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter C.; Bennink, Edwin; de Jong, Hugo; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Viergever, Max A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the extent of cerebral damage on admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke could play an important role in treatment decision making. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging can be used to determine the extent of damage. However, clinical application is hindered by differences among vendors and used methodology. As a result, threshold based methods and visual assessment of CTP images has not yet shown to be useful in treatment decision making and predicting clinical outcome. Preliminary results in MR studies have shown the benefit of using supervised classifiers for predicting tissue outcome, but this has not been demonstrated for CTP. We present a novel method for the automatic prediction of tissue outcome by combining multi-parametric CTP images into a tissue outcome probability map. A supervised classification scheme was developed to extract absolute and relative perfusion values from processed CTP images that are summarized by a trained classifier into a likelihood of infarction. Training was performed using follow-up CT scans of 20 acute stroke patients with complete recanalization of the vessel that was occluded on admission. Infarcted regions were annotated by expert neuroradiologists. Multiple classifiers were evaluated in a leave-one-patient-out strategy for their discriminating performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Results showed that a RandomForest classifier performed optimally with an area under the ROC of 0.90 for discriminating infarct tissue. The obtained results are an improvement over existing thresholding methods and are in line with results found in literature where MR perfusion was used.

  11. Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tai, Hongyun; Howdle, Steven M; Kockenberger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds are integral to many regenerative medicine therapies, providing suitable environments for tissue regeneration. In order to assess their suitability, methods to routinely and reproducibly characterize scaffolds are needed. Scaffold structures are typically complex, and thus their characterization is far from trivial. The work presented in this paper is centred on the application of the principles of scaffold characterization outlined in guidelines developed by ASTM International. Specifically, this work demonstrates the capabilities of different imaging modalities and analysis techniques used to characterize scaffolds fabricated from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide. Three structurally different scaffolds were used. The scaffolds were imaged using: scanning electron microscopy, micro x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging. In each case two-dimensional images were obtained from which scaffold properties were determined using image processing. The findings of this work highlight how the chosen imaging modality and image-processing technique can influence the results of scaffold characterization. It is concluded that in order to obtain useful results from image-based scaffold characterization, an imaging methodology providing sufficient contrast and resolution must be used along with robust image segmentation methods to allow intercomparison of results

  12. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  13. Interactive classification and content-based retrieval of tissue images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Selim; Marchisio, Giovanni B.; Tusk, Carsten; Koperski, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    We describe a system for interactive classification and retrieval of microscopic tissue images. Our system models tissues in pixel, region and image levels. Pixel level features are generated using unsupervised clustering of color and texture values. Region level features include shape information and statistics of pixel level feature values. Image level features include statistics and spatial relationships of regions. To reduce the gap between low-level features and high-level expert knowledge, we define the concept of prototype regions. The system learns the prototype regions in an image collection using model-based clustering and density estimation. Different tissue types are modeled using spatial relationships of these regions. Spatial relationships are represented by fuzzy membership functions. The system automatically selects significant relationships from training data and builds models which can also be updated using user relevance feedback. A Bayesian framework is used to classify tissues based on these models. Preliminary experiments show that the spatial relationship models we developed provide a flexible and powerful framework for classification and retrieval of tissue images.

  14. A photoacoustic tomography system for imaging of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yixiong; Zhang Fan; Xu Kexin; Yao Jianquan; Wang, Ruikang K

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising imaging modality in the biomedical optical imaging field. This technology, based on the intrinsic optical properties of tissue and ultrasonic detection, overcomes the resolution disadvantage of pure-optical imaging caused by strong light scattering and the contrast and speckle disadvantages of pure ultrasonic imaging. Here, we report a PAT experimental system constructed in our laboratory. In our system, a Q-switched Nd : YAG pulse laser operated at 532 nm with a 8 ns pulse width is used to generate a photoacoustic signal. By using this system, the two-dimensional distribution of optical absorption in the tissue-mimicking phantom is reconstructed and has an excellent agreement with the original ones. The spatial resolution of the imaging system approaches 100 μm through about 4 cm of highly scattering medium

  15. ATMAD: robust image analysis for Automatic Tissue MicroArray De-arraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Paveau, Vincent; Cauchois, Cyril; Kervrann, Charles

    2018-04-19

    Over the last two decades, an innovative technology called Tissue Microarray (TMA), which combines multi-tissue and DNA microarray concepts, has been widely used in the field of histology. It consists of a collection of several (up to 1000 or more) tissue samples that are assembled onto a single support - typically a glass slide - according to a design grid (array) layout, in order to allow multiplex analysis by treating numerous samples under identical and standardized conditions. However, during the TMA manufacturing process, the sample positions can be highly distorted from the design grid due to the imprecision when assembling tissue samples and the deformation of the embedding waxes. Consequently, these distortions may lead to severe errors of (histological) assay results when the sample identities are mismatched between the design and its manufactured output. The development of a robust method for de-arraying TMA, which localizes and matches TMA samples with their design grid, is therefore crucial to overcome the bottleneck of this prominent technology. In this paper, we propose an Automatic, fast and robust TMA De-arraying (ATMAD) approach dedicated to images acquired with brightfield and fluorescence microscopes (or scanners). First, tissue samples are localized in the large image by applying a locally adaptive thresholding on the isotropic wavelet transform of the input TMA image. To reduce false detections, a parametric shape model is considered for segmenting ellipse-shaped objects at each detected position. Segmented objects that do not meet the size and the roundness criteria are discarded from the list of tissue samples before being matched with the design grid. Sample matching is performed by estimating the TMA grid deformation under the thin-plate model. Finally, thanks to the estimated deformation, the true tissue samples that were preliminary rejected in the early image processing step are recognized by running a second segmentation step. We

  16. Imaging of soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemni, H.; Bakir, D.; Ben Ahmed, S.; Kraiem, C.; Mrad Dali, K.; Tlili-Graiess, K.; Mnif, Z.; Jeddi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare and potentially highly malignant sarcoma. The authors report 6 cases of MFH in various sites : two in the chest wall, one in the pelvis, two in the gluteal zones and one on the scalp. Ultrasonography and computed tomography were the main imaging methods used in the assessment of the structure and extension of the tumor. A poor prognosis was noted in four cases: death within a few months in the two thoracic sites, recurrence in the pelvic and scalp lesions, radical surgery allowed recovery in two cases. A review of the literature showed that MRI and CT are complementary in the initial staging and follow-up these patients. (author)

  17. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  18. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  19. Parametric modeling of the intervertebral disc space in 3D: application to CT images of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korez, Robert; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-10-01

    Gradual degeneration of intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine is one of the most common causes of low back pain. Although conservative treatment for low back pain may provide relief to most individuals, surgical intervention may be required for individuals with significant continuing symptoms, which is usually performed by replacing the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study, we propose a method for parametric modeling of the intervertebral disc space in three dimensions (3D) and show its application to computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The initial 3D model of the intervertebral disc space is generated according to the superquadric approach and therefore represented by a truncated elliptical cone, which is initialized by parameters obtained from 3D models of adjacent vertebral bodies. In an optimization procedure, the 3D model of the intervertebral disc space is incrementally deformed by adding parameters that provide a more detailed morphometric description of the observed shape, and aligned to the observed intervertebral disc space in the 3D image. By applying the proposed method to CT images of 20 lumbar spines, the shape and pose of each of the 100 intervertebral disc spaces were represented by a 3D parametric model. The resulting mean (±standard deviation) accuracy of modeling was 1.06±0.98mm in terms of radial Euclidean distance against manually defined ground truth points, with the corresponding success rate of 93% (i.e. 93 out of 100 intervertebral disc spaces were modeled successfully). As the resulting 3D models provide a description of the shape of intervertebral disc spaces in a complete parametric form, morphometric analysis was straightforwardly enabled and allowed the computation of the corresponding

  20. Effects on MR images compression in tissue classification quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santalla, H; Meschino, G; Ballarin, V

    2007-01-01

    It is known that image compression is required to optimize the storage in memory. Moreover, transmission speed can be significantly improved. Lossless compression is used without controversy in medicine, though benefits are limited. If we compress images lossy, where image can not be totally recovered; we can only recover an approximation. In this point definition of 'quality' is essential. What we understand for 'quality'? How can we evaluate a compressed image? Quality in images is an attribute whit several definitions and interpretations, which actually depend on the posterior use we want to give them. This work proposes a quantitative analysis of quality for lossy compressed Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, and their influence in automatic tissue classification, accomplished with these images

  1. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  2. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  3. The usability of the optical parametric amplification of light for high-angular-resolution imaging and fast astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, A. R.; Stachowski, A.; Banaszek, K.; Pollo, A.

    2018-05-01

    High-angular-resolution imaging is crucial for many applications in modern astronomy and astrophysics. The fundamental diffraction limit constrains the resolving power of both ground-based and spaceborne telescopes. The recent idea of a quantum telescope based on the optical parametric amplification (OPA) of light aims to bypass this limit for the imaging of extended sources by an order of magnitude or more. We present an updated scheme of an OPA-based device and a more accurate model of the signal amplification by such a device. The semiclassical model that we present predicts that the noise in such a system will form so-called light speckles as a result of light interference in the optical path. Based on this model, we analysed the efficiency of OPA in increasing the angular resolution of the imaging of extended targets and the precise localization of a distant point source. According to our new model, OPA offers a gain in resolved imaging in comparison to classical optics. For a given time-span, we found that OPA can be more efficient in localizing a single distant point source than classical telescopes.

  4. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  5. Whole slide imaging of unstained tissue using lensfree microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sophie Nhu An; Hervé, Lionel; Bordy, Thomas; Cioni, Olivier; Delon, Antoine; Fromentin, Catherine; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Allier, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    Pathologist examination of tissue slides provides insightful information about a patient's disease. Traditional analysis of tissue slides is performed under a binocular microscope, which requires staining of the sample and delays the examination. We present a simple cost-effective lensfree imaging method to record 2-4μm resolution wide-field (10 mm2 to 6 cm2) images of unstained tissue slides. The sample processing time is reduced as there is no need for staining. A wide field of view (10 mm2) lensfree hologram is recorded in a single shot and the image is reconstructed in 2s providing a very fast acquisition chain. The acquisition is multispectral, i.e. multiple holograms are recorded simultaneously at three different wavelengths, and a dedicated holographic reconstruction algorithm is used to retrieve both amplitude and phase. Whole tissue slides imaging is obtained by recording 130 holograms with X-Y translation stages and by computing the mosaic of a 25 x 25 mm2 reconstructed image. The reconstructed phase provides a phase-contrast-like image of the unstained specimen, revealing structures of healthy and diseased tissue. Slides from various organs can be reconstructed, e.g. lung, colon, ganglion, etc. To our knowledge, our method is the first technique that enables fast wide-field lensfree imaging of such unlabeled dense samples. This technique is much cheaper and compact than a conventional phase contrast microscope and could be made portable. In sum, we present a new methodology that could quickly provide useful information when a rapid diagnosis is needed, such as tumor margin identification on frozen section biopsies during surgery.

  6. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  7. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  8. Pitfalls in soft tissue sarcoma imaging: chronic expanding hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahed, Kiarash; Khazai, Behnaz; Umpierrez, Monica; Subhawong, Ty K; Singer, Adam D

    2018-01-01

    Solid or nodular enhancement is typical of soft tissue sarcomas although high grade soft tissue sarcomas and those with internal hemorrhage often appear heterogeneous with areas of nonenhancement and solid or nodular enhancement. These MRI findings often prompt an orthopedic oncology referral, a biopsy or surgery. However, not all masses with these imaging findings are malignant. We report the multimodality imaging findings of two surgically proven chronic expanding hematomas (CEH) with imaging features that mimicked sarcomas. A third case of nonenhancing CEH of the lower extremity is also presented as a comparison. It is important that in the correct clinical scenario with typical imaging findings, the differential diagnosis of a chronic expanding hematoma be included in the workup of these patients. An image-guided biopsy of nodular tissue within such masses that proves to be negative for malignancy should not necessarily be considered discordant. A correct diagnosis may prevent a morbid unnecessary surgery and may indicate the need for a conservative noninvasive follow-up with imaging.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of tissue harmonic imaging (THI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan; Yang, Xinmai; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-04-01

    In THI the probing ultrasonic pulse has enough amplitude that it undergoes nonlinear distortion and energy shifts from the fundamental frequency of the pulse into its higher harmonics. Images generated from the second harmonic (SH) have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Experiments with a single element focused ultrasound transducer were used to compare a line target embedded in a tissue phantom using either fundamental or SH imaging. SH imaging showed an improvement in both the axial resolution (0.70 mm vs 0.92 mm) and the lateral resolution (1.02 mm vs 2.70 mm) of the target. In addition, the contrast-to-tissue ratio of the target was 2 dB higher with SH imaging. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation has been developed to simulate the experimental system. The model is based on a time-domain code for solving the KZK equation and accounts for arbitrary spatial variations in all tissue properties. The code was used to determine the impact of a nearfield layer of fat on the fundamental and second harmonic signals. For a 15 mm thick layer the SH side-lobes remained the same but the fundamental side-lobes increased by 2 dB. [Work supported by the NSF through the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems.

  10. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  11. Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Gannon, James; Bong, Jeffrey; Wong, Christiana O; Saha, Gopal B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed into ZPET images on a voxel by voxel basis. Multiple regions of interests (21 in total) were placed on cortical, subcortical and cerebellar structures on twenty-eight out of 38 patients with totally seizure-free (class I) outcome. Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to determine the location of the most asymmetric regions as variables for subsequent discriminant analysis of the entire group of the patients. The computer program identified the anterior half of the temporal lobe (p < 0.0005) and thalami (p = 0.021) as the most asymmetric regions in TLE patients with Class I outcome. Discriminant analysis using z-scores from a total of 8 ROIs (in 4 pairs) on these structures correctly lateralized thirty-seven out of 38 (97%) patients (sensitivity = 94%; specificity = 100%). The only false localization came from a patient with equivocal z-scores on the temporal lobes and this patient turned out to have poor outcome. The computer-assisted lateralization of TLE using ZPET provides an accurate, fast and objective way of seizure evaluation

  12. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-01-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied

  13. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (pcancerous tissues than in the normal ones (pcancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  14. Adaptive online learning based tissue segmentation of MR brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damkat, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aging population in the European Union and the US has increased the importance of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging plays an essential role in this endeavor by providing insight to the intricate cellular and inter-cellular processes in living tissues that will otherwise be

  15. Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Classification of Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can detect and identify many different molecules without the need for labeling. In addition, it can provide their spatial distributions as ‘molecular maps’. These features make MSI well suited for studying the molecular makeup of tumor tissue. Currently, there is an

  16. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining...

  17. Opto-ultrasound imaging in vivo in deep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Ke; YanXu; Zheng, Yao; Zhu, Xinpei; Gong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    It is of keen importance of deep tissue imaging with high resolution in vivo. Here we present an opto-ultrasound imaging method which utilizes an ultrasound to confine the laser pulse in a very tiny spot as a guide star. The results show that the imaging depth is 2mm with a resolution of 10um. Meanwhile, the excitation power we used is less than 2mW, which indicates that our methods can be applied in vivo without optical toxicity and optical bleaching due to the excitation power. (paper)

  18. Raman molecular imaging of brain frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Rosenblum, Mark L; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yurgelevic, Sally M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2014-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature of the region being studied. It is ideal for neurosurgical applications because it is non-destructive, label-free, not impacted by water concentration, and can map an entire region of tissue. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the meaningful spatial molecular information provided by Raman spectroscopy for identification of regions of normal brain, necrosis, diffusely infiltrating glioma and solid glioblastoma (GBM). Five frozen section tissues (1 normal, 1 necrotic, 1 GBM, and 2 infiltrating glioma) were mapped in their entirety using a 300-µm-square step size. Smaller regions of interest were also mapped using a 25-µm step size. The relative concentrations of relevant biomolecules were mapped across all tissues and compared with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, allowing identification of normal, GBM, and necrotic regions. Raman peaks and peak ratios mapped included 1003, 1313, 1431, 1585, and 1659 cm(-1). Tissue maps identified boundaries of grey and white matter, necrosis, GBM, and infiltrating tumor. Complementary information, including relative concentration of lipids, protein, nucleic acid, and hemoglobin, was presented in a manner which can be easily adapted for in vivo tissue mapping. Raman spectroscopy can successfully provide label-free imaging of tissue characteristics with high accuracy. It can be translated to a surgical or laboratory tool for rapid, non-destructive imaging of tumor margins.

  19. Artificial neural net system for interactive tissue classification with MR imaging and image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.P.; Silbiger, M.; Naylor, C.; Brown, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of interactive methods for MR tissue classification that permit mathematically rigorous methods for three-dimensional image segmentation and automatic organ/tumor contouring, as required for surgical and RTP planning. The authors investigate a number of image-intensity based tissue- classification methods that make no implicit assumptions on the MR parameters and hence are not limited by image data set. Similarly, we have trained artificial neural net (ANN) systems for both supervised and unsupervised tissue classification

  20. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  1. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  2. Non parametric denoising methods based on wavelets: Application to electron microscopy images in low exposure time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumia, Sid Ahmed; Messali, Zoubeida; Ouahabi, Abdeldjalil; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cedric; Marco, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction of the Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and Energy Filtering TEM images (EFTEM) hampered by the noisy nature of these images, so that their alignment becomes so difficult. This noise refers to the collision between the frozen hydrated biological samples and the electrons beam, where the specimen is exposed to the radiation with a high exposure time. This sensitivity to the electrons beam led specialists to obtain the specimen projection images at very low exposure time, which resulting the emergence of a new problem, an extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper investigates the problem of TEM images denoising when they are acquired at very low exposure time. So, our main objective is to enhance the quality of TEM images to improve the alignment process which will in turn improve the three dimensional tomography reconstructions. We have done multiple tests on special TEM images acquired at different exposure time 0.5s, 0.2s, 0.1s and 1s (i.e. with different values of SNR)) and equipped by Golding beads for helping us in the assessment step. We herein, propose a structure to combine multiple noisy copies of the TEM images. The structure is based on four different denoising methods, to combine the multiple noisy TEM images copies. Namely, the four different methods are Soft, the Hard as Wavelet-Thresholding methods, Bilateral Filter as a non-linear technique able to maintain the edges neatly, and the Bayesian approach in the wavelet domain, in which context modeling is used to estimate the parameter for each coefficient. To ensure getting a high signal-to-noise ratio, we have guaranteed that we are using the appropriate wavelet family at the appropriate level. So we have chosen âĂIJsym8âĂİ wavelet at level 3 as the most appropriate parameter. Whereas, for the bilateral filtering many tests are done in order to determine the proper filter parameters represented by the size of the filter, the range parameter and the

  3. Comparison of quality of ultrasonographic image of the pancreas: Tissue harmonic image vs. Fundamental image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To compare the quality of ultrasonographic (US) images, tissue harmonic image (THI) versus fundamental image (FI), of the pancreas. During a recent 2 month period, forty one patients with the normal pancreas on US were included. All of them were free of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of pancreatic disease, US was performed by an abdominal radiologist with a 2.5-5 MHz convex-array transducer (Sequoia 512: Acuson, Mountain View, Calif.U.S.A.). Comparison of THI and FI of the pancreas was done for the following parameters:conspicuity, intermal architecture, and delineation range. Grading was made by the consensus of two abdominal radiologist witha three-point scale. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcox signed rank sum test. For the evaluation of the US image quality of the pancreas THI showed better conspicuity (p=0.0130), clearer internal architecture (p=0.0029) and superior delineation range (p=0.0191) than those of FI. THI appears to show a superior image quality than FI in evaluation of the pancreas.

  4. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  5. Comparison of mechanisms involved in image enhancement of Tissue Harmonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.; Jing, Yuan

    2006-05-01

    Processes that have been suggested as responsible for the improved imaging in Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) include: 1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, 2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and 3) reduction in the amplitude of diffraction side lobes. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed and solved using a time-domain code. The numerical simulations were validated through experiments with tissue mimicking phantoms. The impact of aberration from tissue-like media was determined through simulations using three-dimensional maps of tissue properties derived from datasets available through the Visible Female Project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging suffers less clutter from reverberation and side-lobes but is not immune to aberration effects. The results indicate that side lobe suppression is the most significant reason for the improvement of second harmonic imaging.

  6. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  7. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  8. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  9. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il; Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2003-01-01

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 ∼ 15 ys, mean age: 8 ± 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 ∼ 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 ± 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe

  10. Noise removal in multichannel image data by a parametric maximum noise fraction estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1991-01-01

    Some approaches to noise removal in multispectral imagery are presented. The primary contribution of the present work is the establishment of several ways of estimating the noise covariance matrix from image data and a comparison of the noise separation performances. A case study with Landsat MSS...

  11. Parametrization of textural patterns in 123I-ioflupane imaging for the automatic detection of Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Murcia, F. J.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Moreno-Caballero, M.; Gómez-Río, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A novel approach to a computer aided diagnosis system for the Parkinson's disease is proposed. This tool is intended as a supporting tool for physicians, based on fully automated methods that lead to the classification of 123 I-ioflupane SPECT images. Methods: 123 I-ioflupane images from three different databases are used to train the system. The images are intensity and spatially normalized, then subimages are extracted and a 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix is computed over these subimages, allowing the characterization of the texture using Haralick texture features. Finally, different discrimination estimation methods are used to select a feature vector that can be used to train and test the classifier. Results: Using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique over these three databases, the system achieves results up to a 97.4% of accuracy, and 99.1% of sensitivity, with positive likelihood ratios over 27. Conclusions: The system presents a robust feature extraction method that helps physicians in the diagnosis task by providing objective, operator-independent textural information about 123 I-ioflupane images, commonly used in the diagnosis of the Parkinson's disease. Textural features computation has been optimized by using a subimage selection algorithm, and the discrimination estimation methods used here makes the system feature-independent, allowing us to extend it to other databases and diseases

  12. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake,

  13. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T 2 -weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  14. Image-guided urologic surgery: intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Joseph C.

    2017-02-01

    Emerging optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open urologic surgery, including oncologic surgery of the bladder, prostate, and kidney. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery are reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Molecular imaging represents an exciting future arena in conjugating cancer-specific contrast agents to fluorophores to improve the specificity of disease detection. Ongoing efforts are underway to translate optimal targeting agents and imaging modalities, with the goal to improve cancer-specific and functional outcomes.

  15. Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Bredella, Miriam A; Cypess, Aaron M; Torriani, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The rates of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disease have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In recent years there has been renewed interest in combating these diseases not only by modifying energy intake and lifestyle factors, but also by inducing endogenous energy expenditure. This approach has largely been stimulated by the recent recognition that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-long known to promote heat production and energy expenditure in infants and hibernating mammals-also exists in adult humans. This landmark finding relied on the use of clinical fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and imaging techniques continue to play a crucial and increasingly central role in understanding BAT physiology and function. Herein, the authors review the origins of BAT imaging, discuss current preclinical and clinical strategies for imaging BAT, and discuss imaging methods that will provide crucial insight into metabolic disease and how it may be treated by modulating BAT activity. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  16. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  17. Non-parametric Bayesian models of response function in dynamic image sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2016), s. 90-100 ISSN 1077-3142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Response function * Blind source separation * Dynamic medical imaging * Probabilistic models * Bayesian methods Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.498, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/tichy-0456983.pdf

  18. Spinal cord multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging for survival prediction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querin, G; El Mendili, M M; Lenglet, T; Delphine, S; Marchand-Pauvert, V; Benali, H; Pradat, P-F

    2017-08-01

    Assessing survival is a critical issue in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neuroimaging seems to be promising in the assessment of disease severity and several studies also suggest a strong relationship between spinal cord (SC) atrophy described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and disease progression. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive added value of multimodal SC MRI on survival. Forty-nine ALS patients were recruited and clinical data were collected. Patients were scored on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale and manual muscle testing. They were followed longitudinally to assess survival. The cervical SC was imaged using the 3 T MRI system. Cord volume and cross-sectional area (CSA) at each vertebral level were computed. Diffusion tensor imaging metrics were measured. Imaging metrics and clinical variables were used as inputs for a multivariate Cox regression survival model. On building a multivariate Cox regression model with clinical and MRI parameters, fractional anisotropy, magnetization transfer ratio and CSA at C2-C3, C4-C5, C5-C6 and C6-C7 vertebral levels were significant. Moreover, the hazard ratio calculated for CSA at the C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels indicated an increased risk for patients with SC atrophy (respectively 0.66 and 0.68). In our cohort, MRI parameters seem to be more predictive than clinical variables, which had a hazard ratio very close to 1. It is suggested that multimodal SC MRI could be a useful tool in survival prediction especially if used at the beginning of the disease and when combined with clinical variables. To validate it as a biomarker, confirmation of the results in bigger independent cohorts of patients is warranted. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Deriving stable multi-parametric MRI radiomic signatures in the presence of inter-scanner variations: survival prediction of glioblastoma via imaging pattern analysis and machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Akbari, Hamed; Shukla, Gaurav; Rozycki, Martin; Davatzikos, Christos

    2018-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that assessment of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) profiles can noninvasively predict survival in many cancers, including glioblastoma. The clinical adoption of mpMRI as a prognostic biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting, which is hampered by inter-scanner variations. This concept has not been addressed in existing studies. We developed a comprehensive set of within-patient normalized tumor features such as intensity profile, shape, volume, and tumor location, extracted from multicenter mpMRI of two large (npatients=353) cohorts, comprising the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP, npatients=252, nscanners=3) and The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA, npatients=101, nscanners=8). Inter-scanner harmonization was conducted by normalizing the tumor intensity profile, with that of the contralateral healthy tissue. The extracted features were integrated by support vector machines to derive survival predictors. The predictors' generalizability was evaluated within each cohort, by two cross-validation configurations: i) pooled/scanner-agnostic, and ii) across scanners (training in multiple scanners and testing in one). The median survival in each configuration was used as a cut-off to divide patients in long- and short-survivors. Accuracy (ACC) for predicting long- versus short-survivors, for these configurations was ACCpooled=79.06% and ACCpooled=84.7%, ACCacross=73.55% and ACCacross=74.76%, in HUP and TCIA datasets, respectively. The hazard ratio at 95% confidence interval was 3.87 (2.87-5.20, P<0.001) and 6.65 (3.57-12.36, P<0.001) for HUP and TCIA datasets, respectively. Our findings suggest that adequate data normalization coupled with machine learning classification allows robust prediction of survival estimates on mpMRI acquired by multiple scanners.

  20. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc; Penel, Nicolas; Mortier, Laurent; Vanseymortier, Luc; Robin, Y.M.; Gosset, Pierre; Cotten, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  1. Tissue discrimination in magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschino, G J; Comas, D S; González, M A; Ballarin, V L; Capiel, C

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of diseases of the muscles within the rotator cuff can be done using different modalities, being the Magnetic Resonance the method more widely used. There are criteria to evaluate the degree of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy, but these have low accuracy and show great variability inter and intra observer. In this paper, an analysis of the texture features of the rotator cuff muscles is performed to classify them and other tissues. A general supervised classification approach was used, combining forward-search as feature selection method with kNN as classification rule. Sections of Magnetic Resonance Images of the tissues of interest were selected by specialist doctors and they were considered as Gold Standard. Accuracies obtained were of 93% for T1-weighted images and 92% for T2-weighted images. As an immediate future work, the combination of both sequences of images will be considered, expecting to improve the results, as well as the use of other sequences of Magnetic Resonance Images. This work represents an initial point for the classification and quantification of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy degree. From this initial point, it is expected to make an accurate and objective system which will result in benefits for future research and for patients’ health. (paper)

  2. Tissue discrimination in magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, G. J.; Comas, D. S.; González, M. A.; Capiel, C.; Ballarin, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of diseases of the muscles within the rotator cuff can be done using different modalities, being the Magnetic Resonance the method more widely used. There are criteria to evaluate the degree of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy, but these have low accuracy and show great variability inter and intra observer. In this paper, an analysis of the texture features of the rotator cuff muscles is performed to classify them and other tissues. A general supervised classification approach was used, combining forward-search as feature selection method with kNN as classification rule. Sections of Magnetic Resonance Images of the tissues of interest were selected by specialist doctors and they were considered as Gold Standard. Accuracies obtained were of 93% for T1-weighted images and 92% for T2-weighted images. As an immediate future work, the combination of both sequences of images will be considered, expecting to improve the results, as well as the use of other sequences of Magnetic Resonance Images. This work represents an initial point for the classification and quantification of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy degree. From this initial point, it is expected to make an accurate and objective system which will result in benefits for future research and for patients’ health.

  3. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  4. High resolution ultrastructure imaging of fractures in human dental tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental hard tissues are dentine, cementum, and enamel. These are hydrated mineralised composite tissues with a hierarchical structure and versatile thermo-mechanical properties. The hierarchical structure of dentine and enamel was imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB milling. High resolution TEM was carried out in the vicinity of a crack tip in dentine. An intricate “random weave” pattern of hydroxyapatile crystallites was observed and this provided a possible explanation for toughening of the mineralized dentine tissue at the nano-scale. The results reported here provide the basis for improved understanding of the relationship between the multi-scale nature and the mechanical properties of hierarchically structured biomaterials, and will also be useful for the development of better prosthetic and dental restorative materials.

  5. Multi-parametric MR imaging of quadriceps musculature in the setting of clinical frailty syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, David M.; Sharma, Puneet; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Mohler, Jane; Fain, Mindy; Muchna, Amy E.; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) conferring an increased risk of rapid decline in health and function with increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between diffusion tensor, T2 and intramuscular fat content values of the quadriceps muscle group and clinical frailty status using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Subjects were recruited from the Arizona Frailty cohort composed of all females with frailty status based on the Fried criteria, including 6 non-frail and 10 pre-frail/frail adults, as well as a community sample of 11 young, healthy controls. Axial images of both thighs were obtained on a 3-T magnet with T1, T2 and diffusion tensor imaging as well as intramuscular fat analysis. Diffusion tensor and T2 values were determined by region-of-interest measurements at the proximal, mid and distal thirds of both thighs. Data were evaluated to determine differences between measured values and frailty status. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the bilateral quadriceps muscles demonstrated significant differences (F = 7.558, p = 0.0030) between the control and pre-frail/frail and non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups. There was a significant difference in mean T2 (F = 21.675, p < 0.0001) and lipid content (F = 19.266, p < 0.0001) among all three groups in the total quadriceps muscle group. The quadriceps musculature of pre-frail/frail adults demonstrated increased FA compared to young controls and non-frail adults with increasing T2 and intramuscular fat among the control, non-frail and pre-frail/frail categories. (orig.)

  6. Multi-parametric MR imaging of quadriceps musculature in the setting of clinical frailty syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, David M.; Sharma, Puneet; Taljanovic, Mihra S. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mohler, Jane; Fain, Mindy; Muchna, Amy E. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Center on Aging, Tucson, AZ (United States); Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Services, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) conferring an increased risk of rapid decline in health and function with increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between diffusion tensor, T2 and intramuscular fat content values of the quadriceps muscle group and clinical frailty status using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Subjects were recruited from the Arizona Frailty cohort composed of all females with frailty status based on the Fried criteria, including 6 non-frail and 10 pre-frail/frail adults, as well as a community sample of 11 young, healthy controls. Axial images of both thighs were obtained on a 3-T magnet with T1, T2 and diffusion tensor imaging as well as intramuscular fat analysis. Diffusion tensor and T2 values were determined by region-of-interest measurements at the proximal, mid and distal thirds of both thighs. Data were evaluated to determine differences between measured values and frailty status. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the bilateral quadriceps muscles demonstrated significant differences (F = 7.558, p = 0.0030) between the control and pre-frail/frail and non-frail and pre-frail/frail groups. There was a significant difference in mean T2 (F = 21.675, p < 0.0001) and lipid content (F = 19.266, p < 0.0001) among all three groups in the total quadriceps muscle group. The quadriceps musculature of pre-frail/frail adults demonstrated increased FA compared to young controls and non-frail adults with increasing T2 and intramuscular fat among the control, non-frail and pre-frail/frail categories. (orig.)

  7. Strategy for the formation of parametric images under conditions of low injected radioactivity applied to PET studies with the irreversible monoamine oxidase A tracers [11C]clorgyline and deuterium-substituted [11C]clorgyline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna S; Ding, Yu-Shin; Franceschi, Dinko; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Felder, Christoph; Alexoff, David

    2002-11-01

    The construction of parametric positron emission tomography images of enzyme or receptor concentration obtained using irreversibly binding radiotracers presents problems not usually encountered with reversibly binding radiotracers. Difficulties are most apparent in brain regions having low blood flow and/or high enzyme or receptor concentration and are exacerbated with noisy data. This is especially true when minimal doses of radiotracer are administered. A comparison was recently reported of the irreversible monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) radiotracers [11C]clorgyline (CLG) and deuterium-substituted [11C]clorgyline (CLG-D) in the human brain using region of interest (ROI) analysis in which the authors observed an unexpected loss of image contrast with CLG-D compared with CLG. In order to more fully investigate patterns of binding of these irreversibly binding radiotracers, a strategy was devised to reduce noise in the generation of parametric images of the model term related to enzyme or receptor concentration. The generalized linear least squares (GLLS) method of Feng et al. (1995), a rapid linear method that is unbiased, was used for image-wide parameter estimation. Since GLLS can fail in the presence of large amounts of noise, local voxels were grouped within the image to increase the signal, and the GLLS method was combined with the standard nonlinear estimation methods when necessary. Voxels were grouped together depending on their proximity and whether they fell within a specified range of the time-integrated image. It was assumed that voxels meeting both criteria are functionally related. Simulations reflecting varying enzyme concentrations were performed to assess precision and accuracy of parameter estimates in the presence of varying amounts of noise. Using this approach, images were generated of the combination parameter lambdak3 (lambda = K1/k2, where K1 and k2 are plasma-to-tissue and tissue-to-plasma transport constants, respectively) that is related to

  8. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  9. Wavelet analysis of biological tissue's Mueller-matrix images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomka, Yu. Ya.

    2008-05-01

    The interrelations between statistics of the 1st-4th orders of the ensemble of Mueller-matrix images and geometric structure of birefringent architectonic nets of different morphological structure have been analyzed. The sensitivity of asymmetry and excess of statistic distributions of matrix elements Cik to changing of orientation structure of optically anisotropic protein fibrils of physiologically normal and pathologically changed biological tissues architectonics has been shown.

  10. Distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model in parametric multi-channel blind AIF estimation using DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíla, Jiří; Jiřík, Radovan; Bartoš, Michal; Standara, Michal; Starčuk, Zenon; Taxt, Torfinn

    2016-03-01

    One of the main challenges in quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is estimation of the arterial input function (AIF). Usually, the signal from a single artery (ignoring contrast dispersion, partial volume effects and flow artifacts) or a population average of such signals (also ignoring variability between patients) is used. Multi-channel blind deconvolution is an alternative approach avoiding most of these problems. The AIF is estimated directly from the measured tracer concentration curves in several tissues. This contribution extends the published methods of multi-channel blind deconvolution by applying a more realistic model of the impulse residue function, the distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model (DCATH). In addition, an alternative AIF model is used and several AIF-scaling methods are tested. The proposed method is evaluated on synthetic data with respect to the number of tissue regions and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Evaluation on clinical data (renal cell carcinoma patients before and after the beginning of the treatment) gave consistent results. An initial evaluation on clinical data indicates more reliable and less noise sensitive perfusion parameter estimates. Blind multi-channel deconvolution using the DCATH model might be a method of choice for AIF estimation in a clinical setup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Parametric features of image textures in 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of lung nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changmei; Guan Yihui; Zhang Wenqiang; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the parametric features of image textures on 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the differentiation between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules and compare the diagnostic performance of these parameters with SUV max . Methods: 18 F-FDG PET/CT images of 170 patients (102 males, 68 females, age range: 29-81 (mean 59) years) with pulmonary nodules were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-nine pulmonary nodules (230 slices) were malignant and 81 (193 slices) were benign. The pulmonary nodules were contoured on CT images and mapped to the co-registered PET images. Thirteen parameters of textural features were extracted and SUV max was measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant texture parameters and create a regression model. The efficacy of the textural features and SUV max to distinguish between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules was evaluated by ROC curve analysis. The textural features of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were compared via the Mann-Whitney u test. The sensitivity and specificity of the textural features and SUV max for the differential diagnosis were compared with χ 2 test. Results: Logistic regression model identified 4 textural features (skewness (β=1.7058), kurtosis (β=-1.0989), angular second moment (ASM, 3=-4.4140) and strength (β=0.5626); all P<0.05) to have significant correlation with the malignancy of lung nodules. The AUC of ROC curve was 0.775 (95% CI 0.732-0.819; P<0.001) with the sensitivity of 89.6% (206/230) and specificity of 50.8% (98/193). ASM and strength had statistically significant differences between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma [ASM: 0.0303 (95% CI 0.0392-0.0724) vs 0.0594 (95% CI 0.0721-0.0947); strength: 2.4714 (95% CI 2.4632-4.1050) vs 1.5945 (95% CI 1.9003-2.4652); u=3082.0 and 3115.0, both P<0.01]. The AUC of SUV max -based diagnosis was 0.757 (95% CI 0.711-0.802; P<0.001) with the sensitivity of 80.9% (186/230) and specificity of 50.3% (97/193) at

  12. Imaging of alkaline phosphatase activity in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P Gade

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using a small imaging molecule in combination with (19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((19FMRSI. 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP, a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using (19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19FMRS and (19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. (19FMRS and (19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. (19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized (19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of (19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, (19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications.

  13. Effects of registration error on parametric response map analysis: a simulation study using liver CT-perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausch, A; Lee, T Y; Wong, E; Jensen, N K G; Chen, J; Lock, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of registration error (RE) on parametric response map (PRM) analysis of pre and post-radiotherapy (RT) functional images. Methods: Arterial blood flow maps (ABF) were generated from the CT-perfusion scans of 5 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ABF values within each patient map were modified to produce seven new ABF maps simulating 7 distinct post-RT functional change scenarios. Ground truth PRMs were generated for each patient by comparing the simulated and original ABF maps. Each simulated ABF map was then deformed by different magnitudes of realistic respiratory motion in order to simulate RE. PRMs were generated for each of the deformed maps and then compared to the ground truth PRMs to produce estimates of RE-induced misclassification. Main findings: The percentage of voxels misclassified as decreasing, no change, and increasing, increased with RE For all patients, increasing RE was observed to increase the number of high post-RT ABF voxels associated with low pre-RT ABF voxels and vice versa. 3 mm of average tumour RE resulted in 18-45% tumour voxel misclassification rates. Conclusions: RE induced misclassification posed challenges for PRM analysis in the liver where registration accuracy tends to be lower. Quantitative understanding of the sensitivity of the PRM method to registration error is required if PRMs are to be used to guide radiation therapy dose painting techniques.

  14. SPECT image analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Junko

    2004-01-01

    The author examined interictal 123 I-IMP SPECT images using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in 19 temporal lobe epilepsy patients who revealed hippocampal sclerosis with MRI. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were shown for eight patients in the medial temporal lobe, six patients in the lateral temporal lobe and five patients in the both medial and lateral temporal lobe. These patients were classified into two types; medial type and lateral type, the former decreased rCBF only in medial and the latter decreased rCBF in the other temporal area. Correlation of rCBF and clinical parameters in the lateral type, age at seizure onset was significantly older (p=0.0098, t-test) than those of patients in the medial type. SPM analysis for interictal SPECT of temporal lobe epilepsy clarified location of decreased rCBF and find correlations with clinical characteristics. In addition, SPM analysis of SPECT was useful to understand pathophysiology of the epilepsy. (author)

  15. An imaging colorimeter for noncontact tissue color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, C

    1997-06-01

    There has been a considerable effort in several medical fields, for objective color analysis and characterization of biological tissues. Conventional colorimeters have proved inadequate for this purpose, since they do not provide spatial color information and because the measuring procedure randomly affects the color of the tissue. In this paper an imaging colorimeter is presented, where the nonimaging optical photodetector of colorimeters is replaced with the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor of a color video camera, enabling the independent capturing of the color information for any spatial point within its field-of-view. Combining imaging and colorimetry methods, the acquired image is calibrated and corrected, under several ambient light conditions, providing noncontact reproducible color measurements and mapping, free of the errors and the limitations present in conventional colorimeters. This system was used for monitoring of blood supply changes of psoriatic plaques, that have undergone Psoralens and ultraviolet-A radiation (PUVA) therapy, where reproducible and reliable measurements were demonstrated. These features highlight the potential of the imaging colorimeters as clinical and research tools for the standardization of clinical diagnosis and for the objective evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  16. HOMOGENEOUS UGRIZ PHOTOMETRY FOR ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY GALAXIES: A NON-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FROM SDSS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly ∼10 3 in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sersic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be σ(B T )∼ 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to ∼ 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (B T ∼ 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ( d warf ) galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ( g iant ) galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample-profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness-are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a ∼7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  17. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  18. Automatic tissue image segmentation based on image processing and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhenglun; Luo, Junyi; Xu, Shengpu; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in multimodality imaging, especially in fusion structural images offered by CT, MRI with functional images collected by optical technologies or other novel imaging technologies. Plus, image segmentation also provides detailed structure description for quantitative visualization of treating light distribution in the human body when incorporated with 3D light transport simulation method. Here we used image enhancement, operators, and morphometry methods to extract the accurate contours of different tissues such as skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on 5 fMRI head image datasets. Then we utilized convolutional neural network to realize automatic segmentation of images in a deep learning way. We also introduced parallel computing. Such approaches greatly reduced the processing time compared to manual and semi-automatic segmentation and is of great importance in improving speed and accuracy as more and more samples being learned. Our results can be used as a criteria when diagnosing diseases such as cerebral atrophy, which is caused by pathological changes in gray matter or white matter. We demonstrated the great potential of such image processing and deep leaning combined automatic tissue image segmentation in personalized medicine, especially in monitoring, and treatments.

  19. Characterization of Soft Tissue Tumors by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Kahya, Mehmet Onur; Kaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive method for investigation of tumor histological content. It has been applied for some musculoskeletal tumors and reported to be useful. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and to determine if ADC can help differentiate these tumors. DWI was performed on 25 histologically proven soft tissue masses. It was obtained with a single-shot echo-planar imaging technique using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) machine. The mean ADC values were calculated. We grouped soft tissue tumors as benign cystic, benign solid or mixed, malignant cystic and malignant solid or mixed tumors and compared mean ADC values between these groups. There was only one patient with a malignant cystic tumor and was not included in the statistical analysis. The median ADC values of benign and malignant tumors were 2.31 ± 1.29 and 0.90 ± 0.70 (median ± interquartile range), respectively. The mean ADC values were different between benign and malignant tumors (P = 0.031). Benign cystic tumors had significantly higher ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors and malignant solid or mixed tumors (p values were < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Malignant solid or mixed tumors had lower ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors (P = 0.02). Our preliminary results have shown that although there is some overlap between benign and malignant tumors, adding DWI, MR imaging to routine soft tissue tumor protocols may improve diagnostic accuracy

  20. Tissue harmonic imaging in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Mandeep; Sandhu, Manavjit; Sood, Bimal; Lal, Anupam; Suri, Sudha; Bhasin, Deepak

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the role of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) in acute pancreatitis, and to compare its findings with conventional grey-scale sonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan, we evaluated 25 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis on clinical examination and laboratory findings. Conventional grey-scale ultrasound followed by tissue harmonic sonography was done on the same machine followed by a CECT within 12 h of the ultrasound examination. The present study showed that sonograms obtained with THI were of much better quality than those obtained conventionally, especially for the pancreatic tail. The benefits of harmonic imaging were more apparent in obese patients and in others whose body habitus was unfavourable for sonography. In the assessment of pancreatic image quality, grey-scale imaging had an accuracy of 60, 80 and 28% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively. In comparison, THI had a far higher accuracy of 80, 92 and 60% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively, with the superiority being most obvious in the pancreatic tail region. There were no cases in which tissue harmonic sonography provided less information than conventional sonography. However, CECT scan remained the best modality in all patients for the evaluation of acute pancreatitis. It showed superior demonstration of all the morphological changes, ranging from minimal pancreatic oedema to extensive fluid collections, necrosis and the haemorrhage that developed in fulminant severe pancreatitis. Our experience thus suggests that THI cannot replace CT scan as the gold standard in the assessment of acute pancreatitis, as it is poor in evaluating the pancreatic tail, cannot clearly distinguish phlegmon from necrosis, and is inferior to CT in the assessment of the complications of acute pancreatitis Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  1. Distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model in parametric multi-channel blind AIF estimation using DCE-MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíla, Jiří; Jiřík, Radovan; Bartoš, M.; Standara, M.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Taxt, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2016), s. 1355-1365 ISSN 0740-3194 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging * multi-channel blind deconvolution * arterial input function * impulse residue function * renal cell carcinoma Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.924, year: 2016

  2. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  3. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  4. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The

  5. Imaging of tissue sections with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, L., E-mail: ludek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Nebesářová, J.; Vancová, M. [Biology Centre AS CR, v.v.i., Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Paták, A.; Müllerová, I. [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-15

    The examination of thin sections of tissues with electron microscopes is an indispensable tool. Being composed of light elements, samples of living matter illuminated with electrons at the usual high energies of tens or even hundreds of kiloelectronvolts provide very low image contrasts in transmission or scanning transmission electron microscopes. Therefore, heavy metal salts are added to the specimen during preparation procedures (post-fixation with osmium tetroxide or staining). However, these procedures can modify or obscure the ultrastructural details of cells. Here we show that the energy of electrons used for the scanned transmission imaging of tissue sections can be reduced to mere hundreds or even tens of electronvolts and can produce extremely high contrast even for samples free of any metal salts. We found that when biasing a sufficiently thin tissue section sample to a high negative potential in a scanning transmission electron microscope, thereby reducing the energy of the electrons landing on the sample, and collecting the transmitted electrons with a grounded detector, we obtain a high contrast revealing structure details not enhanced by heavy atoms. Moreover, bombardment with slow electrons sensitively depolymerises the resin in which the tissue is embedded, thereby enhancing the transmitted signal with no observable loss of structure details. The use of low-energy electrons requires ultrathin sections of a thickness of less than 10 nm, but their preparation is now possible. Ultralow energy STEM provides a tool enabling the observation of very thin biological samples without any staining. This method should also be advantageous for examination of 2D crystals, thin films of polymers, polymer blends, etc. - Highlights: • Sections of a thickness below 10 nm were imaged in STEM at hundreds and tens of eV. • Image contrast grows steeply with decreasing electron energy in the STEM. • Very slow electrons provide high contrast for samples free of

  6. Cerebral blood flow imaging in staging of dementia of Alzheimer type. A study using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    One hundred twenty-two patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Patients with DAT were subdivided on the results of their score on the Japanese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-J cog.), into mild (score lower than or equal to 15, n=47), moderate (score 16 to 35, n=63), and severe (score greater than or equal to 36, n=12) groups. Seventy age-matched controls who had no signs or symptoms of dementia were recruited from the Memory Clinic. The reconstructed {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT data were analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping technique. In mild stage of DAT, SPM analysis demonstrated that bilateral posterior parietal lobes, superior occipital lobes, and posterior cingulated gyri were significantly decreased in CBF as compared with the normal controls. In moderate stage of DAT, extension of the hypoperfusion to the frontal lobes was detected as compared with the mild stage of DAT. In severe stage of DAT, SPM image showed the diffuse hypoperfusion in bilateral hemispheres. The frequency of hypoperfusions in the DAT group was observed with the following: 15.0% in the mild stage, 34.9% in the moderate stage, and 66.7% in the severe stage. Our results indicate that the frequency and progression of the hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal regions and/or the other regions in DAT is related to the severity of the dementia. (author)

  7. Cerebral blood flow imaging in staging of dementia of Alzheimer type. A study using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura

    2001-01-01

    One hundred twenty-two patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Patients with DAT were subdivided on the results of their score on the Japanese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-J cog.), into mild (score lower than or equal to 15, n=47), moderate (score 16 to 35, n=63), and severe (score greater than or equal to 36, n=12) groups. Seventy age-matched controls who had no signs or symptoms of dementia were recruited from the Memory Clinic. The reconstructed 123 I-IMP-SPECT data were analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping technique. In mild stage of DAT, SPM analysis demonstrated that bilateral posterior parietal lobes, superior occipital lobes, and posterior cingulated gyri were significantly decreased in CBF as compared with the normal controls. In moderate stage of DAT, extension of the hypoperfusion to the frontal lobes was detected as compared with the mild stage of DAT. In severe stage of DAT, SPM image showed the diffuse hypoperfusion in bilateral hemispheres. The frequency of hypoperfusions in the DAT group was observed with the following: 15.0% in the mild stage, 34.9% in the moderate stage, and 66.7% in the severe stage. Our results indicate that the frequency and progression of the hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal regions and/or the other regions in DAT is related to the severity of the dementia. (author)

  8. A multi-parametric imaging investigation of the response of C6 glioma xenografts to MLN0518 (tandutinib treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K R Boult

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth; this process is stimulated by the secretion of numerous growth factors including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. PDGF signalling, through its receptor platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR, is involved in vessel maturation, stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of other angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. PDGFR is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy because it is expressed on both tumour cells and stromal cells associated with the vasculature. MLN0518 (tandutinib is a potent inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases that demonstrates activity against PDGFRα/β, FLT3 and c-KIT. In this study a multi-parametric MRI and histopathological approach was used to interrogate changes in vascular haemodynamics, structural response and hypoxia in C6 glioma xenografts in response to treatment with MLN0518. The doubling time of tumours in mice treated with MLN0518 was significantly longer than tumours in vehicle treated mice. The perfused vessel area, number of alpha smooth muscle actin positive vessels and hypoxic area in MLN0518 treated tumours were also significantly lower after 10 days treatment. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in vessel calibre or fractional blood volume as assessed using susceptibility contrast MRI. Histological assessment of vessel size and total perfused area did not demonstrate any change with treatment. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI did not reveal any difference in baseline R2* or carbogen-induced change in R2*. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed anti-vascular effects of MLN0518 following 3 days treatment. Hypoxia confers chemo- and radio-resistance, and alongside PDGF, is implicated in evasive resistance to agents targeted against VEGF signalling. PDGFR antagonists may improve potency and efficacy of other therapeutics in combination. This study highlights

  9. A multi-parametric imaging investigation of the response of C6 glioma xenografts to MLN0518 (tandutinib) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boult, Jessica K R; Terkelsen, Jennifer; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Bradley, Daniel P; Robinson, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth; this process is stimulated by the secretion of numerous growth factors including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF signalling, through its receptor platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), is involved in vessel maturation, stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of other angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PDGFR is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy because it is expressed on both tumour cells and stromal cells associated with the vasculature. MLN0518 (tandutinib) is a potent inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases that demonstrates activity against PDGFRα/β, FLT3 and c-KIT. In this study a multi-parametric MRI and histopathological approach was used to interrogate changes in vascular haemodynamics, structural response and hypoxia in C6 glioma xenografts in response to treatment with MLN0518. The doubling time of tumours in mice treated with MLN0518 was significantly longer than tumours in vehicle treated mice. The perfused vessel area, number of alpha smooth muscle actin positive vessels and hypoxic area in MLN0518 treated tumours were also significantly lower after 10 days treatment. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in vessel calibre or fractional blood volume as assessed using susceptibility contrast MRI. Histological assessment of vessel size and total perfused area did not demonstrate any change with treatment. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI did not reveal any difference in baseline R2* or carbogen-induced change in R2*. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed anti-vascular effects of MLN0518 following 3 days treatment. Hypoxia confers chemo- and radio-resistance, and alongside PDGF, is implicated in evasive resistance to agents targeted against VEGF signalling. PDGFR antagonists may improve potency and efficacy of other therapeutics in combination. This study highlights the challenges

  10. Soft tissue manifestations of early rheumatic disease. Imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, M.; Panteleon, A.; Koerner, M.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in early rheumatic diseases manifesting at the soft tissues of the hand using a retrospective analysis. A total of 186 MRI examinations of patients with clinical suspicion of a rheumatic disease were evaluated in a consensus reading by two experienced radiologists. All imaging patterns were assessed with respect to their type and localization. Under blinded and non-blinded conditions diagnoses were correlated with final clinical diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 45.7%) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA, 15.6%). The mean correlation between clinical and MRI diagnosis (r) was 0.75 in blinded and 0.853 in non-blinded reading (p [de

  11. Imaging of Biological Tissues by Visible Light CDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Fohtung, Edwin

    Recent advances in the use of synchrotron and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) based coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with application to material sciences and medicine proved the technique to be efficient in recovering information about the samples encoded in the phase domain. The current state-of-the-art algorithms of reconstruction are transferable to optical frequencies, which makes laser sources a reasonable milestone both in technique development and applications. Here we present first results from table-top laser CDI system for imaging of biological tissues and reconstruction algorithms development and discuss approaches that are complimenting the data quality improvement that is applicable to visible light frequencies due to it's properties. We demonstrate applicability of the developed methodology to a wide class of soft bio-matter and condensed matter systems. This project is funded by DOD-AFOSR under Award No FA9550-14-1-0363 and the LANSCE Professorship at LANL.

  12. Extracting morphologies from third harmonic generation images of structurally normal human brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Kuzmin, Nikolay V.; Groot, Marie Louise; de Munck, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The morphologies contained in 3D third harmonic generation (THG) images of human brain tissue can report on the pathological state of the tissue. However, the complexity of THG brain images makes the usage of modern image processing tools, especially those of image filtering,

  13. Assessment of biological leaf tissue using biospeckle laser imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Mujeeb, A.; Nirala, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the application of an optical imaging technique, the biospeckle laser, as a potential tool to assess biological and medicinal plant leaves. The biospeckle laser technique is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical technique used to investigate biological objects. Just after their removal from plants, the torn leaves were used for biospeckle laser imaging. Quantitative evaluation of the biospeckle data using the inertia moment (IM) of the time history speckle pattern, showed that the IM can be utilized to provide a biospeckle signature to the plant leaves. It showed that leaves from different plants can have their own characteristic IM values. We further investigated the infected regions of the leaves that display a relatively lower biospeckle activity than the healthy tissue. It was easy to discriminate between the infected and healthy regions of the leaf tissue. The biospeckle technique can successfully be implemented as a potential tool for the taxonomy of quality leaves. Furthermore, the technique can help boost the quality of ayurvedic medicines.

  14. The role of fat tissues in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sue Yon; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    Fat tissue is a unique component of the soft tissue, and this fat tissue lies primarily in the spaces beneath the normal subcutaneous tissue, and within or around the organs. An entire lesion, or just a part of it, can be composed of these fat tissues. Therefore, it plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of suspected musculoskeletal diseases as well as in the differentiation between them. Fat tissue is shown as low density on plain radiographs, decreased attenuation on CT images, high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and it is hypoechoic on sonography. Because of its distinctive features, fat tissue is easy to verify on various modalities. In addition, recent image studies like fat-suppressed imaging and STIR imaging provide more precise information of the lesion that involve fat tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases, including the various tumorous lesion and tumor-like lesions involving the fat tissue

  15. A method to obtain reference images for evaluation of ultrasonic tissue characterization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.S.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Sahl, B.

    2002-01-01

    of the macroscopic photograph, due to the histological preparation process. The histological information was "mapped back" into the format of the ultrasound images the following way: On the macroscopic images, outlines were drawn manually which defined the border of the tissue. These outlines were superimposed...... of the various tissue types. Specifically, the macroscopic image revealed the borders between the different tissues, while the histological image identified the four tissue types. A set of 12 reference images based on modified macroscopic outlines was created. The overlap between the ultrasound images...... and the macroscopic images-which are the geometrical basis for the final reference images-was between 77% and 93%. A set of 12 reference images spaced 2.5 mm, identifying spatial location of four different tissue types in porcine muscle has been created. With the reference images, it is possible to quantitatively...

  16. Molecular imaging of lipids in cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Katrin; Malmberg, Per; Mansson, Jan-Eric; Nygren, Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The distribution pattern of lipid species in biological tissues was analyzed with imaging mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS; time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). The first application shows distribution of a glycosphingolipid, the galactosylceramide-sulfate (sulfatide) with different hydrocarbon chain lengths and the fatty acids palmitate and oleate in rat cerebellum. Sulfatides were seen localized in regions suggested as paranodal areas of rat cerebellar white matter as well as in the granular layer, with highest concentrations at the borders of the white matter. Different distribution patterns could be shown for the fatty acid C16:0 palmitate and C18:1 oleate in rat cerebellum, which seem to origin partly from the hydrocarbon chains of phosphatidylcholine. Results were shown for two different tissue preparation methods, which were plunge-freezing and cryostat sectioning as well as high-pressure freezing, freeze-fracturing and freeze-drying. The second application shows TOF-SIMS analysis on a biological trial of choleratoxin treatment in mouse intestine. The effect of cholera toxin on lipids in the intestinal epithelium was shown by comparing control and cholera toxin treated mouse intestine samples. A significant increase of the cholesterol concentration was seen after treatment. Cholesterol was mainly localized to the brush border of enterocytes of the intestinal villi, which could be explained by the presence of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts present on the microvilli or by relations to cholesterol uptake. After cholera toxin exposure, cholesterol was seen increased in the nuclei of enterocytes and apparently in the interstitium of the villi. We find that imaging TOF-SIMS is a powerful tool for studies of lipid distributions in cells and tissues, enabling the elucidation of their role in cell function and biology.

  17. Hypercholesterolemia and Myocardial function evaluated via Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaru Pavan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish a link between hypercholesterolemia and myocardial dysfunction. Background Heart failure is a complex disease involving changes in systolic and diastolic function. Newer echocardiographic imaging modalities may be able to detect discreet changes in myocardial function associated with hypercholesterolemia. Therefore we sought to establish a link between hypercholesterolemia and myocardial dysfunction with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI. Methods Twenty-seven rabbits were studied: 7 were fed normal chow (group 1 and 20 a high cholesterol diet (10 with ezetimibe, 1 mg/kg/day; group 2 and 10 without, group 3. Echocardiographic images were obtained under general anesthesia. Serum cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 months and myocardial cholesterol levels measured following euthanasia. Results Doppler measurements, including E/A, E'/A' and S' were significantly lower in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2 but no significant differences were noted in chamber sizes or ejection fraction among the groups. Average serum cholesterol was higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2 respectively (495 ± 305 mg/dl vs. 114 ± 95 mg/dl and 87 ± 37 mg/dl; p 2 = 0.17 p = 0.04, r2 = 0.37 p = 0.001 and r2 = 0.24 p = 0.01. Conclusion Cholesterol load in the serum and myocardium was significantly associated with decreased systolic and diastolic function by TDI. Moreover, lipid lowering was protective.

  18. Cerebral blood flow and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients by SPECT imaging and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Yan; Shi Hongcheng; Liu Wenguan; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yushen; Chen Shuguang; Yu Haojun; Yu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion patterns and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients with hyperthyroidism and twenty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex, education were enrolled. 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT CBF perfusion imaging was performed at rest. Statistical parametric mapping 5.0 software (SPM5) was used and a statistical threshold of P 3 , FT 4 ), thyroid autoimmune antibodies: sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) by Pearson analysis, with disease duration by Spearman analysis. Results: rCBF was decreased significantly in limbic system and frontal lobe, including parahippocampal gyrus, uncus (posterior entorhinal cortex, posterior parolfactory cortex, parahippocampal cortex, anterior cingulate, right inferior temporal gyrus), left hypothalamus and caudate nucleus (P 3 (r=-0.468, -0.417, both P 4 (r=-0.4M, -0.418, -0.415, -0.459, all P 4 (r=0.419, 0.412, both P<0.05). rCBF in left insula was negatively correlated with concentration of sTSH, and right auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with concentration of sTSH (r=-0.504, 0.429, both P<0.05). rCBF in left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TRAb while that in right thalamus, right hypothalamus, left anterior nucleus,left ventralis nucleus was negatively correlated with concentration of TRAb (r=0.750, 0.862, -0.691, -0.835, -0.713, -0.759, all P<0.05). rCBF in right anterior cingulate, right cuneus, right rectus gyrus, right superior marginal gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TPOAb (r=0.696, 0.581, 0.779, 0.683, all P<0.05). rCBF in postcentral gyrus, temporal gyrus, left superior marginal gyrus and auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with disease duration (r=0.502, 0.457, 0.524, 0.440, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Hypoperfusions in

  19. Statistical parametric mapping for effects of verapamil on olfactory connections of rat brain in vivo using manganese-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Tsutomu; Kurakawa, Masami; Koto, Daichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verapamil on the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains in vivo using statistical parametric mapping and manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We divided 12 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats into 2 groups of six and injected 10 μL of saline into the right nasal cavities of the first group and 10 μL of verapamil (2.5 mg/mL) into the other group. Twenty minutes after the initial injection, we injected 10 μL of MnCl 2 (1 mol/L) into the right nasal cavities of both groups. We obtained serial T 1 -weighted MR images before administering the verapamil or saline and at 0.5, one, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 7 days after administering the MnCl 2 , spatially normalized the MR images on the rat brain atlas, and analyzed the data using voxel-based statistical comparison. Statistical parametric maps demonstrated the transport of manganese. Manganese ions created significant enhancement (t-score=36.6) 24 hours after MnCl 2 administration in the group administered saline but not at the same time point in the group receiving verapamil. The extent of significantly enhanced regions peaked at 72 hours in both groups and both sides of the brain. The peak of extent in the right side brain in the group injected with saline was 70.2 mm 3 and in the group with verapamil, 92.4 mm 3 . The extents in the left side were 64.0 mm 3 for the group with saline and 53.2 mm 3 for the group with verapamil. We applied statistical parametric mapping using manganese-enhanced MR imaging to demonstrate in vivo the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains with and without verapamil and found that verapamil did affect this transport. (author)

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue microarray images using contextual classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are an important tool in translational research for examining multiple cancers for molecular and protein markers. Automatic immunohistochemical (IHC scoring of breast TMA images remains a challenging problem. Methods: A two-stage approach that involves localization of regions of invasive and in-situ carcinoma followed by ordinal IHC scoring of nuclei in these regions is proposed. The localization stage classifies locations on a grid as tumor or non-tumor based on local image features. These classifications are then refined using an auto-context algorithm called spin-context. Spin-context uses a series of classifiers to integrate image feature information with spatial context information in the form of estimated class probabilities. This is achieved in a rotationally-invariant manner. The second stage estimates ordinal IHC scores in terms of the strength of staining and the proportion of nuclei stained. These estimates take the form of posterior probabilities, enabling images with uncertain scores to be referred for pathologist review. Results: The method was validated against manual pathologist scoring on two nuclear markers, progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor (ER. Errors for PR data were consistently lower than those achieved with ER data. Scoring was in terms of estimated proportion of cells that were positively stained (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-6 and perceived strength of staining (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-3. Average absolute differences between predicted scores and pathologist-assigned scores were 0.74 for proportion of cells and 0.35 for strength of staining (PR. Conclusions: The use of context information via spin-context improved the precision and recall of tumor localization. The combination of the spin-context localization method with the automated scoring method resulted in reduced IHC scoring errors.

  1. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aamir, R; Bateman, C.J.; Butler, A.P.H.; Butler, P.H.; Anderson, N.G.; Bell, S.T.; Panta, R.K.; Healy, J.L.; Mohr, J.L.; Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M.F.; Ruiter, N.de; Gieseg, S.P.; Woodfield, T.; Renaud, P.F.; Brooke, L.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Clyne, M.; Glendenning, R.; Bones, P.J.; Billinghurst, M.; Bartneck, C.; Mandalika, H.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Scott, N.; Nik, S.J.; Opie, A.; Janmale, T.; Tang, D.N.; Kim, D.; Doesburg, R.M.; Zainon, R.; Ronaldson, J.P.; Cook, N.J.; Smithies, D.J.; Hodge, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20 to 140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we ...

  2. Deformable Image Registration with Inclusion of Autodetected Homologous Tissue Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel deformable registration algorithm is proposed in the application of radiation therapy. The algorithm starts with autodetection of a number of points with distinct tissue features. The feature points are then matched by using the scale invariance features transform (SIFT method. The associated feature point pairs are served as landmarks for the subsequent thin plate spline (TPS interpolation. Several registration experiments using both digital phantom and clinical data demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. For the 3D phantom case, markers with error less than 2 mm are over 85% of total test markers, and it takes only 2-3 minutes for 3D feature points association. The proposed method provides a clinically practical solution and should be valuable for various image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT applications.

  3. A method for volumetric retinal tissue oxygen tension imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-Yu; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate retinal oxygenation occurs in many vision-threatening retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, techniques that assess retinal oxygenation are necessary to understand retinal physiology in health and disease. The purpose of the current study is to report a method for the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of retinal tissue oxygen tension (tPO 2 ) in rats. Imaging was performed in Long Evans pigmented rats under systemic normoxia (N = 6) or hypoxia (N = 3). A vertical laser line was horizontally scanned on the retina and a series of optical section phase-delayed phosphorescence images were acquired. From these images, phosphorescence volumes at each phase delay were constructed and a 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was generated. Retinal tPO 2 volumes were quantitatively analyzed by generating retinal depth profiles of mean tPO 2 (M tPO2 ) and the spatial variation of tPO 2 (SV tPO2 ). The effects of systemic condition (normoxia/hypoxia) and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 were determined by mixed linear model. Each 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was approximately 500 × 750 × 200 μm (horizontal × vertical × depth) and consisted of 45 en face tPO 2 images through the retinal depth. M tPO2 at the chorioretinal interface was significantly correlated with systemic arterial oxygen tension (P = 0.007; N = 9). There were significant effects of both systemic condition and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 , such that both were lower under hypoxia than normoxia and higher in the outer retina than inner retina (P < 0.001). For the first time, 3D imaging of retinal tPO 2 was demonstrated, with potential future application for assessment of physiological alterations in animal models of retinal diseases.

  4. Multiple foci of splenic tissue autotransplantation: Splenosis in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.; Drewa, S.; Lasek, W.; Pilecki, S.; Junik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Splenosis is usually defined as an autotransplantation of lienal tissue in the abdomen or cest following trauma to the spleen and/or splenectomy. The authors present the case of patient 15 years after a splenectomy performed because of extensive abdominal trauma. A new computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed multiple homogenous nodules, different in size, spread in the abdomen. Their density was characteristic of spleen. Ultrasound examination revealed only the largest tumors, located close to the liver and apparently isoechogenic to it. Static scintigraphy and SPECT were performed to prove the presence of splenosis. After treating the patient with colloid sulfide, multiple foci of increased radioisotope accumulation were identified in the abdomen, extrahepatic at the same locations as the masses visible on the CT scans, which were comparable to splenic tissue. Nodules revealed during CT or abdominal US in patients previously treated by splenectomy require further imaging with static scintigraphy of the liver and spleen in order to confirm or exclude splenosis. (author)

  5. High Definition Confocal Imaging Modalities for the Characterization of Tissue-Engineered Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrand, Dominique; Fradette, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Optimal imaging methods are necessary in order to perform a detailed characterization of thick tissue samples from either native or engineered tissues. Tissue-engineered substitutes are featuring increasing complexity including multiple cell types and capillary-like networks. Therefore, technical approaches allowing the visualization of the inner structural organization and cellular composition of tissues are needed. This chapter describes an optical clearing technique which facilitates the detailed characterization of whole-mount samples from skin and adipose tissues (ex vivo tissues and in vitro tissue-engineered substitutes) when combined with spectral confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis on image renderings.

  6. Detection of light images by simple tissues as visualized by photosensitized magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tempel-Brami

    Full Text Available In this study, we show how light can be absorbed by the body of a living rat due to an injected pigment circulating in the blood stream. This process is then physiologically translated in the tissue into a chemical signature that can be perceived as an image by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We previously reported that illumination of an injected photosynthetic bacteriochlorophyll-derived pigment leads to a generation of reactive oxygen species, upon oxygen consumption in the blood stream. Consequently, paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin accumulating in the illuminated area induces changes in image contrast, detectable by a Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD-MRI protocol, termed photosensitized (psMRI. Here, we show that laser beam pulses synchronously trigger BOLD-contrast transients in the tissue, allowing representation of the luminous spatiotemporal profile, as a contrast map, on the MR monitor. Regions with enhanced BOLD-contrast (7-61 fold were deduced as illuminated, and were found to overlap with the anatomical location of the incident light. Thus, we conclude that luminous information can be captured and translated by typical oxygen exchange processes in the blood of ordinary tissues, and made visible by psMRI (Fig. 1. This process represents a new channel for communicating environmental light into the body in certain analogy to light absorption by visual pigments in the retina where image perception takes place in the central nervous system. Potential applications of this finding may include: non-invasive intra-operative light guidance and follow-up of photodynamic interventions, determination of light diffusion in opaque tissues for optical imaging and possible assistance to the blind.

  7. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP3-02: Neurovascular 4D Parametric Imaging Using Co-Registration of Biplane DSA Sequences with 3D Vascular Geometry Obtained From Cone Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramoniam, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S; Ionita, C [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Centre, SUNY at Buffalo (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To create 4D parametric images using biplane Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) sequences co-registered with the 3D vascular geometry obtained from Cone Beam-CT (CBCT). Methods: We investigated a method to derive multiple 4D Parametric Imaging (PI) maps using only one CBCT acquisition. During this procedure a 3D-DSA geometry is stored and used subsequently for all 4D images. Each time a biplane DSA is acquired, we calculate 2D parametric maps of Bolus Arrival Time (BAT), Mean Transit Time (MTT) and Time to Peak (TTP). Arterial segments which are nearly parallel with one of the biplane imaging planes in the 2D parametric maps are co-registered with the 3D geometry. The values in the remaining vascular network are found using spline interpolation since the points chosen for co-registration on the vasculature are discrete and remaining regions need to be interpolated. To evaluate the method we used a patient CT volume data set for 3D printing a neurovascular phantom containing a complete Circle of Willis. We connected the phantom to a flow loop with a peristaltic pump, simulating physiological flow conditions. Contrast media was injected with an automatic injector at 10 ml/sec. Images were acquired with a Toshiba Infinix C-arm and 4D parametric image maps of the vasculature were calculated. Results: 4D BAT, MTT, and TTP parametric image maps of the Circle of Willis were derived. We generated color-coded 3D geometries which avoided artifacts due to vessel overlap or foreshortening in the projection direction. Conclusion: The software was tested successfully and multiple 4D parametric images were obtained from biplane DSA sequences without the need to acquire additional 3D-DSA runs. This can benefit the patient by reducing the contrast media and the radiation dose normally associated with these procedures. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  9. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP3-02: Neurovascular 4D Parametric Imaging Using Co-Registration of Biplane DSA Sequences with 3D Vascular Geometry Obtained From Cone Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramoniam, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S; Ionita, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To create 4D parametric images using biplane Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) sequences co-registered with the 3D vascular geometry obtained from Cone Beam-CT (CBCT). Methods: We investigated a method to derive multiple 4D Parametric Imaging (PI) maps using only one CBCT acquisition. During this procedure a 3D-DSA geometry is stored and used subsequently for all 4D images. Each time a biplane DSA is acquired, we calculate 2D parametric maps of Bolus Arrival Time (BAT), Mean Transit Time (MTT) and Time to Peak (TTP). Arterial segments which are nearly parallel with one of the biplane imaging planes in the 2D parametric maps are co-registered with the 3D geometry. The values in the remaining vascular network are found using spline interpolation since the points chosen for co-registration on the vasculature are discrete and remaining regions need to be interpolated. To evaluate the method we used a patient CT volume data set for 3D printing a neurovascular phantom containing a complete Circle of Willis. We connected the phantom to a flow loop with a peristaltic pump, simulating physiological flow conditions. Contrast media was injected with an automatic injector at 10 ml/sec. Images were acquired with a Toshiba Infinix C-arm and 4D parametric image maps of the vasculature were calculated. Results: 4D BAT, MTT, and TTP parametric image maps of the Circle of Willis were derived. We generated color-coded 3D geometries which avoided artifacts due to vessel overlap or foreshortening in the projection direction. Conclusion: The software was tested successfully and multiple 4D parametric images were obtained from biplane DSA sequences without the need to acquire additional 3D-DSA runs. This can benefit the patient by reducing the contrast media and the radiation dose normally associated with these procedures. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  10. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  11. Realization of the purely spatial Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in full-field images of spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Mougin-Sisini, Joé; Devaux, Fabrice; Lantz, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement by detecting purely spatial quantum correlations in the near and far fields of spontaneous parametric down-conversion generated in a type-2 beta barium borate crystal. Full-field imaging is performed in the photon-counting regime with an electron-multiplying CCD camera. The data are used without any postselection, and we obtain a violation of Heisenberg inequalities with inferred quantities taking into account all the biphoton pairs in both the near and far fields by integration on the entire two-dimensional transverse planes. This ensures a rigorous demonstration of the EPR paradox in its original position-momentum form.

  12. Volume of high-risk intratumoral subregions at multi-parametric MR imaging predicts overall survival and complements molecular analysis of glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang [Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hokkaido University, Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido (Japan); Ren, Shangjie [Tianjin University, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin Shi (China); Tha, Khin Khin; Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University, Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Wu, Jia [Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    To develop and validate a volume-based, quantitative imaging marker by integrating multi-parametric MR images for predicting glioblastoma survival, and to investigate its relationship and synergy with molecular characteristics. We retrospectively analysed 108 patients with primary glioblastoma. The discovery cohort consisted of 62 patients from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Another 46 patients comprising 30 from TCGA and 16 internally were used for independent validation. Based on integrated analyses of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (T1-c) and diffusion-weighted MR images, we identified an intratumoral subregion with both high T1-c and low ADC, and accordingly defined a high-risk volume (HRV). We evaluated its prognostic value and biological significance with genomic data. On both discovery and validation cohorts, HRV predicted overall survival (OS) (concordance index: 0.642 and 0.653, P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively). HRV stratified patients within the proneural molecular subtype (log-rank P = 0.040, hazard ratio = 2.787). We observed different OS among patients depending on their MGMT methylation status and HRV (log-rank P = 0.011). Patients with unmethylated MGMT and high HRV had significantly shorter survival (median survival: 9.3 vs. 18.4 months, log-rank P = 0.002). Volume of the high-risk intratumoral subregion identified on multi-parametric MRI predicts glioblastoma survival, and may provide complementary value to genomic information. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  16. Magnetoacoustic Imaging of Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissues at a Spatial Resolution Better than 2 mm

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an emerging approach for noninvasively imaging electrical impedance properties of biological tissues. The MAT-MI imaging system measures ultrasound waves generated by the Lorentz force, having been induced by magnetic stimulation, which is related to the electrical conductivity distribution in tissue samples. MAT-MI promises to provide fine spatial resolution for biological tissue imaging as compared to ultrasound resolution. In t...

  17. Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueraru, C; Mao, Y; Chang, S; Popescu, D P; Sowa, M G

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of left-descending coronary tissues harvested from three porcine specimens were acquired with a home-build swept-source OCT setup. Despite the fact that OCT is capable of acquiring high resolution circumferential images of vessels, many distinct histological features of a vessel have comparable optical properties leading to poor contrast in OCT images. Two classification methods were tested in this report for the purpose of enhancing contrast between soft-tissue components of porcine coronary vessels. One method involved analyzing the attenuation of the OCT signal as a function of light penetration into the tissue. We demonstrated that by analyzing the signal attenuation in this manner we were able to differentiate two media sub-layers with different orientations of the smooth muscle cells. The other classification method used in our study was fractal analysis. Fractal analysis was implemented in a box-counting (fractal dimension) image-processing code and was used as a tool to differentiate and quantify variations in tissue texture at various locations in the OCT images. The calculated average fractal dimensions had different values in distinct regions of interest (ROI) within the imaged coronary samples. When compared to the results obtained by using the attenuation of the OCT signal, the method of fractal analysis demonstrated better classification potential for distinguishing amongst the tissue ROI.

  18. Parametric imaging of {sup 18}F-fluoro-3-deoxy-3-l-fluorothymidine PET data to investigate tumour heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronese, M. [University of Padova, Department of Information Engineering (DEI), Padova (Italy); King' s College London, Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Rizzo, G.; Bertoldo, A. [University of Padova, Department of Information Engineering (DEI), Padova (Italy); Aboagye, E.O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-l-fluorothymidine ([{sup 18}F]FLT) is a tissue proliferation marker which has been widely validated as a tumour-specific imaging tracer for PET. [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake in breast cancer is generally quantified at the region level or through first-order statistical descriptors (mean or maximum value), approaches that ignore the known complexity and heterogeneity of cancer tissues. Our aims were: (1) to validate a robust and reproducible voxel-wise approach to the quantification of [{sup 18}F]FLT PET data in breast cancer patients, and (2) to exploit the entire distribution of the [{sup 18}F]FLT retention estimates and their variability in the tumour region for the prediction of early treatment response. The dataset was derived from 15 patients with stage II-IV breast cancer, scanned twice before chemotherapy and once 1 week after therapy. Using RECIST criteria (after 60 days) nine patients were categorized as responders or nonresponders to treatment. Kinetic modelling (compartmental modelling, Patlak analysis and spectral analysis with iterative filter), tissue-to-plasma ratio and standardized uptake value were applied at the voxel level. Test-retest estimates were used to assess reproducibility and reliability of the [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake values before and after therapy for responder/nonresponder prediction. All the methods provided a measure of [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake that was reliable and reproducible with ICC >0.94. Moreover, a very strong correlation was found among the methods (R {sup 2} > 0.81). All the methods provided a limited number of outliers (<20 % in tumour), with the exception of compartmental modelling (>25 %) which was therefore excluded from the prediction analysis. Differences between before and after therapy in mean voxel-wise uptake in tumour did not allow a complete responder/nonresponder classification. In contrast, considering the full estimate distributions within the tumour (changes in median and mode

  19. Thick tissue diffusion model with binding to optimize topical staining in fluorescence breast cancer margin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Kang, Soyoung; Navarro-Comes, Eric; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-03-01

    Intraoperative tumor/surgical margin assessment is required to achieve higher tumor resection rate in breast-conserving surgery. Though current histology provides incomparable accuracy in margin assessment, thin tissue sectioning and the limited field of view of microscopy makes histology too time-consuming for intraoperative applications. If thick tissue, wide-field imaging can provide an acceptable assessment of tumor cells at the surface of resected tissues, an intraoperative protocol can be developed to guide the surgery and provide immediate feedback for surgeons. Topical staining of margins with cancer-targeted molecular imaging agents has the potential to provide the sensitivity needed to see microscopic cancer on a wide-field image; however, diffusion and nonspecific retention of imaging agents in thick tissue can significantly diminish tumor contrast with conventional methods. Here, we present a mathematical model to accurately simulate nonspecific retention, binding, and diffusion of imaging agents in thick tissue topical staining to guide and optimize future thick tissue staining and imaging protocol. In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the model, diffusion profiles of cancer targeted and untargeted (control) nanoparticles at different staining times in A431 tumor xenografts were acquired for model comparison and tuning. The initial findings suggest the existence of nonspecific retention in the tissue, especially at the tissue surface. The simulator can be used to compare the effect of nonspecific retention, receptor binding and diffusion under various conditions (tissue type, imaging agent) and provides optimal staining and imaging protocols for targeted and control imaging agent.

  20. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Okumura, Ayumi; Aki, Tatsuki; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Mikito; Ito, Takeshi; Yokohama, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T 2 *-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p<0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment. (author)

  1. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  2. Clinical evaluation of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming and Tissue Harmonic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This study determines if the data reduction achieved by the combination Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) affects image quality. SASB-THI was evaluated against the combination of Dynamic Received Focusing and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (DRF-THI). A BK...... equally good image quality although a data reduction of 64 times is achieved with SASB-THI.......This study determines if the data reduction achieved by the combination Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) affects image quality. SASB-THI was evaluated against the combination of Dynamic Received Focusing and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (DRF-THI). A BK...... liver pathology were scanned to set a clinical condition, where ultrasonography is often performed. A total of 114 sequences were recorded and evaluated by five radiologists. The evaluators were blinded to the imaging technique, and each sequence was shown twice with different left-right positioning...

  3. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  4. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization.

  5. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization. (paper)

  6. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  7. Imaging Amyloid Tissues Stained with Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes by Hyperspectral Confocal Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Sofie; Bäck, Marcus; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per

    2017-10-20

    Proteins that deposit as amyloid in tissues throughout the body can be the cause or consequence of a large number of diseases. Among these we find neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease afflicting primarily the central nervous system, and systemic amyloidosis where serum amyloid A, transthyretin and IgG light chains deposit as amyloid in liver, carpal tunnel, spleen, kidney, heart, and other peripheral tissues. Amyloid has been known and studied for more than a century, often using amyloid specific dyes such as Congo red and Thioflavin T (ThT) or Thioflavin (ThS). In this paper, we present heptamer-formyl thiophene acetic acid (hFTAA) as an example of recently developed complements to these dyes called luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). hFTAA is easy to use and is compatible with co-staining in immunofluorescence or with other cellular markers. Extensive research has proven that hFTAA detects a wider range of disease associated protein aggregates than conventional amyloid dyes. In addition, hFTAA can also be applied for optical assignment of distinct aggregated morphotypes to allow studies of amyloid fibril polymorphism. While the imaging methodology applied is optional, we here demonstrate hyperspectral imaging (HIS), laser scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). These examples show some of the imaging techniques where LCOs can be used as tools to gain more detailed knowledge of the formation and structural properties of amyloids. An important limitation to the technique is, as for all conventional optical microscopy techniques, the requirement for microscopic size of aggregates to allow detection. Furthermore, the aggregate should comprise a repetitive β-sheet structure to allow for hFTAA binding. Excessive fixation and/or epitope exposure that modify the aggregate structure or conformation can render poor hFTAA binding and hence pose limitations to accurate imaging.

  8. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Sloth Madsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    . Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.......A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B......-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imaging (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence...

  9. Hyperspectral imaging based on compressive sensing to determine cancer margins in human pancreatic tissue ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Joseph; Thompson, Kyle J.; Siddiqui, Imran; Martinie, John; Iannitti, David A.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure, however, accurately identifying tumor margins in real-time is difficult. Research has demonstrated that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue. The design of a single-pixel imaging system for cancer detection is discussed. The system differentiates between healthy and diseased tissue based on differences in the optical reflectance spectra of these regions. In this study, pancreatic tissue samples from 6 patients undergoing Whipple procedures are imaged with the system (total number of tissue sample imaged was N=11). Regions of healthy and unhealthy tissue are determined based on SAM analysis of these spectral images. Hyperspectral imaging results are then compared to white light imaging and histological analysis. Cancerous regions were clearly visible in the hyperspectral images. Margins determined via spectral imaging were in good agreement with margins identified by histology, indicating that hyperspectral imaging system can differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue. After imaging the system was able to detect cancerous regions with a sensitivity of 74.50±5.89% and a specificity of 75.53±10.81%. Possible applications of this imaging system include determination of tumor margins during surgery/biopsy and assistance with cancer diagnosis and staging.

  10. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Elson, DS; Jo, JA; Marcu, L

    2007-01-01

    We report a side viewing fibre-based endoscope that is compatible with intravascular imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The instrument has been validated through testing with fluorescent dyes and collagen and elastin powders using the Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique to calculate the fluorescence lifetimes. The instrument has also been tested on freshly excised unstained animal vascular tissues.

  11. Automated detection of regions of interest for tissue microarray experiments: an image texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaçali, Bilge; Tözeren, Aydin

    2007-01-01

    Recent research with tissue microarrays led to a rapid progress toward quantifying the expressions of large sets of biomarkers in normal and diseased tissue. However, standard procedures for sampling tissue for molecular profiling have not yet been established. This study presents a high throughput analysis of texture heterogeneity on breast tissue images for the purpose of identifying regions of interest in the tissue for molecular profiling via tissue microarray technology. Image texture of breast histology slides was described in terms of three parameters: the percentage of area occupied in an image block by chromatin (B), percentage occupied by stroma-like regions (P), and a statistical heterogeneity index H commonly used in image analysis. Texture parameters were defined and computed for each of the thousands of image blocks in our dataset using both the gray scale and color segmentation. The image blocks were then classified into three categories using the texture feature parameters in a novel statistical learning algorithm. These categories are as follows: image blocks specific to normal breast tissue, blocks specific to cancerous tissue, and those image blocks that are non-specific to normal and disease states. Gray scale and color segmentation techniques led to identification of same regions in histology slides as cancer-specific. Moreover the image blocks identified as cancer-specific belonged to those cell crowded regions in whole section image slides that were marked by two pathologists as regions of interest for further histological studies. These results indicate the high efficiency of our automated method for identifying pathologic regions of interest on histology slides. Automation of critical region identification will help minimize the inter-rater variability among different raters (pathologists) as hundreds of tumors that are used to develop an array have typically been evaluated (graded) by different pathologists. The region of interest

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh [Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  14. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  15. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline...... for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types...... are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess...

  16. Chondro-osseous differentiation in fat tissue tumors: magnetic resonance imaging with pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko; Ito, Masafumi

    2000-01-01

    Chondro-osseous differentiation of three benign or malignant fat tissue tumors - two chondrolipomas and a liposarcoma with cartilaginous metaplasia - was studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compared with their pathological findings. The results suggest that demarcation of cartilage tisssue can be clearly defined on MR imaging when the size of the cartilaginous area is large. Myxoid matrix, degenerative fat tissue and lipodystrophic change may decrease the delineation of the cartilage tissue. (orig.)

  17. Chondro-osseous differentiation in fat tissue tumors: magnetic resonance imaging with pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Ito, Masafumi [1. Dept. of Pathology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Chondro-osseous differentiation of three benign or malignant fat tissue tumors - two chondrolipomas and a liposarcoma with cartilaginous metaplasia - was studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compared with their pathological findings. The results suggest that demarcation of cartilage tisssue can be clearly defined on MR imaging when the size of the cartilaginous area is large. Myxoid matrix, degenerative fat tissue and lipodystrophic change may decrease the delineation of the cartilage tissue. (orig.)

  18. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  19. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  20. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from the measured dynamic data within a unified framework. Such image reconstruction methods have been shown to generate parametric maps of improved precision and accuracy in dynamic PET. However, due to the interleaving between the tomographic and kinetic modelling steps, any tomographic or kinetic modelling errors in certain regions or frames, tend to spatially or temporally propagate. This results in biased kinetic parameters and thus limits the benefits of such direct methods. Kinetic modelling errors originate from the inability to construct a common single kinetic model for the entire field-of-view, and such errors in erroneously modelled regions could spatially propagate. Adaptive models have been used within 4D image reconstruction to mitigate the problem, though they are complex and difficult to optimize. Tomographic errors in dynamic imaging on the other hand, can originate from involuntary patient motion between dynamic frames, as well as from emission/transmission mismatch. Motion correction schemes can be used, however, if residual errors exist or motion correction is not included in the study protocol, errors in the affected dynamic frames could potentially propagate either temporally, to other frames during the kinetic modelling step or spatially, during the tomographic step. In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to minimize such error propagation in direct 4D image reconstruction, focusing on the tomographic step rather than the kinetic modelling step, by incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) within a direct 4D reconstruction framework. Using ever improving TOF resolutions (580 ps, 440 ps, 300 ps and 160 ps), we demonstrate that direct 4D TOF image

  1. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  2. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Zaccagnini

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time, diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1 T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2 Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3 K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Palmisano, Anna; Canu, Tamara; Maimone, Biagina; Lo Russo, Francesco M; Ambrogi, Federico; Gaetano, Carlo; De Cobelli, Francesco; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Esposito, Antonio; Martelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time), diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy) and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans) were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1) T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2) Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3) K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  5. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    volume data at different levels of resolution can yield comprehensive information, including statistics, morphology and organization of cells and tissue. We predict, that hierarchical imaging will be a first step in tackling the big data issue inevitably connected with volume EM.

  6. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shao-De; Wu Shi-Bin; Xie Yao-Qin; Wang Hao-Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Chen Xin; Pan Wan-Long; Hu Jiani

    2015-01-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. (paper)

  7. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a means to discriminate various tissues types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Joshua; Favreau, Peter F.; Lopez, Carmen; Lall, Malvika; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Little is currently known about the fluorescence excitation spectra of disparate tissues and how these spectra change with pathological state. Current imaging diagnostic techniques have limited capacity to investigate fluorescence excitation spectral characteristics. This study utilized excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to perform a comprehensive assessment of fluorescence spectral signatures of various tissues. Immediately following tissue harvest, a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) were used to acquire hyperspectral image data from each sample. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 340 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). Spectra were examined for potential characteristic features such as consistent intensity peaks at specific wavelengths or intensity ratios among significant wavelengths. The resultant spectral features were conserved among tissues of similar molecular composition. Additionally, excitation spectra appear to be a mixture of pure endmembers with commonalities across tissues of varied molecular composition, potentially identifiable through GMM. These results suggest the presence of common autofluorescent molecules in most tissues and that excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging may serve as an approach for characterizing tissue composition as well as pathologic state. Future work will test the feasibility of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a contrast mode for discriminating normal and pathological tissues.

  8. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  9. Multifunctional nanoparticles as a tissue adhesive and an injectable marker for image-guided procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Jin Woo; Ko, Giho; Baik, Seungmin; Kim, Dokyoon; Park, Ok Kyu; Lee, Kyoungbun; Cho, Hye Rim; Han, Sang Ihn; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Lee, Nohyun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2017-07-01

    Tissue adhesives have emerged as an alternative to sutures and staples for wound closure and reconnection of injured tissues after surgery or trauma. Owing to their convenience and effectiveness, these adhesives have received growing attention particularly in minimally invasive procedures. For safe and accurate applications, tissue adhesives should be detectable via clinical imaging modalities and be highly biocompatible for intracorporeal procedures. However, few adhesives meet all these requirements. Herein, we show that biocompatible tantalum oxide/silica core/shell nanoparticles (TSNs) exhibit not only high contrast effects for real-time imaging but also strong adhesive properties. Furthermore, the biocompatible TSNs cause much less cellular toxicity and less inflammation than a clinically used, imageable tissue adhesive (that is, a mixture of cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol). Because of their multifunctional imaging and adhesive property, the TSNs are successfully applied as a hemostatic adhesive for minimally invasive procedures and as an immobilized marker for image-guided procedures.

  10. Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus with parametric imaging: correlation with bone mineral density at different sites and with anthropometric data in menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, O.; Kaufman, L.; Osteaux, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the relationship of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus with anthromopometric variables and with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed at the level of the calcaneus as well as at other sites. Method: Osteosonography of the non-dominant calcaneus was performed in 135 menopausal women, using a DTU-one device with parametric imaging. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. BMD of the calcaneus (BMDcal) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in a subregion matched with the region of interest for osteosonography. BMD of the lumbar trabecular bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (BMD QCT) while the non-dominant hip was studied using DXA, which provided the total bone mineral density (BMDhip) and that of the Ward triangle (BMDWard). Results: The Pearson correlation coefficients between BUA, SOS and the various measurements of BMD ranged from 0.305 (SOS versus BMDhip) to 0.717 (BUA versus BMDcal). BMD QCT and BMDWard were found to depend on age, but not on weight or height, while BUA, SOS, BMDcal, BMDhip were unrelated to age, but correlated with weight (SOS, BMDhip) or with weight and height (BUA, BMDcal). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, age was a significant predictor for BMD QCT, BMD hip and BMDWard; BMD QCT, BMDWard and BMDhip admitted BUA as sole predictor, while BMDcal was significantly related to both BUA and SOS. Conclusion: BUA and SOS of the calcaneus, assessed in 135 menopausal women using a parametric imaging device, reflected BMDcal, measured with DXA at a matched region of interest, and did not decline significantly with age

  11. Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus with parametric imaging: correlation with bone mineral density at different sites and with anthropometric data in menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, O.; Kaufman, L.; Osteaux, M

    2000-07-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the relationship of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus with anthromopometric variables and with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed at the level of the calcaneus as well as at other sites. Method: Osteosonography of the non-dominant calcaneus was performed in 135 menopausal women, using a DTU-one device with parametric imaging. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. BMD of the calcaneus (BMDcal) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in a subregion matched with the region of interest for osteosonography. BMD of the lumbar trabecular bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (BMD QCT) while the non-dominant hip was studied using DXA, which provided the total bone mineral density (BMDhip) and that of the Ward triangle (BMDWard). Results: The Pearson correlation coefficients between BUA, SOS and the various measurements of BMD ranged from 0.305 (SOS versus BMDhip) to 0.717 (BUA versus BMDcal). BMD QCT and BMDWard were found to depend on age, but not on weight or height, while BUA, SOS, BMDcal, BMDhip were unrelated to age, but correlated with weight (SOS, BMDhip) or with weight and height (BUA, BMDcal). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, age was a significant predictor for BMD QCT, BMD hip and BMDWard; BMD QCT, BMDWard and BMDhip admitted BUA as sole predictor, while BMDcal was significantly related to both BUA and SOS. Conclusion: BUA and SOS of the calcaneus, assessed in 135 menopausal women using a parametric imaging device, reflected BMDcal, measured with DXA at a matched region of interest, and did not decline significantly with age.

  12. Use of synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging for visualization of soft tissues in invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Zhong, Zhong; Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2010-01-01

    Images of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (snails and bivalves) have been obtained by using an X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, namely, synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging. Synchrotron X-rays of 20, 30 and 40 keV were used, which penetrate deep enough into animal soft tissues. The phase of X-ray photons shifts slightly as they traverse an object, such as animal soft tissue, and interact with its atoms. Biological features, such as shell morphology and animal physiology, have been visualized. The contrast of the images obtained at 40 keV is the best. This optimum energy provided a clear view of the internal structural organization of the soft tissue with better contrast. The contrast is higher at edges of internal soft-tissue structures. The image improvements achieved with the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique are due to extinction, i.e., elimination of ultra-small-angle scattering. They enabled us to identify a few embedded internal shell features, such as the origin of the apex, which is the firmly attached region of the soft tissue connecting the umbilicus to the external morphology. Diffraction-enhanced imaging can provide high-quality images of soft tissues valuable for biology.

  13. Use of synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging for visualization of soft tissues in invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Donepudi V., E-mail: donepudi_venkateswararao@rediffmail.co [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Swapna, Medasani, E-mail: medasanisw@gmail.co [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Zhong, Zhong [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata-992-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Allied Health Science, Kitasato University 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Gigante, Giovanni E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, La Sapienza, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Images of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (snails and bivalves) have been obtained by using an X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, namely, synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging. Synchrotron X-rays of 20, 30 and 40 keV were used, which penetrate deep enough into animal soft tissues. The phase of X-ray photons shifts slightly as they traverse an object, such as animal soft tissue, and interact with its atoms. Biological features, such as shell morphology and animal physiology, have been visualized. The contrast of the images obtained at 40 keV is the best. This optimum energy provided a clear view of the internal structural organization of the soft tissue with better contrast. The contrast is higher at edges of internal soft-tissue structures. The image improvements achieved with the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique are due to extinction, i.e., elimination of ultra-small-angle scattering. They enabled us to identify a few embedded internal shell features, such as the origin of the apex, which is the firmly attached region of the soft tissue connecting the umbilicus to the external morphology. Diffraction-enhanced imaging can provide high-quality images of soft tissues valuable for biology.

  14. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  15. A high-resolution optical imaging system for obtaining the serial transverse section images of biologic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Ping; Liu, Qian; Gong, Hui

    2007-05-01

    A high-resolution optical imaging system was designed and developed to obtain the serial transverse section images of the biologic tissue, such as the mouse brain, in which new knife-edge imaging technology, high-speed and high-sensitive line-scan CCD and linear air bearing stages were adopted and incorporated with an OLYMPUS microscope. The section images on the tip of the knife-edge were synchronously captured by the reflection imaging in the microscope while cutting the biologic tissue. The biologic tissue can be sectioned at interval of 250 nm with the same resolution of the transverse section images obtained in x and y plane. And the cutting job can be automatically finished based on the control program wrote specially in advance, so we save the mass labor of the registration of the vast images data. In addition, by using this system a larger sample can be cut than conventional ultramicrotome so as to avoid the loss of the tissue structure information because of splitting the tissue sample to meet the size request of the ultramicrotome.

  16. Colorization and automated segmentation of human T2 MR brain images for characterization of soft tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Attique

    Full Text Available Characterization of tissues like brain by using magnetic resonance (MR images and colorization of the gray scale image has been reported in the literature, along with the advantages and drawbacks. Here, we present two independent methods; (i a novel colorization method to underscore the variability in brain MR images, indicative of the underlying physical density of bio tissue, (ii a segmentation method (both hard and soft segmentation to characterize gray brain MR images. The segmented images are then transformed into color using the above-mentioned colorization method, yielding promising results for manual tracing. Our color transformation incorporates the voxel classification by matching the luminance of voxels of the source MR image and provided color image by measuring the distance between them. The segmentation method is based on single-phase clustering for 2D and 3D image segmentation with a new auto centroid selection method, which divides the image into three distinct regions (gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using prior anatomical knowledge. Results have been successfully validated on human T2-weighted (T2 brain MR images. The proposed method can be potentially applied to gray-scale images from other imaging modalities, in bringing out additional diagnostic tissue information contained in the colorized image processing approach as described.

  17. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure

  18. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  19. Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    1999-01-01

    the focus is on combinations of parametric and non-parametric methods of regression. This combination can be in terms of additive models where e.g. one or more non-parametric term is added to a linear regression model. It can also be in terms of conditional parametric models where the coefficients...... considered. It is shown that adaptive estimation in conditional parametric models can be performed by combining the well known methods of local polynomial regression and recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. The approach used for estimation in conditional parametric models also highlights how...... networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among...

  20. MR imaging of soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, Tal [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, 45229, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of a soft tissue mass in a child should proceed with a differential diagnosis in mind, based on the clinical history, age of the child, and location of the abnormality. Small, superficial masses can be initially evaluated with sonography. More extensive or deep lesions usually require cross-sectional imaging. With the exception of myositis ossificans, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has largely replaced the use of computed tomography. MR imaging is used to delineate the extent of a lesion, to evaluate response to therapy, and to monitor postoperative complications. There is great overlap in the MR imaging characteristics of benign and malignant lesions, making tissue sampling imperative for diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAPPETTI Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  3. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  4. Hyperspectral Imaging and SPA-LDA Quantitative Analysis for Detection of Colon Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Ch.; Dai, B.; Zhao, M.; Li, B.

    2018-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been demonstrated to provide a rapid, precise, and noninvasive method for cancer detection. However, because HSI contains many data, quantitative analysis is often necessary to distill information useful for distinguishing cancerous from normal tissue. To demonstrate that HSI with our proposed algorithm can make this distinction, we built a Vis-NIR HSI setup and made many spectral images of colon tissues, and then used a successive projection algorithm (SPA) to analyze the hyperspectral image data of the tissues. This was used to build an identification model based on linear discrimination analysis (LDA) using the relative reflectance values of the effective wavelengths. Other tissues were used as a prediction set to verify the reliability of the identification model. The results suggest that Vis-NIR hyperspectral images, together with the spectroscopic classification method, provide a new approach for reliable and safe diagnosis of colon cancer and could lead to advances in cancer diagnosis generally.

  5. Prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging for predicting ventricular arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Olsen, Flemming Javier; Storm, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Only 30% of patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention receive appropriately therapy. We sought to investigate the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to predict ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and cardiovascular...

  6. MR imaging demonstration of peri-articular soft tissues involvement in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclet, H.; Sutter, B.; Delforge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The prospecting NMR imaging of a bigger lot of cases will allow us to know if it's an usual phenomenom in this disease and to study the soft tissues around other bone joints than the hip. 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Imaging of oxygenation in 3D tissue models with multi-modal phosphorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Borisov, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    Cell-penetrating phosphorescence based probes allow real-time, high-resolution imaging of O2 concentration in respiring cells and 3D tissue models. We have developed a panel of such probes, small molecule and nanoparticle structures, which have different spectral characteristics, cell penetrating and tissue staining behavior. The probes are compatible with conventional live cell imaging platforms and can be used in different detection modalities, including ratiometric intensity and PLIM (Phosphorescence Lifetime IMaging) under one- or two-photon excitation. Analytical performance of these probes and utility of the O2 imaging method have been demonstrated with different types of samples: 2D cell cultures, multi-cellular spheroids from cancer cell lines and primary neurons, excised slices from mouse brain, colon and bladder tissue, and live animals. They are particularly useful for hypoxia research, ex-vivo studies of tissue physiology, cell metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and multiplexing with many conventional fluorophors and markers of cellular function.

  8. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue: a case report with emphasis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Young; Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan Kwon [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ie Ryung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yang-Guk [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm, histologically resembling giant cell tumor of bone. In this report, we describe a deep and solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue interpreted as a benign soft tissue tumor based on magnetic resonance (MR) findings with hypointense to intermediate signals on T2-weighted images and impeded diffusivity (water movement) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which could suggest a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy suggested by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a 35-year-old male. To our knowledge, this report introduces the first deep, solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue with MR features of a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy-mimicking findings on {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. (orig.)

  9. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  10. Direct microCT imaging of non-mineralized connective tissues at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Gili R S; Brumfeld, Vlad; Dean, Mason; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The 3D imaging of soft tissues in their native state is challenging, especially when high resolution is required. An X-ray-based microCT is, to date, the best choice for high resolution 3D imaging of soft tissues. However, since X-ray attenuation of soft tissues is very low, contrasting enhancement using different staining materials is needed. The staining procedure, which also usually involves tissue fixation, causes unwanted and to some extent unknown tissue alterations. Here, we demonstrate that a method that enables 3D imaging of soft tissues without fixing and staining using an X-ray-based bench-top microCT can be applied to a variety of different tissues. With the sample mounted in a custom-made loading device inside a humidity chamber, we obtained soft tissue contrast and generated 3D images of fresh, soft tissues with a resolution of 1 micron voxel size. We identified three critical conditions which make it possible to image soft tissues: humidified environment, mechanical stabilization of the sample and phase enhancement. We demonstrate the capability of the technique using different specimens: an intervertebral disc, the non-mineralized growth plate, stingray tessellated radials (calcified cartilage) and the collagenous network of the periodontal ligament. Since the scanned specimen is fresh an interesting advantage of this technique is the ability to scan a specimen under load and track the changes of the different structures. This method offers a unique opportunity for obtaining valuable insights into 3D structure-function relationships of soft tissues.

  11. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-12-06

    Internal standards have been introduced in quantitative mass spectrometry imaging in order to compensate for differences in intensities throughout an image caused by, for example, difference in ion suppression or analyte extraction efficiency. To test how well the internal standards compensate for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline as internal standard. The results showed, even after correction with internal standard, significantly lower intensities from brain and to some extent also lung tissue, differences which may be ascribed to binding of the drug to proteins or lipids as known from traditional bioanalysis. The differences, which for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess the accuracy of calibration by droplet deposition. For experiments on liver tissue, calibration by spiked tissue homogenates and droplet deposition was found to provide highly similar results and in both cases linearity with R 2 values of 0.99. In the process, a new method was developed for preparation of standard curves of spiked tissue homogenates, based on the drilling of holes in a block of frozen liver homogenate, providing easy cryo-slicing and good quantitative

  12. Imaging cardiomyocytes in intact tissue with a remote focusing microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. D.; Burton, R. A. B.; Bub, G.; Wilson, T.

    2015-03-01

    In cardiac imaging, the spacing between sub-cellular sarcomere structures is of great importance to physiologists in understanding muscle design and performance. Making accurate measurements of the sarcomere length (SL) presents a significant imaging challenge owing to the size of the SL (~2μm) and its naturally low variability (pathological models of chronic hypertension. As well as improving measurement precision, the distribution of α across the field of view provides additional structural information which can be related to disease morphology. To validate this new imaging protocol, the value ofα calculated from the oblique planes provided the input to a rigid model cell which was used to predict the appearance of the cell in the conventional focal plane. The comparison of the model to the image data provided a confidence metric for our measurements. Finally, by considering the optical transfer function, the range of cell orientations for which the method is valid could be calculated.

  13. Constructing a Computer Model of the Human Eye Based on Tissue Slice Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Peishan; Wang, Boliang; Bao, Chunbo; Ju, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulation of the biomechanical and biological heat transfer in ophthalmology greatly relies on having a reliable computer model of the human eye. This paper proposes a novel method on the construction of a geometric model of the human eye based on tissue slice images. Slice images were obtained from an in vitro Chinese human eye through an embryo specimen processing methods. A level set algorithm was used to extract contour points of eye tissues while a principle component analysi...

  14. New methods for multimodal MS imaging of histological tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstalden Van Hove, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    The insights derived from spatial localization of molecules in tissue sections are of great value for understanding and treating cancer and other diseases. These insights can relate to molecules linked to a disease as well as to drug molecules distributed across organs of interest. Mass spectrometry

  15. Imaging of tissue sections with very slow electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Nebesářová, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Paták, Aleš; Müllerová, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 148, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 146-150 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological STEM * Ultralow energy STEM * Tissue sections * Cathode lens * Depolymerisation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  16. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Qi, X. Sharon; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  17. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  18. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  19. Quantitative segmentation of fluorescence microscopy images of heterogeneous tissue: Approach for tuning algorithm parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Brown, J. Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-02-01

    The combination of fluorescent contrast agents with microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain real time images of tissue histology without the need for fixing, sectioning, and staining. The potential of this technology lies in the identification of robust methods for image segmentation and quantitation, particularly in heterogeneous tissues. Our solution is to apply sparse decomposition (SD) to monochrome images of fluorescently-stained microanatomy to segment and quantify distinct tissue types. The clinical utility of our approach is demonstrated by imaging excised margins in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of a sarcoma. Representative images of excised margins were used to optimize the formulation of SD and tune parameters associated with the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that SD is a robust solution that can advance vital fluorescence microscopy as a clinically significant technology.

  20. Confocal multispot microscope for fast and deep imaging in semicleared tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Marie-Pierre; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alfieri, Domenico; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Although perfectly transparent specimens are imaged faster with light-sheet microscopy, less transparent samples are often imaged with two-photon microscopy leveraging its robustness to scattering; however, at the price of increased acquisition times. Clearing methods that are capable of rendering strongly scattering samples such as brain tissue perfectly transparent specimens are often complex, costly, and time intensive, even though for many applications a slightly lower level of tissue transparency is sufficient and easily achieved with simpler and faster methods. Here, we present a microscope type that has been geared toward the imaging of semicleared tissue by combining multispot two-photon excitation with rolling shutter wide-field detection to image deep and fast inside semicleared mouse brain. We present a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the point spread function and contrast as a function of shutter size. Finally, we demonstrate microscope performance in fixed brain slices by imaging dendritic spines up to 400-μm deep.

  1. Quantum dots versus organic fluorophores in fluorescent deep-tissue imaging--merits and demerits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Gadjeva, Veselina

    2008-12-01

    The use of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in last several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecular targets in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With the development of novel bright fluorophores based on nanotechnologies and 3D fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. The fluorescent imaging has also a potential to give a real map of human anatomy and physiology. The current review outlines the advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic dyes in deep-tissue imaging in vivo and defines the major requirements to the "perfect fluorophore". The analysis proceeds from the basic principles of fluorescence and major characteristics of fluorophores, light-tissue interactions, and major limitations of fluorescent deep-tissue imaging. The article is addressed to a broad readership - from specialists in this field to university students.

  2. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group.

  3. Blind source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, July; Perez, Sandra; Montoya, Yonatan; Botina, Deivid; Garzón, Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Blind Source Separation methods (BSS) aim for the decomposition of a given signal in its main components or source signals. Those techniques have been widely used in the literature for the analysis of biomedical images, in order to extract the main components of an organ or tissue under study. The analysis of skin images for the extraction of melanin and hemoglobin is an example of the use of BSS. This paper presents a proof of concept of the use of source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral Images. The images are acquired with an interference filter-based imaging system. The images are processed by means of two algorithms: Independent Components analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In both cases, it is possible to obtain maps that quantify the concentration of the main chromophores present in aortic tissue. Also, the algorithms allow for spectral absorbance of the main tissue components. Those spectral signatures were compared against the theoretical ones by using correlation coefficients. Those coefficients report values close to 0.9, which is a good estimator of the method's performance. Also, correlation coefficients lead to the identification of the concentration maps according to the evaluated chromophore. The results suggest that Multi/hyper-spectral systems together with image processing techniques is a potential tool for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue.

  4. Parametrization of textural patterns in {sup 123}I-ioflupane imaging for the automatic detection of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Murcia, F. J., E-mail: fjesusmartinez@ugr.es; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J. [Signal Processing and Biomedical Applications Research Group, Department of Signal Theory, Networking and Communications, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Moreno-Caballero, M.; Gómez-Río, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A novel approach to a computer aided diagnosis system for the Parkinson's disease is proposed. This tool is intended as a supporting tool for physicians, based on fully automated methods that lead to the classification of{sup 123}I-ioflupane SPECT images. Methods: {sup 123}I-ioflupane images from three different databases are used to train the system. The images are intensity and spatially normalized, then subimages are extracted and a 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix is computed over these subimages, allowing the characterization of the texture using Haralick texture features. Finally, different discrimination estimation methods are used to select a feature vector that can be used to train and test the classifier. Results: Using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique over these three databases, the system achieves results up to a 97.4% of accuracy, and 99.1% of sensitivity, with positive likelihood ratios over 27. Conclusions: The system presents a robust feature extraction method that helps physicians in the diagnosis task by providing objective, operator-independent textural information about{sup 123}I-ioflupane images, commonly used in the diagnosis of the Parkinson's disease. Textural features computation has been optimized by using a subimage selection algorithm, and the discrimination estimation methods used here makes the system feature-independent, allowing us to extend it to other databases and diseases.

  5. Antiretroviral Tissue Kinetics: In Vivo Imaging Using Positron Emission Tomography▿

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mascio, Michele; Srinivasula, Sharat; Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Cheng, Lily; Martiniova, Lucia; Herscovitch, Peter; Lertora, Juan; Kiesewetter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Our current knowledge on the antiviral efficacy, dosing, and toxicity of available highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens is mostly derived from plasma or blood kinetics of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) drugs. However, the blood comprises only 2% of the total target cells in the body. Tissue drug levels may differ substantially from corresponding plasma levels, and drug distribution processes may be characterized by high intertissue variability, leading to suboptimal tar...

  6. MR imaging of skeletal soft tissue infection: utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in detecting abscess formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Kotnis, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help identify abscess formation in the setting of soft tissue infection and to assess whether abscess formation can be diagnosed confidently with a combination of DWI and other unenhanced sequences. Eight cases of soft tissue infection imaged with MRI including DWI were retrospectively reviewed. Two male and six female patients were studied (age range 23-50 years). Unenhanced MRI including DWI was performed in all patients. Post-contrast images were obtained in seven patients. All patients had clinically or surgically confirmed abscesses. Abscesses demonstrated restricted diffusion. DWI in conjunction with other unenhanced imaging showed similar confidence levels as post-contrast images in diagnosing abscess formation in four cases. In two cases, although the combined use of DWI and other unenhanced imaging yielded the same confidence levels as post-contrast imaging, DWI was more definitive for demonstrating abscess formation. In one case, post-contrast images had a better confidence for suggesting abscess. In one case, DWI helped detected the abscess, where gadolinium could not be administered because of a contraindication. This preliminary study suggests that DWI is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of skeletal soft tissue abscesses. (orig.)

  7. Medical image of the week: necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 70-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, chronic back pain, and general debilitation presented to the emergency department with complaints of fever, weakness and right buttock discomfort. Physical exam was remarkable for a temperature of 101.7º F, and for moderate erythema of the skin of the right inguinal area and right buttock, with associated tenderness. Laboratory exam was significant for a WBC of 22.7 K/ɥL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 82 mm, and serum creatinine phosphokinase of 2856 U/L. CAT of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive gluteal and perineal soft tissue inflammation with gas formation, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection (Figures 1 and 2. Three basic subsets of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs have been described. Type I infections are the most common form and are characterized by a polymicrobial process typically involving gram positive cocci, gram negative rods, and anaerobes. Type I infections occur ...

  8. Amide proton transfer imaging of high intensity focused ultrasound-treated tumor tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Jacobs, I.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. Methods: APT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  9. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Jacobs, Igor; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    PurposeIn this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. MethodsAPT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  10. 3D microscopic imaging and evaluation of tubular tissue architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáček, Jiří; Čapek, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Karen, Petr; Kubínová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S49-S55 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : confocal microscopy * capillaries * brain * skeletal muscle * image analysis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  11. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (predox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ∼27% higher in the cancerous tissues (predox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients. PMID:27896360

  12. Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient

  13. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  14. Tissue clearing for confocal imaging of native and bio-artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, L; Van Muylder, V; Desender, L; Sampaolesi, M; Thorrez, L

    2015-01-01

    Novel clearing techniques have revolutionized three-dimensional confocal imaging of the brain without the need for physical tissue sectioning. We evaluated three clearing methods, ScaleA2, Clear(T2), and 3DISCO for visualizing native and tissue engineered muscle by confocal microscopy. We found that Clear(T2) treatment improved the depth of visualization of immunohistochemical staining slightly, but did not improve depth of visualization of endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP). ScaleA2 preserved endogenous GFP signal better and permitted significantly deeper GFP imaging, but it was incompatible with tropomyosin immunohistochemical staining. 3DISCO treatment preserved both endogenous GFP and immunohistochemical staining, and permitted significantly deeper imaging. Clearing time for the 3DISCO procedure is short compared to ScaleA2 and Clear(T2). We suggest that 3DISCO is the preferable clearing method for native and tissue engineered skeletal muscle tissue.

  15. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space and thus renders optimization efficient. The method was tested on 237 prostate volumes acquired from 14 different patients for 3D to 3D and 3D to orthogonal 2D slices registration. The 3D-3D version of the algorithm converged correctly in 96.7% of all cases in 6.5s with an accuracy of 1.41mm (r.m.s.) and 3.84mm (max). The 3D to slices method yielded a success rate of 88.9% in 2.3s with an accuracy of 1.37mm (r.m.s.) and 4.3mm (max).

  16. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  17. Significance of tissue edema patterns following angioocclusion: Predictability of therapeutic efficacy with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, G.W.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Friedburg, H.G.; Wenz, W.

    1987-01-01

    In an experimental and clinical study the authors assessed the potential of MR imaging to demonstrate tissue edema after central and capillary embolization. Thirty Wistar rats underwent either central or capillary Ethibloc embolization. MR imaging revealed that tissue edema after capillary embolization started sooner, laster longer, was more intense, and was much more homogeneous than after central occlusion. In addition, total necrosis was found microscopically only after capillary embolization. In six clinical cases of renal tumor embolization with Ethibloc, MR imaging similarly demonstrated a rapidly developing and homogeneous edema that decreased when tumor shrinkage was found. In all these patients complete tumor necrosis was proved with CT

  18. Soft tissue segmentation and 3D display from computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, R.T.; Trivedi, S.S.; Fellingham, L.L.; Gamboa-Aldeco, A.; Hedgcock, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Volume calculation and 3D display of human anatomy facilitate a physician's diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation. Accurate segmentation of soft tissue structures is a prerequisite for such volume calculations and 3D displays, but segmentation by hand-outlining structures is often tedious and time-consuming. In this paper, methods based on analysis of statistics of image gray level are applied to segmentation of soft tissue in medical images, with the goal of making segmentation automatic or semi-automatic. The resulting segmented images, volume calculations, and 3D displays are analyzed and compared with results based on physician-drawn outlines as well as actual volume measurements

  19. MR imaging of uncommon soft tissue tumors in the foot: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Jee Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Tae [The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The large variety of masses occur in the foot. The foot is a comparatively rare site of soft tissue neoplasms. MRI has greatly improved the ability to detect and delineate soft tissue lesions and is now considered the gold-standard imaging technique in their investigation. Recently, we have encountered rare soft tissue tumors of the foot. The presented cases include benign masses such as granuloma annulare, angiomyoma, neural fibrolipoma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, as well as malignant tumors such as melanoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We wish to illustrate the MR findings of these uncommon soft tissue mors to aid in their diagnosis.

  20. Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ying; Dubois, Arnaud; Qin Xiangpei; Li Jian; Haj, Alicia El; Wang, Ruikang K

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring cell profiles in 3D porous scaffolds presents a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigate optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an imaging modality to monitor non-invasively both structures and cells in engineered tissue constructs. We employ time-domain OCT to visualize macro-structural morphology, and whole-field optical coherence microscopy to delineate the morphology of cells and constructs in a developing in vitro engineered bone tissue. The results show great potential for the use of OCT in non-invasive monitoring of cellular activities in 3D developing engineered tissues

  1. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  2. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  3. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  4. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  5. 'TISUCROMA': A Software for Color Processing of Biological Tissue's Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, Eduardo J.; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor, Alma; Stolik, Suren

    2016-01-01

    In this work a software intended to plot and analyze digital image RGB histograms from normal and abnormal regions of biological tissue. The obtained RGB histograms from each zone can be used to show the image in only one color or the mixture of some of them. The Software was developed in Lab View to process the images in a laptop. Some medical application examples are shown. (Author)

  6. Mammogram synthesis using a 3D simulation. I. Breast tissue model and image acquisition simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Albert, Michael; Brzakovic, Dragana; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is proposed for generating synthetic mammograms based upon simulations of breast tissue and the mammographic imaging process. A computer breast model has been designed with a realistic distribution of large and medium scale tissue structures. Parameters controlling the size and placement of simulated structures (adipose compartments and ducts) provide a method for consistently modeling images of the same simulated breast with modified position or acquisition parameters. The mammographic imaging process is simulated using a compression model and a model of the x-ray image acquisition process. The compression model estimates breast deformation using tissue elasticity parameters found in the literature and clinical force values. The synthetic mammograms were generated by a mammogram acquisition model using a monoenergetic parallel beam approximation applied to the synthetically compressed breast phantom

  7. Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, Kirk W; Smith, Cynthia M; Kanter, Elizabeth M; Hariri, Lida P; Stone, Alice L; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Williams, Stuart K; Barton, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of tissue using back-reflected light. Conventional OCT images have a resolution of 10-15 μm, and are thus best suited for visualizing tissue layers and structures. OCT images of collagen (with and without endothelial cells) have no resolvable features and may appear to simply show an exponential decrease in intensity with depth. However, examination of these images reveals that they display a characteristic repetitive structure due to speckle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of statistical and spectral texture analysis techniques for differentiating living and non-living tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers based on speckle content in OCT images. Statistically significant differences between texture parameters and excellent classification rates were obtained when comparing various endothelial cell concentrations ranging from 0 cells/ml to 25 million cells/ml. Statistically significant results and excellent classification rates were also obtained using various sizes of microspheres with concentrations ranging from 0 microspheres/ml to 500 million microspheres/ml. This study has shown that texture analysis of OCT images may be capable of differentiating tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers

  8. Progress in reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging oral tissues in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary; Zanoni, Daniella K.; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Cordova, Miguel; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Patel, Snehal

    2016-02-01

    We report progress in development and feasibility testing of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for imaging in the oral cavity of humans. We adapted a small rigid relay telescope (120mm long x 14mm diameter) and a small water immersion objective lens (12mm diameter, NA 0.7) to a commercial handheld RCM scanner (Vivascope 3000, Caliber ID, Rochester NY). This scanner is designed for imaging skin but we adapted the front end (the objective lens and the stepper motor that axially translates) for intra-oral use. This adaption required a new approach to address the loss of the automated stepper motor for acquisition of images in depth. A helical spring-like cap (with a coverslip to contact tissue) was designed for approximately 150 um of travel. Additionally other methods for focusing optics were designed and evaluated. The relay telescope optics is being tested in a clinical setting. With the capture of video and "video-mosaicing", extended areas can be imaged. The feasibility of imaging oral tissues was initially investigated in volunteers. RCM imaging in buccal mucosa in vivo shows nuclear and cellular detail in the epithelium and epithelial junction, and connective tissue and blood flow in the underlying lamina propria. Similar detail, including filiform and fungiform papillae, can be seen on the tongue in vivo. Clinical testing during head and neck surgery is now in progress and patients are being imaged for both normal tissue and cancerous margins in lip and tongue mucosa.

  9. Imaging of single cells and tissue using MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Ynsa, M.D.; Ren Minqin; Rajendran, R.; Cui Huifang; Sheu, F.-S.; Jenner, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    With the attainment of sub-100 nm high energy (MeV) ion beams, comes the opportunity to image cells and tissue at nano-dimensions. The advantage of MeV ion imaging is that the ions will penetrate whole cells, or relatively thick tissue sections, without any significant loss of resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate that whole cells (cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) and tissue sections (rabbit pancreas tissue) can be imaged at sub-100 nm resolutions using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), and that sub-cellular structural details can be identified. In addition to STIM imaging we have also demonstrated for the first time, that sub-cellular proton induced fluorescence imaging (on cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) can also be carried out at resolutions of 200 nm, compared with 300-400 nm resolutions achieved by conventional optical fluorescence imaging. The combination of both techniques offers a potentially powerful tool in the quest for elucidating cell function, particularly when it should be possible in the near future to image down to sub-50 nm.

  10. Positron flight in human tissues and its influence on PET image spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, 176 76, Stockholm (Sweden); Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andreo, Pedro [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the positron distance of flight in various human tissues on the spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed for positrons from carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, fluorine-18, gallium-68 and rubidium-82. The investigation was performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to simulate the transport of positrons within human compact bone, adipose, soft and lung tissue. The simulations yielded 3D distributions of annihilation origins that were projected on the image plane in order to assess their impact on PET spatial resolution. The distributions obtained were cusp-shaped with long tails rather than Gaussian shaped, thus making conventional full width at half maximum (FWHM) measures uncertain. The full width at 20% of the maximum amplitude (FW20M) of the annihilation distributions yielded more appropriate values for root mean square addition of spatial resolution loss components. Large differences in spatial resolution losses due to the positron flight in various human tissues were found for the selected radionuclides. The contribution to image blur was found to be up to three times larger in lung tissue than in soft tissue or fat and five times larger than in bone tissue. For {sup 18}F, the spatial resolution losses were 0.54 mm in soft tissue and 1.52 mm in lung tissue, compared with 4.10 and 10.5 mm, respectively, for {sup 82}Rb. With lung tissue as a possible exception, the image blur due to the positron flight in all human tissues has a minor impact as long as PET cameras with a spatial resolution of 5-7 mm are used in combination with {sup 18}F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. However, when ultra-high spatial resolution PET cameras, with 3-4 mm spatial resolution, are applied, especially in combination with other radionuclides, the positron flight may enter as a limiting factor for the total PET spatial resolution - particularly in lung tissue. (orig.)

  11. Positron flight in human tissues and its influence on PET image spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A.; Andreo, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the positron distance of flight in various human tissues on the spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed for positrons from carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, fluorine-18, gallium-68 and rubidium-82. The investigation was performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to simulate the transport of positrons within human compact bone, adipose, soft and lung tissue. The simulations yielded 3D distributions of annihilation origins that were projected on the image plane in order to assess their impact on PET spatial resolution. The distributions obtained were cusp-shaped with long tails rather than Gaussian shaped, thus making conventional full width at half maximum (FWHM) measures uncertain. The full width at 20% of the maximum amplitude (FW20M) of the annihilation distributions yielded more appropriate values for root mean square addition of spatial resolution loss components. Large differences in spatial resolution losses due to the positron flight in various human tissues were found for the selected radionuclides. The contribution to image blur was found to be up to three times larger in lung tissue than in soft tissue or fat and five times larger than in bone tissue. For 18 F, the spatial resolution losses were 0.54 mm in soft tissue and 1.52 mm in lung tissue, compared with 4.10 and 10.5 mm, respectively, for 82 Rb. With lung tissue as a possible exception, the image blur due to the positron flight in all human tissues has a minor impact as long as PET cameras with a spatial resolution of 5-7 mm are used in combination with 18 F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. However, when ultra-high spatial resolution PET cameras, with 3-4 mm spatial resolution, are applied, especially in combination with other radionuclides, the positron flight may enter as a limiting factor for the total PET spatial resolution - particularly in lung tissue. (orig.)

  12. Effect of sample size on multi-parametric prediction of tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke using a random forest classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for clinical and research purposes. It has been shown that the combined analysis of diffusion and perfusion MRI datasets using high-level machine learning techniques leads to an improved prediction of final infarction compared to single perfusion parameter thresholding. However, most high-level classifiers require a previous training and, until now, it is ambiguous how many subjects are required for this, which is the focus of this work. 23 MRI datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome were used in this work. Relative values of diffusion and perfusion parameters as well as the binary tissue outcome were extracted on a voxel-by- voxel level for all patients and used for training of a random forest classifier. The number of patients used for training set definition was iteratively and randomly reduced from using all 22 other patients to only one other patient. Thus, 22 tissue outcome predictions were generated for each patient using the trained random forest classifiers and compared to the known tissue outcome using the Dice coefficient. Overall, a logarithmic relation between the number of patients used for training set definition and tissue outcome prediction accuracy was found. Quantitatively, a mean Dice coefficient of 0.45 was found for the prediction using the training set consisting of the voxel information from only one other patient, which increases to 0.53 if using all other patients (n=22). Based on extrapolation, 50-100 patients appear to be a reasonable tradeoff between tissue outcome prediction accuracy and effort required for data acquisition and preparation.

  13. Tissue characteristics in left ventricular hypertrophy using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Ueno, Yuji; Arita, Mikio; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    For 15 normotensive patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 10 hypertensive patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH), and five normal subjects (N), we examined changes in myocardial T 1 and T 2 values related to the cardiac cycle. The usefulness of those values in differentiating diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated. Left ventricular (LV) short-axis spin echo images and inversion recovery images were obtained at endsystolic and diastolic cardiac phases, and T 1 and T 2 images were calculated. The regional wall thickness (WT) and T 1 and T 2 values were measured in the anterior septum, anterior wall, lateral wall, posterior wall and posterior septum. Myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were significantly decreased in systole (T 1 : 185.6±37.9 msec, T 2 : 24.4±6.3 msec, mean±SD) compared to those in diastole (T 1 : 249.2±56.7 msec, T 2 : 31.7±9.4 msec). In both the ASH and CH groups, significant correlations were observed between diastolic T 1 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.80, p 2 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.58, p 1 values in the ASH group (343.4±40.5 msec) were significantly higher than those of the CH group (247.3±21.4 msec), although the mean wall thickness values were similar in both groups. The T 1 /WT and T 2 /WT were significantly lower in the CH group than those in the ASH and N groups. In conclusion, myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were related not only to the cardiac cycle, but to wall thickness and to types of hypertrophy. The T 1 and T 2 values may be useful for distinguishing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from hypertrophy due to hypertension. (author)

  14. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author)

  15. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    1994-11-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author).

  16. Staining plastic blocks with triiodide to image cells and soft tissues in backscattered electron SEM of skeletal and dental tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM is an invaluable method for studying the histology of the hard, mineralised components of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA or other resin embedded skeletal and dental tissues. Intact tissues are studied in micro-milled or polished block faces with an electron-optical section thickness of the order of a half to one micron and with the area of the section as big as a whole – large or small – bone organ. However, BSE SEM does not give information concerning the distribution of uncalcified, ‘soft’, cellular and extracellular matrix components. This can be obtained by confocal microscopy of the same block and the two sorts of images merged but the blocks have to be studied in two microscope systems. The present work shows a new, simple and economic approach to visualising both components by using the triiodide ion in Lugol's iodine solution to stain the block surface prior to the application of any conductive coating – and the latter can be omitted if charging is suppressed by use of poor vacuum conditions in the SEM sample chamber. The method permits the use of archival tissue, and it will be valuable in studies of both normal growth and development and pathological changes in bones and joints, including osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, and tissue adaptation to implants.

  17. Energy-Looping Nanoparticles: Harnessing Excited-State Absorption for Deep-Tissue Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Elizabeth S; Tajon, Cheryl A; Bischof, Thomas S; Iafrati, Jillian; Fernandez-Bravo, Angel; Garfield, David J; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Maharbiz, Michel M; Sohal, Vikaas S; Schuck, P James; Cohen, Bruce E; Chan, Emory M

    2016-09-27

    Near infrared (NIR) microscopy enables noninvasive imaging in tissue, particularly in the NIR-II spectral range (1000-1400 nm) where attenuation due to tissue scattering and absorption is minimized. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals are promising deep-tissue imaging probes due to their photostable emission in the visible and NIR, but these materials are not efficiently excited at NIR-II wavelengths due to the dearth of lanthanide ground-state absorption transitions in this window. Here, we develop a class of lanthanide-doped imaging probes that harness an energy-looping mechanism that facilitates excitation at NIR-II wavelengths, such as 1064 nm, that are resonant with excited-state absorption transitions but not ground-state absorption. Using computational methods and combinatorial screening, we have identified Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles as efficient looping systems that emit at 800 nm under continuous-wave excitation at 1064 nm. Using this benign excitation with standard confocal microscopy, energy-looping nanoparticles (ELNPs) are imaged in cultured mammalian cells and through brain tissue without autofluorescence. The 1 mm imaging depths and 2 μm feature sizes are comparable to those demonstrated by state-of-the-art multiphoton techniques, illustrating that ELNPs are a promising class of NIR probes for high-fidelity visualization in cells and tissue.

  18. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young; Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0±2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3±4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group

  19. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  20. Motion Estimation Using the Firefly Algorithm in Ultrasonic Image Sequence of Soft Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Feng Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic image sequence of the soft tissue is widely used in disease diagnosis; however, the speckle noises usually influenced the image quality. These images usually have a low signal-to-noise ratio presentation. The phenomenon gives rise to traditional motion estimation algorithms that are not suitable to measure the motion vectors. In this paper, a new motion estimation algorithm is developed for assessing the velocity field of soft tissue in a sequence of ultrasonic B-mode images. The proposed iterative firefly algorithm (IFA searches for few candidate points to obtain the optimal motion vector, and then compares it to the traditional iterative full search algorithm (IFSA via a series of experiments of in vivo ultrasonic image sequences. The experimental results show that the IFA can assess the vector with better efficiency and almost equal estimation quality compared to the traditional IFSA method.

  1. The Assessment of Left Ventricular Time-Varying Radius Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Mirbolouk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular twist/torsion is believed to be a sensitive indicator of systolic and diastolic performance. To obtain circumferential rotation using tissue Doppler imaging, we need to estimate the time-varying radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle to convert the tangential velocity into angular velocity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate accuracy of measured LV radius using tissue Doppler imaging throughout the cardiac cycle compared to two-dimensional (2D imaging. Methods: A total of 35 subjects (47±12 years old underwent transthoracic echocardiographic standard examinations. Left ventricular radius during complete cardiac cycle measured using tissue Doppler and 2D-imaging at basal and apical short axis levels. For this reason, the 2D-images and velocity-time data derived and transferred to a personal computer for off-line analysis. 2D image frames analyzed via a program written in the MATLAB software. Velocity-time data from anteroseptal at basal level (or anterior wall at apical level and posterior walls transferred to a spreadsheet Excel program for the radius calculations. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were calculated to assess the relationships and agreements between the tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: There was significant correlation between tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii and the Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.84 to 0.97 (P<0.05. Bland-Altman analysis by constructing the 95% limits of agreement showed that the good agreements existed between the two methods. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our experience that the tissue Doppler imaging can reasonably estimate radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle.

  2. Imaging the spectral reflectance properties of bipolar radiofrequency-fused bowel tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Arya, Shobhit; Stoyanov, Danail; Du, Xiaofei; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of radiofrequency (RF) electrical energy is used during surgery to heat and seal tissue, such as vessels, allowing resection without blood loss. Recent work has suggested that this approach may be extended to allow surgical attachment of larger tissue segments for applications such as bowel anastomosis. In a large series of porcine surgical procedures bipolar RF energy was used to resect and re-seal the small bowel in vivo with a commercial tissue fusion device (Ligasure; Covidien PLC, USA). The tissue was then imaged with a multispectral imaging laparoscope to obtain a spectral datacube comprising both fused and healthy tissue. Maps of blood volume, oxygen saturation and scattering power were derived from the measured reflectance spectra using an optimised light-tissue interaction model. A 60% increase in reflectance of visible light (460-700 nm) was observed after fusion, with the tissue taking on a white appearance. Despite this the distinctive shape of the haemoglobin absorption spectrum was still noticeable in the 460-600 nm wavelength range. Scattering power increased in the fused region in comparison to normal serosa, while blood volume and oxygen saturation decreased. Observed fusion-induced changes in the reflectance spectrum are consistent with the biophysical changes induced through tissue denaturation and increased collagen cross-linking. The multispectral imager allows mapping of the spatial extent of these changes and classification of the zone of damaged tissue. Further analysis of the spectral data in parallel with histopathological examination of excised specimens will allow correlation of the optical property changes with microscopic alterations in tissue structure.

  3. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of N-glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded clinical tissue blocks and tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas W; Neely, Benjamin A; Shao, Yuan; Tang, Huiyuan; Troyer, Dean A; Mehta, Anand S; Haab, Brian B; Drake, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) method to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species in frozen tissues has been extended and improved for the direct analysis of glycans in clinically derived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed tissues from normal mouse kidney, human pancreatic and prostate cancers, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue microarray were processed by antigen retrieval followed by on-tissue digestion with peptide N-glycosidase F. The released N-glycans were detected by MALDI-IMS analysis, and the structural composition of a subset of glycans could be verified directly by on-tissue collision-induced fragmentation. Other structural assignments were confirmed by off-tissue permethylation analysis combined with multiple database comparisons. Imaging of mouse kidney tissue sections demonstrates specific tissue distributions of major cellular N-linked glycoforms in the cortex and medulla. Differential tissue distribution of N-linked glycoforms was also observed in the other tissue types. The efficacy of using MALDI-IMS glycan profiling to distinguish tumor from non-tumor tissues in a tumor microarray format is also demonstrated. This MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any FFPE tissue block or tissue microarray to enable higher throughput analysis of the global changes in N-glycosylation associated with cancers.

  4. Experimental Sentinel-2 LAI estimation using parametric, non-parametric and physical retrieval methods - A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José

    2015-01-01

    Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC),

  5. Image processing can cause some malignant soft-tissue lesions to be missed in digital mammography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Halling-Brown, M D; Looney, P T; Dance, D R; Wallis, M G; Given-Wilson, R M; Wilkinson, L; McAvinchey, R; Young, K C

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed using 349 digital mammography images of women with normal breasts, calcification clusters, or soft-tissue lesions including 191 subtle cancers. Images underwent two types of processing: FlavourA (standard) and FlavourB (added enhancement). Six observers located features in the breast they suspected to be cancerous (4,188 observations). Data were analysed using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Characteristics of the cancers detected with each image processing type were investigated. For calcifications, the JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was equal to 0.86 for both types of image processing. For soft-tissue lesions, the JAFROC FOM were better for FlavourA (0.81) than FlavourB (0.78); this difference was significant (p=0.001). Using FlavourA a greater number of cancers of all grades and sizes were detected than with FlavourB. FlavourA improved soft-tissue lesion detection in denser breasts (p=0.04 when volumetric density was over 7.5%) CONCLUSIONS: The detection of malignant soft-tissue lesions (which were primarily invasive) was significantly better with FlavourA than FlavourB image processing. This is despite FlavourB having a higher contrast appearance often preferred by radiologists. It is important that clinical choice of image processing is based on objective measures. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On Parametric (and Non-Parametric Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Smith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article raises the issue of the correct characterization of ‘Parametric Variation’ in syntax and phonology. After specifying their theoretical commitments, the authors outline the relevant parts of the Principles–and–Parameters framework, and draw a three-way distinction among Universal Principles, Parameters, and Accidents. The core of the contribution then consists of an attempt to provide identity criteria for parametric, as opposed to non-parametric, variation. Parametric choices must be antecedently known, and it is suggested that they must also satisfy seven individually necessary and jointly sufficient criteria. These are that they be cognitively represented, systematic, dependent on the input, deterministic, discrete, mutually exclusive, and irreversible.

  7. Detection of Connective Tissue Disorders from 3D Aortic MR Images Using Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Honghai

    2006-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method is reported that allows the objective identification of subjects with connective tissue disorders from 3D aortic MR images using segmentation and independent component analysis (ICA). The first step to extend the model to 4D (3D + time) has also been taken....... ICA is an effective tool for connective tissue disease detection in the presence of sparse data using prior knowledge to order the components, and the components can be inspected visually. 3D+time MR image data sets acquired from 31 normal and connective tissue disorder subjects at end-diastole (R......-wave peak) and at 45\\$\\backslash\\$% of the R-R interval were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The automated 3D segmentation result produced accurate aortic surfaces covering the aorta. The CAD method distinguished between normal and connective tissue disorder subjects with a classification...

  8. Helical 3D-CT images of soft tissue tumors in the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiraku; Tan, Akihiro; Hamanishi, Chiaki; Tanaka, Seisuke [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    X-ray, ultrasonograph CT, MRI and angiography are used to detect tumoral lesions. Recently, helical CT has been revealed to be a useful method for the diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of soft tissue tumors, by which high quality and accurate three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained quickly. We analyzed the preoperative 3D-CT images of soft tissue tumors in the hands of 11 cases (hemangioma in 6 cases, giant cell tumor, lipoma, angiofibroma, chondrosarcoma and malignant fibro-histiocytoma in one case each). Enhanced 3D-CT clearly visualized hemangiomas and solid tumors from the surrounding tissues. The tumors could easily be observed from any direction and color-coded according to the CT number. Helical 3D-CT was thus confirmed to be useful for the diagnosis and preoperative planning by indicating the details of tumor expansion into surrounding tissues. (author)

  9. Functional imaging and assessment of the glucose diffusion rate in epithelial tissues in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, K V; Tuchin, V V

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging, monitoring and quantitative description of glucose diffusion in epithelial and underlying stromal tissues in vivo and controlling of the optical properties of tissues are extremely important for many biomedical applications including the development of noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensors as well as for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Recent progress in the development of a noninvasive molecular diffusion biosensor based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is described. The diffusion of glucose was studied in several epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Because OCT provides depth-resolved imaging of tissues with high in-depth resolution, the glucose diffusion is described not only as a function of time but also as a function of depth. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  10. Imaging and modeling of collagen architecture in living tissue with polarized light transfer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Stoff, Susan; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Bai, Yuqiang

    2016-03-01

    The extra-cellular space in connective tissue of animals and humans alike is comprised in large part of collagen. Monitoring of collagen arrangement and cross-linking has been utilized to diagnose a variety of medical conditions and guide surgical intervention. For example, collagen monitoring is useful in the assessment and treatment of cervical cancer, skin cancer, myocardial infarction, and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. We have developed a suite of tools and models based on polarized light transfer for the assessment of collagen presence, cross-linking, and orientation in living tissue. Here we will present some example of such approach applied to the human cervix. We will illustrate a novel Mueller Matrix (MM) imaging system for the study of cervical tissue; furthermore we will show how our model of polarized light transfer through cervical tissue compares to the experimental findings. Finally we will show validation of the methodology through histological results and Second Harmonic imaging microscopy.

  11. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  12. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-30

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  13. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed.

  15. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1 How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2 What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3 How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]. The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals, while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9΀ (angle and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth. Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and

  16. New techniques for imaging and analyzing lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; Ingram, P.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Mastin, P.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The recent technological revolution in the field of imaging techniques has provided pathologists and toxicologists with an expanding repertoire of analytical techniques for studying the interaction between the lung and the various exogenous materials to which it is exposed. Analytical problems requiring elemental sensitivity or specificity beyond the range of that offered by conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are particularly appropriate for the application of these newer techniques. Electron energy loss spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass analysis each offer unique advantages in this regard, but also possess their own limitations and disadvantages. Diffraction techniques provide crystalline structural information available through no other means. Bulk chemical techniques provide useful cross-checks on the data obtained by microanalytical approaches. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the methodology of these techniques, acknowledge situations in which they have been used in addressing problems in pulmonary toxicology, and comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. It is necessary for an investigator to weigh6 each of these factors when deciding which technique is best suited for any given analytical problem; often it is useful to employ a combination of two or more of the techniques discussed. It is anticipated that there will be increasing utilization of these technologies for problems in pulmonary toxicology in the decades to come. 92 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  17. Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsovsky, Cory; Shelton, Ryan; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel chromatic confocal microscope capable of volumetric reflectance imaging of microstructure in non-transparent tissue. Our design takes advantage of the chromatic aberration of aspheric lenses that are otherwise well corrected. Strong chromatic aberration, generated by multiple aspheres, longitudinally disperses supercontinuum light onto the sample. The backscattered light detected with a spectrometer is therefore wavelength encoded and each spectrum corresponds to a line image. This approach obviates the need for traditional axial mechanical scanning techniques that are difficult to implement for endoscopy and susceptible to motion artifact. A wavelength range of 590-775 nm yielded a >150 µm imaging depth with ~3 µm axial resolution. The system was further demonstrated by capturing volumetric images of buccal mucosa. We believe these represent the first microstructural images in non-transparent biological tissue using chromatic confocal microscopy that exhibit long imaging depth while maintaining acceptable resolution for resolving cell morphology. Miniaturization of this optical system could bring enhanced speed and accuracy to endomicroscopic in vivo volumetric imaging of epithelial tissue. PMID:23667789

  18. Deep-tissue reporter-gene imaging with fluorescence and optoacoustic tomography: a performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ale, Angelique; Morscher, Stefan; Burton, Neal C; Schaefer, Karin; Radrich, Karin; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-10-01

    A primary enabling feature of near-infrared fluorescent proteins (FPs) and fluorescent probes is the ability to visualize deeper in tissues than in the visible. The purpose of this work is to find which is the optimal visualization method that can exploit the advantages of this novel class of FPs in full-scale pre-clinical molecular imaging studies. Nude mice were stereotactically implanted with near-infrared FP expressing glioma cells to from brain tumors. The feasibility and performance metrics of FPs were compared between planar epi-illumination and trans-illumination fluorescence imaging, as well as to hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) system combined with X-ray CT and Multispectral Optoacoustic (or Photoacoustic) Tomography (MSOT). It is shown that deep-seated glioma brain tumors are possible to visualize both with fluorescence and optoacoustic imaging. Fluorescence imaging is straightforward and has good sensitivity; however, it lacks resolution. FMT-XCT can provide an improved rough resolution of ∼1 mm in deep tissue, while MSOT achieves 0.1 mm resolution in deep tissue and has comparable sensitivity. We show imaging capacity that can shift the visualization paradigm in biological discovery. The results are relevant not only to reporter gene imaging, but stand as cross-platform comparison for all methods imaging near infrared fluorescent contrast agents.

  19. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachna Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus, a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. Methods: We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI, kernel density estimate (KDE method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Results: Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. Conclusions: We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  20. Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to monitor ocular stem cell delivery and tissue regeneration (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubelick, Kelsey; Snider, Eric; Yoon, Heechul; Ethier, C. Ross; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    Glaucoma is associated with dysfunction of the trabecular meshwork (TM), a fluid drainage tissue in the anterior eye. A promising treatment involves delivery of stem cells to the TM to restore tissue function. Currently histology is the gold standard for tracking stem cell delivery and differentiation. To expedite clinical translation, non-invasive longitudinal monitoring in vivo is desired. Our current research explores a technique combining ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging to track mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after intraocular injection. Adipose-derived MSCs were incubated with gold nanospheres to label cells (AuNS-MSCs) for PA imaging. Successful labeling was first verified with in vitro phantom studies. Next, MSC delivery was imaged ex vivo in porcine eyes, while intraocular pressure was hydrostatically clamped to maintain a physiological flow rate through the TM. US/PA imaging was performed before, during, and after AuNS-MSC delivery. Additionally, spectroscopic PA imaging was implemented to isolate PA signals from AuNS-MSCs. In vitro cell imaging showed AuNS-MSCs produce strong PA signals, suggesting that MSCs can be tracked using PA imaging. While the cornea, sclera, iris, and TM region can be visualized with US imaging, pigmented tissues also produce PA signals. Both modalities provide valuable anatomical landmarks for MSC localization. During delivery, PA imaging can visualize AuNS-MSC motion and location, creating a unique opportunity to guide ocular cell delivery. Lastly, distinct spectral signatures of AuNS-MSCs allow unmixing, with potential for quantitative PA imaging. In conclusion, results show proof-of-concept for monitoring MSC ocular delivery, raising opportunities for in vivo image-guided cell delivery.

  1. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, Nahshon K; Dolovich, Allan T; Chen, Daniel X B; Zhang, Chris W J

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold's mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly. However, experimentally observing the scaffold deflection is challenging. This paper presents a novel study on characterization of mechanical properties of scaffolds by phase contrast imaging and finite element modeling, which specifically includes scaffold fabrication, scaffold imaging, image analysis, and finite elements (FEs) modeling of the scaffold mechanical properties. The innovation of the work rests on the use of in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging at 20 KeV to characterize tissue scaffold deformation caused by ultrasound radiation forces and the use of the Fourier transform to identify movement. Once deformation has been determined experimentally, it is then compared with the predictions given by the forward solution of a finite element model. A consideration of the number of separate loading conditions necessary to uniquely identify the material properties of transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic scaffolds is also presented, along with the use of an FE as a form of regularization.

  2. Optical imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cânjǎu, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Duma, Virgil; Mǎnescu, Adrian; Topalǎ, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-06-01

    The efforts aimed at early diagnosis of oral cancer should be prioritized towards developing a new screening instrument, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to be used directly intraorally, able to perform a fast, real time, 3D and non-invasive diagnosis of oral malignancies. The first step in this direction would be to optimize the OCT image interpretation of oral tissues. Therefore we propose plastination as a tissue preparation method that better preserves three-dimensional structure for study by new optical imaging techniques. The OCT and the synchrotron radiation computed microtomography (micro-CT) were employed for tissue sample analyze. For validating the OCT results we used the gold standard diagnostic procedure for any suspicious lesion - histopathology. This is a preliminary study of comparing features provided by OCT and Micro-CT. In the conditions of the present study, OCT proves to be a highly promising imaging modality. The use of x-ray based topographic imaging of small biological samples has been limited by the low intrinsic x-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissue and the lack of established contrast agents. Plastination can be used to enhance optical imagies of oral soft tissue samples.

  3. Synchrotron microCT imaging of soft tissue in juvenile zebrafish reveals retinotectal projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xuying; Clark, Darin; Ang, Khai Chung; van Rossum, Damian B.; Copper, Jean; Xiao, Xianghui; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2017-02-01

    Biomedical research and clinical diagnosis would benefit greatly from full volume determinations of anatomical phenotype. Comprehensive tools for morphological phenotyping are central for the emerging field of phenomics, which requires high-throughput, systematic, accurate, and reproducible data collection from organisms affected by genetic, disease, or environmental variables. Theoretically, complete anatomical phenotyping requires the assessment of every cell type in the whole organism, but this ideal is presently untenable due to the lack of an unbiased 3D imaging method that allows histopathological assessment of any cell type despite optical opacity. Histopathology, the current clinical standard for diagnostic phenotyping, involves the microscopic study of tissue sections to assess qualitative aspects of tissue architecture, disease mechanisms, and physiological state. However, quantitative features of tissue architecture such as cellular composition and cell counting in tissue volumes can only be approximated due to characteristics of tissue sectioning, including incomplete sampling and the constraints of 2D imaging of 5 micron thick tissue slabs. We have used a small, vertebrate organism, the zebrafish, to test the potential of microCT for systematic macroscopic and microscopic morphological phenotyping. While cell resolution is routinely achieved using methods such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy and optical tomography, these methods do not provide the pancellular perspective characteristic of histology, and are constrained by the limited penetration of visible light through pigmented and opaque specimens, as characterizes zebrafish juveniles. Here, we provide an example of neuroanatomy that can be studied by microCT of stained soft tissue at 1.43 micron isotropic voxel resolution. We conclude that synchrotron microCT is a form of 3D imaging that may potentially be adopted towards more reproducible, large-scale, morphological phenotyping of optically

  4. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: Soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The equine fetlock is the joint most commonly associated with lameness. Although the fetlock is regarded as a simple joint, diagnosis of a fetlock disorder can be a challenge and various imaging modalities are routinely used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. This review describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the fetlock region and addresses some of the technical aspects involved in taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different soft tissue lesions. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most commonly used diagnostic approach in clinical practice.

  6. Synchrotron FTIR Imaging For The Identification Of Cell Types Within Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael J.; Pounder, F. Nell; Nasse, Michael J.; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hirschmugl, Carol; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    The use of synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been shown to be a very promising tool for biomedical research. S-FTIR spectroscopy allows for the fast acquisition of infrared (IR) spectra at a spatial resolution approaching the IR diffraction limit. The development of the Infrared Environmental Imaging (IRENI) beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has allowed for diffraction limited imaging measurements of cells in human prostate and breast tissues. This has allowed for the identification of cell types within tissues that would otherwise not have been resolvable using conventional FTIR sources.

  7. Computational Modeling for Enhancing Soft Tissue Image Guided Surgery: An Application in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications.

  8. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  9. Usefulness of parametric renal clearance images in the assessment of basic risk factors for renalnal clearance images in the assessment of basic risk factors for renal scarring in children with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak-Stelasiak, Ewa; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Woźnicki, Wojciech; Bubińska, Krystyna; Kowalewska-Pietrzak, Magdalena; Płachcińska, Anna; Kuśmierek, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Clinically confirmed incidents of acute pyelonephritis (APN) following recurrent infections of urinary tract (UTI) form basic risk factors for renal scarring in children. Vesico-uretheral reflux (VUR) of higher grade is additional risk factor for this scarring. Opinions on diagnostic value of summed sequential images of renal uptake phase (SUM) of dynamic renal scintigraphy in detection of renal scars are diverse. However, several publications point to higher diagnostic efficacy of clearance parametric images (PAR) generated from this study. To establish a clinical value of parametric renal clearance images in detection of renal scarring. A prospective study was performed in a group of 91 children at the age of 4 to 18 years with recurrent UTI. Clinically documented incidents of APN were noted in 32 children: in 8 cases - one and in the remaining 24 - 2 to 5 (mean 3) incidents. In the remaining 59 patients only infections of the lower part of urinary tract were diagnosed. Static renal 99mTc-DMSA SPECT study and after 2-4 days dynamic renal studies (99mTc-EC) were performed in every patient not earlier than 6 months after the last documented incident of UTI. PAR images generated from a dynamic study by in-house developed software and SUM images were compared with a gold standard SPECT study. Percentages of children with detected renal scar(s) with SPECT and PAR methods amounted to 55% and 54%, respectively and were statistically significantly higher (p children with history of APN detected with SPECT and PAR methods were significantly more frequent than with infections of only lower part of urinary tract (72% vs. 46%; p = 0.017 and 69% vs. 46%; p = 0.036, respectively). A SUM method did not reveal statistically significant differences between frequencies of detection of scars in groups specified above - 38% vs. 27% (p = 0.31). Both SPECT and PAR methods showed also that frequencies of occurrence of renal scars in children with higher grades of VUR were higher than

  10. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Seo [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  11. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Seo; Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  12. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of experimental soft tissue carcinoma and hemorrhage in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.; Googe, R.E.; Mancuso, A.A.; Scott, K.N.; Hackett, R.H.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    An experimental series in the rabbit was performed to test gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma and hemorrhages induced in the soft tissues. The recognition of both malignant and benign lesions was greatly facilitated on T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of 0.3 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weigth because of reduced T1 relaxation times. Gd-DTPA enhancement reached its maximum after 10-15 minutes and was most apparent in tumor tissue, connective tissue surrounding the tumor and in the area of fresh hemorrhage. (orig.)

  13. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites.

  14. Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2014-07-01

    Coregistered ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a 128-channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate. In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization. Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor-bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated.

  15. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites. PMID:26904042

  16. In Vivo Deep Tissue Fluorescence and Magnetic Imaging Employing Hybrid Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortgies, Dirk H; de la Cueva, Leonor; Del Rosal, Blanca; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Fernández, Nuria; Iglesias-de la Cruz, M Carmen; Salas, Gorka; Cabrera, David; Teran, Francisco J; Jaque, Daniel; Martín Rodríguez, Emma

    2016-01-20

    Breakthroughs in nanotechnology have made it possible to integrate different nanoparticles in one single hybrid nanostructure (HNS), constituting multifunctional nanosized sensors, carriers, and probes with great potential in the life sciences. In addition, such nanostructures could also offer therapeutic capabilities to achieve a wider variety of multifunctionalities. In this work, the encapsulation of both magnetic and infrared emitting nanoparticles into a polymeric matrix leads to a magnetic-fluorescent HNS with multimodal magnetic-fluorescent imaging abilities. The magnetic-fluorescent HNS are capable of simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and deep tissue infrared fluorescence imaging, overcoming the tissue penetration limits of classical visible-light based optical imaging as reported here in living mice. Additionally, their applicability for magnetic heating in potential hyperthermia treatments is assessed.

  17. Hyperspectral microscope for in vivo imaging of microstructures and cells in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos,; Stavros, G [Livermore, CA

    2011-05-17

    An optical hyperspectral/multimodal imaging method and apparatus is utilized to provide high signal sensitivity for implementation of various optical imaging approaches. Such a system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives so as to enable off-axis illumination of predetermined tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength, simplifies design, reduces required optical elements, significantly reduces spectral noise from the optical elements and allows for fast image acquisition enabling high quality imaging in-vivo. Such a technology provides a means of detecting disease at the single cell level such as cancer, precancer, ischemic, traumatic or other type of injury, infection, or other diseases or conditions causing alterations in cells and tissue micro structures.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of local soft tissue inflammation using gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paajanen, H.; Brasch, R.C.; Schmiedl, U.; Ogan, M.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical inflammation was induced subcutaneously in 10 rats using carrageenan mucopolysaccharide. Dual spin echo (SE) imaging of inflammatory loci was performed employing a 0.35 tesla resistive magnet. In addition, gadolinium-DTPA was administrated intravenously into 5 rats to evaluate the potential benefits of paramagnetic contrast medium for the detection and characterization of inflammatory loci. T2 weighted SE images demonstrated the edematous lesions as zones of high intensity. This was attributed to the increased relaxation times of lesions when compared to the adjacent soft tissue. The inflammation was also delineated on T1 weighted SE images, but only after injection of paramagnetic Gd-DTPA. Carrageenan mucopolysaccharide-induced lesions provide a useful experimental model for in viva evaluation of soft tissue inflammation using magnetic resonance imaging. No special benefit of paramagnetic contrast enhancement was demonstrated in this model of local edema. (orig.)

  19. Automatic extraction of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images using model driven analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Yamamoto, Shinji; Imao, Masanao.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic extraction system (called TOPS-3D : Top Down Parallel Pattern Recognition System for 3D Images) of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images by using model driven analysis algorithm. As the construction of system TOPS we developed, two concepts have been considered in the design of system TOPS-3D. One is the system having a hierarchical structure of reasoning using model information in higher level, and the other is a parallel image processing structure used to extract plural candidate regions for a destination entity. The new points of system TOPS-3D are as follows. (1) The TOPS-3D is a three-dimensional image analysis system including 3D model construction and 3D image processing techniques. (2) A technique is proposed to increase connectivity between knowledge processing in higher level and image processing in lower level. The technique is realized by applying opening operation of mathematical morphology, in which a structural model function defined in higher level by knowledge representation is immediately used to the filter function of opening operation as image processing in lower level. The system TOPS-3D applied to 3D MRI head images consists of three levels. First and second levels are reasoning part, and third level is image processing part. In experiments, we applied 5 samples of 3D MRI head images with size 128 x 128 x 128 pixels to the system TOPS-3D to extract the regions of soft tissues such as cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. From the experimental results, the system is robust for variation of input data by using model information, and the position and shape of soft tissues are extracted corresponding to anatomical structure. (author)

  20. Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-12-01

    Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.

  1. HPASubC: A suite of tools for user subclassification of human protein atlas tissue images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby C Cornish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human protein atlas (HPA is a powerful proteomic tool for visualizing the distribution of protein expression across most human tissues and many common malignancies. The HPA includes immunohistochemically-stained images from tissue microarrays (TMAs that cover 48 tissue types and 20 common malignancies. The TMA data are used to provide expression information at the tissue, cellular, and occasionally, subcellular level. The HPA also provides subcellular data from confocal immunofluorescence data on three cell lines. Despite the availability of localization data, many unique patterns of cellular and subcellular expression are not documented. Materials and Methods: To get at this more granular data, we have developed a suite of Python scripts, HPASubC, to aid in subcellular, and cell-type specific classification of HPA images. This method allows the user to download and optimize specific HPA TMA images for review. Then, using a playstation-style video game controller, a trained observer can rapidly step through 10′s of 1000′s of images to identify patterns of interest. Results: We have successfully used this method to identify 703 endothelial cell (EC and/or smooth muscle cell (SMCs specific proteins discovered within 49,200 heart TMA images. This list will assist us in subdividing cardiac gene or protein array data into expression by one of the predominant cell types of the myocardium: Myocytes, SMCs or ECs. Conclusions: The opportunity to further characterize unique staining patterns across a range of human tissues and malignancies will accelerate our understanding of disease processes and point to novel markers for tissue evaluation in surgical pathology.

  2. HPASubC: A suite of tools for user subclassification of human protein atlas tissue images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Toby C; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kapoor, Ashish; Halushka, Marc K

    2015-01-01

    The human protein atlas (HPA) is a powerful proteomic tool for visualizing the distribution of protein expression across most human tissues and many common malignancies. The HPA includes immunohistochemically-stained images from tissue microarrays (TMAs) that cover 48 tissue types and 20 common malignancies. The TMA data are used to provide expression information at the tissue, cellular, and occasionally, subcellular level. The HPA also provides subcellular data from confocal immunofluorescence data on three cell lines. Despite the availability of localization data, many unique patterns of cellular and subcellular expression are not documented. To get at this more granular data, we have developed a suite of Python scripts, HPASubC, to aid in subcellular, and cell-type specific classification of HPA images. This method allows the user to download and optimize specific HPA TMA images for review. Then, using a playstation-style video game controller, a trained observer can rapidly step through 10's of 1000's of images to identify patterns of interest. We have successfully used this method to identify 703 endothelial cell (EC) and/or smooth muscle cell (SMCs) specific proteins discovered within 49,200 heart TMA images. This list will assist us in subdividing cardiac gene or protein array data into expression by one of the predominant cell types of the myocardium: Myocytes, SMCs or ECs. The opportunity to further characterize unique staining patterns across a range of human tissues and malignancies will accelerate our understanding of disease processes and point to novel markers for tissue evaluation in surgical pathology.

  3. HPASubC: A suite of tools for user subclassification of human protein atlas tissue images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Toby C.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kapoor, Ashish; Halushka, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The human protein atlas (HPA) is a powerful proteomic tool for visualizing the distribution of protein expression across most human tissues and many common malignancies. The HPA includes immunohistochemically-stained images from tissue microarrays (TMAs) that cover 48 tissue types and 20 common malignancies. The TMA data are used to provide expression information at the tissue, cellular, and occasionally, subcellular level. The HPA also provides subcellular data from confocal immunofluorescence data on three cell lines. Despite the availability of localization data, many unique patterns of cellular and subcellular expression are not documented. Materials and Methods: To get at this more granular data, we have developed a suite of Python scripts, HPASubC, to aid in subcellular, and cell-type specific classification of HPA images. This method allows the user to download and optimize specific HPA TMA images for review. Then, using a playstation-style video game controller, a trained observer can rapidly step through 10's of 1000's of images to identify patterns of interest. Results: We have successfully used this method to identify 703 endothelial cell (EC) and/or smooth muscle cell (SMCs) specific proteins discovered within 49,200 heart TMA images. This list will assist us in subdividing cardiac gene or protein array data into expression by one of the predominant cell types of the myocardium: Myocytes, SMCs or ECs. Conclusions: The opportunity to further characterize unique staining patterns across a range of human tissues and malignancies will accelerate our understanding of disease processes and point to novel markers for tissue evaluation in surgical pathology. PMID:26167380

  4. Applications of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in deep-tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Betty; Hsu, Lily L.; Kaplan, Peter D.; Blankschstein, D.; Langer, Robert; So, Peter T. C.

    2000-07-01

    Based on the non-linear excitation of fluorescence molecules, two-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a significant new tool for biological imaging. The point-like excitation characteristic of this technique enhances image quality by the virtual elimination of off-focal fluorescence. Furthermore, sample photodamage is greatly reduced because fluorescence excitation is limited to the focal region. For deep tissue imaging, two-photon microscopy has the additional benefit in the greatly improved imaging depth penetration. Since the near- infrared laser sources used in two-photon microscopy scatter less than their UV/glue-green counterparts, in-depth imaging of highly scattering specimen can be greatly improved. In this work, we will present data characterizing both the imaging characteristics (point-spread-functions) and tissue samples (skin) images using this novel technology. In particular, we will demonstrate how blind deconvolution can be used further improve two-photon image quality and how this technique can be used to study mechanisms of chemically-enhanced, transdermal drug delivery.

  5. Evaluation of segmentation algorithms for optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Travis W.; Rice, Photini F. S.; Sawyer, David M.; Koevary, Jennifer W.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2018-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all gynecologic cancers due to predominantly late diagnosis. Early detection of ovarian cancer can increase 5-year survival rates from 40% up to 92%, yet no reliable early detection techniques exist. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique that provides depthresolved, high-resolution images of biological tissue in real time and demonstrates great potential for imaging of ovarian tissue. Mouse models are crucial to quantitatively assess the diagnostic potential of OCT for ovarian cancer imaging; however, due to small organ size, the ovaries must rst be separated from the image background using the process of segmentation. Manual segmentation is time-intensive, as OCT yields three-dimensional data. Furthermore, speckle noise complicates OCT images, frustrating many processing techniques. While much work has investigated noise-reduction and automated segmentation for retinal OCT imaging, little has considered the application to the ovaries, which exhibit higher variance and inhomogeneity than the retina. To address these challenges, we evaluated a set of algorithms to segment OCT images of mouse ovaries. We examined ve preprocessing techniques and six segmentation algorithms. While all pre-processing methods improve segmentation, Gaussian filtering is most effective, showing an improvement of 32% +/- 1.2%. Of the segmentation algorithms, active contours performs best, segmenting with an accuracy of 0.948 +/- 0.012 compared with manual segmentation (1.0 being identical). Nonetheless, further optimization could lead to maximizing the performance for segmenting OCT images of the ovaries.

  6. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  7. Deep learning for tissue microarray image-based outcome prediction in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Dmitrii; Turkki, Riku; Haglund, Caj; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in computer vision enable increasingly accurate automated pattern classification. In the current study we evaluate whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be trained to predict disease outcome in patients with colorectal cancer based on images of tumor tissue microarray samples. We compare the prognostic accuracy of CNN features extracted from the whole, unsegmented tissue microarray spot image, with that of CNN features extracted from the epithelial and non-epithelial compartments, respectively. The prognostic accuracy of visually assessed histologic grade is used as a reference. The image data set consists of digitized hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained tissue microarray samples obtained from 180 patients with colorectal cancer. The patient samples represent a variety of histological grades, have data available on a series of clinicopathological variables including long-term outcome and ground truth annotations performed by experts. The CNN features extracted from images of the epithelial tissue compartment significantly predicted outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08; CI95% 1.04-4.16; area under the curve (AUC) 0.66) in a test set of 60 patients, as compared to the CNN features extracted from unsegmented images (HR 1.67; CI95% 0.84-3.31, AUC 0.57) and visually assessed histologic grade (HR 1.96; CI95% 0.99-3.88, AUC 0.61). As a conclusion, a deep-learning classifier can be trained to predict outcome of colorectal cancer based on images of H and E stained tissue microarray samples and the CNN features extracted from the epithelial compartment only resulted in a prognostic discrimination comparable to that of visually determined histologic grade.

  8. Super-nonlinear fluorescence microscopy for high-contrast deep tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Zhu, Xinxin; Chen, Zhixing; Min, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) offers the highest penetration depth with subcellular resolution in light microscopy, due to its unique advantage of nonlinear excitation. However, a fundamental imaging-depth limit, accompanied by a vanishing signal-to-background contrast, still exists for TPFM when imaging deep into scattering samples. Formally, the focusing depth, at which the in-focus signal and the out-of-focus background are equal to each other, is defined as the fundamental imaging-depth limit. To go beyond this imaging-depth limit of TPFM, we report a new class of super-nonlinear fluorescence microscopy for high-contrast deep tissue imaging, including multiphoton activation and imaging (MPAI) harnessing novel photo-activatable fluorophores, stimulated emission reduced fluorescence (SERF) microscopy by adding a weak laser beam for stimulated emission, and two-photon induced focal saturation imaging with preferential depletion of ground-state fluorophores at focus. The resulting image contrasts all exhibit a higher-order (third- or fourth- order) nonlinear signal dependence on laser intensity than that in the standard TPFM. Both the physical principles and the imaging demonstrations will be provided for each super-nonlinear microscopy. In all these techniques, the created super-nonlinearity significantly enhances the imaging contrast and concurrently extends the imaging depth-limit of TPFM. Conceptually different from conventional multiphoton processes mediated by virtual states, our strategy constitutes a new class of fluorescence microscopy where high-order nonlinearity is mediated by real population transfer.

  9. Assessment of tissue polarimetric properties using Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; Lin, Jianyu; Dong, Yang; Chen, Dongsheng; Ma, Hui; Elson, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    Tissue-depolarization and linear-retardance are the main polarization characteristics of interest for bulk tissue characterization, and are normally interpreted from Mueller polarimetry. Stokes polarimetry can be conducted using simpler instrumentation and in a shorter time. Here, we use Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination to assess the circular-depolarization and linear-retardance properties of tissue. Results obtained were compared with Mueller polarimetry in transmission and reflection geometry, respectively. It is found that circular-depolarization obtained from these 2 methods is very similar in both geometries, and that linear-retardance is highly quantitatively similar for transmission geometry and qualitatively similar for reflection geometry. The majority of tissue circular-depolarization and linear-retardance image information (represented by local image contrast features) obtained from Mueller polarimetry is well preserved from Stokes polarimetry in both geometries. These findings can be referred to for further understanding tissue Stokes polarimetric data, and for further application of Stokes polarimetry under the circumstances where short acquisition time or low optical system complexity is a priority, such as polarimetric endoscopy and microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7° at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue–based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  11. Characterization of a sequential pipeline approach to automatic tissue segmentation from brain MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zujun; Huang, Su

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gray matter and white matter in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for neuroradiology and clinical practice. Submission of large collections of MRI scans to pipeline processing is increasingly important. We characterized this process and suggest several improvements. To investigate tissue segmentation from brain MR images through a sequential approach, a pipeline that consecutively executes denoising, skull/scalp removal, intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed. The denoising phase employs a 3D-extension of the Bayes-Shrink method. The inhomogeneity is corrected by an improvement of the Dawant et al.'s method with automatic generation of reference points. The N3 method has also been evaluated. Subsequently the brain tissue is segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter by a generalized Otsu thresholding technique. Intensive comparisons with other sequential or iterative methods have been carried out using simulated and real images. The sequential approach with judicious selection on the algorithm selection in each stage is not only advantageous in speed, but also can attain at least as accurate segmentation as iterative methods under a variety of noise or inhomogeneity levels. A sequential approach to tissue segmentation, which consecutively executes the wavelet shrinkage denoising, scalp/skull removal, inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed to automatically segment the brain tissue into CSF, GM and WM from brain MR images. This approach is advantageous in several common applications, compared with other pipeline methods. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of cytokine and adhesion molecule expression in synovial tissue by digital image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, M. C.; Smith, M. D.; Weedon, H.; Ahern, M. J.; Breedveld, F. C.; Tak, P. P.

    2001-01-01

    Digital image analysis (DIA) offers the opportunity to quantify the stained area and staining intensity when synovial tissue (ST) is investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity of DIA compared with semiquantitative analysis (SQA). Paired ST samples

  13. Frequency-locked pulse sequencer for high-frame-rate monochromatic tissue motion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Reza Zahiri; Baghani, Ali; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Rohling, Robert

    2011-04-01

    To overcome the inherent low frame rate of conventional ultrasound, we have previously presented a system that can be implemented on conventional ultrasound scanners for high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic tissue motion. The system employs a sector subdivision technique in the sequencer to increase the acquisition rate. To eliminate the delays introduced during data acquisition, a motion phase correction algorithm has also been introduced to create in-phase displacement images. Previous experimental results from tissue- mimicking phantoms showed that the system can achieve effective frame rates of up to a few kilohertz on conventional ultrasound systems. In this short communication, we present a new pulse sequencing strategy that facilitates high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic motion such that the acquired echo signals are inherently in-phase. The sequencer uses the knowledge of the excitation frequency to synchronize the acquisition of the entire imaging plane to that of an external exciter. This sequencing approach eliminates any need for synchronization or phase correction and has applications in tissue elastography, which we demonstrate with tissue-mimicking phantoms. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Systolic and Diastolic Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging Predicts Mortality in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Maria; BieringSørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) detects early signs of left ventricular dysfunction. The prognostic potential of TDI in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has, however, not yet been clarified. This study evaluates the prognostic value of TDI in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS...

  15. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Søgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current method for a non-invasive assessment of diastolic dysfunction is complex with the use of algorithms of many different echocardiographic parameters. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement (LD), determined by colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) via the measurement...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of residual breast tissue following mastectomy and reconstruction with silicone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Douglas; Tsehmaister-Abitbol, Vered; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Zbar, Andrew; Nardini, Gil; Novikov, Ilya; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2015-01-01

    We present our use of magnetic resonance (MR) measurement to determine the amount of residual breast tissue (RBT) following total mastectomy with reconstruction. Breast MR images of 45 women who underwent surgery between January and November 2011 were reviewed. The cohort included therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies. RBT was evaluated at four points with a digital caliper assessing T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma tended to have less RBT than in prophylactic surgery. Greater age and recent surgery both correlated with larger RBT. Variable thickness of RBT is demonstrable following mastectomy and implant reconstruction using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical usefulness of facial soft tissues thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Seong Ho; Kim, Chong Kwan; Park, Chang Seo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images. One cadaver that had sound facial soft tissues was chosen for the study. The cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT under following scanning protocols about slice thickness and table speed: 3 mm and 3 mm/sec, 5 mm and 5 mm/sec, 7 mm and 7 mm/sec. The acquired data were reconstructed 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mm reconstruction interval respectively and the images were transferred to a personal computer. Using a program developed to measure facial soft tissue thickness in 3D image, the facial soft tissue thickness was measured. After the ten-time repeation of the measurement for ten times, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements using the three scanning protocols. Comparison according to the areas was analysed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant intraobserver differences in the measurements of the facial soft tissue thickness using the three scanning protocols (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between measurements in the 3 mm slice thickness and those in the 5 mm, 7 mm slice thickness (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the 14 of the total 30 measured points in the 5 mm slice thickness and 22 in the 7 mm slice thickness. The facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D images of 7 mm slice thickness is acceptable clinically, but those of 5 mm slice thickness is recommended for the more accurate measurement

  18. Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Beverley F.; Cuplov, Vesna; Millner, Lynn; Hutton, Brian F.; Maher, Toby M.; Groves, Ashley M.; Thielemans, Kris

    2015-09-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this ‘tissue fraction effect’ (TFE). In this paper, we extend this work to include the blood component and also investigate the TFE in dynamic imaging. CT imaging and PET kinetic modelling are used to determine fractional air and blood voxel volumes in six patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These values are used to illustrate best and worst case scenarios when interpreting images without correcting for the TFE. In addition, the fractional volumes were used to determine correction factors for the SUV and the kinetic parameters. These were then applied to the patient images. The kinetic parameters K1 and Ki along with the static parameter SUV were all found to be affected by the TFE with both air and blood providing a significant contribution to the errors. Without corrections, errors range from 34-80% in the best case and 29-96% in the worst case. In the patient data, without correcting for the TFE, regions of high density (fibrosis) appeared to have a higher uptake than lower density (normal appearing tissue), however this was reversed after air and blood correction. The proposed correction methods are vital for quantitative and relative accuracy. Without these corrections, images may be misinterpreted.

  19. Improved correction for the tissue fraction effect in lung PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Beverley F; Cuplov, Vesna; Millner, Lynn; Hutton, Brian F; Groves, Ashley M; Thielemans, Kris; Maher, Toby M

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in imaging different pulmonary disorders using PET techniques. Previous work has shown, for static PET/CT, that air content in the lung influences reconstructed image values and that it is vital to correct for this ‘tissue fraction effect’ (TFE). In this paper, we extend this work to include the blood component and also investigate the TFE in dynamic imaging. CT imaging and PET kinetic modelling are used to determine fractional air and blood voxel volumes in six patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These values are used to illustrate best and worst case scenarios when interpreting images without correcting for the TFE. In addition, the fractional volumes were used to determine correction factors for the SUV and the kinetic parameters. These were then applied to the patient images. The kinetic parameters K 1 and K i along with the static parameter SUV were all found to be affected by the TFE with both air and blood providing a significant contribution to the errors. Without corrections, errors range from 34–80% in the best case and 29–96% in the worst case. In the patient data, without correcting for the TFE, regions of high density (fibrosis) appeared to have a higher uptake than lower density (normal appearing tissue), however this was reversed after air and blood correction. The proposed correction methods are vital for quantitative and relative accuracy. Without these corrections, images may be misinterpreted. (paper)

  20. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment. (paper)

  1. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  2. Quantitative Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Heterogeneous Tissue: Application to the Detection of Residual Disease in Tumor Margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L; Harmany, Zachary T; Mito, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Stephanie A; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G; Willett, Rebecca M; Brown, J Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for quantitative in situ pathology that allows visualization of heterogeneous tissue morphology and segmentation and quantification of image features. TISSUE EXCISED FROM A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SARCOMA WAS IMAGED USING A SUBCELLULAR RESOLUTION MICROENDOSCOPE AFTER TOPICAL APPLICATION OF A FLUORESCENT ANATOMICAL CONTRAST AGENT: acriflavine. An algorithm based on sparse component analysis (SCA) and the circle transform (CT) was developed for image segmentation and quantification of distinct tissue types. The accuracy of our approach was quantified through simulations of tumor and muscle images. Specifically, tumor, muscle, and tumor+muscle tissue images were simulated because these tissue types were most commonly observed in sarcoma margins. Simulations were based on tissue characteristics observed in pathology slides. The potential clinical utility of our approach was evaluated by imaging excised margins and the tumor bed in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of sarcoma. Simulation experiments revealed that SCA+CT achieved the lowest errors for larger nuclear sizes and for higher contrast ratios (nuclei intensity/background intensity). For imaging of tumor margins, SCA+CT effectively isolated nuclei from tumor, muscle, adipose, and tumor+muscle tissue types. Differences in density were correctly identified with SCA+CT in a cohort of ex vivo and in vivo images, thus illustrating the diagnostic potential of our approach. The combination of a subcellular-resolution microendoscope, acriflavine staining, and SCA+CT can be used to accurately isolate nuclei and quantify their density in anatomical images of heterogeneous tissue.

  3. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study we...... demonstrate that Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon can be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ß......-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wildtype Lotus japonicus and a ß-glucosidase mutant plant lacking the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile...

  4. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  5. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  6. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  7. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  8. Observation of a cavitation cloud in tissue using correlation between ultrafast ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgani, Ali; Catheline, Stefan; Souchon, Rémi; Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril

    2015-07-01

    The local application of ultrasound is known to improve drug intake by tumors. Cavitating bubbles are one of the contributing effects. A setup in which two ultrasound transducers are placed confocally is used to generate cavitation in ex vivo tissue. As the transducers emit a series of short excitation bursts, the evolution of the cavitation activity is monitored using an ultrafast ultrasound imaging system. The frame rate of the system is several thousands of images per second, which provides several tens of images between consecutive excitation bursts. Using the correlation between consecutive images for speckle tracking, a decorrelation of the imaging signal appears due to the creation, fast movement, and dissolution of the bubbles in the cavitation cloud. By analyzing this area of decorrelation, the cavitation cloud can be localized and the spatial extent of the cavitation activity characterized.

  9. Automatic registration of multi-modal microscopy images for integrative analysis of prostate tissue sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippolis, Giuseppe; Edsjö, Anders; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Overgaard, Niels Chr

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. For diagnosis, predicting the outcome of the disease, and for assessing potential new biomarkers, pathologists and researchers routinely analyze histological samples. Morphological and molecular information may be integrated by aligning microscopic histological images in a multiplex fashion. This process is usually time-consuming and results in intra- and inter-user variability. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using modern image analysis methods for automated alignment of microscopic images from differently stained adjacent paraffin sections from prostatic tissue specimens. Tissue samples, obtained from biopsy or radical prostatectomy, were sectioned and stained with either hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry for p63 and AMACR or Time Resolved Fluorescence (TRF) for androgen receptor (AR). Image pairs were aligned allowing for translation, rotation and scaling. The registration was performed automatically by first detecting landmarks in both images, using the scale invariant image transform (SIFT), followed by the well-known RANSAC protocol for finding point correspondences and finally aligned by Procrustes fit. The Registration results were evaluated using both visual and quantitative criteria as defined in the text. Three experiments were carried out. First, images of consecutive tissue sections stained with H&E and p63/AMACR were successfully aligned in 85 of 88 cases (96.6%). The failures occurred in 3 out of 13 cores with highly aggressive cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8). Second, TRF and H&E image pairs were aligned correctly in 103 out of 106 cases (97%). The third experiment considered the alignment of image pairs with the same staining (H&E) coming from a stack of 4 sections. The success rate for alignment dropped from 93.8% in adjacent sections to 22% for sections furthest away. The proposed method is both reliable and fast and therefore well suited

  10. Synthesis and radiolabelling of novel nitrogen mustards for the imaging of hypoxic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, C.; Ackermann, U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O'Keefe, G.J.; White, J.; Spratt, N.; Howells, D.; Scott, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic tissue is of great significance in stroke and oncology. Among the radiotracers currently used to detect hypoxia, derivatives based on the 2-nitro-imidazole ring such as FMISO or FAZA have received considerable attention in medical imaging. Unfortunately, due to slow clearance of these tracers from normoxic tissue a waiting period of two hours is required between tracer injection and the scanning of the patient. In addition the target to background ratio is low and the quality of the image is therefore poor. Nitrogen mustards are another class of compounds that have great affinity to hypoxic tissue. Derivatives of these compounds labelled with a positron emitting radionuclide, such as [ 18 F], may allow for the imaging of hypoxic regions in the ischemic penumbra. It therefore, may be a useful diagnostic tool in stroke. Radiolabeled N-(2-[ 18 F]-fluoroethyl)-N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-methylsulfinylaniline was successfully synthesised using a potassium fluoride kryptofix complex, giving the desired product in 40% radiochemical yield (10 min at 100 Degrees C). In vitro analysis to determine the stability of the radiotracer in plasma and saline indicated no defluorination. Biological evaluation studies of the radiotracer were undertaken using a rat stroke model (Middle cerebral Arterial Occlusion (MCAO)) to determine whether the ischemic penumbra can be imaged using PET. 150//Ci (5.5MBq) of the radiotracer was injected into the tail vein of the rat immediately after the MCAO. The rat was sacrificed 2 hours post injection and ex-vivo autoradiography was performed. Uptake of the radiotracer was observed in hypoxic regions of the brain (n=6). Dynamic PET images revealed that the ischemic penumbra can be imaged 15 minutes post injection of this tracer. With these promising results, we are now synthesizing other analogues to determine their relationship between selectivity for hypoxic tissue and brain uptake

  11. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  12. Machine learning approaches to analyze histological images of tissues from radical prostatectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Ing, Nathan; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Fuchs, Thomas J; Salman, Sadri; Mohanty, Sambit; Bhele, Sanica; Velásquez-Vacca, Adriana; Amin, Mahul B; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2015-12-01

    Computerized evaluation of histological preparations of prostate tissues involves identification of tissue components such as stroma (ST), benign/normal epithelium (BN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Image classification approaches have been developed to identify and classify glandular regions in digital images of prostate tissues; however their success has been limited by difficulties in cellular segmentation and tissue heterogeneity. We hypothesized that utilizing image pixels to generate intensity histograms of hematoxylin (H) and eosin (E) stains deconvoluted from H&E images numerically captures the architectural difference between glands and stroma. In addition, we postulated that joint histograms of local binary patterns and local variance (LBPxVAR) can be used as sensitive textural features to differentiate benign/normal tissue from cancer. Here we utilized a machine learning approach comprising of a support vector machine (SVM) followed by a random forest (RF) classifier to digitally stratify prostate tissue into ST, BN and PCa areas. Two pathologists manually annotated 210 images of low- and high-grade tumors from slides that were selected from 20 radical prostatectomies and digitized at high-resolution. The 210 images were split into the training (n=19) and test (n=191) sets. Local intensity histograms of H and E were used to train a SVM classifier to separate ST from epithelium (BN+PCa). The performance of SVM prediction was evaluated by measuring the accuracy of delineating epithelial areas. The Jaccard J=59.5 ± 14.6 and Rand Ri=62.0 ± 7.5 indices reported a significantly better prediction when compared to a reference method (Chen et al., Clinical Proteomics 2013, 10:18) based on the averaged values from the test set. To distinguish BN from PCa we trained a RF classifier with LBPxVAR and local intensity histograms and obtained separate performance values for BN and PCa: JBN=35.2 ± 24.9, OBN=49.6 ± 32, JPCa=49.5 ± 18.5, OPCa=72.7 ± 14.8 and Ri=60.6

  13. TH-AB-209-12: Tissue Equivalent Phantom with Excised Human Tissue for Assessing Clinical Capabilities of Coherent Scatter Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, K; Morris, R; Spencer, J [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Greenberg, J [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kapadia, A [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Previously we reported the development of anthropomorphic tissue-equivalent scatter phantoms of the human breast. Here we present the first results from the scatter imaging of the tissue equivalent breast phantoms for breast cancer diagnosis. Methods: A breast phantom was designed to assess the capability of coded aperture coherent x-ray scatter imaging to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, tumor). The phantom geometry was obtained from a prone breast geometry scanned on a dedicated breast CT system. The phantom was 3D printed using the segmented DICOM breast CT data. The 3D breast phantom was filled with lard (as a surrogate for adipose tissue) and scanned in different geometries alongside excised human breast tissues (obtained from lumpectomy and mastectomy procedures). The raw data were reconstructed using a model-based reconstruction algorithm and yielded the location and form factor (i.e., momentum transfer (q) spectrum) of the materials that were imaged. The measured material form factors were then compared to the ground truth measurements acquired by x-ray diffraction (XRD) imaging. Results: Our scatter imaging system was able to define the location and composition of the various materials and tissues within the phantom. Cancerous breast tissue was detected and classified through automated spectral matching and an 86% correlation threshold. The total scan time for the sample was approximately 10 minutes and approaches workflow times for clinical use in intra-operative or other diagnostic tasks. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the first results from an anthropomorphic tissue equivalent scatter phantom to characterize a coherent scatter imaging system. The functionality of the system shows promise in applications such as intra-operative margin detection or virtual biopsy in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work includes using additional patient-derived tissues (e.g., human fat), and modeling additional organs

  14. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  15. Imaging-guided two-photon excitation-emission-matrix measurements of human skin tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingqiu; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Wang, Hequn; Tang, Shuo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-07-01

    There are increased interests on using multiphoton imaging and spectroscopy for skin tissue characterization and diagnosis. However, most studies have been done with just a few excitation wavelengths. Our objective is to perform a systematic study of the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) properties of skin fluorophores, normal skin, and diseased skin tissues. A nonlinear excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectroscopy system with multiphoton imaging guidance was constructed. A tunable femtosecond laser was used to vary excitation wavelengths from 730 to 920 nm for EEM data acquisition. EEM measurements were performed on excised fresh normal skin tissues, seborrheic keratosis tissue samples, and skin fluorophores including: NADH, FAD, keratin, melanin, collagen, and elastin. We found that in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis of normal skin, the cells have large sizes and the TPF originates from keratin. In the lower epidermis, cells are smaller and TPF is dominated by NADH contributions. In the dermis, TPF is dominated by elastin components. The depth resolved EEM measurements also demonstrated that keratin structure has intruded into the middle sublayers of the epidermal part of the seborrheic keratosis lesion. These results suggest that the imaging guided TPF EEM spectroscopy provides useful information for the development of multiphoton clinical devices for skin disease diagnosis.

  16. Design of a modified endoscope illuminator for spectral imaging of colorectal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Craig M.; Mayes, Samuel; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    The gold standard for locating colonic polyps is a white light endoscope in a colonoscopy, however, polyps smaller than 5 mm can be easily missed. Modified procedures such as narrow band imaging have shown only marginal increases in detection rates. Spectral imaging is a potential solution to improve the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopies by providing the ability to distinguish molecular fluorescence differences in tissues. The goal of this work is to implement a spectral endoscopic light source to acquire spectral image data of colorectal tissues. A beta-version endoscope light source was developed, by retrofitting a white light endoscope light source (Olympus, CLK-4) with 16 narrow band LEDs. This redesigned, beta-prototype uses high-power LEDs with a minimum output of 500 mW to provide sufficient spectral output (0.5 mW) through the endoscope. A mounting apparatus was designed to provide sufficient heat dissipation. Here, we report recent results of our tests to characterize the intensity output through the light source and endoscope to determine the flat spectral output for imaging and intensity losses through the endoscope. We also report preliminary spectral imaging data from transverse pig colon that demonstrates the ability to result in working practical spectral data. Preliminary results of this revised prototype spectral endoscope system demonstrate that there is sufficient power to allow the imaging process to continue and potentially determine spectral differences in cancerous and normal tissue from imaging ex vivo pairs. Future work will focus on building a spectral library for the colorectal region and refining the user interface the system for in vivo use.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the retrodiskal tissue in TMJ internal derangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2003-01-01

    To describe the MRI findings of the retrodiskal tissue in patients presenting with TMJ internal derangement and to correlate these findings with clinical and other MRI manifestations. One hundred eighteen joints of 63 patients with TMJ internal derangement were examined by MRI. T1-weighted sagittal MR images taken in both closed- and open-mouth were evaluated for the presence of demarcation between disk and retrodiskal tissue, the presence of low signal intensity, and the depiction of the temporal part of the posterior attachment. The results were correlated with the duration of TMJ internal derangement, the presence of pain, and other MRI findings, including the type of internal derangement, the extent of disk displacement, the degree of disc deformation, and the presence of osteoarthrosis. A significant relationship between the presence of low signal intensity in the retrodiskal tissue and other MRI findings was determined. Low signal intensity on the open-mouth view was observed more frequently in patients with disc displacement without reduction, severe disc displacement and deformation, and osteoarthrosis (p<0.05). The demarcation between disk and retrodiskal tissue, and the depiction of the temporal part of the posterior attachment (TPA) were correlated neither with clinical, nor with other MRI findings. This study suggests that low signal intensity in the retrodiskal tissue on open-mouth MR image can be indicative of advanced stages of disk displacement.

  18. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  19. Differences between time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in imaging tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Wu, X

    2017-11-01

    It has been numerously demonstrated that both time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution depth-resolved images of living tissues and cells. In this work, we compare the common points and differences between two methods when the continuous and random properties of live tissue are taken into account. It is found that when relationships that exist between the scattered light and tissue structures are taken into account, spectral interference measurements in Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT) is more advantageous than interference fringe envelope measurements in time domain OCT (TDOCT) in the cases where continuous property of tissue is taken into account. It is also demonstrated that when random property of tissue is taken into account FDOCT measures the Fourier transform of the spatial correlation function of the refractive index and speckle phenomena will limit the effective limiting imaging resolution in both TDOCT and FDOCT. Finally, the effective limiting resolution of both TDOCT and FDOCT are given which can be used to estimate the effective limiting resolution in various practical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Direct Parametric Reconstruction With Joint Motion Estimation/Correction for Dynamic Brain PET Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jieqing; Bousse, Alexandre; Thielemans, Kris; Burgos, Ninon; Weston, Philip S J; Schott, Jonathan M; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Markiewicz, Pawel; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Direct reconstruction of parametric images from raw photon counts has been shown to improve the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. However it suffers from subject motion which is inevitable during the typical acquisition time of 1-2 hours. In this work we propose a framework to jointly estimate subject head motion and reconstruct the motion-corrected parametric images directly from raw PET data, so that the effects of distorted tissue-to-voxel mapping due to subject motion can be reduced in reconstructing the parametric images with motion-compensated attenuation correction and spatially aligned temporal PET data. The proposed approach is formulated within the maximum likelihood framework, and efficient solutions are derived for estimating subject motion and kinetic parameters from raw PET photon count data. Results from evaluations on simulated [ 11 C]raclopride data using the Zubal brain phantom and real clinical [ 18 F]florbetapir data of a patient with Alzheimer's disease show that the proposed joint direct parametric reconstruction motion correction approach can improve the accuracy of quantifying dynamic PET data with large subject motion.

  1. Soft-tissue imaging with C-arm cone-beam CT using statistical reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S; Stayman, J Webster; Otake, Yoshito; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Gallia, Gary L; Khanna, A Jay

    2014-01-01

    The potential for statistical image reconstruction methods such as penalized-likelihood (PL) to improve C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue visualization for intraoperative imaging over conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) is assessed in this work by making a fair comparison in relation to soft-tissue performance. A prototype mobile C-arm was used to scan anthropomorphic head and abdomen phantoms as well as a cadaveric torso at doses substantially lower than typical values in diagnostic CT, and the effects of dose reduction via tube current reduction and sparse sampling were also compared. Matched spatial resolution between PL and FBP was determined by the edge spread function of low-contrast (∼40–80 HU) spheres in the phantoms, which were representative of soft-tissue imaging tasks. PL using the non-quadratic Huber penalty was found to substantially reduce noise relative to FBP, especially at lower spatial resolution where PL provides a contrast-to-noise ratio increase up to 1.4–2.2× over FBP at 50% dose reduction across all objects. Comparison of sampling strategies indicates that soft-tissue imaging benefits from fully sampled acquisitions at dose above ∼1.7 mGy and benefits from 50% sparsity at dose below ∼1.0 mGy. Therefore, an appropriate sampling strategy along with the improved low-contrast visualization offered by statistical reconstruction demonstrates the potential for extending intraoperative C-arm CBCT to applications in soft-tissue interventions in neurosurgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgeries by overcoming conventional tradeoffs in noise, spatial resolution, and dose. (paper)

  2. Polarization Imaging Apparatus for Cell and Tissue Imaging and Diagnostics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in a novel visible-near infrared Stokes polarization imaging technology based on high performance fast...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraoral hard and soft tissues using an intraoral coil and FLASH sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Tabea; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Kathrin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Nelson, Katja [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Hoevener, Jan-Bernd; Ludwig, Ute; Hennig, Juergen [University Medical Center Freiburg, Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Spittau, Bjoern [Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To ascertain the feasibility of MRI as a non-ionizing protocol for routine dentomaxillofacial diagnostic imaging. Wireless coils were used for MRI of intraoral hard and soft tissues. FLASH MRI was applied in vivo with a mandible voxel size of 250 x 250 x 500 μm{sup 3}, FOV of 64 x 64 x 28 mm{sup 3} and acquisition time of 3:57 min and with a maxilla voxel size of 350 μm{sup 3} and FOV of 34 cm{sup 3} in 6:40 min. Ex vivo imaging was performed in 4:38 min, with a resolution of 200 μm{sup 3} and FOV of 36.5 cm{sup 3}. Cone beam (CB) CT of the mandible and subjects were acquired. MRI was compared to CBCT and histological sections. Deviations were calculated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (c{sub v}). A high congruence between CBCT, MRI and specimens was demonstrated. Hard and soft tissues including dental pulp, periodontium, gingiva, cancellous bone and mandibular canal contents were adequately displayed with MRI. Imaging of select intraoral tissues was achieved using custom MRI protocols with an easily applicable intraoral coil in a clinically acceptable acquisition time. Comparison with CBCT and histological sections helped demonstrate dimensional accuracy of the MR images. The course of the mandibular canal was accurately displayed with CBCT and MRI. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraoral hard and soft tissues using an intraoral coil and FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluegge, Tabea; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Kathrin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Nelson, Katja; Hoevener, Jan-Bernd; Ludwig, Ute; Hennig, Juergen; Spittau, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the feasibility of MRI as a non-ionizing protocol for routine dentomaxillofacial diagnostic imaging. Wireless coils were used for MRI of intraoral hard and soft tissues. FLASH MRI was applied in vivo with a mandible voxel size of 250 x 250 x 500 μm 3 , FOV of 64 x 64 x 28 mm 3 and acquisition time of 3:57 min and with a maxilla voxel size of 350 μm 3 and FOV of 34 cm 3 in 6:40 min. Ex vivo imaging was performed in 4:38 min, with a resolution of 200 μm 3 and FOV of 36.5 cm 3 . Cone beam (CB) CT of the mandible and subjects were acquired. MRI was compared to CBCT and histological sections. Deviations were calculated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (c v ). A high congruence between CBCT, MRI and specimens was demonstrated. Hard and soft tissues including dental pulp, periodontium, gingiva, cancellous bone and mandibular canal contents were adequately displayed with MRI. Imaging of select intraoral tissues was achieved using custom MRI protocols with an easily applicable intraoral coil in a clinically acceptable acquisition time. Comparison with CBCT and histological sections helped demonstrate dimensional accuracy of the MR images. The course of the mandibular canal was accurately displayed with CBCT and MRI. (orig.)

  5. Myocardial response to a triathlon in male athletes evaluated by Doppler tissue imaging and biochemical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leetmaa, T H; Dam, A; Glintborg, D

    2008-01-01

    (cTnT) and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP)] and echocardiography. Conventional echocardiography techniques and new Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) modalities were applied before and immediately after the competition. Blood samples were drawn 1 week before, immediately after and 12-24 h post...... and systolic velocities decreased, thus suggesting reversible cardiac fatigue. When using cardiac markers and echocardiographic findings, a triathlon was found to have no significant negative effects on left ventricular function or myocardial tissue in male athletes....

  6. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in soft tissue abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Ozkan; Koparan, Halil Ibrahim [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Avcu, Serhat, E-mail: serhatavcu@hotmail.com [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Kalender, Ali Murat [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Orthopaedics, General Surgery, Van (Turkey); Kisli, Erol [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of General Surgery, Van (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To study the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in soft tissue abscesses. Materials and methods: Fifty patients were included in this study who were thought to have soft tissue abscess or cystic lesion as a result of clinical and radiological examinations. Localisations of the lesions were: 1 periorbital, 3 breast, 14 intraabdominal, and 32 intramuscular lesions. After other radiological examinations, DWI was performed. The signal intensity values of the lesions were evaluated qualitatively according to the hyperintensity on b-1000 DWI, using 1.5 T MR system. All of the lesions were aspirated after DWI, and detection of pus in the aspiration material was accepted as gold standard for the diagnosis of abscess. Results: In 38 of the 50 patients, hyperintensity was obtained on diffusion-weighted images. False-positive results were maintained in 2 of these patients, and true-positive results were maintained in 36 of them. In 11 of the 50 patients, hypointensity was visualised on diffusion-weighted images. False-negative results were maintained in 3 of these patients, and true-negative results were maintained in 8 of them. An abscess which was seen on post-contrast conventional MRI could not be seen on DWI, and this was regarded as false-negative. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted images for detecting soft tissue abscesses were found to be 92% and 80%, respectively. DWI has a high diagnostic value in soft tissue abscesses, and is an important imaging modality that may be used for the differentiation of cysts and abscesses.

  7. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in soft tissue abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Ozkan; Koparan, Halil Ibrahim; Avcu, Serhat; Kalender, Ali Murat; Kisli, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in soft tissue abscesses. Materials and methods: Fifty patients were included in this study who were thought to have soft tissue abscess or cystic lesion as a result of clinical and radiological examinations. Localisations of the lesions were: 1 periorbital, 3 breast, 14 intraabdominal, and 32 intramuscular lesions. After other radiological examinations, DWI was performed. The signal intensity values of the lesions were evaluated qualitatively according to the hyperintensity on b-1000 DWI, using 1.5 T MR system. All of the lesions were aspirated after DWI, and detection of pus in the aspiration material was accepted as gold standard for the diagnosis of abscess. Results: In 38 of the 50 patients, hyperintensity was obtained on diffusion-weighted images. False-positive results were maintained in 2 of these patients, and true-positive results were maintained in 36 of them. In 11 of the 50 patients, hypointensity was visualised on diffusion-weighted images. False-negative results were maintained in 3 of these patients, and true-negative results were maintained in 8 of them. An abscess which was seen on post-contrast conventional MRI could not be seen on DWI, and this was regarded as false-negative. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted images for detecting soft tissue abscesses were found to be 92% and 80%, respectively. DWI has a high diagnostic value in soft tissue abscesses, and is an important imaging modality that may be used for the differentiation of cysts and abscesses.

  8. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor; Nie Ke; Lin Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Liu Dongxu; Sun Lizhi, E-mail: shih@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo (registered) 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc (registered) software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under

  9. Evaluation of different tissue de-paraffinization procedures for infrared spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Stone, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    In infrared spectral histopathology, paraffin embedded tissues are often de-paraffinized using chemical agents such as xylene and hexane. These chemicals are known to be toxic and the routine de-waxing procedure is time consuming. A comparative study was carried out to identify alternate de-paraffinization methods by using paraffin oil and electronic de-paraffinization (using a mathematical computer algorithm) and their effectiveness was compared to xylene and hexane. Sixteen adjacent tissue sections obtained from a single block of a normal colon tissue were de-paraffinized using xylene, hexane and paraffin oil (+ hexane wash) at five different time points each for comparison. One section was reserved unprocessed for electronic de-paraffinization based on a modified extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). IR imaging was carried out on these tissue sections. Coefficients based on the fit of a pure paraffin model to the IR images were then calculated to estimate the amount of paraffin remaining after processing. Results indicate that on average xylene removes more paraffin in comparison to hexane and paraffin oil although the differences were small. This makes paraffin oil, followed by a hexane wash, an interesting and less toxic alternative method of de-paraffinization. However, none of the chemical methods removed paraffin completely from the tissues at any given time point. Moreover, paraffin was removed more easily from the glandular regions than the connective tissue regions indicating a form of differential paraffin retention based on the histology. In such cases, the use of electronic de-paraffinization to neutralize such variances across different tissue regions might be considered. Moreover it is faster, reduces scatter artefacts by index matching and enables samples to be easily stored for further analysis if required.

  10. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    2000-01-01

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  11. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmon