WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue nutrient concentrations

  1. The Concentration of Nutrients in Tissues of Plantation-Grown Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bart.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Shelton; L. E. Nelson; G. L. Switzer; B. G. Blackmon

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations were determined for 10 tissues from each of 24 cottonwood trees that ranged in age from four to 16 years. Highest concentrations occurred in the most physiologically active tissues; i.e., stemtips, current branches and foliage. Tree age had little influence on the variation in nutrient concentration of tissues. Some differences in concentrations...

  2. THE MAIN NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION FROM INTRA TISSUE WATER OF BENTHOS ORAGANISMS FROM MURES BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrographic basin of Mures river, aboard an altitude gradient, were taken samples of intra tissue waters from benthonic organisms for research the nutrients concentrations. The reference point was represented by a dairy caw farm where the agricultural fields of this is applied the organic fertilization with manure. The intra tissue water samples from benthonic organisms were prelevated in spring and autumn and the prelevate dates are the same with spread manure dates. At the intra tissue water level, concentrations value of N and P are bigger at the second data prelevations than first data prelevations and we can conclude that the benthonic oligochetas activity increase, more than, they density increase in Mures basin. The high concentrations of NH4 show as that Mures basin is a zone characterized by high degree of anoxia and this fact is supported by significant differences between seasonal prelevations. The explication is the manifestation to the cumulated and at distance effects of introduction in water to some organic products, very probably washed from neighborhoods agricultural field. Were calculated values of Student test for seasonal comparisons and were founded significant differences between nutrients concentration values at first and second prelevations.

  3. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  4. Macro- and micro-nutrient concentration in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Landfill leachate offers an opportunity to supply water and plant nutritional benefits at a lower cost than traditional sources. Information about nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps increase biomass production along with evaluating the impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health.

  5. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  6. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations in plantain ( Musa spp.) ... Fruit parameters measured were fruit weight, edible proportion and pulp dry matter content; also, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in fruits were determined.

  7. Lake nutrient stoichiometry is less predictable than nutrient concentrations at regional and sub-continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah M; Oliver, Samantha K; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Stanley, Emily H; Jones, John R; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-07-01

    Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio. Further, the dominant controls on elemental concentrations likely vary across regions, resulting in context dependent relationships between drivers, lake nutrients and their ratios. Here, we examine whether known drivers of N and P concentrations can explain variation in N:P stoichiometry, and whether explaining variation in stoichiometry differs across regions. We examined drivers of N:P in ~2,700 lakes at a sub-continental scale and two large regions nested within the sub-continental study area that have contrasting ecological context, including differences in the dominant type of land cover (agriculture vs. forest). At the sub-continental scale, lake nutrient concentrations were correlated with nutrient loading and lake internal processing, but stoichiometry was only weakly correlated to drivers of lake nutrients. At the regional scale, drivers that explained variation in nutrients and stoichiometry differed between regions. In the Midwestern U.S. region, dominated by agricultural land use, lake depth and the percentage of row crop agriculture were strong predictors of stoichiometry because only phosphorus was related to lake depth and only nitrogen was related to the percentage of row crop agriculture. In contrast, all drivers were related to N and P in similar ways in the Northeastern U.S. region, leading to weak relationships between drivers and stoichiometry

  8. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dea, R. D.

    2014-10-15

    © The authors 2014. In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence of the underlying microscale structure of the material, and its evolution, on the macroscale dynamics. Such methods have been widely used to study porous and poroelastic materials; however, a distinguishing feature of biological tissue is its ability to remodel continuously in response to local environmental cues. Here, we present the derivation of a model broadly applicable to tissue engineering applications, characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in porous scaffolds used within tissue culture systems, which we use to study coupling between fluid flow, nutrient transport, and microscale tissue growth. Attention is restricted to surface accretion within a rigid porous medium saturated with a Newtonian fluid; coupling between the various dynamics is achieved by specifying the rate of microscale growth to be dependent upon the uptake of a generic diffusible nutrient. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Darcy-type equation governing fluid flow, with flow characteristics dictated by the assumed periodic microstructure and surface growth rate of the porous medium, coupled to an advection-reaction equation specifying the nutrient concentration. Illustrative numerical simulations are presented to indicate the influence of microscale growth on macroscale dynamics, and to highlight the importance of including experimentally relevant microstructural information to correctly determine flow dynamics and nutrient delivery in tissue engineering applications.

  9. Hybrid cellular automaton modeling of nutrient modulated cell growth in tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C A; Lin, Tze-Hung; Chen, Shih-Di; Huang, Hsing-I

    2010-01-21

    Mathematic models help interpret experimental results and accelerate tissue engineering developments. We develop in this paper a hybrid cellular automata model that combines the differential nutrient transport equation to investigate the nutrient limited cell construct development for cartilage tissue engineering. Individual cell behaviors of migration, contact inhibition and cell collision, coupled with the cell proliferation regulated by oxygen concentration were carefully studied. Simplified two-dimensional simulations were performed. Using this model, we investigated the influence of cell migration speed on the overall cell growth within in vitro cell scaffolds. It was found that intense cell motility can enhance initial cell growth rates. However, since cell growth is also significantly modulated by the nutrient contents, intense cell motility with conventional uniform cell seeding method may lead to declined cell growth in the final time because concentrated cell population has been growing around the scaffold periphery to block the nutrient transport from outside culture media. Therefore, homogeneous cell seeding may not be a good way of gaining large and uniform cell densities for the final results. We then compared cell growth in scaffolds with various seeding modes, and proposed a seeding mode with cells initially residing in the middle area of the scaffold that may efficiently reduce the nutrient blockage and result in a better cell amount and uniform cell distribution for tissue engineering construct developments.

  10. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  11. Nutrient Infiltrate Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha...

  12. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  13. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  15. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eOstertag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow conventional wisdom that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  16. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  17. Litter production and its nutrient concentration in some fuelwood trees grown on sodic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1992-01-01

    Litter production was estimated in 8-year-old tree plantations of Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Dalbergia sisso, and Terminalia arjuna planted in a monoculture tree cropping system on sodic soils of Lucknow Division, India. Mean annual litter fall of these trees amounted to 5.9, 7.4, 5.0 and 5.4 t ha[sup -1], respectively. Irrespective of tree species, the leaf litter concentrations of N, K and Ca were greater than those of P and Mg. The concentration of nutrients in leaf tissues was negatively correlated for N and Ca, with the magnitude of leaf fall in D. sissoo, but was positively correlated for Ca and Mg in A. nilotica; no such correlations were found in P. juliflora and T. arjuna. The variations in the concentration of leaf litter nutrient did not appear to be species specific but depended on adverse edaphic properties including the fertility status of sodic soil. A. nilotica and P. juliflora with bimodal patterns of litter fall return greater amounts of nutrients to the soil surface than D. sissoo and T. arjuna which have unimodal patterns of litter fall. The study indicated the potential benefit of a mixed plantation system having variable leaf fall patterns among the planted trees so providing constant litter mulch to help in conserving soil moisture. (author).

  18. Absorption and nutrient concentration in apple (Pyrus mains L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, P.E.; Haag, H.P.; Sarruge, J.R.; Dechen, A.R.; Catani, CB

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain the following informations: a) dry matter production and extraction of nutrients by the fruits at different ages; b) dry matter production and extraction of nutrient by the leaves and "trunk + branches" collected at the flowering stage; c) dry matter production and export of nutrients by pruning (leaves and branches) at the begining dormant stage; A trial was conducted on Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Orto group (Orthox) at Buri, São Paulo State, Brazil. The material was collec...

  19. Data to support "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations & Biological Condition"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets are included here to support the manuscript "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition". This...

  20. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  1. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... food energy and basic nutrients for proper nutrition of man. ... 2008). Irrespective of the variety, crop yield is a direct ..... had recently formed the research drive of scientists so as .... Bioresource Technology for Sustainable.

  2. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Candace; Smith, Leslie; Krumholz, Jason; Coupland, Catherine; Stoffel, Heather; Keller, Aimee; McManus, M. Conor; Reed, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Except for the Providence River and side embayments like Greenwich Bay, Narragansett Bay can no longer be considered eutrophic. In summer 2012 managed nitrogen treatment in Narragansett Bay achieved a goal of reducing effluent dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs by over 50%. Narragansett Bay represents a small northeast US estuary that had been heavily loaded with sewage effluent nutrients since the late 1800s. The input reduction was reflected in standing stock nutrients resulting in a statistically significant 60% reduction in concentration. In the Providence River estuary, total nitrogen decreased from 100 μm to about 40 μm, for example. We tested four environmental changes that might be associated with the nitrogen reduction. System apparent production was significantly decreased by 31% and 45% in the upper and mid Bay. Nutrient reductions resulted in statistically improved water clarity in the mid and upper Bay and in a 34% reduction in summer hypoxia. Nitrogen reduction also reduced the winter spring diatom bloom; winter chlorophyll levels after nutrient reduction have been significantly lower than before the reduction. The impact on the Bay will continue to evolve over the next few years and be a natural experiment for other temperate estuaries that will be experiencing nitrogen reduction. To provide perspective we review factors effecting hypoxia in other estuaries with managed nutrient reduction and conclude that, as in Narragansett Bay, physical factors can be as important as nutrients. On a positive note managed nutrient reduction has mitigated further deterioration in most estuaries.

  3. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  4. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  5. Assessment of Nutrient Concentration in Sokori River, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient enrichment leads to excessive growth of primary producers as well as heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, which increases the metabolic activities of stream water leading to a depletion of dissolved oxygen. The low discharge of stream and its fairly flat terrain nature also influenced the metabolic activities in the mid- ...

  6. Nutrient and Bacteria Concentrations in the Coastal Waters off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, soluble reactive phosphorous) and bacteria (total and faecal coliforms) in the waters off Zanzibar Town. The study covered both the SE and NE monsoon and the two transition periods for a total of one year. Nutrient ...

  7. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  8. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  9. Mapping of trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance in Jatibarang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiyanti, Siti; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Rahman, Arif

    2018-02-01

    Jatibarang Reservoir is one of the Indonesian Reservoirs, which used for human activities such as tourism and agriculture. These activities will provide input of organic matter and nutrients into the water. These materials will impact water quality and eutrophication process. Eutrophication is the water enrichment by nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus which can promote the growth of phytoplankton. Some indicators of eutrophication are increasing nutrients, trophic states, and change of phytoplankton composition. The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton community can be used as an indicator of trophic states in Jatibarang Reservoir. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance to the trophic states and mapping trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton in Jatibarang Reservoir. This study was conducted in June and July 2017 at 9 stations around Jatibarang Reservoir. The results showed that average concentration of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a in Jatibarang Reservoir was 0.69 mg/L, 0.27 mg/L, and 1.66 mg/m3, respectively. The phytoplankton abundance ranged 16-62,200 cells/L, consists of 21 genera of four classes, i.e. Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Cyanophyceae was a dominant phytoplankton group based on the composition of abundance (>80%). High nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton dominated by Anabaena (Cyanophyceae) which indicated that the waters in Jatibarang Reservoir were eutrophic.

  10. Nutrient concentration in leaves, a tool for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the foliar concentrations in cocoa farming (Theobroma cacao L as a diagnostic tool of their nutritional status. At the Research Center of the National Federation of Cocoa Producers (Fedecacao located in Miranda-Cauca, Colombia, the study assessed the effect of five doses of NPK fertilization in nutrient concentration in leaves of four cocoa clones CCN-51, TSH-565, ICS-39, and ICS-95 from 20102012. Experimental design was randomized complete block design with five treatments: TR(control, T1(25% NPK, T2(50% NPK, T3(75% NPK, T4(100% NPK and four replicates. The concentration of 11 nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+, S, Mg2+, B, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and their relation with yield was evaluated for three years. Results showed differences in the foliar concentration of nutrients assessed by effect of treatments, by clone, and by clone*treatment interaction. The foliar concentration used was derived from higher yield-related treatment, whereby, a proposal for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa based on nutrient monitoring was created to evaluate nutrient concentration in leaves.

  11. Maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation upregulates myogenic genes in cattle fetal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal myogenesis is a critical factor in determining the muscle growth potential of cattle. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation would alter the transcriptome of fetal primordial muscle tissue in cattle. A total of 14 Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchroniz...

  12. Cost-effective nutrient sources for tissue culture of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of tissue culture technology is constrained by high costs making seedlings unaffordable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using locally available fertilizers as alternative nutrient sources for cassava micropropagation. A Low Cost Medium (LCM) whereby the conventional sources of four ...

  13. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  14. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  15. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  16. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  18. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. A.; Roepstorff, Carsten; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however......, whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77......+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue...

  19. Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.

  20. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  1. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), and Copper (Cu) concentrations were determined in bone, muscle and gill of two fish species (tilapia fish and cat-fish) collected from Tiga dam Kano, Nigeria during October, 2010. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals varied depending on the type of the tissue and fish species. Generally ...

  2. Nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy cattle lots with different surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue, and outdoor cattle lots can have a high loss potential. We monitored hydrology and nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy heifer lots constructed with three surface materials (soil, sand, bark...

  3. Relationships Between Land Use and Stream Nutrient Concentrations in a Highly Urbanized Tropical Region of Brazil: Thresholds and Riparian Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromboni, F; Dodds, W K

    2017-07-01

    Nutrient enrichment in streams due to land use is increasing globally, reducing water quality and causing eutrophication of downstream fresh and coastal waters. In temperate developed countries, the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture is a main driver of increasing nutrient concentrations, but high levels and fast rates of urbanization can be a predominant issue in some areas of the developing world. We investigated land use in the highly urbanized tropical State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and inorganic nutrient data from 35 independent watersheds distributed across the State and characterized land use at a riparian and entire watershed scales upstream from each sample station, using ArcGIS. We used regression models to explain land use influences on nutrient concentrations and to assess riparian protection relationships to water quality. We found that urban land use was the primary driver of nutrient concentration increases, independent of the scale of analyses and that urban land use was more concentrated in the riparian buffer of streams than in the entire watersheds. We also found significant thresholds that indicated strong increases in nutrient concentrations with modest increases in urbanization reaching maximum nutrient concentrations between 10 and 46% urban cover. These thresholds influenced calculation of reference nutrient concentrations, and ignoring them led to higher estimates of these concentrations. Lack of sewage treatment in concert with urban development in riparian zones apparently leads to the observation that modest increases in urban land use can cause large increases in nutrient concentrations.

  4. Increased nutrient concentrations in Lake Erie tributaries influenced by greenhouse agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Wellen, Christopher; Stammler, Katie L; Mundle, Scott O C

    2018-08-15

    Greenhouse production of vegetables is a growing global trade. While greenhouses are typically captured under regulations aimed at farmland, they may also function as a point source of effluent. In this study, the cumulative impacts greenhouse effluents have on riverine macronutrient and trace metal concentrations were examined. Water samples were collected Bi-weekly for five years from 14 rivers in agriculturally dominated watersheds in southwestern Ontario. Nine of the watersheds contained greenhouses with their boundaries. Greenhouse influenced rivers had significantly higher concentrations of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and trace metals (copper, molybdenum, and zinc). Concentrations within greenhouse influenced rivers appeared to decrease over the 5-year study while concentrations within non-greenhouse influenced river remained constant. The different temporal pattern between river types was attributed to increased precipitation during the study period. Increases in precipitation diluted concentrations in greenhouse influenced rivers; however, non-influenced river runoff proportionally increased nutrient mobility and flow, stabilizing the observed concentrations of non-point sources. Understanding the dynamic nature of environmental releases of point and non-point sources of nutrients and trace metals in mixed agricultural systems using riverine water chemistry is complicated by changes in climatic conditions, highlighting the need for long-term monitoring of nutrients, river flows and weather data in assessing these agricultural sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil [School of Industrial Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lan, S-F [University of Oklahoma Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  6. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil; Lan, S-F

    2009-01-01

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  7. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  8. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  9. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  10. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Velthuis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus. In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition

  11. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  12. Nutrient Concentrations and Stable Isotopes of Runoff from a Midwest Tile-Drained Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, B. P.; Woo, D.; Li, J.; Michalski, G. M.; Kumar, P.; Conroy, J. L.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Hodson, T. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tile drains are a common crop drainage device used in Midwest agroecosystems. While efficient at drainage, the tiles provide a quick path for nutrient runoff, reducing the time available for microbes to use nutrients (e.g., NO3- and PO43-) and reduce export to riverine systems. Thus, understanding the effects of tile drains on nutrient runoff is critical to achieve nutrient reduction goals. Here we present isotopic and concentration data collected from tile drain runoff of a corn field located near Monticello, IL. Tile flow samples were measured for anion concentrations and stable isotopes of H2O and NO3-, while precipitation was measured for dual isotopes of H2O. Results demonstrate early tile flow from rain events have a low Cl- concentration (60% contribution) in the beginning of the hydrograph. As flow continues H2O isotopic values reflect pre-event water (ground and soil water), and Cl- concentrations increase representing a greater influence by matrix flow (60-90% contribution). Nitrate concentrations change dramatically, especially during the growing season, and do not follow a similar trend as the conservative Cl-, often decreasing days before, which represents missing nitrate in the upper surface portion of the soil. Nitrate isotopic data shows significant changes in 15N (4‰) and 18O (4‰) during individual hydrological events, representing that in addition to plant uptake and leaching, considerate NO3- is lost through denitrification. It is notable, that throughout the season d15N and d18O of nitrate change significantly representing that seasonally, substantial denitrification occurs.

  13. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  14. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  15. Methamphetamine and amphetamine concentrations in postmortem rabbit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Hara, K; Kudo, K

    1990-11-01

    The feasibility of detecting methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, in postmortem tissues over a 2-year period was examined. It is important to determine if the abuse and toxic effects of drugs can be proved from evidence found in decayed, submerged, or stained tissue materials. The blood, urine, liver, skeletal muscle, skin and extremity bones from rabbits given methamphetamine intravenously were kept at room temperature, under 4 different conditions: sealed in a test tube, dried in the open air, submerged in tap water and stained on gauze. Methamphetamine was present in all the samples, with slight change in concentration in case of sealed and air dried tissues. Changes varied in bones kept in water. There were considerable decreases in methamphetamine in blood and urine stains. Despite long term storage, drug abuse and/or toxicity could be determined, in all tissues examined.

  16. Actinide concentrations in tissues from cattle grazing a contaminated range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Actinide concentrations in the skeletons of the cows originally introduced into the study areas showed little increase with increased time of exposure, while those of animals born in the study areas showed a continued upward trend with time. Plutonium-239/americium-241 ratios in tissues and ingesta suggest little differentiation in the uptake of these radionuclides. However, the plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios indicate that plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man

  17. Cerium enhances germination and shoot growth, and alters mineral nutrient concentration in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Soledad; Pérez-Sato, Juan Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) belongs to the rare earth elements (REEs), and although it is not essential for plants, it can stimulate growth and other physiological processes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Ce on seed germination, initial seedling growth, and vegetative growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Morelos A-98. During the germination process, the seeds were treated with Ce concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and 12 μM; after 5 d, germination percentage was recorded and after 10 d seedling growth was measured. For vegetative growth, a hydroponic system was established where 14-d-old plants without previous Ce treatment were transferred into nutrient solution. After two weeks of acclimatizing, 0, 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce were added to the nutrient solution for 28 d. Ce significantly increased germination and the initial growth variables of the seedlings. During vegetative growth, Ce increased plant height, number of tillers, root volume, and shoot fresh and dry biomass, without affecting root biomass weight. With low Ce concentrations (25 and 50 μM), the concentrations of chlorophylls and amino acids in the shoots were similar to those in the control, like amino acid concentration in the roots at a concentration of 25 μM Ce. Conversely, the concentration of total sugars increased in the shoot with the application of 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce, and in the roots with the application of 50 μM Ce. Also, Ce did not affect the concentration of macro or micronutrients in the shoots. However, in the roots, the high Ce concentration decreased the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn, while the Mg concentration increased. Our results indicate that Ce, at the right concentrations, can function as a biostimulant in rice germination and growth. PMID:29579100

  18. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  20. Effects of watershed and riparian zone characteristics on nutrient concentrations in the River Scheldt Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meynendonckx

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative influence of a set of watershed characteristics on surface water nutrient concentrations was examined in 173 watersheds within two subcatchments (Upper-Scheldt and Nete of the River Scheldt Basin (Flanders, Belgium. Each watershed was described by seasonal rainfall, discharge loading of point sources, morphological characteristics (area, average slope, drainage density, elongation, land use and soil properties (soil texture and drainage. Partial regression analysis revealed that soil drainage variables had the strongest influence on nutrient concentrations. Additional influence was exerted by land use and point source loading variables. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with effluent loadings coming from wastewater treatment plants and with the area of agricultural land. Phosphate concentrations were best explained by effluent loadings of industrial point sources and by the area of urban land. Land use close to the river was not a better predictor of nitrate and phosphate concentrations than land use away from the river. This suggests that the mediating impact of riparian zones is rather explained by the hydrologic pathways within the buffer strip.

  1. Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Darren J.; McKinley, Galen A.; Kralj, James; Bootsma, Harvey A.; Reavie, Euan D.

    2017-08-01

    The recent decline in Lake Michigan productivity is often attributed to filter feeding by invasive quagga mussels, but some studies also implicate reductions in lakewide nutrient concentrations. We use a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to evaluate the effect of changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussel filtering on phytoplankton production and phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Sensitivity experiments are used to assess the net effect of each change separately and in unison. Quagga mussels are found to have the greatest impact during periods of isothermal mixing, while nutrients have the greatest impact during thermal stratification. Quagga mussels also act to enhance spatial heterogeneity, particularly between nearshore-offshore regions. This effect produces a reversal in the gradient of nearshore-offshore productivity: from relatively greater nearshore productivity in the prequagga lake to relatively lesser nearshore productivity after quaggas. The combined impact of both processes drives substantial reductions in phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass, as well as significant modifications to the seasonality of surface water pCO2, particularly in nearshore regions where mussel grazing continues year-round. These results support growing concern that considerable losses of phytoplankton and zooplankton will yield concurrent losses at higher trophic levels. Comparisons to observed productivity suggest that both quagga mussel filtration and lower lakewide total phosphorus are necessary to accurately simulate recent changes in primary productivity in Lake Michigan.

  2. The MANAGE database: nutrient load and site characteristic updates and runoff concentration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Qian, Song; Reckhow, Ken; Casebolt, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    The "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database was developed to be a readily accessible, easily queried database of site characteristic and field-scale nutrient export data. The original version of MANAGE, which drew heavily from an early 1980s compilation of nutrient export data, created an electronic database with nutrient load data and corresponding site characteristics from 40 studies on agricultural (cultivated and pasture/range) land uses. In the current update, N and P load data from 15 additional studies of agricultural runoff were included along with N and P concentration data for all 55 studies. The database now contains 1677 watershed years of data for various agricultural land uses (703 for pasture/rangeland; 333 for corn; 291 for various crop rotations; 177 for wheat/oats; and 4-33 yr for barley, citrus, vegetables, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, fallow, and peanuts). Across all land uses, annual runoff loads averaged 14.2 kg ha(-1) for total N and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for total P. On average, these losses represented 10 to 25% of applied fertilizer N and 4 to 9% of applied fertilizer P. Although such statistics produce interesting generalities across a wide range of land use, management, and climatic conditions, regional crop-specific analyses should be conducted to guide regulatory and programmatic decisions. With this update, MANAGE contains data from a vast majority of published peer-reviewed N and P export studies on homogeneous agricultural land uses in the USA under natural rainfall-runoff conditions and thus provides necessary data for modeling and decision-making related to agricultural runoff. The current version can be downloaded at http://www.ars.usda.gov/spa/manage-nutrient.

  3. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient digestibility and beef cattle performance fed by lerak (Sapindus rarak meal in concentrate ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the use of Lerak fruit meal to improve performance and feed digestibility of beef cattle. The research consisted of two trials (in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro trial was screening of bioactive compounds (saponin, tanin, dan diosgenin in Lerak fruit (including seed and continued to evaluate the effectivity of these compounds against ruminal protozoa. The in vivo study was done using 12 Ongole Crossbreed cattle which received 1of 3 different treatments: 1 concentrate without Lerak as control, 2 concentrate containing 2.5% Lerak, and 3 concentrate containing 5% Lerak. Anti protozoal activity, daily gain, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle were measured. Results showed that saponin concentration in Lerak extracted by methanol was higher than that in Lerak extracted by water and Lerak meal, 81.5%; 8.2% and 3.85% respectively. Lerak extracted by methanol have higher antiprotozoal activity in vitro than Lerak extracted by water. In vivo experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05 of nutrient intake and digestibility in all treatments, that means the ration had good palatability and quality. Average daily gain of PO fed 2.5% Lerak was 20% higher than that of control diet (0.9 kg/day.

  5. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-08-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans.

  6. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  8. Concentration of Po-210 and Pb-210 in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lancai; Takizawa, Y.; Yamamoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Pb-210 and Po-210 in human tissues of people in Japan were determined. Various tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from the cadavers of 22 oncologic cases, mainly in Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan during the period of 1986 to 1988. Wet ashing, followed by electrochemical deposition and alpha-ray spectrometry were used to separate and determine the Pb-210 and Po-210 presented. Among the tissues analyzed the highest concentrations of Pb-210 and Po-210 were observed in bone, liver and kidneys: 1.29, 1.69 and 1.22 Bq.kg -1 respectively for Po-210, and 1.27, 0.56 and 0.43 Bq/kg for Pb-210 respectively. The Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in liver and kidney are 3.0 and 2.9 respectively. Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in other tissues are close to one. The total body burden of Pb-210 and Po-210 was found to be approximately 15.8 Bq and 19.1 Bq respectively

  9. Long-Term Trends in Nutrient Concentrations and Fluxes in Streams Draining to Lake Tahoe, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, situated in the rain shadow of the eastern Sierra Nevada at an elevation of 1,897 meters, has numerous small to medium sized tributaries that are sources of nutrients and fine sediment. The Tahoe watershed is relatively small and the surface area of the lake occupies about 38% of the total watershed area (1,313 km2). Each stream contributing water to the lake therefore also occupies a small watershed, mostly forested, with typical trees being Jeffrey, Ponderosa, or Sugar Pine and White Fir. Outflow from the lake contributes to downstream uses such as water supply and ecological resources. Only about 6% of the watershed is urbanized or residential land, and wastewater is exported to adjacent basins and not discharged to the lake as part of a plan to maintain water clarity. The lake's exceptional clarity has been diminishing due to phytoplankton and fine sediment, prompting development of management plans to improve water quality. Much of the annual discharge and flux of nutrients to the lake results from snowmelt in the spring and summer months, and climatic changes have begun to shift this melt to earlier time frames. Winter rains on urbanized land also contribute to nutrient loads. To understand the relative importance of land use, climate, and other factors affecting stream concentrations and fluxes, a Weighted Regression on Time Discharge and Season (WRTDS) model documented trends over a time frame of greater than 25 years. Ten streams have records of discharge, nutrient (NO3, NH3, OP, TP, TKN) and sediment data to complete this analysis. Both urbanized and non-urbanized locations generally show NO3 trending down in the 1980s. Some locations show initially decreasing orthophosphate trends, followed by small significant increases in concentration and fluxes starting around 2000 to 2005. Although no wastewater enters the streams, ammonia concentrations mimic those of orthophosphate, with initially negative trends in concentration and flux followed by

  10. Transposing Concentration-Discharge Curves onto Unmonitored Catchments to Estimate Seasonal Nutrient Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, C.; Moatar, F.; Abbott, B. W.; Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Pinay, G.; Roubeix, V.; Danis, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many lakes and reservoirs in Europe suffer from severe eutrophication. Accurate quantification of nutrient loads are critical for effective mitigation measures, but this information is often unknown. For example, in France, only 50 out of 481 lakes and reservoirs have national monitoring allowing estimation of interannual nitrogen and phosphorus loads, and even these loads are computed from low-frequency data. To address this lack of data, we developed a straightforward method to predict seasonal loads in lake tributaries. First, we analyzed concentration-discharge (C-Q) curves in monitored catchments and identified slopes, intercepts, and coefficient of variation of the log(C)-log(Q) regressions determined for both low and high flows, separated by the median daily flow [Moatar et al., 2017]. Then, we used stepwise multiple linear regression models to empirically link the characteristics of C-Q curves with a set of catchment descriptors such as land use, lithology, morphology indices, climate, and hydrological indicators. Modeled C-Q relationships were then used to estimate annual and seasonal nutrient loads in nearby and similar unmonitored catchments. We implemented this approach on a large dataset from France where stream flow was surveyed daily and water quality (suspended solids, nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate concentrations) was measured on a monthly basis at 233 stations over the past 20 years in catchments from 10 to 3000 km². The concentration at the median daily flow (seen here as a metric of the general level of contamination in a catchment) was predicted with uncertainty ranging between 30 and 100 %, depending on the variable. C-Q slopes were predicted with large errors, but a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of C-Q slopes uncertainties on computed annual and seasonal loads. This approach allows estimation of seasonal and annual nutrient loads and could be potentially implemented to improve protection and

  11. Differences in nutrient concentrations and resources between seagrass communities on carbonate and terrigenous sediments in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water column, sediment and plant parameters were studied in six tropical seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, to evaluate the relation between seagrass bed nutrient concentrations and sediment type. Coastal seagrass beds on terrigenous sediments had considerably higher biomass of

  12. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  13. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.; Block, H.; Niu, Z.; Doiron, K.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h 01 ) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at ∼1732 (carbonyl C(double b ond)O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH 2 stretching band) and 2885 cm -1 (CH 3 stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structures within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable differences in the

  14. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = -0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river ecosystems.

  15. Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect nutrient concentrations and the amount of nutrients acquired by above-ground organs of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M; Coutinho, João F; Bacelar, Eunice A; Gonçalves, Berta M; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  16. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  17. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Steele Bayou Basin, northwestern Mississippi, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew B.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Stocks, Shane J.

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Vicksburg District, monitored streamflow, water quality, and sediment at two stations on the Steele Bayou in northwestern Mississippi from October 2010 through September 2014 to characterize nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in areas where substantial implementation of conservation efforts have been implemented. The motivation for this effort was to quantify improvements, or lack thereof, in water quality in the Steele Bayou watershed as a result of implementing large- and small-scale best-management practices aimed at reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads. The results of this study document the hydrologic, water-quality, and sedimentation status of these basins following over two decades of ongoing implementation of conservation practices.Results from this study indicate the two Steele Bayou stations have comparable loads and yields of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment when compared to other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States. However, nitrate plus nitrite yields from basins in the Mississippi River alluvial plain, including the Steele Bayou Basin, are generally lower than other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States.Seasonal variation in nutrient and sediment loads was observed at both stations and for most constituents. About 50 percent of the total annual nutrient and sediment load was observed during the spring (February through May) and between 25 and 50 percent was observed during late fall and winter (October through January). These seasonal patterns probably reflect a combination of seasonal patterns in precipitation, runoff, streamflow, and in the timing of fertilizer application.Median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment were slightly higher at the upstream station, Steele Bayou near Glen Allan

  18. Studies on the concentration of antibiotics in tissues, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Incorporation of an antibiotic, Cefotetan (CTT), into the serum and oral cavity following irradiation was pharmacokinetically examined in rats. One shot of 100 mg/kg of CTT was given to the caudal vein at Day 3 to 28 following a single electron beam irradiation of 10 Gy to the mandible. The concentrations of CTT in the serum, tongue, and submandibular gland were serially determined using high performance liquid chromatography 5 to 60 min after injection. The minimum biological half-life of CTT in the serum was attained at Day 14 postirradiation. The concentrations of CTT in tissues increased and biological half-life prolonged up to Day 14 postirradiation. These values tended to return to the control values up to Day 28. There was serial correlation between a decrease in serum protein mass up to Day 21 and biological half-life of serum CTT. (N.K.)

  19. Monitoring Stream Nutrient Concentration Trends in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-land use watersheds are often a complex patchwork of forested, agricultural, and urban land-uses where differential land-use mediated non-point source pollution can significantly impact water quality. Stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations serve as important variables for quantifying land use effects on non-point source pollution in receiving waters and relative impacts on aquatic biota. The Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW) is a representative mixed land use urbanizing catchment (231 km2) located in central Missouri, USA. A nested-scale experimental watershed study including five permanent hydroclimate stations was established in 2009 to provide quantitative understanding of multiple land use impacts on nutrient loading. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to quantify total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP as PO4) regimes. Results (2010 - 2013) indicate average nitrate (NO3-) concentration (mg/l) range of 0.28 to 0.46 mg/l, nitrite (NO2-) range of 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, ammonia (NH3) ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/l, and TP range of 0.26 to 0.39 mg/l. With n=858, NO3-, NO2-, NH3, and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative agricultural land use (57%). NH3 and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher (with the exception of the agricultural subbasin) in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative urban land use (26%). Results from multiple regression analyses showed percent cumulative agricultural and urban land uses accounted for 85% and 96% of the explained variance in TIN loading (CI=95%, p=0.08) and TP loading (CI=95%, p=0.02), respectively, between gauging sites. These results improve understanding of agricultural and urban land use impacts on nutrient concentrations in mixed use watersheds of the Midwest and have implications for nutrient reduction programs in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia reductions in the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

  20. [Effect of microbial nutrient concentration on improvement of municipal sewage sludge dewaterability through bioleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-wei; Liu, Fen-wu; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2012-08-01

    In this study, shaking flask batch experiments and practical engineering application tests were performed to investigate the effect of microbial nutrient concentration on the dewaterability of municipal sewage sludge with 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% solid contents via bioleaching. Meanwhile, the changes of pH value and the utilization efficiency of microbial nutrients during bioleaching were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the pH value decreased gradually at the beginning and then maintained a stable state in the treatments with different solid contents, and the nutrients were completely used up by the microorganisms after 2 days of bioleaching. It was found that the SRF of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% sludges decreased quickly and then rose gradually with the extension of bioleaching time. In addition, the higher solid content the greater the increase. It was determined that the optimum microbial nutrient dosage for sludge with solid content of 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% were 3.0 g x L(-1), 4.5 g x L(-1), 8.3 g x L(-1) and 12.8 g x L(-1) respectively. At this point, the lowest SRF of sludge with each solid content were 0.61 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), 1.22 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), 3.09 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) and 4.83 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), respectively. Through the engineering application, it was showed that diluting the solid content of sewage sludge from 5% to 3% before bioleaching was feasible. It could not only improve the dewaterability of bioleached sewage sludge (the SRF declined from 3.29 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) to 1.10 x 10(12) m x kg(-1)), but also shorten the sludge nutrient time (shortened from 4 days to 2.35 days) and reduce the operation costs. Therefore, the results of this study have important significance for the engineering application of bioleaching of municipal sewage sludge with high solid content.

  1. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  2. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  3. Quantifying Nutrient and Mercury Concentrations and Loads in Lake Tahoe Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C.; Obrist, D.; Schumer, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent climate models predict a large decrease in Sierra Nevada snowpack over the next fifty years as a result of climate change. This decrease will not only affect the hydrologic balance but also change inputs of nutrients and pollutants through atmospheric deposition. In the Lake Tahoe basin, winter precipitation dominates and snowfall provides approximately 70 percent of the annual water input. From the first snowfall until the end of melting, snowpack acts as a temporary storage for atmospheric deposition that accumulates throughout winter and spring. Through melt and runoff processes, these nutrients and pollutants can enter the aquatic ecosystem where they can have detrimental effects on lake clarity and health. Most previous studies in this basin have focused on direct atmospheric deposition loads to the lake surface, and little temporal and spatial information is available on the dynamics of atmospheric deposition in the basin's snowpack. We here present nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and mercury (Hg) concentrations and pool sizes in snowpack along two elevational transects in the Tahoe Basin from January to April of 2012. Total N and P concentrations in the snowpack ranged from 0.07 mg/L to 0.38 mg/L and 0.003 mg/L to 0.109 mg/L, respectively. P concentrations showed strong increases from the west-side to the east-side of the basin which we attribute to local (e.g., urban or road-dust), in-basin sources that are distributed along the dominant west-wind patterns. N species, on the other hand, generally showed little spatial trends, indicating that its sources were more diffuse and possibly from out-of- basin. Hg concentrations ranged from 0.81 ppt to 6.25 ppt and showed similar spatial patterns as N. Hg, however, also showed significant snowpack concentration decreases during storm-free periods which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg back to the atmosphere from photochemical reduction. These emissions are further supported by lower Hg concentrations in

  4. Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well...

  5. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  6. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  7. Modeling the interaction of light intensity, nutrient concentration and uranium toxicity in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, E.; Horemans, N.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Cedergreen, N. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jager, T. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecology aims at assessing the effect of radionuclides and radiation on the environment. Since we cannot test every possible environmental situation in the laboratory, we need modeling approaches to extrapolate the results of toxicity assays to environmentally relevant scenarios. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand the effect of relevant environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light on the toxicity of the test. Radionuclides are often found to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, an overload of ROS can lead to disturbances of the photosynthetic system. Since the light intensity determines the efficiency of the photo-systems in plants, it can be expected to interact with the effect of radionuclides. The nutrient concentration of the test medium determines the physiological state of the plant, affecting in turn the plant's capability of dealing with stress and hence influences the toxicity of the contaminant. To study the interaction of stressors with environmental conditions, mechanistic effect modeling is promoted widely in ecotoxicology. In principle, the modelling aims at a mechanistic understanding of the different processes causing the stress individually, and integrating them in one framework to study their joint effect and possible interaction. We here present a mechanistic effect model for Lemna minor (common duckweed), which is based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Models based on DEB have been used widely to study the effects of compounds on animals. Due to its general applicability to all types of organisms, it holds potential to be used for comparison of species and compounds in a broad context. Energy uptake from the environment is modeled explicitly, and metabolic rates are set to depend on temperature in DEB models. Therefore, they can be used to extrapolate effects to a wide range of environmentally relevant scenarios. Until now, the DEB research in ecotoxicology has

  8. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  9. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Carlos M.; Coutinho, João F.; Bacelar, Eunice A.; Gonçalves, Berta M.; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn con...

  11. Dredging effects on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity in two drainage ditch sediments in the lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage ditches are conduits between production acreage and receiving aquatic systems. Often overlooked for their mitigation capabilities, agricultural drainage ditches provide an important role for nutrient transformation via microbial metabolism. Variations in ecoenzyme activities have been used to elucidate microbial metabolism and resource demand of microbial communities to better understand the relationship between altered nutrient ratios and microbial activity in aquatic ecosystems. Two agricultural drainage ditches, one in the northeast portion of the Arkansas Delta and the other in the lower Mississippi Delta, were monitored for a year. Sediment samples were collected prior to each ditch being dredged (cleaned, and subsequent post-dredging samples occurred as soon as access was available. Seasonal samples were then collected throughout a year to examine effects of dredging on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity recovery in drainage ditch sediments. Phosphorus concentrations in sediments after dredging decreased 33–66%, depending on ditch and phosphorus extraction methodology. Additionally, ecoenzymatic activity was significantly decreased in most sediment samples after dredging. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, an estimate of total microbial activity, decreased 56–67% after dredging in one of the two ditches. Many sample sites also had significant phosphorus and ecoenzymatic activity differences between the post-dredge samples and the year-long follow-up samples. Results indicate microbial metabolism in dredged drainage ditches may take up to a year or more to recover to pre-dredged levels. Likewise, while sediment nutrient concentrations may be decreased through dredging and removal, runoff and erosion events over time tend to quickly replenish nutrient concentrations in replaced sediments. Understanding nutrient dynamics and microbial metabolism within agricultural drainage ditches is

  12. High nutrient concentration and temperature alleviated formation of large colonies of Microcystis: Evidence from field investigations and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaohua; Chen, Huaimin; Gao, Li; Xiao, Man; Li, Ming

    2016-09-15

    Correlations between Microcystis colony size and environmental factors were investigated in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu (China) from 2011 to 2013. Compared with Gonghu Bay, both nutrient concentrations and Microcystis colony sizes were greater in Meiliang Bay. The median colony size (D50: 50% of the total mass of particles smaller than this size) increased from April to August and then decreased until November. In both bays, the average D50 of Microcystis colonies were 500 μm) dominated in summer. The differences in colony size in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay were probably due to horizontal drift driven by the prevailing south wind in summer. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of field data indicated that colony size was negatively related to nutrient concentrations but positively related to air temperature, suggesting that low nutrient concentrations and high air temperature promoted formation of large colonies. To validate the field survey, Microcystis colonies collected from Lake Taihu were cultured at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) under high and low nutrient concentrations for 9 days. The size of Microcystis colonies significantly decreased when temperature was above 20 °C but had no significant change at 15 °C. The differences in temperature effects on colony formation shown from field and laboratory suggested that the larger colonies in summer were probably due to the longer growth period rather than the higher air temperature and light intensity. In addition, colony size decreased more significantly at high nutrient levels. Therefore, it could be concluded that high nutrient concentration and temperature may alleviate formation of large colonies of Microcystis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  14. Thermal damage control of dye-assisted laser tissue welding: effect of dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Shaffer, Brian S.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2001-05-01

    Successful laser-assisted tissue welding was implemented to provide proper weld strength with minimized tissue thermal injury. We investigated and compared the weld strengths and morphologic changes in porcine small intestinal submucose (SIS) and porcine ureteral tissues with various concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) and with a solid albumin sheet. The study showed that the tissues were welded at lower ICG concentration (0.05 mM) with minimized tissue thermal damage using an 800-nm wavelength diode laser.

  15. The effect of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering, evapotranspiration and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba were evaluated under ebb-and-flow conditions. Two media: peat and peat + perlite (3:l, v/v, and four concentrations of nutrient solution: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mS cm-1 were applied. High quality plants were produced in both media and all concentration of nutrient solution. The lowest evapotranspiration was measured at the highest concentration of nutrient solution. N concentration of leaves was high in all treatments. Concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient solution. Opposite was found for P. At the end of cultivation the lowest pH was measured in the upper layer of growing media. The highest total soluble salt level was measured in the upper layers. Upper layers accumulated more N-NO3, P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral element content of both media was high in all concentrations of nutrient solution. Low concentration of nutrient solution at 1.0 mS cm-1 is recommended, although -1Tymophylla tenuiloba-1 can be also cultivated at higher concentrations of nutrient solution up to 2.5mS cm-1, if placed on the same bench with other bedding plants requiring more nutrients.

  16. Relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration in the international Alma Gol Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll, a concentration in the International Alma Gol Wetland. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in lots of phytoplanktons and has been used as a trophy index in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples were collected fortnightly from five stations in the wetland during summer and autumn. Chlorophyll-a ranged between 4.38 to 156.55 mg/m3, sulfate ranged between 138 to 190 mg/l, total alkalinity ranged between 80 to 280 mg/l, silica ranged between 3.80 to 35.00 mg/l, phosphate ranged between 0.02 to 3.70 mg/l, ammonia ranged between 0.10 to 11.90 mg/l, nitrate ranged between 0.01 to 2.75 mg/l and nitrite ranged between 0.01 to 0.39 mg/l. There was a significant correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrate, nitrite and ammonia but there was no significant correlation between chlorophyll a and silica, total alkalinity, sulfate and phosphorus.

  17. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  18. Nutrient and secondary metabolite concentrations in a savanna are independently affected by large herbivores and shoot growth rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scogings, PF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSMs) such as tannins are assumed to function as plant defences against herbivores. CBSMs are thought to be inversely related to growth rate and nutrient concentrations because a physiological trade-off exists...

  19. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  20. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  1. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  2. Concentrations of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in tissues from goats and a cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.; Rasmussen, F.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in plasma and tissue from goats and a cow have been determined after a single intravenous injection. Furthermore, the concentration of the two drugs and their metabolites in plasma and tissues have been determined after continuous intravenous infusion for 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Trimethoprim was present in all tissues but brain at higher concentrations than in plasma while the concentration of sulphadoxine in the different tissues were lower than in plasma. The highest concentration of the 2 drugs and their metabolites was found in the kidney. The distribution pattern of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine was similar in cow and goats. (author)

  3. Concentrations of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in tissues from goats and a cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, P; Rasmussen, F [Kongelige Veterinaer- og Landbohoejskole, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine in plasma and tissue from goats and a cow have been determined after a single intravenous injection. Furthermore, the concentration of the two drugs and their metabolites in plasma and tissues have been determined after continuous intravenous infusion for 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Trimethoprim was present in all tissues but brain at higher concentrations than in plasma while the concentration of sulphadoxine in the different tissues were lower than in plasma. The highest concentration of the 2 drugs and their metabolites was found in the kidney. The distribution pattern of trimethoprim and sulphadoxine was similar in cow and goats.

  4. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.

  5. Effect of cooking on radionuclide concentrations in waterfowl tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four commercially raised mallar ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) were released at the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds, and subsequently collected 56 to 188 days later. Liver, gizzard, and carcass were analyzed for radionuclide concentrations before and after cooking. Significant decreases (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 140 La and /sup 110m/Ag concentrations in carcass and liver samples occurred after cooking. Radionuclide concentrations in gizzard showed no significant change in radionuclide concentrations after cooking. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs concentrations decreased by 27% in carcass after cooking and reduced the dose commitment to man by that amount

  6. Synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of a freshwater Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alketife, Ahmed M; Judd, Simon; Znad, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B, CS-42) and nutrient removal have been investigated under different concentrations of N (0-56 mg/L) and P (0-19 mg/L). The study showed that N/P ratio has a crucial effect on the biomass growth and nutrient removal. When N/P=10, a complete P and N removal was achieved at the end of cultivation with specific growth rate (SGR) of 1 d -1 and biomass concentration of 1.58 g/L. It was also observed that when the N content <2.5 mg/L, the SGR significantly reduced from 1.04 to 0.23 d -1 and the maximum biomass produced was decreased more than three-fold to 0.5 g/L. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface method were used to study the effects of the initial concentrations (P, N and C) on P and N removal efficiencies. The optimized P, N and C concentrations supporting 100% removal of both P and N at an SGR of 0.95 were 7, 55 and 10 mg/L respectively, with desirability value of 0.94. The results and analysis obtained could be very useful when applying the microalgae for efficient wastewater treatment and nutrient removal.

  7. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  9. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First assessment of trace metal concentration in mangrove crab eggs and other tissues, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Vianna; Kütter, Vinicius Tavares; Marques, Eduardo Duarte; da Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-07-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is widespread in the Brazilian coast, which has an important role in nutrient cycling. This species reproduces in summer and females carry eggs about a month, when they maintain contact with water and sediments. It remains unclear if trace metals can be absorbed or adsorbed by the eggs during development. The present study aims to investigate, for the first time, trace metal concentrations in ovigerous female tissues and eggs of U. cordatus in two areas with different metal pollution levels in the Southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in two different mangroves, Guanabara Bay (GB) highly polluted environment and Paraíba do Sul River (PSR). In both populations, we observed significant increase of V, Cr, and Mn concentrations along eggs maturation. The higher metals averages were found in PSR population. This trend was reported since the 1990s and lower concentrations in GB marine organisms were attributed to reducing conditions, high organic load, and the presence of sulfide ions. These conditions restrict the bioavailability of metals in the bay, with exception of Mn. No significant differences were observed in gills and muscles. In both populations of the present study, V, Zn, As, and Pb were higher in eggs of initial stage, whereas Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were higher in hepatopancreas. Beside this, V, Cr, Mn, As, and Pb showed an increase concerning egg development. Thus, V, As, and Pb in eggs come from two sources previous discussed: females and environment. Zinc came mainly from females due to essential function. Those new information should be considered as one of the mechanisms of trace metal transfer to the trophic chain, between benthonic and pelagic environment.

  11. Metal concentrations in selected organs and tissues of five Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of metalprocessing industries in the catchments of the Florida Lake and the Steynsrus farm dams reflects the low liver and kidney concentrations of Cd, Ni and Cu, respectively. The blood of the Natalspruit wetland coots contained the highest dry weight concentrations of Ni (11.4 mg/g), Cd (1.8 mg/g) and Cu ...

  12. Deciphering relationships between in-stream travel times, nutrient concentrations, and uptake through analysis of hysteretic and non-hysteretic kinetic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; Bowden, W. B.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Herstand, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between solute travel time, concentration, and nutrient uptake remains a central question in watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry. Theoretical understanding predicts that nutrient uptake should increase as in-stream solute travel time lengthens and/or as concentration increases; however, results from field-based studies have been contradictory. We used a newly developed approach, Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), to investigate relationships between solute travel time, nutrient concentration, and nutrient uptake across a range of stream types. This approach allows us to quantify in-stream nutrient uptake across a range of travel times and nutrient concentrations using single instantaneous injections (slugs) of conservative and non-conservative tracers. In some systems we observed counter-clockwise hysteresis loops in the relationship between nutrient uptake and concentration. Greater nutrient uptake on the falling limb of tracer breakthrough curves indicates stronger uptake for a given concentration at longer travel times. However, in other systems we did not observe hysteresis in these relationships. Lack of hysteresis indicates that nutrient uptake kinetics were not influenced by travel time travel time. Here we investigate the potential roles of travel time and in-stream flowpaths that could be responsible for hysteretic behavior.

  13. New description of gradual substitution of graft by bone tissue including biomechanical and structural effects, nutrients supply and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfei; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    A new description of graft substitution by bone tissue is proposed in this work. The studied domain is considered as a continuum model consisting of a mixture of the bone tissue and the graft material. Densities of both components evolve in time as a result of cellular activity and biodegradation. The proposed model focuses on the interaction between the bone cell activity, mechanical stimuli, nutrients supply and scaffold microstructure. Different combinations of degradation rate and stiffness of the graft material were examined by numerical simulation. It follows from the calculations that the degradation rate of the scaffold should be tuned to the synthesis/resorption rate of the tissue, which are dependent among the others on scaffold porosity changes. Simulation results imply potential criteria to choose proper bone substitute material in consideration of degradation rate, initial porosity and mechanical characteristics.

  14. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    and each separate simultaneous freshweight wasmeasured. Dry weight of organs wasmeasured afterit was oven-dried at 80ºCfor 72h. Leavesoven-dried andthenpowdered, and weredigested(usingacid tomeasure theelements. Extracts from thedigestionmethodwere used for determination ofnickelusingDimethylglyoximemethod.Spectrophotometer used to cover the wavelength at 530nm. Potassium was measured by Flame Photometer410.Totalnitrogenwas measuredbyKjeldahlmethod.Thehomogeneouspowders of dried leaves with hot water were extractedwithnitratemeter(Horiba, Japanand they were used to measuretheirnitrate content. Analysis was performed usingthe Software Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS v. 16.0. Individual treatment means were compared with a Duncan’s test to determine whether they were significantly different at the 0.05 probability. Results and Discussion: U50treatedwith 1.8 fold increasecompared with thecontrol groupshowed thehighestfresh weight. The yield increased with increasing concentration to 50 mg/l urea, butat higher urea concentrations, 50 mg/l,yieldsignificantlydecreased, althoughitwas significantlyhighercompared to control. .Enhanced growth and yield in two levels of U25 and U50were coerced. It was duo tohydrolysis urea with the help nickel stored in seed endosperm and also contamination application of nickel fertilizers in nutrient solutionsthat led to release of urea nitrogen.The highestandthelowest concentration ofnickelinleaveswith11-fold increase,were observedatconcentrations ofU50andU100, respectively. Dilution phenomenon occurred with increasingurea concentrationmore than U50.Nickelconcentration inleaveswassignificantlyincreased that this is theopposite offresh weightanddry weight. In U50 treated K concentration was 1.6-fold higher compared to control. With increasing urea concentration more than U50,K concentration decreased. Applyingthe Ni, 8 percent decreased K concentration in leaf tissues. With increasing urea innutrientsolution

  15. Tomato root growth and phosphorus absorption kinetics by tomato plants as affected by phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, P.C.R.; Barber, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects P concentrations in nutrient solution on root growth and on root physiological characteristics involved in P uptake by tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants, six seedlings were grown in nutrient solution at initial concentrations of 48.5, 97, 194 and 388 μMP until one day before harvest. They were then transferred to solutions with P at 20 μM and 30 μM, and the depletion curves and Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined. The conclusions were that as P supply increased and as the plant P contents are sufficient for maximum growth, the rate of P uptake tends to be lower. The results also indicate that total P uptake by tomato seedlings depends on the amount of root surface area exposed to P. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air concentrations near emission ... Thus heavy metals acquired through the food chain as a.

  17. Mercury concentrations in multiple tissues of Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Leah A.; Kaler, Robb S.; Kissling, Michelle L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a non-essential, toxic metal that is distributed worldwide. Mercury biomagnifies in food webs and can threaten the health of top predators such as seabirds. The Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a seabird endemic to Alaska and the Russian Far East and is a species of conservation concern in the region. We determined Hg concentrations in eggshells, guano, blood, and feathers of Kittlitz's murrelets sampled from four locations in Alaska. Mercury concentrations in eggshells, guano, and blood were low compared to other seabird species. Mean Hg concentrations of breast feathers from Adak Island and Glacier Bay were significantly greater than those from Agattu Island or Icy Bay. Two Kittlitz's murrelets at Glacier Bay and one Kittlitz's murrelet at Adak Island had Hg concentrations above those associated with impaired reproduction in other bird species, and may merit further investigation as a potential threat to individuals and populations.

  18. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than

  19. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I.E.; Pedro, Liliana D.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague–Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n = 8–10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2–6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague–Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially

  20. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  1. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  2. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  3. Comparison of metal concentrations in rat tibia tissues with various metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Gotoh, Emiko; Manabe, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kihei

    2004-12-01

    To compare metal concentrations in tibia tissues with various metallic implants, SUS316L stainless steel, Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V and V-free Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloys were implanted into the rat tibia for up to 48 weeks. After the implant was removed from the tibia by decalcification, the tibia tissues near the implant were lyophilized. Then the concentrations of metals in the tibia tissues by microwave acid digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Fe concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Fe concentration in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L implant was relatively high, and it rapidly increased up to 12 weeks and then decreased thereafter. On the other hand, the Co concentration in the tibia tissues with the Co-Cr-Mo implant was lower, and it increased up to 24 weeks and slightly decreased at 48 weeks. The Ni concentration in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L implant increased up to 6 weeks and then gradually decreased thereafter. The Cr concentration tended to be higher than the Co concentration. This Cr concentration linearly increased up to 12 weeks and then decreased toward 48 weeks in the tibia tissues with the SUS316L or Co-Cr-Mo implant. Minute quantities of Ti, Al and V in the tibia tissues with the Ti-6Al-4V implant were found. The Ti concentration in the tibia tissues with the Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta implant was lower than that in the tibia tissues with the Ti-6Al-4V implant. The Zr, Nb and Ta concentrations were also very low. The Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy with its low metal release in vivo is considered advantageous for long-term implants.

  4. Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E J; Hammond, B R; Yeum, K J; Qin, J; Wang, X D; Castaneda, C; Snodderly, D M; Russell, R M

    2000-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids in the macular region of the retina (referred to as macular pigment [MP]). Foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin can increase MP density. Response to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin in other tissues has not been studied. The objective of this study was to examine tissue responses to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin and relations among tissues in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Seven subjects consumed spinach and corn, which contain lutein and zeaxanthin, with their daily diets for 15 wk. At 0, 4, 8, and 15 wk and 2 mo after the study, serum, buccal mucosa cells, and adipose tissue were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured. Serum and buccal cell concentrations of lutein increased significantly from baseline during dietary modification. Serum zeaxanthin concentrations were greater than at baseline only at 4 wk, whereas buccal cell and adipose tissue concentrations of zeaxanthin did not change. Adipose tissue lutein concentrations peaked at 8 wk. Changes in adipose tissue lutein concentration were inversely related to the changes in MP density, suggesting an interaction between adipose tissue and retina in lutein metabolism. To investigate the possibility of tissue interactions, we examined cross-sectional relations among serum, tissue, and dietary lutein concentrations, anthropometric measures, and MP density in healthy adults. Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men. Sex differences in lutein metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.

  5. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  6. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  7. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  8. Concentration of uranium in human cancerous tissues of Southern Iraqi patients using fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg -1 ), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg -1 ). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)

  9. Effect of phosphorus concentration of the nutrient solution on the volatile constituents of leaves and bracts of Origanum dictamnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economakis, C; Skaltsa, Helen; Demetzos, Costas; Soković, M; Thanos, Costas A

    2002-10-23

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and bracts of hydroponically cultivated Origanum dictamnus were analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Three different concentrations of phosphorus (5, 30, and 60 mg/L) in the nutrient solution were used for the cultivation, using the nutrient film technique (NFT). A total of 46 different compounds were identified and significant differences (qualitative and quantitative) were observed between the samples. Carvacrol and p-cymene were identified as the main compounds in all samples analyzed, whereas thymoquinone was found in higher percentage in the leaves than in bracts. The essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oils obtained from the bracts were found to be more active. The results obtained from GC-MS analyses were submitted to chemometric analysis.

  10. Influence of drainage and nutrient-solution nitrogen and potassium concentrations on the agronomic behavior of bell-pepper plants cultivated in a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser, Anderson Fernando; Cecilio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Nowaki, Rodrigo Hiyoshi Dalmazzo; Mendoza-Cortez, Juan Waldir; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of N (6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol L-1) and K (3, 5, 7, and 9 mmol L-1) concentrations in nutrient solutions were evaluated on bell pepper grown in a coconut-coir substrate and fertilized without drainage. An additional treatment with drainage was evaluated using N and K concentrations of 12 and 7 mmol L-1, respectively. The hybrid Eppo cultivar of yellow bell pepper was cultivated for 252 days beginning 9 November 2012. Electrical conductivity (EC), the N and K concentrations in the substrate solution, marketable fruit yield, total dry weight and macronutrient concentrations in shoots were periodically evaluated. Fruit production was lower in the system without drainage, regardless of the N and K concentrations, compared to the recommended 10-20% drainage of the volume of nutrient solution applied. Higher K concentrations in the nutrient solution did not affect plant production in the system without drainage for the substrate with an initial K concentration of 331.3 mg L-1. Fruit yield was higher without drainage at a nutrient-solution N concentration of 10.7 mmol L-1. The upper EC limit of the substrate solution in the system without drainage was exceeded 181 days after planting. Either lower nutrient concentrations in the nutrient solution or a drainage system could thus control the EC in the substrate solution.

  11. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  12. Changing climate and nutrient transfers: Evidence from high temporal resolution concentration-flow dynamics in headwater catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, M C; Deasy, C E; Benskin, C McW H; Beven, K J; Burke, S; Collins, A L; Evans, R; Falloon, P D; Forber, K J; Hiscock, K M; Hollaway, M J; Kahana, R; Macleod, C J A; Reaney, S M; Snell, M A; Villamizar, M L; Wearing, C; Withers, P J A; Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesise that climate change, together with intensive agricultural systems, will increase the transfer of pollutants from land to water and impact on stream health. This study builds, for the first time, an integrated assessment of nutrient transfers, bringing together a) high-frequency data from the outlets of two surface water-dominated, headwater (~10km(2)) agricultural catchments, b) event-by-event analysis of nutrient transfers, c) concentration duration curves for comparison with EU Water Framework Directive water quality targets, d) event analysis of location-specific, sub-daily rainfall projections (UKCP, 2009), and e) a linear model relating storm rainfall to phosphorus load. These components, in combination, bring innovation and new insight into the estimation of future phosphorus transfers, which was not available from individual components. The data demonstrated two features of particular concern for climate change impacts. Firstly, the bulk of the suspended sediment and total phosphorus (TP) load (greater than 90% and 80% respectively) was transferred during the highest discharge events. The linear model of rainfall-driven TP transfers estimated that, with the projected increase in winter rainfall (+8% to +17% in the catchments by 2050s), annual event loads might increase by around 9% on average, if agricultural practices remain unchanged. Secondly, events following dry periods of several weeks, particularly in summer, were responsible for high concentrations of phosphorus, but relatively low loads. The high concentrations, associated with low flow, could become more frequent or last longer in the future, with a corresponding increase in the length of time that threshold concentrations (e.g. for water quality status) are exceeded. The results suggest that in order to build resilience in stream health and help mitigate potential increases in diffuse agricultural water pollution due to climate change, land management practices should target

  13. Concentration of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in various tissues of Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Qingmei, H.; Hisamatsu, S.; Abe, T.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th in various human tissues of Japanese subjects obtained at autopsies are reported. The tissue samples were weighed, spiked with 234 Th tracer and ashed by acid. The solution was dried on a hot-plate. Separation of thorium radionuclides was accomplished through cation-exchange resin chromatography and electrodeposition. The concentrations of thorium isotopes were measured by α-spectrometry. Thorium-232 and 230 Th concentrations were found to be highest in lung, followed by bone. The maximum concentration of 228 Th was in bone. The lowest concentrations of thorium isotopes were in muscle. (author)

  14. An Integrated Multimodal Sensor for the On-site Monitoring of the Water Content and Nutrient Concentration of Soil by Measuring the Phase and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato FUTAGAWA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a new multimodal sensor chip which is capable of simultaneous on-site measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration. Until now, in agriculture, water content sensors, such as TDR sensors, have been unable to provide accurate measurements, since these sensors are affected by the nutrient concentration in the soil solution. Therefore, tensiometers have generally been used. However, these are large-scale sensors and are not suitable for the precise measurements required in agriculture. Our proposed sensors are the world’s first to enable independent measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration.

  15. Modeling microelectrode biosensors: free-flow calibration can substantially underestimate tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adam J H; Wall, Mark J; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2017-03-01

    Microelectrode amperometric biosensors are widely used to measure concentrations of analytes in solution and tissue including acetylcholine, adenosine, glucose, and glutamate. A great deal of experimental and modeling effort has been directed at quantifying the response of the biosensors themselves; however, the influence that the macroscopic tissue environment has on biosensor response has not been subjected to the same level of scrutiny. Here we identify an important issue in the way microelectrode biosensors are calibrated that is likely to have led to underestimations of analyte tissue concentrations. Concentration in tissue is typically determined by comparing the biosensor signal to that measured in free-flow calibration conditions. In a free-flow environment the concentration of the analyte at the outer surface of the biosensor can be considered constant. However, in tissue the analyte reaches the biosensor surface by diffusion through the extracellular space. Because the enzymes in the biosensor break down the analyte, a density gradient is set up resulting in a significantly lower concentration of analyte near the biosensor surface. This effect is compounded by the diminished volume fraction (porosity) and reduction in the diffusion coefficient due to obstructions (tortuosity) in tissue. We demonstrate this effect through modeling and experimentally verify our predictions in diffusive environments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Microelectrode biosensors are typically calibrated in a free-flow environment where the concentrations at the biosensor surface are constant. However, when in tissue, the analyte reaches the biosensor via diffusion and so analyte breakdown by the biosensor results in a concentration gradient and consequently a lower concentration around the biosensor. This effect means that naive free-flow calibration will underestimate tissue concentration. We develop mathematical models to better quantify the discrepancy between the calibration and tissue

  16. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, Andre; Valarezo, Carlos; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth. In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N), 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P), 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca) in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes. Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments. Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N and P

  17. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre eVelescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth.In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N, 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P, 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes.Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments.Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N

  18. Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor; Giovannini, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  19. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dea, R. D.; Nelson, M. R.; El Haj, A. J.; Waters, S. L.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    © The authors 2014. In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence

  20. Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Cong; Ma, Lena Q.

    2005-01-01

    Pteris vittata was the first terrestrial plant known to hyperaccumulate arsenic (As). However, it is unclear how As hyperaccumulation influences nutrient uptake by this plant. P. vittata fern was grown in soil spiked with 0-500 mg As kg -1 in the greenhouse for 24 weeks. The concentrations of essential macro- (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micro- (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Mo) elements in the fronds of different age were examined. Both macro- and micronutrients in the fronds were found to be within the normal concentration ranges for non-hyperaccumulators. However, As hyperaccumulation did influence the elemental distribution among fronds of different age of P. vittata. Arsenic-induced P and K enhancements in the fronds contributed to the As-induced growth stimulation at low As levels. The frond P/As molar ratios of 1.0 can be used as the threshold value for normal growth of P. vittata. Potassium may function as a counter-cation for As in the fronds as shown by the As-induced K increases in the fronds. The present findings not only demonstrate that P. vittata has the ability to maintain adequate concentrations of essential nutrients while hyperaccumulating As from the soil, but also have implications for soil management (fertilization in particular) of P. vittata in As phytoextraction practice

  1. Changes in nutrients and decay rate of Ginkgo biloba leaf litter exposed to elevated O3 concentration in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone (O3 pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer. Here, we hypothesized that O3 exposure at high concentrations would alter the decomposition rate of urban tree litter. In open-top chambers (OTCs, 5-year-old G. biloba saplings were planted to investigate the impact of elevated O3 concentration (120 ppb on changes in nutrient contents and decomposition rate of leaf litters. The results showed that elevated O3 concentration significantly increased K content (6.31 ± 0.29 vs 17.93 ± 0.40, P < 0.01 in leaves of G. biloba, significantly decreased the contents of total phenols (2.82 ± 0.93 vs 1.60 ± 0.44, P < 0.05 and soluble sugars (86.51 ± 19.57 vs 53.76 ± 2.40, P < 0.05, but did not significantly alter the contents of C, N, P, lignin and condensed tannins, compared with that in ambient air. Furthermore, percent mass remaining in litterbags after 150 days under ambient air and elevated O3 concentration was 56.0% and 52.8%, respectively. No significant difference between treatments was observed in mass remaining at any sampling date during decomposition. The losses of the nutrients in leaf litters of G. biloba showed significant seasonal differences regardless of O3 treatment. However, we found that elevated O3 concentration slowed down the leaf litter decomposition only at the early decomposition stage, but slightly accelerated the litter decomposition at the late stage (after 120 days. This study provides our understanding of the ecological processes regulating

  2. Nutrients and contaminants in tissues of five fish species obtained from Shanghai markets: Risk–benefit evaluation from human health perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Jing-Jing [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Li, Huan; Liu, Jin-Pin [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Yun-Ni; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Li-Qiao [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China); Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zydu@bio.ecnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-01

    Shanghai is a Chinese megacity in the Yangtze River Delta area, one of the most polluted coastal areas in China. The inhabitants of Shanghai have very high aquatic product consumption rates. A risk–benefit assessment of the co-ingestion of fish nutrients and contaminants has not previously been performed for Shanghai residents. Samples of five farmed fish species (marine and freshwater) with different feeding habits were collected from Shanghai markets in winter and summer. Fatty acids, protein, mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes were measured in liver, abdominal fat, and dorsal, abdominal, and tail muscles from fish. Tolerable daily intakes and benefit–risk quotients were calculated to allow the benefits and risks of co-ingesting n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and contaminants to be assessed according to the cancer slope factors and reference doses of selected pollutants. All of the contaminant concentrations in the muscle tissues were much lower than the national maximum limits, but the livers generally contained high Hg concentrations, exceeding the regulatory limit. The organic pollutant and n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations correlated with the lipid contents of the fish tissues, and were higher in carnivorous marine fish than in omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fish. The tolerable daily intakes, risk–benefit quotients, and current daily aquatic product intakes for residents of large Chinese cities indicated that the muscle tissues of most of the fish analyzed can be consumed regularly without significant contaminant-related risks to health. However, attention should be paid to the potential risks posed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large yellow croaker and Hg in tilapia. Based on the results of this study, we encourage people to consume equal portions of marine and freshwater fish. - Highlights: • Shanghai coast

  3. Nutrients and contaminants in tissues of five fish species obtained from Shanghai markets: Risk–benefit evaluation from human health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jing-Jing; Li, Huan; Liu, Jin-Pin; Yang, Yi; Jin, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Yun-Ni; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is a Chinese megacity in the Yangtze River Delta area, one of the most polluted coastal areas in China. The inhabitants of Shanghai have very high aquatic product consumption rates. A risk–benefit assessment of the co-ingestion of fish nutrients and contaminants has not previously been performed for Shanghai residents. Samples of five farmed fish species (marine and freshwater) with different feeding habits were collected from Shanghai markets in winter and summer. Fatty acids, protein, mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes were measured in liver, abdominal fat, and dorsal, abdominal, and tail muscles from fish. Tolerable daily intakes and benefit–risk quotients were calculated to allow the benefits and risks of co-ingesting n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and contaminants to be assessed according to the cancer slope factors and reference doses of selected pollutants. All of the contaminant concentrations in the muscle tissues were much lower than the national maximum limits, but the livers generally contained high Hg concentrations, exceeding the regulatory limit. The organic pollutant and n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations correlated with the lipid contents of the fish tissues, and were higher in carnivorous marine fish than in omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fish. The tolerable daily intakes, risk–benefit quotients, and current daily aquatic product intakes for residents of large Chinese cities indicated that the muscle tissues of most of the fish analyzed can be consumed regularly without significant contaminant-related risks to health. However, attention should be paid to the potential risks posed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large yellow croaker and Hg in tilapia. Based on the results of this study, we encourage people to consume equal portions of marine and freshwater fish. - Highlights: • Shanghai coast

  4. Experimental analysis of an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Godlewska Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study presented was to experimentally analyze an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the variability of rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions for different time periods. Aqueous suspensions of the baker’s yeast of various concentration (solution I, without nutrient and yeasts suspended in aqueous solution of sucrose or honey as nutrients with different concentration (solution II or solution III were tested. Experiments were carried out using rotational rheoviscometer of type RT10 by a company HAAKE. The measurements were conducted for different time periods (from 1 h up to 144 h at given fluid temperature. On the basis of the obtained data, rheological characteristics of the aqueous solution of baker’s yeast suspensions without and with nutrients of different sucrose or honey concentration were identified and mathematically described.

  5. Quantitative analysis of microbicide concentrations in fluids, gels and tissues using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranat Chuchuen

    Full Text Available Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Microbicide Concentrations in Fluids, Gels and Tissues Using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchuen, Oranat; Henderson, Marcus H.; Sykes, Craig; Kim, Min Sung; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Topical vaginal anti-HIV microbicides are an important focus in female-based strategies to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Understanding microbicide pharmacokinetics is essential to development, characterization and implementation of efficacious microbicide drug delivery formulations. Current methods to measure drug concentrations in tissue (e.g., LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) are highly sensitive, but destructive and complex. This project explored the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy to detect microbicide drugs and to measure their local concentrations in fluids, drug delivery gels, and tissues. We evaluated three candidate microbicide drugs: tenofovir, Dapivirine and IQP-0528. Measurements were performed in freshly excised porcine buccal tissue specimens, gel vehicles and fluids using two Horiba Raman microscopes, one of which is confocal. Characteristic spectral peak calibrations for each drug were obtained using serial dilutions in the three matrices. These specific Raman bands demonstrated strong linear concentration dependences in the matrices and were characterized with respect to their unique vibrational signatures. At least one specific Raman feature was identified for each drug as a marker band for detection in tissue. Sensitivity of detection was evaluated in the three matrices. A specific peak was also identified for tenofovir diphosphate, the anti-HIV bioactive product of tenofovir after phosphorylation in host cells. Z-scans of drug concentrations vs. depth in excised tissue specimens, incubated under layers of tenofovir solution in a Transwell assay, showed decreasing concentration with depth from the surface into the tissue. Time-dependent concentration profiles were obtained from tissue samples incubated in the Transwell assay, for times ranging 30 minutes - 6 hours. Calibrations and measurements from tissue permeation studies for tenofovir showed good correlation with gold standard LC-MS/MS data

  7. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Timing of 15N fertiliser application, partitioning to reproductive and vegetative tissue, and nutrient removal by field-grown low-chill peaches in the subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, D.O.; Stewart, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of timing of nitrogen (N) application as 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate (50 kg N/ha) on the growth response and N uptake by vegetative and reproductive tissues was investigated in the low-chill peach cv. Flordagem growing on a krasnozem soil at Alstonville. Nitrogen was applied in late August, late September, late October, mid February, and early May. Tree parts were sampled for 15 N at 4 and 8 weeks after application and after fruit harvest in December the following season. After fruit yield was measured, trees were excavated and divided into parts for dry weight and nutrient concentration determinations, and fertiliser N recovery and to estimate tree nutrient removal. Nitrogen enrichment was detected in all plant parts within 4 weeks of N application, irrespective of timing, and was greatest in rapidly growing tissues such as laterals, leaves, and fruit. The most rapid (P 15 N enrichment in vegetative tissues resulted from September, October, and February N applications and for fruit from a September application. The level of enrichment 4 weeks after fertiliser N application was similar for vegetative and reproductive tissues. The timing of N application in the first season had no effect on fruit yield and vegetative growth the following season. At tree removal, the recovery of fertiliser N in most tree parts increased (P < 0.05) as fertiliser N application was delayed from October to May the previous season. Maximum contribution of absorbed N to whole tree N was 10-11% for laterals, leaf, and fruit. Data from this study indicate that vegetative and reproductive growth have similar demand for absorbed N, and that uptake of fertiliser N is most rapid when an application precedes a period of rapid growth. Over 2 seasons, recovery of applied fertiliser N was 14.9-18.0% in the tree, confirming that stored N and the soil N pool are the dominant sources of tree N. The recovery of fertiliser N from the May application was 18% even though uptake in all tree

  9. The Relative Concentrations of Nutrients and Toxins Dictate Feeding by a Vertebrate Browser, the Greater Glider Petauroides volans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora M Jensen

    Full Text Available Although ecologists believe that vertebrate herbivores must select a diet that allows them to meet their nutritional requirements, while avoiding intoxication by plant secondary metabolites, this is remarkably difficult to show. A long series of field and laboratory experiments means that we have a good understanding of the factors that affect feeding by leaf-eating marsupials. This knowledge and the natural intraspecific variation in Eucalyptus chemistry allowed us to test the hypothesis that the feeding decisions of greater gliders (Petauroides volans depend on the concentrations of available nitrogen (incorporating total nitrogen, dry matter digestibility and tannins and of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs, potent antifeedants unique to Eucalyptus. We offered captive greater gliders foliage from two species of Eucalyptus, E. viminalis and E. melliodora, which vary naturally in their concentrations of available nitrogen and FPCs. We then measured the amount of foliage eaten by each glider and compared this with our laboratory analyses of foliar total nitrogen, available nitrogen and FPCs for each tree offered. The concentration of FPCs was the main factor that determined how much gliders ate of E. viminalis and E. melliodora, but in gliders fed E. viminalis the concentration of available nitrogen was also a significant influence. In other words, greater gliders ate E. viminalis leaves with a particular combination of FPCs and available nitrogen that maximised the nutritional gain but minimised their ingestion of toxins. In contrast, the concentration of total nitrogen was not correlated with feeding. This study is among the first to empirically show that browsing herbivores select a diet that balances the potential gain (available nutrients and the potential costs (plant secondary chemicals of eating leaves. The major implication of the study is that it is essential to identify the limiting nutrients and relevant toxins in a system in

  10. Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in 'Elstar' apple skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between fruit N, P, K, Mg and Ca concentrations during the season and flavonoid and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of `Elstar¿ apples at maturity have been studied during three seasons in a nutrition experiment (with the mutant `Elshof¿), and in a separate experiment with

  11. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  12. Lung Tissue Concentrations of Pyrazinamide among Patients with Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, M. Tobias; Nikolaishvili, Ketino; Sabulua, Irina; Bablishvili, Nino; Gogishvili, Shota; Avaliani, Zaza; Tukvadze, Nestani; Little, Brent; Bernheim, Adam; Read, Timothy D.; Guarner, Jeannette; Derendorf, Hartmut; Peloquin, Charles A.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Vashakidze, Sergo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improved knowledge regarding the tissue penetration of antituberculosis drugs may help optimize drug management. Patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing adjunctive surgery were enrolled. Serial serum samples were collected, and microdialysis was performed using ex vivo lung tissue to measure pyrazinamide concentrations. Among 10 patients, the median pyrazinamide dose was 24.7 mg/kg of body weight. Imaging revealed predominant lung lesions as cavitary (n = 6 patients), mass-like (n = 3 patients), or consolidative (n = 1 patient). On histopathology examination, all tissue samples had necrosis; eight had a pH of ≤5.5. Tissue samples from two patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture (pH 5.5 and 7.2). All 10 patients had maximal serum pyrazinamide concentrations within the recommended range of 20 to 60 μg/ml. The median lung tissue free pyrazinamide concentration was 20.96 μg/ml. The median tissue-to-serum pyrazinamide concentration ratio was 0.77 (range, 0.54 to 0.93). There was a significant inverse correlation between tissue pyrazinamide concentrations and the amounts of necrosis (R = −0.66, P = 0.04) and acid-fast bacilli (R = −0.75, P = 0.01) identified by histopathology. We found good penetration of pyrazinamide into lung tissue among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with a variety of radiological lesion types. Our tissue pH results revealed that most lesions had a pH conducive to pyrazinamide activity. The tissue penetration of pyrazinamide highlights its importance in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant antituberculosis treatment regimens. PMID:28373198

  13. Lung Tissue Concentrations of Pyrazinamide among Patients with Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Russell R; Heinrichs, M Tobias; Nikolaishvili, Ketino; Sabulua, Irina; Bablishvili, Nino; Gogishvili, Shota; Avaliani, Zaza; Tukvadze, Nestani; Little, Brent; Bernheim, Adam; Read, Timothy D; Guarner, Jeannette; Derendorf, Hartmut; Peloquin, Charles A; Blumberg, Henry M; Vashakidze, Sergo

    2017-06-01

    Improved knowledge regarding the tissue penetration of antituberculosis drugs may help optimize drug management. Patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis undergoing adjunctive surgery were enrolled. Serial serum samples were collected, and microdialysis was performed using ex vivo lung tissue to measure pyrazinamide concentrations. Among 10 patients, the median pyrazinamide dose was 24.7 mg/kg of body weight. Imaging revealed predominant lung lesions as cavitary ( n = 6 patients), mass-like ( n = 3 patients), or consolidative ( n = 1 patient). On histopathology examination, all tissue samples had necrosis; eight had a pH of ≤5.5. Tissue samples from two patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture (pH 5.5 and 7.2). All 10 patients had maximal serum pyrazinamide concentrations within the recommended range of 20 to 60 μg/ml. The median lung tissue free pyrazinamide concentration was 20.96 μg/ml. The median tissue-to-serum pyrazinamide concentration ratio was 0.77 (range, 0.54 to 0.93). There was a significant inverse correlation between tissue pyrazinamide concentrations and the amounts of necrosis ( R = -0.66, P = 0.04) and acid-fast bacilli ( R = -0.75, P = 0.01) identified by histopathology. We found good penetration of pyrazinamide into lung tissue among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with a variety of radiological lesion types. Our tissue pH results revealed that most lesions had a pH conducive to pyrazinamide activity. The tissue penetration of pyrazinamide highlights its importance in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant antituberculosis treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shuken; Kondo, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. Method Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40 mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2 h before the surgery. Results The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface. PMID:22822928

  15. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  17. Concentration of mercury and selenium in tissues of five cetacean species from Croatian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and selenium (Se concentrations were measured in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of five cetacean species, three dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus and two whale species (Balaenoptera physalus and Ziphius cavirostris, stranded along the Croatian coast during the period 1999-2002. Statistically significant differences in Hg concentrations in muscle, spleen and lung, and Se in liver and lung of the different dolphin species were observed. Mercury levels in liver and spleen and Se levels in liver differed between young and adult T. truncatus species. A significant positive correlation between different tissue types for Hg and Se concentrations was observed. In all tissues tested, the lowest Hg and Se concentrations were found in B. physalus. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with Se in all tissues. The results present one of few studies related to lung and spleen tissues in these mammals, particularly in the Adriatic Sea. Since very little data are available, this research provides new data on concentrations of Hg and Se in five cetacean species from the Adriatic Sea basin.

  18. Interannual heavy element and nutrient concentration trends in the top sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Facca, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Sfriso, Adriano; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-12-15

    The elemental composition of surficial sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in 1987, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were investigated. Zn and Cr concentrations resulted in higher than background levels, but only Cd and Hg were higher than legal quality standards (Italian Decree 2010/260 and Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). Contaminants with similar spatial distribution are sorted into three groups by means of correlation analysis: (i) As, Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn; (ii) Ni, Cr; (iii) Hg. Interannual concentrations are compared by applying a factor analysis to the matrix of differences between subsequent samplings. A general decrease of heavy metal levels is observed from 1987 to 1993, whereas particularly high concentrations of Ni and Cr are recorded in 1998 as a consequence of intense clam fishing, subsequently mitigated by better prevention of illegal harvesting. Due to the major role played by anthropogenic sediment resuspension, bathymetric variations are also considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substitution of common concentrates with by-products modulated ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradation, and microbial community composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Zebeli, Q

    2015-07-01

    A rumen simulation technique was used to evaluate the effects of the complete substitution of a common concentrate mixture (CON) with a mixture consisting solely of by-products from the food industry (BP) at 2 different forage-to-concentrate ratios on ruminal fermentation profile, nutrient degradation, and abundance of rumen microbiota. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 concentrate types (CON and BP) and 2 concentrate levels (25 and 50% of diet dry matter). The experiment consisted of 2 experimental runs with 12 fermentation vessels each (n=6 per treatment). Each run lasted for 10d, with data collection on the last 5d. The BP diets had lower starch, but higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fat contents compared with CON. Degradation of crude protein was decreased, but NDF and nonfiber carbohydrate degradation were higher for the BP diets. At the 50% concentrate level, organic matter degradation tended to be lower for BP and CH4 formation per unit of NDF degraded was also lower for BP. The BP mixture led to a higher concentration of propionate and a lower acetate-to-propionate ratio, whereas concentrations of butyrate and caproate decreased. Concentrate type did not affect microbial community composition, except that the abundance of bacteria of the genus Prevotella was higher for BP. Increasing the concentrate level resulted in higher degradation of organic matter and crude protein. At the higher concentrate level, total short-chain fatty acid formation increased and concentrations of isobutyrate and valerate decreased. In addition, at the 50% concentrate level, numbers of protozoa increased, whereas numbers of methanogens, anaerobic fungi, and fibrolytic bacteria decreased. No interaction was noted between the 2 dietary factors on most variables, except that at the higher concentrate level the effects of BP on CH4 and CO2 formation per unit of NDF degraded, crude protein degradation, and the abundance of Prevotella were more prominent. In

  20. Estimating space-time mean concentrations of nutrients in surface waters of variable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Brus, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A monitoring scheme has been designed to test whether the space-time mean concentration total Nitrogen (N-total) in the surface water in the Northern Frisian Woodlands (NFW, The Netherlands) complies with standards of the European Water Framework directive. Since in statistical testing for

  1. Interannual heavy element and nutrient concentration trends in the top sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Facca, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Sfriso, Adriano; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy element concentrations in sediments of a transitional system were studied. • Element contamination in the recent years has generally declined. • Mercury and cadmium contamination still remain above the limits in hot spots. • The role of sediment resuspension due to anthropogenic activity is discussed. • A basic knowledge to assess the impact of the MOSE construction is provided. - Abstract: The elemental composition of surficial sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in 1987, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were investigated. Zn and Cr concentrations resulted in higher than background levels, but only Cd and Hg were higher than legal quality standards (Italian Decree 2010/260 and Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). Contaminants with similar spatial distribution are sorted into three groups by means of correlation analysis: (i) As, Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn; (ii) Ni, Cr; (iii) Hg. Interannual concentrations are compared by applying a factor analysis to the matrix of differences between subsequent samplings. A general decrease of heavy metal levels is observed from 1987 to 1993, whereas particularly high concentrations of Ni and Cr are recorded in 1998 as a consequence of intense clam fishing, subsequently mitigated by better prevention of illegal harvesting. Due to the major role played by anthropogenic sediment resuspension, bathymetric variations are also considered

  2. Intake and nutrient digestibilies of all-concentrate diet form forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total or 20 animals comprising 10 rams and 10 bucks were involved in a digestibility study to assess the nutritive value of a combination of yam peel, ... The dry matter intakes in the all-concentrate diet by the sheep and goat ( > 4% of body weight) were higher (p<0.05) than obtained for the conventional diet of grass hay ...

  3. An integrated membrane bioreactor - nanofiltration concept with concentrate recirculation for wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing water shortages drive the need for water reuse. Membranes are a very suitable technology for purification of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) permeate can be polished by nanofiltration (NF), allowing the production of high quality reusable water. The NF concentrate potentially is an

  4. Dynamic response of land use and river nutrient concentration to long-term climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Janes, Victoria; Whitehead, Paul G; Dadson, Simon J; Holman, Ian P

    2017-07-15

    The combined indirect and direct impacts of land use change and climate change on river water quality were assessed. A land use allocation model was used to evaluate the response of the catchment land use to long-term climatic changes. Its results were used to drive a water quality model and assess the impact of climatic alterations on freshwater nitrate and phosphorus concentrations. Climatic projections were employed to estimate the likelihood of such response. The River Thames catchment (UK) was used as a case-study. If land use is considered as static parameter, according to the model results, climate change alone should reduce the average nitrate concentration, although just by a small amount, by the 2050s in the Lower Thames, due to reduced runoff (and lower export of nitrate from agricultural soils) and increased instream denitrification, and should increase the average phosphorus concentration by 12% by the 2050s in the Lower Thames, due to a reduction of the effluent dilution capacity of the river flow. However, the results of this study also show that these long-term climatic alterations are likely to lead to a reduction in the arable land in the Thames, replaced by improved grassland, due to a decrease in agriculture profitability in the UK. Taking into account the dynamic co-evolution of land use with climate, the average nitrate concentration is expected to be decreased by around 6% by the 2050s in both the upper and the lower Thames, following the model results, and the average phosphorus concentration increased by 13% in the upper Thames and 5% in the lower Thames. On the long term (2080s), nitrate is expected to decrease by 9% and 8% (upper and lower Thames respectively) and phosphorus not to change in the upper thames and increase by 5% in the lower Thames. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma vs heart tissue concentration in humans - literature data analysis of drugs distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, Zofia; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-03-12

    Little is known about the uptake of drugs into the human heart, although it is of great importance nowadays, when science desires to predict tissue level behavior rather than to measure it. Although the drug concentration in cardiac tissue seems a better predictor for physiological and electrophysiological changes than its level in plasma, knowledge of this value is very limited. Tissue to plasma partition coefficients (Kp) come to rescue since they characterize the distribution of a drug among tissues as being one of the input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The article reviews cardiac surgery and forensic medical studies to provide a reference for drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue. Firstly, the focus is on whether a drug penetrates into heart tissue at a therapeutic level; the provided values refer to antibiotics, antifungals and anticancer drugs. Drugs that directly affect cardiomyocyte electrophysiology are another group of interest. Measured levels of amiodarone, digoxin, perhexiline and verapamil in different sites in human cardiac tissue where the compounds might meet ion channels, gives an insight into how these more lipophilic drugs penetrate the heart. Much data are derived from postmortem studies and they provide insight to the cardiac distribution of more than 200 drugs. The analysis depicts potential problems in defining the active concentration location, what may indirectly suggest multiple mechanisms involved in the drug distribution within the heart. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  7. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: → Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. → The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. → The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. → The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  8. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  9. Soil Respiration Controls Ionic Nutrient Concentration In Percolating Water In Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.

    2004-12-01

    Soil water in the plow layer in rice fields contains various kinds of cations and anions, and they are lost from the plow layer by water percolation. Some portions of CO2 produced by respirations of rice roots and soil microorganisms are also leached by water percolation to the subsoil layer as HCO3-. As the electrical neutrality of inorganic substances in percolating water is maintained when they are assumed to be in the form of simple cations and anions, soil respiration accelerates the leaching of ionic nutrients from the plow layer by water percolation. The proportion of inorganic carbon (Σ CO2) originated from photosynthates in the total Σ CO2 in soil solution in the plow layer was from 28 to 36 % in the rice straw amended soil and from 16 to 31 % in the soil without rice straw amendment in a soil pot experiment with rice plant after the maximum tillering stage. Most of Σ CO2 in percolating water from the plow layer accumulates in the subsoil layer. Periodical measurement of Σ CO2 in percolating water at 13 and 40 cm soil depths indicated that 10 % of total soil organic C in the plow layer was leached down from the plow layer (13 cm), and that about 90 % of it was retained in the subsoil layer to the depth of 40 cm. Water soluble organic materials are also leached from the plow layer by water percolation, and the leaching is accelerated by soil reduction. Soil reduction decreased the content of organic materials that were bound with ferric iron in soil (extractable by 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaBH4) and increased the content of organic materials that were extractable by the neutral chelating solution (0.1M Na4P2O7). In addition, water percolation transformed the latter organic materials to those that were extractable by water and a neutral salt. Considerable portions of organic materials in percolating water are adsorbed in the subsoil layer, and then partially decomposed and polymerized to specific soil organic materials in the subsoil. Organic materials that were

  10. The Effect of Potassium Concentration in Nutrient Solution on Lycopene, Vitamin C and Qualitative Characteristics of Cherry Tomato in Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shabani Sangtarashani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K has a special place in improving the quality of agricultural products. To evaluate the effect of K concentration in nutrient solution on lycopene content, vitamin C and qualitative characteristics of cherry tomato in NaCl salinity conditions, an experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications at university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, in 2010. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of K (0.2, 2, 7 and 14 mM in nutrient solution with 60 mM NaCl concentration. A nutrient solution treatment without salinity was considered as control. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in a hydroponic system. The results indicated that increasing of K concentration increased lycopene content in fruit. Lycopene content in control treatment showed significant difference (P<0.01 in comparison with salinity treatments. With increasing the K concentration (except at 14 mM concentration, vitamin C content was increased, but indicated no statistically significant difference. Vitamin C content in saline conditions was more than control treatment, but showed no significant difference. Adding potassium concentration in nutrient solution improved yield and enhanced quality parameters such as percentage of dry matter, soluble solids and electrical conductivity of fruit extract. Since in saline conditions, the qualitative characteristics of tomato at 7 mM concentration were in the best situation, therefore using this concentration is recommended.

  11. Macroalgal bioindicators (growth, tissue N, δ15N) detect nutrient enrichment from shrimp farm effluent entering Opunohu Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, David T.; Fong, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from shrimp aquaculture poses an increasing environmental threat due to the industry's projected rapid growth and unsustainable management practices. Traditional methods to monitor impacts emphasize water quality sampling; however, there are many advantages to bioindicators, especially in developing countries. We investigated the usefulness of three bioindicators-growth, tissue nitrogen content and nitrogen stable isotope signature (δ 15 N)-in the tropical red macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Algae were collected, cultured, and deployed in a spatial array around the outflow from a shrimp farm in Moorea, French Polynesia, to detect nitrogenous wastes. All three parameters were highest adjacent to the shrimp farm indicating nutrient enrichment, and δ 15 N values confirmed the shrimp farm as the dominant nutrient source (5.63-5.96 per mille ). Isotope ratios proved the most sensitive indicator, as δ 15 N signatures were detected at the most distant sites tested, confirming their usefulness in tracing nutrients and mapping the spatial extent of enrichment

  12. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  13. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  14. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  15. Effects of Salinity Stress on Gas Exchange, Growth, and Nutrient Concentrations of Two Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was undertaken to assess the salt tolerance of two citrus rootstocks, namely, Bakraii (Citrus sp. and Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata. A factorial experiment through a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and four levels of salt including 0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl was conducted. After eight weeks of treatment, number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, wet and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, length of root, chlorophyll content, net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E and water use efficiency (WUE and ion concentrations were measured. Salinity decreased growth and net gas exchange. Trifoliate orange showed the most decrease in growth indices and net gas exchange compared with Bakraii. The ability to limit the transfer of sodium to leaves in low levels of salt was observed in Trifoliate orange, but this ability was not observed in high levels of salt. Results showed that accumulation of chloride in leaves and roots were less in Bakraii compared to the Trifoliate orange. The lower Cl- concentration in leaves of Bakraii than trifoliate orange suggests that the salinity tolerance of Bakraii is associated with less transport of Cl- to the leaves. Salinity increased K+ and decreased Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaves of both rootstocks. It is proposed that salt stress effect on plant physiological processes such as changes in plant growth, Cl- and Na+ toxicity, and mineral distribution, decreases chlorophyll content and reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of these citrus species.

  16. Effect of increasing concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, or zinc on lettuce grown in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Teicher, K.; Venter, F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine concentrations at which excess symptoms could be expected, which kind of damage symptoms appear and in which amount the heavy metals are enriched in roots and leaves. The following results were revealed. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) can tolerate amounts of Cd below 1 ppm, of Ni below 2 ppm and of Pb below 20 ppm in the nutrient solution without any symptoms of excess. The growth of lettuce was mostly influenced by Cd, least of all by Pb. Only Ni caused specific poisoning symptoms. Heavy metals were enriched in different amounts in roots and leaves. The contents of Cd and Ni were more than twice as high as those of Pb. The heavy metals influenced the uptake and distribution of macro-elements more (nitrogen) or less (potassium) vigorously.

  17. Effect of xylose and nutrients concentration on ethanol production by a newly isolated extreme thermophilic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    An extreme thermophilic ethanol-producing strain was isolated from an ethanol high-yielding mixed culture, originally isolated from a hydrogen producing reactor operated at 70 °C. Ethanol yields were assessed with increasing concentrations of xylose, up to 20 g/l. The ability of the strain to gro...... product under most of the conditions tested, including in media lacking vitamins, peptone and yeast extract. The results indicate that this new organism is a promising candidate for the development of a second generation bio-ethanol production process. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Form and pH of Nutrient Solution on the Shoot Concentration of Phosphorus, Nitrate, and Nitrogen of Spinach in Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    N. Najafi; M. Parsazadeh

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the shoot concentration of P, nitrate, organic N + inorganic ammonium, and total N of spinach, a factorial experiment was conducted with two factors including pH of nutrient solution in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8.0) and nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100). This factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replicatio...

  19. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  20. Concentration and accumulation of nutrients in the aerial biomass of teak plantations 3 to 18 old, in the Panama Canal watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Murillo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples from aerial biomass compartments (bark, wood, primary and secondary branches, and foliage were taken from 16 dominant trees of teak in plantations of the Panama Canal watershed, whose volume yield ranged between 9.4 and 13.3 m3 ha-1. year-1 at ages 3 and 18 years, respectively, growing in clayey, red, and acid Ultisols. Wet and dry weight of the different tissues was measured and subsamples taken to be analyzed for macronutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P and S and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B. Regression analyses allowed to relate nutrients accumulation with tree age. Dry biomass of the wood was 59.6% (C.V. 5% of total dry biomass, while primary branches, bark, foliage, and secondary branches represented 16.6, 9.4, 7.9, and 6.5, respectively. Larger concentrations of macronutrients were Ca (2.01% found in the bark, and N in the foliage (1.98%. As for micronutrients, larger concentrations were found in the bark, in the order of Fe (767 mg.kg-1, Mn (60 mg.kg-1 and Zn (50 mg.kg-1. At 18 years of age accumulation of macronutrients was 15.9 kg. tree-1 (7.3 kg Ca, 3.9 kg N, 2.6 kg K, 1.0 kg Mg, 0.7 kg P and 0.4 kg S and 124 g of micronutrients (89 g Fe, 18 g Zn, 9 g B, 5 g Mn and 3 g Cu.

  1. Evaluation of a Method for Quantifying Eugenol Concentrations in the Fillet Tissue from Freshwater Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Porcher, Scott T; Smerud, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    AQUI-S 20E(®) (active ingredient, eugenol; AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) is being pursued for approval as an immediate-release sedative in the United States. A validated method to quantify the primary residue (the marker residue) in fillet tissue from AQUI-S 20E-exposed fish was needed. A method was evaluated for determining concentrations of the AQUI-S 20E marker residue, eugenol, in freshwater fish fillet tissue. Method accuracies from fillet tissue fortified at nominal concentrations of 0.15, 1, and 60 μg/g from six fish species ranged from 88-102%. Within-day and between-day method precisions (% CV) from the fortified tissue were ≤8.4% CV. There were no coextracted compounds from the control fillet tissue of seven fish species that interfered with eugenol analyses. Six compounds used as aquaculture drugs did not interfere with eugenol analyses. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.012 μg/g. The method was robust, i.e., in most cases, minor changes to the method did not impact method performance. Eugenol was stable in acetonitrile-water (3 + 7, v/v) for at least 14 days, in fillet tissue extracts for 4 days, and in fillet tissue stored at ~ -80°C for at least 84 days.

  2. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  3. Mitomycin C dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel: target tissue concentrations in the rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichien, K; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y; Oguri, A; Ando, H; Kondo, Y

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether a new, reversible thermosetting gel enhances mitomycin C transfer to target ocular tissues in the rabbit eye. A 0.1 ml solution of mitomycin C containing 0.22 microgram, 2.9 micrograms, or 28 micrograms of the agent dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel consisting of methylcellulose, citric acid, and polyethylene glycol was injected subconjunctivally in 30 New Zealand albino rabbits. Scleral and conjunctival tissues were excised at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 24 hours after the injection and mitomycin C concentrations in these tissues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration over time was approximated to a single exponential curve, and initial mitomycin C concentrations, time constants, and half life values were determined. Finally, the areas under the curves (AUCs) between 0.5 and 24 hours were calculated. The mitomycin C concentrations in the target tissues were dose dependent and decreased rapidly over 24 hours. Both the initial mitomycin C concentrations as well as AUCs in these eyes treated with mitomycin C, dissolved in a reversible thermosetting gel, were higher than those in eyes treated similarly in a previous study in which the gel was not used. Applied subconjunctivally in the rabbit eye, mitomycin C dissolved in the reversible thermosetting gel enhanced transfer of the agent to the sclera and the conjunctiva.

  4. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of the nutrient compositional space of fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon-Étienne Parent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue analysis is a useful tool for the nutrient management of fruit orchards. The mineral composition of diagnostic tissues expressed as nutrient concentration on a dry weight basis has long been used to assess the status of 'pure' nutrients. When nutrients are mixed and interact in plant tissues, their proportions or concentrations change relatively to each other as a result of synergism, antagonism, or neutrality, hence producing resonance within the closed space of tissue composition. Ternary diagrams and nutrient ratios are early representations of interacting nutrients in the compositional space. Dual and multiple interactions were integrated by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS into nutrient indexes and by Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis into centered log ratios (CND-clr. DRIS has some computational flaws such as using a dry matter index that is not a part as well as nutrient products (e.g. NxCa instead of ratios. DRIS and CND-clr integrate all possible nutrient interactions without defining an ad hoc interactive model. They diagnose D components while D-1 could be diagnosed in the D-compositional Hilbert space. The isometric log ratio (ilr coordinates overcome these problems using orthonormal binary nutrient partitions instead of dual ratios. In this study, it is presented a nutrient interactive model as well as computation methods for DRIS and CND-clr and CND-ilr coordinates (CND-ilr using leaf analytical data from an experimental apple orchard in Southwestern Quebec, Canada. It was computed the Aitchison and Mahalanobis distances across ilr coordinates as measures of nutrient imbalance. The effect of changing nutrient concentrations on ilr coordinates are simulated to identify the ones contributing the most to nutrient imbalance.

  6. Natural U concentrations in soft tissues and bone of New York City residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; Welford, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of lung, liver, kidney and vertebrae from New York City autopsy cases were measured for naturally occurring U. An age dependency in U concentration was found in lung and vertebrae. The bone concentration was found to be a factor of 10 lower than previously reported for this tissue, thus the skeletal burden of U is estimated to be factor of 10 lower than that suggested in ICRP Publication 23

  7. Interstitial concentrations of adipokines in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    Adipokines play important regulatory roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We measured plasma and interstitial concentrations of the adipokines adiponectin, resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...... plasma (approximately 100-fold, approximately 200-fold and approximately 1000-fold, respectively, PResistin concentrations did not differ significantly between compartments. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) showed no regional difference (P>0.05). The intra- and inter-subject variations of all...

  8. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  9. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition. Outbreeding of high-index CA gilts with high-index commercial YK boars linearly reduced (P = 0.002) back fat thickness with a corresponding linear increase (P = 0.001) in lean yield in finisher CA gilts, although no change in these parameters was observed in CA finisher boars. The increase in lean yield in CA gilts by selective breeding without affecting the level of salivary phytase activity documents the value of conventional genetic selection in conjunction with genetic modification.

  10. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  11. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  12. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  13. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinghorn, April; Humphries, Murray M.; Outridge, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals

  14. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinghorn, April [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Humphries, Murray M. [Centre for Indigenous Peoples Nutrition and Environment, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Department of Natural Resource Science, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21-111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada); Outridge, Peter [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man [Community Health Sciences Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada)], E-mail: lchan@unbc.ca

    2008-08-25

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals.

  15. Carvedilol induces endogenous hydrogen sulfide tissue concentration changes in various mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Góralska, Marta; Macura, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol, a third generation non-selective adrenoreceptor blocker, is widely used in cardiology. Its action has been proven to reach beyond adrenergic antagonism and involves multiple biological mechanisms. The interaction between carvedilol and endogenous 'gasotransmitter' hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of carvedilol on the H2S tissue level in mouse brain, liver, heart and kidney. Twenty eight SJL strain female mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D1, n=7), 5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D2, n=7) or 10 mg/kg b.w./d of carvedilol (group D3, n=7). The control group (n=7) received physiological saline in portions of the same volume (0.2 ml). Measurements of the free tissue H2S concentrations were performed according to the modified method of Siegel. A progressive decline in H2S tissue concentration along with an increase in carvedilol dose was observed in the brain (12.5%, 13.7% and 19.6%, respectively). Only the highest carvedilol dose induced a change in H2S tissue level in the heart - an increase by 75.5%. In the liver medium and high doses of carvedilol increased the H2S level by 48.1% and 11.8%, respectively. In the kidney, group D2 showed a significant decrease of H2S tissue level (22.5%), while in the D3 group the H2S concentration increased by 12.9%. Our study has proven that carvedilol affects H2S tissue concentration in different mouse organs.

  16. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Salimi, J.; Geranpayeh, L.; Perovani, H.

    2003-01-01

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  17. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  18. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. The city has spent millions of dollars over the last decade to eliminate taste and odor problems in the drinking water from the Eucha-Spavinaw system, which may be attributable to blue-green algae. Increases in the algal biomass in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient concentrations in the lakes and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in water samples and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations during base flow and runoff for two streams discharging to Lake Eucha for the period January 2002 through December 2009. This report updates a previous report that used data from water-quality samples collected from January 2002 through December 2006. Based on the results from the Mann-Whitney statistical test, unfiltered total nitrogen concentrations were significantly greater in runoff water samples than in base-flow water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Maysville and near Cherokee City, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Nitrogen concentrations in runoff water samples collected from all stations generally increased with increasing streamflow. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected in Spavinaw Creek significantly increased from the station furthest upstream (near Maysville) to the Sycamore station and then significantly decreased from the Sycamore station to the station furthest downstream (near Colcord). Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Beaty Creek were significantly less than base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek. Based on the results

  19. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  20. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  1. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  2. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-Tribromophenol in Human Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M.; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010–2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09 ng/g lipid (range: 0.12–141 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4 ng/g lipid (range:1.31–316 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=−0.16; p=0.10 and rs=−0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. PMID:26700418

  3. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  4. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin concentrations is not accounted for by differences in adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M; Pietrobelli, A; Vasselli, J R; Heymsfield, S B; Leibel, R L

    2001-09-01

    Circulating concentrations of leptin normalized to total adipose tissue mass are significantly greater in females than in males. Rates of leptin expression (per gram of adipose tissue) are significantly greater in subcutaneous (SAT) than visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the relative amount of fat stored as SAT vs VAT is significantly greater in pre-menopausal females than in males. Gender-related differences in the relative amounts of SAT and VAT may account for the greater circulating leptin concentration relative to fat-mass in females than males. We examined body composition and anatomic fat distribution by dual energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and post-absorptive circulating concentrations of leptin and insulin in 58 subjects (26 females, 32 males). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, treating gender as a dichotomous variable, were performed to determine inter-relationships among leptin concentrations and insulin concentrations, VAT and SAT. Body composition by DEXA and MRI were highly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P<0.0001). There were significant gender effects on leptin/total fat mass (males, 0.17+/-0.01 ng/ml/kg; females, 0.49+/-0.05 ng/ml/kg; P<0.0001) and relative amounts of fat in SAT and VAT depots (ratio of SAT/VAT; males, 12.3+/-1.5; females, 32.9+/-3.2; P<0.0001). Circulating leptin concentration was significantly correlated with insulin concentration (P=0.001), SAT (P<0.0001) and gender (P=0.033). Circulating concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated with VAT, but not SAT, in males and with SAT, but not VAT, in females. The sexual dimorphism in the relationship between leptin and adipose tissue mass cannot be explained by differences in the relative amounts of VAT and SAT. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration appears to reflect, at least in part, effects of circulating concentrations of gonadal steroids (especially androgens) and/or primary genetic differences that are

  6. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  7. Effects of different concentrations of pollen extract on brain tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant capacities of pollen extract applied at different concentrations on biochemical parameters in brain tissues of rainbow trouts. Methods: The effective concentration of pollen was determined with some biochemical parameters in brain tissues of fish treated at various concentrations of the pollen extract (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L for 96 h. The malondialdehyde levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and amounts of total free sulfhydryl groups were analyzed in fish brain. Results: The malondialdehyde levels decreased in groups of 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L pollen-treated compared to control group (P<0.05. The highest level of total antioxidant status (P<0.05 and the lowest value (P<0.05 of the total oxidant status was 10 mg/L concentration of pollen. Oxidative stress index and level of sulfhydryl groups showed lowest values (P<0.05 in 10 mg/L pollen treated group compared with control group. Conclusions: To apply the pollen to fish reduces the detrimental effects and modulates oxidative status via activating antioxidant defense systems at brain tissue. As a result, pollen can be added up to 10 mg/L to the medium of rainbow trout to improve health of fish.

  8. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  9. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  10. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  11. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  12. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  13. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  14. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  15. A method for tissue extraction and determination of prostate concentrations of endogenous androgens by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.; Geller, J.; Geller, S.; Lopez, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method for simultaneously determining concentrations of major androgens in prostate has been developed. Extraction techniques used to isolate the androgens from minced tissue include homogenization with high-speed blades in Delsal's solvent mixture, adsorption to silica gel, followed by column and one thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Radioimmunoassays (RIA) of small aliquots of TLC eluates are used to quantitate picogram amounts of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstanediols (Diol) and to estimate testosterone (T) and androstenedione (Ad). Contamination of blanks was reduced to RIA sensitivity limits primarily by treatment of glassware in a self-cleaning oven. The specificity of the method for each androgen was established by TLC separations of known prostate metabolites, antisera specificities, and parallelism of sample aliquots to androgen RIA standards. The overall precision, in terms of coefficients of variation, was 21% for DHT and 24% for Diol. T and Ad could not be measured with acceptable precision because their very low concentrations in prostate (<=0.5 ng/g tissue) were less than RIA sensitivity limits. Accuracy studies indicated recoveries ranging from 96% for Diol to 121% for DHT. In human benign hypertrophic prostate tissue, DHT averaged 153 ng/g soluble protein (5.8 ng/g tissue) which was 17 times higher than values obtained in human spleen and kidney; Diol in prostate showed no consistent differences from values noted in kidney or spleen

  16. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gozdz, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (∼ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  17. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  18. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  19. An analytical model for nanoparticles concentration resulting from infusion into poroelastic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichelli, G; Di Michele, F; Sinibaldi, E

    2016-02-01

    We consider the infusion of a diluted suspension of nanoparticles (NPs) into poroelastic brain tissue, in view of relevant biomedical applications such as intratumoral thermotherapy. Indeed, the high impact of the related pathologies motivates the development of advanced therapeutic approaches, whose design also benefits from theoretical models. This study provides an analytical expression for the time-dependent NPs concentration during the infusion into poroelastic brain tissue, which also accounts for particle binding onto cells (by recalling relevant results from the colloid filtration theory). Our model is computationally inexpensive and, compared to fully numerical approaches, permits to explicitly elucidate the role of the involved physical aspects (tissue poroelasticity, infusion parameters, NPs physico-chemical properties, NP-tissue interactions underlying binding). We also present illustrative results based on parameters taken from the literature, by considering clinically relevant ranges for the infusion parameters. Moreover, we thoroughly assess the model working assumptions besides discussing its limitations. While not laying any claims of generality, our model can be used to support the development of more ambitious numerical approaches, towards the preliminary design of novel therapies based on NPs infusion into brain tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  1. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  2. Absolute quantitative autoradiography of low concentrations of [125I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzer, J.J.; Morrel, E.M.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a method for absolute quantitative autoradiographic measurement of very low concentrations of [ 125 I]-labeled proteins in arterial tissue using Kodak NTB-2 nuclear emulsion. A precise linear relationship between measured silver grain density and isotope concentration was obtained with uniformly labeled standard sources composed of epoxy-embedded gelatin containing glutaraldehyde-fixed [ 125 I]-albumin. For up to 308-day exposures of 1 micron-thick tissue sections, background grain densities ranged from about two to eight grains/1000 micron 2, and the technique was sensitive to as little as about one grain/1000 micron 2 above background, which correspond to a radioactivity concentration of about 2 x 10(4) cpm/ml. A detailed statistical analysis of variability was performed and the sum of all sources of variation quantified. The half distance for spatial resolution was 1.7 micron. Both visual and automated techniques were employed for quantitative grain density analysis. The method was illustrated by measurement of in vivo transmural [ 125 I]-low-density lipoprotein [( 125 I]-LDL) concentration profiles in de-endothelialized rabbit thoracic aortic wall

  3. The use of acoustic doppler meters to estimate sediment and nutrient concentrations in freshwater inflows to Texas coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullmar Lucena; Micheal Lee

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sediment and nutrient loading are among the leading causes of impairment in water bodies of the United States due to their effect on biologic productivity, water quality, and aquatic food webs. Understanding the nutrient and suspended sediment loads affecting estuarine waters is fundamental to the assessment of the physical, chemical, and biological processes...

  4. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of biotin and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C L; Desrochers, A

    2010-04-01

    Biotin and vitamin B(12) are coenzymes in reactions that are essential to propionate metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether an increased dietary supply of these vitamins would change the net flux of nutrients through the rumen, the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the total splanchnic tissues (TSP), and the liver. Four lactating cows equipped with ultrasonic flow probes around the right ruminal artery and the portal vein and catheters in the right ruminal vein, the portal vein, one hepatic vein, and one mesenteric artery were fed 12 times per day a mixed ration at 95% of ad libitum dry matter intake. Daily supplements of 500 mg of vitamin B(12)+20mg of biotin or no vitamin supplement (study 1) or 500 mg of vitamin B(12) alone or with 20mg of biotin (study 2) were fed according to a crossover design with two 4-wk periods in each study. On the last day of each period, blood flow was recorded and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 4h. In study 1, biotin and vitamin B(12) given together increased milk production and milk protein yields compared with the control diet. The supplement increased appearance of the 2 vitamins across the PDV and TSP. It also reduced the net portal appearance of ammonia and total volatile fatty acids across the PDV. In study 2, compared with the 2 vitamins together, vitamin B(12) alone increased glucose flux across PDV and TSP as well as its arterial concentration and PDV flux of ammonia. With the diet used in the present experiment, the major effects of the vitamin supplements seem to be mediated through changes in ruminal fermentation and gastrointestinal tract metabolism rather than by effects on hepatic metabolism. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentrations of uranium and thorium isotopes in uranium millers' and miners' tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Paschoa, A.S.; Lloyd, R.D.; Saccomanno, G.

    1985-09-01

    The alpha-emitting isotopes of uranium and thorium were determined in the lungs of 14 former uranium miners and in soft tissues and bones of three miners and two millers. These radionuclides were also determined in soft tissues and bones of seven normal controls. The average concentrations in pCi/kg wet weight in 17 former miners' lungs are as follows: 238 U, 75; 234 U, 80; 230 Th, 79. Concentrations of each nuclide ranged from 2 to 325 pCi/kg. The average ratio of 238 U/ 234 U was 0.92, ranging from 0.64 to 1.06. The mean ratio of 230 Th/ 234 U was 1.04, ranging from 0.33 to 3.54. The near equilibrium between 230 Th and /sup 238,234/U indicates that the rate of elimination of uranium and thorium from lungs is the same in former uranium miners. The concentrations of 234 U and 238 U were highest in lung; however, the concentration of 230 Th in bones was either higher than or comparable to its concentration in lung. The concentration ratios of 230 Th/ 234 U in bone of uranium miners and millers measured in our laboratory have been compared with results predicted by ICRP-30 metabolic models. These results indicate that the ICRP metabolic models for thorium and uranium were only marginally successful in predicting the ratio of 230 Th/ 234 U in bones, and that effective release rate of uranium from skeleton may be more rapid than predicted by the ICRP model. 9 figs., 21 tabs

  6. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  7. Changes in Lecithin Concentration in the Human Brain Tissue in Some Neurodegenerative Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, A.; Mihaljevic, M.; Hasanbasic, D.; Rukavina, D.; Sofic, E.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of a possible increase in oxidative stress or deterioration of nerve cells during aging, in some states neurodegeneration was demonstrated by multiple biochemical deficiency, especially deficiency of cholesterol and lecithin in brain regions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of lecithin in different regions of brain tissue (MC - motor cortex, NC - nucleus caudates, GT - temporal gyrus) dissected postmortem from people with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to people who died without these diseases (C). Spectrophotometric determination of lecithin in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions collected from of 12 persons with SDAT, in 11 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 persons with PD and in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 control persons, was performed by enzymatic method. The content of lecithin in MC: 14.4 mg/g fresh tissue (f.t.) and GT: 13.1 mg/g (f.t.) for SDAT was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by about 30 %, compared to control where there was: 21.6 mg/g (f.t.) in MC and 18.3 mg/g (f.t.) in the GT estimated. In all regions of the brain of PD patients, the content of lecithin was decreased by about 12 % compared to control, but without statistical significance. These results suggest that changes in the content of lecithin in these regions of brain tissue might affect the changes in the membrane potential and cell degeneration. (author)

  8. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-06

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body.

  9. Can tissue element concentration patterns at the individual-species level indicate the factors underlying vegetation gradients in wetlands?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbrojová, Zuzana; Hájek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 355-363 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant nutrient concentration * vegetation gradient * wetland vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.457, year: 2010

  10. Macroalgal bioindicators (growth, tissue N, {delta}{sup 15}N) detect nutrient enrichment from shrimp farm effluent entering Opunohu Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, David T. [Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2538 McCarthy Mall, Edmondson 152, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: david.t.lin@ucla.edu; Fong, Peggy [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Nutrient enrichment from shrimp aquaculture poses an increasing environmental threat due to the industry's projected rapid growth and unsustainable management practices. Traditional methods to monitor impacts emphasize water quality sampling; however, there are many advantages to bioindicators, especially in developing countries. We investigated the usefulness of three bioindicators-growth, tissue nitrogen content and nitrogen stable isotope signature ({delta}{sup 15}N)-in the tropical red macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Algae were collected, cultured, and deployed in a spatial array around the outflow from a shrimp farm in Moorea, French Polynesia, to detect nitrogenous wastes. All three parameters were highest adjacent to the shrimp farm indicating nutrient enrichment, and {delta}{sup 15}N values confirmed the shrimp farm as the dominant nutrient source (5.63-5.96 per mille ). Isotope ratios proved the most sensitive indicator, as {delta}{sup 15}N signatures were detected at the most distant sites tested, confirming their usefulness in tracing nutrients and mapping the spatial extent of enrichment.

  11. How to know which food is good for you: bumblebees use taste to discriminate between different concentrations of food differing in nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenauer, Fabian A; Spaethe, Johannes; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2015-07-01

    In view of the ongoing pollinator decline, the role of nutrition in bee health has received increasing attention. Bees obtain fat, carbohydrates and protein from pollen and nectar. As both excessive and deficient amounts of these macronutrients are detrimental, bees would benefit from assessing food quality to guarantee an optimal nutrient supply. While bees can detect sucrose and use it to assess nectar quality, it is unknown whether they can assess the macronutrient content of pollen. Previous studies have shown that bees preferentially collect pollen of higher protein content, suggesting that differences in pollen quality can be detected either by individual bees or via feedback from larvae. In this study, we examined whether and, if so, how individuals of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discriminate between different concentrations of pollen and casein mixtures and thus nutrients. Bumblebees were trained using absolute and differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). As cues related to nutrient concentration could theoretically be perceived by either smell or taste, bees were tested on both olfactory and, for the first time, chemotactile perception. Using olfactory cues, bumblebees learned and discriminated between different pollen types and casein, but were unable to discriminate between different concentrations of these substances. However, when they touched the substances with their antennae, using chemotactile cues, they could also discriminate between different concentrations. Bumblebees are therefore able to discriminate between foods of different concentrations using contact chemosensory perception (taste). This ability may enable them to individually regulate the nutrient intake of their colonies. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-12-15

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied.

  13. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-12-01

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  14. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Concentration on Survival of Foodborne Pathogens in Deciduous Fruit Processing Environments for Effective Hygiene Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus under different nutrient conditions (nutrient rich and nutrient poor) and on simulated contact surfaces (vinyl coupons). Information on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at specific deciduous fruit processing and storage temperatures (0.5°C) is not available. All pathogens except E. coli O157:H7 were able to survive on vinyl coupons at all temperatures. L. monocytogenes proliferated under both nutrient conditions independent of temperature. S. aureus was the pathogen least affected by nutrient conditions. The survival of foodborne pathogens on the vinyl coupons, a model system for studying surfaces in fruit preparation and storage environments, indicates the potential for cross-contamination of deciduous fruit products under poor sanitation conditions. Foodborne pathogens that can proliferate and survive at various temperatures under different nutrient conditions could lead to fruit cross-contamination. Temperature mismanagement, which could allow pathogen proliferation in contaminated fruit packing houses and storage environments, is a concern. Therefore, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, removal of possible contaminants, and proper food safety management systems are needed to ensure food safety.

  15. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  16. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  17. Heavy metal toxicities in vegetable crops. VI. The effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, T; Ikeda, H

    1977-01-01

    Eight species of vegetable crops were grown in solution culture in order to investigate the effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops. Manganese was supplied at levels of 0.5, 30, and 100 ppm. At each manganese level potassium or calcium was supplied at rates of 2, 6, and 18 me/l. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted to 5. Manganese excess induced interveinal chlorosis on upper leaves in bean, eggplant, pepper, and spinach, and marginal chlorosis on lower leaves in cabbage, lettuce, and celery. In Welsh onions chlorosis was induced on lower leaves. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium reduced the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis. This beneficial effect was generally more marked with calcium than with potassium. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium was effective in alleviating the growth reduction of vegetable crops due to manganese excess. This effect also was more marked with calcium than with potassium. With increasing manganese level in the nutrient solution the manganese concentration in leaves of vegetable crops increased. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium inhibited excessive accumulation of manganese in leaves. The influence of calcium was stronger than that of potassium. In any of the vegetable crops tested, regardless of potassium and calcium treatments, manganese concentration in leaves was closely related to manganese toxicities; the more the accumulation of manganese in leaves increased, the more the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis and growth reduction increased.

  18. Determination of optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in human pleural tissue before and after Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Padawer-Curry, Jonah; Finlay, Jarod C.; Kim, Michele M.; Dimofte, Andreea; Cengel, Keith; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    PDT efficacy depends on the concentration of photosensitizer, oxygen, and light delivery in patient tissues. In this study, we measure the in-vivo distribution of important dosimetric parameters, namely the tissue optical properties (absorption μa (λ) and scattering μs ' (λ) coefficients), photofrin concentration (cphotofrin), blood oxygen saturation (%StO2), and total hemoglobin concentration (THC), before and after PDT. We characterize the inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity of these quantities and explore how these properties change as a result of PDT treatment. The result suggests the need for real-time dosimetry during PDT to optimize the treatment condition depending on the optical and physiological properties.

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in bird tissues, their foods and feeding areas near Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1987-08-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about an apparent decline in the numbers of waterfowl, waders and gulls in the Ravenglass estuary, particularly of the black-headed gulls nesting on the Drigg dunes; it was suggested this might be due to the radionuclide concentrations in their diet and general environment. Oystercatchers and shelduck had some of the highest concentrations of Cs-137 in their tissues, yet their breeding and numbers remained unaffected. Calculations of the total dose equivalent to the whole body of gulls spending 4 months in the estuary before laying eggs, amounted to 2.8 mSv (≅ 2.4 m Gy), and to the gut lining 40.3 mSv. As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 m Gy d -1 has been found to be necessary to retard the growth of chicks or cause 50% mortality among gull chick embryos before full development, radionuclide concentrations at Ravenglass were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have any effect. 12 species of marine invertebrates were also analysed, but no evidence was found that radionuclides from Sellafield were being accumulated in any species to the point where concentrations were of potential importance to birds feeding on them. (author)

  20. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  1. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  2. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  4. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  5. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Margaret Castellini, J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ 13 C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A significant

  6. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  7. Mycorrhiza formation and nutrient concentration in leeks (¤Allium porrum¤) in relation to previous crop and cover crop management on high P soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.N.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved integration of mycorrhizas may increase the sustainability in plant production. Two strategies for increasing the soil inoculum potential of mycorrhizal fungi were investigated in field experiments with leeks: Pre-cropping with mycorrhizal main crops and pre-establishment of mycorrhizal......, increased the colonization of leek roots by mycorrhizal fungi. During early growth stages, this increase was 45-95% relative to no cover crop. However, cover cropping did not significantly increase nutrient concentration or growth. These variables were not influenced by the time of cover crop incorporation...... or tillage treatments. Differences in colonization, nutrient uptake and plant growth diminished during the growing period and at the final harvest date, the effects on plant production disappeared. High soil P level or high soil inoculum level was most likely responsible for the limited response of increased...

  8. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  9. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S., E-mail: ozolinst@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen’s University, Botterell Hall, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Weston, Andrea D. [Currently at Applied Biotechnology/Lead Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 5 Research Pkwy Wallingford, CT 06492-1996 (United States); Perretta, Anthony [Currently at Pfizer Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Thomson, Jason J. [Currently at Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208073, New Haven, CT 06520-8073 (United States); Brown, Nigel A. [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George’s University of London, UK SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  10. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S.; Weston, Andrea D.; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J.; Brown, Nigel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  11. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration has been shown to increase with exercise and various cell types and tissues have been suggested to be responsible for this increase. At present no studies have measured the interstitial concentration of IL-6 in skeletal muscle and connective tissue......, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-exercise in both the medial gastrocnemius muscle (not measured at rest due to risk of disabling the subsequent exercise, and 24 h and 72 h post-exercise) and the peritendinous tissue around the Achilles tendon using microdialysis catheters with a high molecular mass cut...

  12. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  13. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  14. Determination of concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Fe) in animal tissues using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINTSALAMA, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals are classified among the inorganic compounds. The latter type of metal is found in rocks, fertilizers, urban mud but may also originate from the atmospheric pollution. A particular characteristic of heavy metals is their bioaccumulation in the food chain. Therefore, lead and cadmium, which are classified as heavy metals may be easily found in animal products and can lead to food poisoning if their concentrations are higher than the maximum permissible values as requested by international agencies such as the c odex alimentarius . The values are set down and differ according to types of food for human consuption and the trading companies take action accordingly. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a quality control system through analytical laboratory measurements and testings. This study underlies the method of determination of lead, cadmium and iron in animal tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable. For each analyte, the Z-score lies between -2 and 2, indicating that the method is working properly. The analytical results showed that: (i) only beef and chicken meats and beef liver contain lead [0,09μg.g - 1; 0,29μg.g - 1]. The limit value of 0,1μg.g - 1 is almost reached in beef and chicken meats, (ii) as far as cadmium is concerned, the five studied samples contain this analyte [0,02μg.g - 1; 0,9μg.g - 1]. Except the chicken liver of which the concentration (0,15μg.g - 1) exceeds the maximum permissible value (0,1μg.g - 1), the others are in conformity with the standards and appropriate to be consumed,(iii) iron is higher in the liver and kidney samples: beef liver 282mg.g - 1, chicken liver 250 mg.g - 1, pork kidney 247mg.g - 1. The study also showed that the calcium concentration in animal tissues is low and they can be classified as poor-calcium food. [fr

  15. Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal nutrient reduction on expression of genes regulating cortisol metabolism in fetal baboon adipose and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Li, Cun; Myatt, Leslie; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Kang

    2013-04-01

    Maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) during fetal development may predispose offspring to chronic disease later in life. Increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic tissues is fundamental to the developmental programming of metabolic syndrome, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) generates NADPH, the cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulate 11β-HSD1 expression. We hypothesize that MNR increases expression of fetal C/EBPs, GR, and H6PD, thereby increasing expression of 11β-HSD1 and reductase activity in fetal liver and adipose tissues. Pregnant MNR baboons ate 70% of what controls ate from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation (term, 184 days). Cortisol levels in maternal and fetal circulations increased in MNR pregnancies at 0.9 gestation. MNR increased expression of 11β-HSD1; H6PD; C/EBPα, -β, -γ; and GR in female but not male perirenal adipose tissue and in male but not female liver at 0.9 gestation. Local cortisol level and its targets PEPCK1 and PPARγ increased correspondingly in adipose and liver tissues. C/EBPα and GR were found to be bound to the 11β-HSD1 promoter. In conclusion, sex- and tissue-specific increases of 11β-HSD1, H6PD, GR, and C/EBPs may contribute to sexual dimorphism in the programming of exaggerated cortisol regeneration in liver and adipose tissues and offsprings' susceptibility to metabolic syndrome.

  16. Impact of seasonality on the nutrient concentrations in Gautami-Godavari Estuarine Mangrove Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karuna; Priya, Namrata; Ramanathan, A L

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved nutrients were studied along Gautami-Godavari mangrove ecosystem to delineate their sources and fate. Average values of nitrate (NO 3 - ), dissolved silica (DSi) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) is 2.09 mg/l, 12.7 mg/l and 0.16 mg/l in wet season and 0.47 mg/l, 6.96 mg/l and 0.29 mg/l in dry season respectively. In wet season river discharge has significant influence on NO 3 - and DSi. In dry season, NO 3 - and PO 4 3- are controlled by groundwater discharge, benthic exchange and various in situ processes owing to sediment redox condition. Mixing model shows net addition of phosphate in Coringa mangroves (95%) and Lower estuary (13%) and net removal of nitrate (24.79%) in Coringa mangrove and in estuary (58.9%). Thus present mangrove acts as net source for phosphate and net sink for nitrate and DSi. Nutrient ratio shows seasonal switching between potential Phosphorus and Nitrogen limitation in wet and dry season respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentrations of some macro and micro plant nutrient of cultivated soils in Central and Eastern Blacksea Region and their mapping by inverse distance weighted (IDW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine plant nutrients content and to in terms of soil variables their soil database and generate maps of their distribution on agricultural land in Central and Eastern Black Sea Region using geographical information system (GIS. In this research, total 3400 soil samples (0-20 cm depth were taken at 2.5 x 2.5 km grid points representing agricultural soils. Total nitrogen, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, boron, iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents were analysed in collected soil samples. Analysis results of these samples were classified and evaluated for deficiency, sufficiency or excess with respect to plant nutrients. Afterwards, in terms of GIS, a soil database and maps for current status of the study area were created by using inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation method. According to this research results, it was determined sufficient plant nutrient elements in terms of total nitrogen, extractable iron, copper and manganese in arable soils of Central and Eastern Blacksea Region while, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium were found good and moderate level in 66.88%, 81.44% and 64.56% of total soil samples, respectively. In addition, insufficient boron and zinc concentration were found in 34.35% and 51.36% of soil samples, respectively.

  18. Changes in nitrogen mineralization, tissue nutrient concentrations and biomass compartmentation after cessation of fertiliser application to mown grassland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Berendse, F.; Visser, de W.

    1994-01-01

    1 Nitrogen mineralization was studied in four grasslands (fields A-D), which had not been fertilized for 2, 6, 19 and 45 years, respectively, thereby forming a chrono-sequence. Fertilizer application was stopped in these fields in order to restore former species-rich communities characteristic of

  19. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  20. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  1. Effect of Different Concentrations of Growth Regulators on Gardenia jasminoides cv. Veitchii Micropropagation by Tissue Culture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Abdullah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation techniques were set up for Gardenia jasminoides c.v. veitchi. Many plantlets were obtained by culturing shoot cuttings in MS nutrient media, 30 g/L Sucrose, 7 g/L Agar Agar, and different concentrations of BAP and IAA. The best concentration was 1mg /L BAP with 0.5 mg/L IAA. This concentration gave the best sprout growth suitable for rooting in primary and secondary culture by reculturing the stuck cutting every 6 weeks and for many times. We also obtained a high rooting percentage up to 98 % of natural rooting in rooting media different from propagation media by reducing mineral salt concentration to half, Sucrose to 20gm/L, and 2gm/L active charcoal, and 1mg/L IAA. Plantlets were transferred to greenhous and subjected for hardening. This technique gave 22 plantlets from one cutting in one year.

  2. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  3. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  4. Effect of sucrose concentrations on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni tissue culture and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, T; Kahrizi, D; Saeidi, M; Arji, I

    2017-08-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM). Several morphological traits were measured in a 28 day period. Results analysis showed a significant variation between treatments. The highest growth rate, rooting and leaf production was obtained in medium with 100mM sucrose. The correlation between measured traits was significant at the 0.01 level. To investigation of UGT74G1, UGT76G1, UGT85C2 and KS genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT- PCR was done with the housekeeping gene of as internal control. There were significant differences between all media. The results showed thatsucrose 100 mM containing media was more desirable than others for expression of UGT76G1 and UGT85C2 genes. Whereas, the best medium for expression of UGT74G1 was sucrose 150 mM and sucrose 50 mM for KS gene. Totally, it seems that sucrose at a concentration of 100 mMprovides the best condition for stevia growth and steviol glycosides production.

  5. The influence of change of concentration of sum of nutrient elements on uptake 137Cs from inert substrate to the lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipbekov, O.A.; Dlimbetova, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation ecology has become the science of applied character after the numbers of great accidents at the nuclear fuel cycle enterprises (United Kingdom, 1957; Russia,1957; Ukraine, 1986). The success of the fight on the consequences liquidations of the uncontrolled fallen artificial radionuclides on the agricultural fields depends a lot on the correct use of accumulated division products in the soil-plant system in the field migration appropriateness. The considerable lowering of radionuclides uptake into the plants from the soil can be achieved by increase of disability of products fastening of soil division. At the same time the addition of the stuff with high sorption and fixing characteristics into the soil, as a rule, gives a considerable effect only in the first period of their use. Later the fixed isotopes can come into ion-exchange process again after the achievement of the balance condition with the soil-absorbing complex, i.e. pass in the more mobile forms. Entering of mineral fertilizers into the soil often leads to the contradictory results, so the search in this direction is going on. The given information emphasizes the actuality of the further studying the methods of regulation of long living radionuclides availability from the soil to the plants with the help of the nutrient mineral elements. The aim of the present work is the study of the influence of concentration of sum of basic nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, boron) on the uptake of 137 Cs from the inert substrate to the Lettuce plants. The vegetation experiments were carried out in one liter polyethylene vascular. One liter of milled quartz sand (size of the fractions was 0.5-1.0 mm) was put into each vascular specially cleaned from admixtures. The nutrient elements were added according to Rinkis. The results of the carried out researches have shown that the decrease of the concentration of sum of macro

  6. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years...... increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P increases the interstitial concentrations......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...

  7. Dioxin concentration in milk, faeces and tissues of cows related to feed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.J.; Kamphues, J. [Inst. of Animal Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Wiesmueller, T. [Federal State Office for Consumer Protection, Potsdam (Germany); Appuhn, H. [Agricultural Investigation and Research Inst., Hameln (Germany); Stehr, D. [District Government of Lueneburg (Germany); Severin, K. [Chamber for Agriculture, Hannover (Germany); Landmann, D. [Agricultural Teaching and Research Facility, Echem (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin contamination of feed and food is a frequently discussed problem, even in the press. The EU legislation sets maximum levels for dioxins in food and feeding stuffs. The dioxin concentration of milk, faeces and tissues of lactating cows grazing in an area of higher dioxin level in the soil and grass, has been tested in part 1 of this small scale field study. Soil intake of grazing cows can reach 1.5 kg soil/d under extreme meteorological conditions. Considering that, the dioxin load of soil and the degree of contamination of feedstuffs could play an important role regarding the exposition of grazing animals. Due to repeated flooding the area the experiment took place was known for a higher dioxin level in soil and grass. The area was separated in a depression and an elevation (in flooding areas depressions are known for their higher dioxin level). Grassland is not only used for grazing animals, but also to obtain hay or grass silage. In part 2 of the field study grass silage obtained on the same area, was fed to dry cows to test whether or not there a risk for milk quality after parturition. The primary aim of this field study was to investigate different matrices at different moments of the experiment. The secondary aim was to develop recommendations on how to prevent or at least how to minimize the dioxin load of feed and with it of food, if food producing animals graze on such areas.

  8. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  10. Decomposition and nutrient release from fresh and dried pine roots under two fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim H. Ludovici; Lance W. Kress

    2006-01-01

    Root decomposition and nutrient release are typically estimated from dried root tissues; however, it is unlikely that roots dehydrate prior to decomposing. Soil fertility and root diameter may also affect the rate of decomposition. This study monitored mass loss and nutrient concentrations of dried and fresh roots of two size classes (

  11. Modeling and optimization of tissue 10B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, W.S. III; Newton, T.H.; Palmer, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of 10 B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of 10 B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the 10 B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  13. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  14. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  15. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  16. Circulating fat-soluble vitamin concentrations and nutrient composition of aquatic prey eaten by American oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Norton, Terry M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Winn, Brad; Spinks, Mark D.; Glatt, Batsheva A.; Mazzaro, Lisa; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Chen, Tai C.; Dierenfeld, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    The American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is currently listed as a species of high concern by the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Because nutritional status directly impacts overall health and reproduction of individuals and populations, adequate management of a wildlife population requires intimate knowledge of a species' diet and nutrient requirements. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in blood plasma obtained from American oystercatchers and proximate, vitamin, and mineral composition of various oystercatcher prey species were determined as baseline data to assess nutritional status and nutrient supply. Bird and prey species samples were collected from the Cape Romain region, South Carolina, USA, and the Altamaha River delta islands, Georgia, USA, where breeding populations appear relatively stable in recent years. Vitamin A levels in blood samples were higher than ranges reported as normal for domestic avian species, and vitamin D concentrations were lower than anticipated based on values observed in poultry. Vitamin E levels were within ranges previously reported for avian groups with broadly similar feeding niches such as herons, gulls, and terns (eg, aquatic/estuarine/marine). Prey species (oysters, mussels, clams, blood arks [Anadara ovalis], whelks [Busycon carica], false angel wings [Petricola pholadiformis]) were similar in water content to vertebrate prey, moderate to high in protein, and moderate to low in crude fat. Ash and macronutrient concentrations in prey species were high compared with requirements of carnivores or avian species. Prey items analyzed appear to meet nutritional requirements for oystercatchers, as estimated by extrapolation from domestic carnivores and poultry species; excesses, imbalances, and toxicities—particularly of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins—may warrant further investigation.

  17. Concentrations and loads of nutrients in the tributaries of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, south-central Florida, water years 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Wood, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida is the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Excessive phosphorus loading, harmful high and low water levels, and rapid expansion of non-native vegetation have threatened the health of the lake in recent decades. A study was conducted to monitor discharge and nutrient concentrations from selected tributaries into Lake Okeechobee and to evaluate nutrient loads. The data analysis was performed at 16 monitoring stations from December 2003 to September 2008. Annual and seasonal discharge measured at monitoring stations is affected by rainfall. Hurricanes affected three wet years (2004, 2005, and the latter part of 2008) and resulted in substantially greater discharge than the drought years of 2006, 2007, and the early part of 2008. Rainfall supplies about 50 percent of the water to Lake Okeechobee, discharge from the Kissimmee River supplies about 25 percent, and discharge from tributaries and groundwater seepage along the lake perimeter collectively provide the remaining 25 percent. Annually, tributary discharge from basins located on the west side of the Kissimmee River is about 5 to 6 times greater than that from basins located on the east side. For the purposes of this study, the basins on the east side of the Kissimmee River are called "priority basins" because of elevated phosphorus concentrations, while those on the west side are called "nonpriority" basins. Total annual discharge in the non-priority basins ranged from 245,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 2007 to 1,322,000 acre-ft in 2005, while annual discharge from the priority basins ranged from 41,000 acre-ft in 2007 to 219,000 acre-ft in 2005. Mean total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.54 milligrams per liter (mg/L) at the 16 tributaries during 2004–2008. Mean concentrations were significantly higher at priority basin sites than at non-priority basin sites, particularly at Arbuckle Creek and C 41A Canal. Concentrations of organic

  18. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  19. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  20. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  1. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  2. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen. PMID:24975958

  3. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using 20F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakakura, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate 20 F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the 20 F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm 2 ·s for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of 20 F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author)

  4. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  5. Comparison of two organic fertilizers along with Zn and B elements on concentration, uptake of nutrients and some growth parameters in millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nezhad hoseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of two organic fertilizers along with zinc and boron elements on some growth parameters, concentration and uptake of nutrients in millet (Panicum miliaceum L. by using factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in Qaen region, Iran. The main treatments were municipal solid waste compost and cow manure (each at 0 and 25 t.ha-1 and sub treatments were elements of Zn (0, 50 kg.ha-1 and B (0, 10 kg.ha-1 using their respective ZnSO4 and H3BO3 salts. Results showed that treatments interaction had significant effects on total dry matter yield, number of tillers per plant and plant height of Millet. The highest total dry matter production was achieved by interaction of cow manure along with Zn and B elements. Concentrations of N, Fe, Zn, B and Cu in plant were increased significantly by treatments interaction effects compared to control. Interaction effect of organic fertilizers with B (in the absence of Zn enhanced plant B concentration significantly, whereas, interaction of organic fertilizers with Zn (in the absence of B decreased B concentration in plant. The highest plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn, and B was observed in plots with cow manure and Zn and B elements.

  6. Differential Concentrations of some Nutrient Element in Forage of Corn (Zea mays L. as Affected by Organic Fertilizers and Soil Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is one of the most important limiting factor for normal crop growth, because it reduces absorption by the plant. Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils can reduce the detrimental effects of soil compaction on plant growth and also supply some nutrients to plant. Thus, a factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 14 treatments to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers in mitigating soil compaction. The first factor in this study was the source and amount of organic fertilizer at seven levels (control, farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost and each of organic fertilizers at two levels of 15 and 30 g/kg of soil. The second factor was soil compaction at two levels (bulk density of 1.2 and 1.7 g/cm3. To perform this experiment, 10 kg of dry soil was poured into special PVC pots and then seeds of single cross 704 corn were planted. At the end of the growth period, the corn shoot was harvested and concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sodium (Na, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were determined by dry ashing method. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoot, related to the different treatments, were negligible. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn in the corn shoot were increased significantly by application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost at both levels of soil compaction. However, Na concentration of shoot did not change significantly. Soil compaction significantly reduced P, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of corn shoot, but it affected concentrations of Na and K significantly. Application of organic fertilizers and increasing their levels reduced the negative effects of soil compaction on nutrients uptake by corn plant. This study showed that to improve forage corn nutrition, application of 15 or 30 g of farmyard

  7. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dependence of the degree of antibacterial and antiphage action of ozone on cell and phage particle concentrations in nutrient media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grits, N.V.; Fomichev, A.Iu.

    1985-05-01

    The work was aimed at studying the inactivating effect of ozone on Escherichia coli K-12 AB1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Erwinia herbicola EH103 and their phages T4, SM and I4. The degree of bacterial and phage inactivation was found to increase with a decrease in their initial concentration during the treatment. The effect depends on differences in the quantity of ozone per cell or per phage particle in the reaction medium. This conclusion is based on the fact that, irrespective of the suspension density, the amount of surviving bacteria and phages plotted versus O3 concentration and recalculated per one bacterial cell or phage particle is described graphically by one and the same curve typical of a strain under study. This technique for assessing the sensitivity of microbiological objects to ozone can be used in order to compare experimental data obtained in different laboratories.

  9. Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Pierre, T G; Clark, P R; Chua-anusorn, W; Fleming, A; Pardoe, H; Jeffrey, G P; Olynyk, J K; Pootrakul, P; Jones, S; Moroz, P

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R 2 ) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage

  10. Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20 years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the record, in a process called "flow-normalization," removed the year-to-year variation due to streamflow and generated a smooth time series from which trends were calculated. This approach to data analysis can be of great value to evaluations of the success of restoration efforts because it filters out the large random fluctuations in the flux that are due to the temporal variability in streamflow. Results for the full 20 years of record showed a mixture of upward and downward trends for concentrations and yields of P and N. When the record was broken into two 10-year periods, for many tributaries, the more recent period showed a reversal in N from upward to downward trends and a similar reversal or reduction in magnitude of upward trends for P. Some measures of P and N concentrations and yields appear to be related to intensity of agricultural activities, point-source loads of P, or population density. Total flow-normalized P flux aggregated from the monitored tributaries showed a decrease of 30 metric tons per year from 1991 to 2009, which is about 15% of the targeted reduction established by the operational management plan for the Lake Champlain Basin.

  11. Concentrations of cadmium and selected essential elements in malignant large intestine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Adam; Kilanowicz, Anna; Sapota, Andrzej; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Daragó, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Incidence rates of large intestine cancer indicate a role of environmental and occupational factors. The role of essential elements and their interaction with toxic metals can contribute to the explanation of a complex mechanism by which large intestine cancer develops. Bearing this in mind, determining the levels of essential and toxic elements in tissues (organs), as well as in body fluids, seems to shed light on their role in the mode of action in malignant disease. Aim Determination of the levels of cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, magnesium, and iron in large intestine malignant tissue. Material and methods Two intraoperative intestine sections were investigated: one from the malignant tissue and the other one from the normal tissue, collected from each person with diagnosed large intestine cancer. Cadmium, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and iron levels were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry, and selenium levels by spectrofluorimetric method. Results The levels of copper, selenium, and magnesium were higher in the malignant than in normal tissues. In addition, the zinc/copper and calcium/magnesium relationship was altered in malignant tissue, where correlations were lower compared to non-malignant tissue. Conclusions The results seems to demonstrate disturbed homeostasis of some essential elements. However, it is hard to confirm their involvement in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110307

  12. Tissue concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, T G; Pretlow, T P; Yang, B; Kaetzel, C S; Delmoro, C M; Kamis, S M; Bodner, D R; Kursh, E; Resnick, M I; Bradley, E L

    1991-11-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as measured in peripheral blood, is currently the most widely used marker for the assessment of tumor burden in the longitudinal study of patients with carcinoma of the prostate (PCA). Studies from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that a given volume of PCA causes a much higher level of PSA in the peripheral circulation of patients than a similar volume of prostate without carcinoma. We have evaluated PSA in the resected tissues immunohistochemically and in extracts of PCA and of prostates resected because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical results were less quantitative than but consistent with the results of the ELISA of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemically, there was considerable heterogeneity in the expression of PSA by both PCA and BPH both within and among prostatic tissues from different patients. While the levels of expression of PSA in these tissues overlap broadly, PSA is expressed at a lower level in PCA than in BPH when PSA is expressed as a function of wet weight of tissue (p = 0.0095), wet weight of tissue/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001), protein extracted from the tissue (p = 0.0039), or protein extracted/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001).

  13. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: → Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  14. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  15. 226Ra concentrations in crayfish tissues, water, and sediments from the Serpent River Basin in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhan, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Lower Serpent River, as well as Elliot, McCarthy and McCabe lakes had highest 226 Ra contamination, Chrisman, Quirke and Whiskey lakes a moderate one, Flack and Semiwhite lakes and the 'distant' control, Lake Wanapitei, the lowest. 226 Ra activity in Cambarus robustus tissues was directly related to their background levels. Thus, concentration coefficient (tissue/sediment concentrations) for 226 Ra ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 in highly contaminated Elliot and McCarthy lakes, 0.28 to 0.59 in moderately contaminated Quirke and Whiskey lakes, and from 0.27 to 3.44 in least contaminated Semiwhite and Flack lakes. Among various organs analysed, exoskeleton showed the highest (43.04 - 90.69%) and the tail muscles the lowest (2.95 -17.14%) 226 Ra activity. 226 Ra concentrations in the alimentary canal were considered a part of the ambient environment as they had not been absorbed

  16. Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehizogie Joyce FALODUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha . The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58 t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32 t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55 t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.

  17. Artocarpin Induces Apoptosis in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma HSC-1 Cells and Its Cytotoxic Activity Is Dependent on Protein-Nutrient Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chu-Sung Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpin, a natural prenylated flavonoid, has been shown to have various biological properties. However, its effects on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC have not been previously investigated. We set out to determine whether artocarpin has cytotoxic effects on SCC cells and whether its pharmacological activity is dependent on protein-nutrient concentration. Our results showed that treatment of HSC-1 cells (a human cutaneous SCC cell line with artocarpin decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis by increasing caspase 3/7 activity. These effects were more pronounced at low fetal bovine serum (FBS concentrations. Artocarpin induced an increase in the level of phospho-p38 and a decrease in the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-S6K. High FBS concentrations in the culture media inhibited and delayed the uptake of artocarpin from the extracellular compartment (culture media into the intracellular compartment, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. In conclusion, artocarpin induces apoptosis in HSC-1 cells through modulation of MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways. Binding of artocarpin to proteins in the FBS may inhibit cellular uptake and reduce the cytotoxic activity of artocarpin on HSC-1 cells. Therefore, artocarpin may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for cutaneous SCC.

  18. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  19. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  20. Inter-species variations in metal concentration in the soft tissue of some molluscs from the coasts of Aden Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. A.; Baharoon, A. Ab.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly most of the molluscs are considered as good biomonitors for heavy metals pollution due to their mode of life, but there are differences in the bioavailability of heavy metals in their soft tissues. This research shows that Turbo coronatus and A canthopleura haddoni are the best to accumulate Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, As for Ni, P. perna and the latter two speciments show higher concentrations. Turbo coronatus and Ostrea cucullata are the best to accumulate Cu, and Zn. A canthopleura haddoni and Veneridae pitar sp. show higher availability of Fe, and Mn in their soft tissues. (author)

  1. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  2. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  3. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  4. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata at the obex) tissue from 181 of these deer. Analyses revealed a wide range of concentrations of all three minerals among sampled deer (copper: 5.6-331 ppm in liver, 1.5-31.9 ppm in obex; manganese: 0.1-21.4 ppm in liver; molybdenum: 0.5-4.0 ppm in liver). Bayesian multiple regression analysis revealed a negative association between obex copper (-0.097; 95% credible interval -0.192 to -0.006) and the probability of sampled deer also being infected with CWD, as well as a positive association between liver manganese (0.158; 95% credible interval 0.066 to 0.253) and probability of infection. We could not discern whether the tendencies toward lower brain-stem copper concentrations or higher systemic manganese concentrations in infected deer preceded prion infection or rather were the result of infection and its subsequent effects, although the distribution of trace mineral concentrations in infected deer seemed more suggestive of the latter.

  5. The effect of thyroid hormones on the white adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Biz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 overexpression may play a significant role in this process. A positive correlation between adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration has been reported. Furthermore, high serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 and PAI-1 have been observed in obese children. The present study evaluates the impact of thyroid hormone treatment on white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression and its serum concentration. Male Wistar rats (60 days old were treated for three weeks with T4 (50 µg/day, Hyper or with saline (control. Additionally, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with T4 (100 nM or T3 (100 nM. PAI-1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, while the serum concentration of PAI-1 was measured by ELISA using a commercial kit (Innovative Research, USA. Both the serum concentration of PAI-1 and mRNA levels were similar between groups in retroperitoneal and epididymal white adipose tissue. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in vitro treatment with T4 and T3 increased the gene expression of PAI-1, suggesting non-genomic and genomic effects, respectively. These results demonstrate that thyroid hormones have different effects in vitro and in vivo on PAI-1 gene expression in adipocytes.

  6. High-spatial-resolution mapping of the oxygen concentration in cortical tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Sakadžic, Sava

    2016-03-01

    Due to a lack of imaging tools for high-resolution imaging of cortical tissue oxygenation, the detailed maps of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) around arterioles, venules, and capillaries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that secure sufficient oxygen delivery in microvascular domains during brain activation, and provide some metabolic reserve capacity in diseases that affect either microvascular networks or the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this challenge, we applied a Two-Photon PO2 Microscopy to map PO2 at different depths in mice cortices. Measurements were performed through the cranial window in the anesthetized healthy mice as well as in the mouse models of microvascular dysfunctions. In addition, microvascular morphology was recorded by the two-photon microscopy at the end of each experiment and subsequently segmented. Co-registration of the PO2 measurements and exact microvascular morphology enabled quantification of the tissue PO2 dependence on distance from the arterioles, capillaries, and venules at various depths. Our measurements reveal significant spatial heterogeneity of the cortical tissue PO2 distribution that is dominated by the high oxygenation in periarteriolar spaces. In cases of impaired oxygen delivery due to microvascular dysfunction, significant reduction in tissue oxygenation away from the arterioles was observed. These tissue domains may be the initial sites of cortical injury that can further exacerbate the progression of the disease.

  7. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  8. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  9. Application of a Weighted Regression Model for Reporting Nutrient and Sediment Concentrations, Fluxes, and Trends in Concentration and Flux for the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network, Results Through Water Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Langland, Michael J.

    2016-01-13

    In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, estimated fluxes of nutrients and sediment from the bay’s nontidal tributaries into the estuary are the foundation of decision making to meet reductions prescribed by the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and are often the basis for refining scientific understanding of the watershed-scale processes that influence the delivery of these constituents to the bay. Two regression-based flux and trend estimation models, ESTIMATOR and Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS), were compared using data from 80 watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network (CBNTN). The watersheds range in size from 62 to 70,189 square kilometers and record lengths range from 6 to 28 years. ESTIMATOR is a constant-parameter model that estimates trends only in concentration; WRTDS uses variable parameters estimated with weighted regression, and estimates trends in both concentration and flux. WRTDS had greater explanatory power than ESTIMATOR, with the greatest degree of improvement evident for records longer than 25 years (30 stations; improvement in median model R2= 0.06 for total nitrogen, 0.08 for total phosphorus, and 0.05 for sediment) and the least degree of improvement for records of less than 10 years, for which the two models performed nearly equally. Flux bias statistics were comparable or lower (more favorable) for WRTDS for any record length; for 30 stations with records longer than 25 years, the greatest degree of improvement was evident for sediment (decrease of 0.17 in median statistic) and total phosphorus (decrease of 0.05). The overall between-station pattern in concentration trend direction and magnitude for all constituents was roughly similar for both models. A detailed case study revealed that trends in concentration estimated by WRTDS can operationally be viewed as a less-constrained equivalent to trends in concentration estimated by ESTIMATOR. Estimates of annual mean flow

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Marie; Berg, Gertrud; Ericsson, Lars; Grunditz, Torsten; Isaksson, Mats; Jansson, Svante; Nystrom, Ernst; Sodervall, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity

  11. Allometric relationships to liver tissue concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nicholas A.; Nøst, Therese H.; Andrade, Hector; Christensen, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution and relationship of allometric measurements (length, weight and age) to liver concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclosiloxane (D6) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) collected near the community of Tromsø in Northern Norway were assessed. These congeners were benchmarked against known persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 153 and 180) to assess accumulation behavior of cVMS. D5 was the dominate cVMS detected in all fish livers with lipid normalized concentrations up to 10 times or greater than those observed for PCB 153 and 180. D4 and D6 concentration were negatively correlated with fish length and weight, indicating a greater elimination capacity compared to uptake processes with increasing fish size for these chemicals. These results indicate relationships between allometric measurements and cVMS concentrations may account for concentration variations observed within fish and should be assessed in future studies evaluating cVMS bioaccumulation potential. - Highlights: • cVMS spatial distribution investigated within cod surrounding an Arctic community. • Highest cVMS concentrations detected in biota collected near human settlements. • Cod liver concentrations of D5 were higher compared to PCBs. • D4 and D6 liver concentrations were negatively correlated with fish length/weight. - Liver concentrations of cVMS congeners decreased with increasing fish length and weight in Atlantic cod collected near emission sources of cVMS

  12. Trace metal concentrations in edible muscle tissues of some locally marketed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.M.; Ichokitar, M.Y.; Ashraf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Edible muscle tissues of five fish species marketed in Multan, i.e., Rohu (Labeo rohita). (Labeo calhasu). Mori (cirrina inrigala). Ichagga (Rita rita) and Singliaree (mystus (osteobagrus) nor) have been analyzed quantitatively for trace elements, essential as well as toxic, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Dry ashing procedure has been employed to prepare sample solutions. Result indicate that edible muscle tissue of these fish, in general, contain higher amounts of potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium, moderate quantities of zinc and iron and lessor amounts of copper and manganese. However, cadmium and lead were found to be below the limit of detection. (author)

  13. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Gamma Irradiation on the Bacterial Growth and the Concentration of Macro nutrient Plant Elements (N,P,K) in The Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M.; Zainul Kamal; Elin Nuraini

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of the gamma irradiation influence for bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element in the sludge has been done. The objective of the research is to study the gamma irradiation influence on bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element concentration; after that, can be determine the effective dose for killing pathogenic bacteria, while the other kind of bacteria such as the decomposer has been survived. The sludge samples was collected from the vicinity of Surabaya such as Sukolilo for sewage, PT SIER Rungkut for industrial and Dr. Sutomo hospital waste sludge. The irradiation of the sludge has been done at P3TIR-BATAN by Co-60 irradiator and the dose variation are 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbiological observation was done after irradiation at FMIPA-UNAIR laboratory and the analysis of N,P,K elements by using fast neutron activation analysis. The observation involving total bacterial and one kind of pathogenic microbial which is Salmonella, from this observation can be deduced that population of total bacteria in the sludge is in the range at 1.0 x 10 7 to 3.7 x 10 8 . For every 5 kGy increment could be able to decrease total bacterial growth about 10 times, and at 25 kGy the total bacterial growth can be suppressed. The higher population of Salmonella can be found in the hospital sludge is in range of 3.0 to 3.5 x 10 5 , in the sewage sludge is 1.4 to 1.6 x 10 4 and industry is 1.0 to 1.4 x 10 3 . For the Salmonella disinfection need the 15 to 20 kGy radiation dose. From the calculation results can be known that the nitrogen content in the sludge is in the range at 1.393 ± 0.692 to 3.147 ± 0.697 % , the phosphor 3.714 ± 0.892 to 8.120 ± 1.034 % and the potassium 1.999 ± 0.523 to 4.52 ± 0.599 %. The variation of the irradiation dose 10 - 25 kGy does not have any significant influence for the macro-nutrient plant (N,P,K) content in the sludge from the industrial, the sewage or the hospital waste water treatment. (author)

  15. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  16. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Helvie, J.B.

    1976-06-01

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  17. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  18. Concentrations of transuranic elements in critical organs and tissues of goats (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Vaskovtsova, V.A.; Kuhtsevich, A.B.; Tagai, S.A.; Tsarenok, A.A.; Buzdalkin, K.N.; Gvozdik, A.F.; Makarovets, I.V.; Nilova, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of Am 241 and Pu 238, 239+240 transfer from the dietary soil-based component (mineral soil) to organs and tissues of goats during a grazing period of 80 and 160 days have been determined. The maximum specific activities of transuranic elements have been found in liver of goats. (authors)

  19. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  20. Assessment of 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration in human tissues in Hungary following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Sztanyik, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Artificial radioisotope contamination of tissue samples of Hungarian citizens has been regularly monitored by our Institute since 1978. 90 Sr concentration of both extracted deciduous teeth and rib samples showed a slight but permanent tendency to decrease since then. 137 Cs content in the body of Hungarian individuals was monitored by whole body counter from the mid of 60s for about a decade while it became lower of the minimum detection limit (MDL). It could again be detected by in vivo measurements in May 1986, however, the 137 Cs content of human beings in Hungary fell below the detection limit within two years. Thus, the monitoring could only be continued by in vitro measuring of the 137 Cs activity concentration in human soft tissue samples

  1. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  2. Postmortem Fluid and Tissue Concentrations of THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Sunday R; Lewis, Russell J; Angier, Mike K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases. However, the postmortem distribution of cannabinoids has not been well characterized. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the distribution of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and THC-COOH, in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens from 11 fatal aviation accident cases (2014-2015) previously found positive for cannabinoids. Specimens evaluated, when available, included: blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, muscle, brain, heart and bile. We developed and validated (following SWGTOX guidelines) a sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH in postmortem fluids and tissues. The method readily identified and quantified these cannabinoids in postmortem fluids and tissues below 1 ng/mL. Qualitative cannabinoid results within each case were comparable between blood and non-blood specimens. However, there was no consistent distribution of the cannabinoids between blood and any other fluids or tissues. Therefore, while quantitative interpretation of non-blood postmortem fluid and tissues samples is not prudent, a majority of the non-blood specimens tested could be suitable alternative/supplemental choices for qualitative cannabinoid detection. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US

  3. Effect of Graphite Concentration on Shear-Wave Speed in Gelatin-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Elasticity-based imaging modalities are becoming popular diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Gelatin-based, tissue mimicking phantoms that contain graphite as the acoustic scattering material are commonly used in testing and validating elasticity-imaging methods to quantify tissue stiffness. The gelatin bloom strength and concentration are used to control phantom stiffness. While it is known that graphite concentration can be modulated to control acoustic attenuation, the impact of graphite concentrationon phantom elasticity has not been characterized in these gelatin phantoms. This work investigates the impact of graphite concentration on phantom shear stiffness as characterized by shear-wave speed measurements using impulsive acoustic-radiation-force excitations. Phantom shear-wave speed increased by 0.83 (m/s)/(dB/(cm MHz)) when increasing the attenuation coefficient slope of the phantom material through increasing graphite concentration. Therefore, gelatin-phantom stiffness can be affected by the conventional ways that attenuation is modulated through graphite concentration in these phantoms. PMID:21710828

  4. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko [Department of Veterinary Radiology and Radiation Biology, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizuka, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, Shoji [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC), Takizuka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  5. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko; Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  6. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.

  7. Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Apelin Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apelin is an adipokine which plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the link between increased adipose tissue mass and obesity related metabolic diseases. Here we investigate the role of omental and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue apelin and its receptor APJ mRNA expression in human obesity and test the hypothesis that changes in circulating apelin are associated with reduced fat mass in three weight loss intervention studies. Methods: Apelin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629 study including a subgroup (n = 161 for which omental and SC apelin mRNA expression has been analyzed and in three interventions: 12 weeks exercise (n = 60, 6 months calorie-restricted diet (n = 19, 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32. Results: Apelin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlates with circulating apelin, BMI, body fat, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction in omental and SC apelin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced apelin serum concentrations which significantly correlate with improved insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in BMI. Conclusions: Reduced apelin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity beyond significant weight loss.

  8. Radioenzymatic assay for measurement of tissue concentrations of histamine: adaptation to correct for adherence of histamine to mechanical homogenizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.K.; Frey, M.J.; Reed, B.R.; Leff, A.R.; Shields, R.; Gold, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because adherence of histamine to glass is well-known, we tested for its adherence to a mechanical homogenizer commonly used in the extraction of histamine from tissue samples. During 60 sec of homogenization, 15% to 17% of the histamine originally present in the samples ''disappeared,'' and the reason for the disappearance was reversible binding of histamine to the homogenizer. Adding trace amounts of [ 14 C]histamine to each sample before homogenization and measuring the disappearance of radioactivity during homogenization permitted correction for binding to the homogenizer. This technique for correction was validated by the measurement of endogenous concentrations of histamine in the tracheal posterior membranes of six dogs (range of mean concentrations: 0.63 to 1.51 ng/mg wet weight) followed by the measurement of known amounts of exogenous histamine added before homogenization to tracheal tissue samples from the same dogs. In the latter samples, 96 +/- 13% (mean +/- SEM) of the histamine added was measured by our technique. We conclude that binding of histamine to mechanical homogenizers may be an important cause of inaccuracy of the enzymatic assay for the measurement of histamine concentrations in tissue but that such binding may but that such binding may be easily corrected for

  9. Age-related effect on the concentration of collagen crosslinks in human osteonal and interstitial bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Roy, Anuradha; Acuna, Rae L; Gayle, Heather J; Reyes, Michael J; Tyler, Jerrod H; Dean, David D; Wang, Xiaodu

    2006-12-01

    Collagen crosslinks are important to the quality of bone and may be contributors to the age-related increase in bone fracture. This study was performed to investigate whether age and gender effects on collagen crosslinks are similar in osteonal and interstitial bone tissues. Forty human cadaveric femurs were collected and divided into two age groups: middle-aged (42-63 years of age) and elderly (69-90 years of age) with ten males and ten females in each group (n = 10). Micro-cores of bone tissue from both secondary osteons and interstitial regions in the medial quadrant of the diaphysis were extracted using a custom-modified, computer-controlled milling machine. The bone specimens were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of age and gender on the concentration of mature, enzymatic crosslinks (hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline-HP and lysyl-pyridinoline-LP) and a non-enzymatic crosslink (pentosidine-PE) at these two microstructural sites. The results indicate that age has a significant effect on the concentration of LP and PE, while gender has a significant effect on HP and LP. In addition, the concentration of the crosslinks in the secondary osteons is significantly different from that in the interstitial bone regions. These results suggest that the amount of non-enzymatic crosslinking may increase while that of mature enzymatic crosslinking may decrease with age. Such changes could potentially reduce the inherent quality of the bone tissue in the elderly skeleton.

  10. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells’ spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ℓ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ν that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ν can vary over many orders of magnitude between different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ℓ decreases with increasing ν, increasing cell volume fraction ϕ, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ψ∞. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ℓ. PMID:23848711

  11. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  12. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.; Adams, Douglas H.; Spaet, Julia L.; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L.

    2017-01-01

    mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two

  13. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  14. Determination of bone and tissue concentrations of teicoplanin mixed with hydroxyapatite cement to repair cortical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Zeipper, U; Schwendenwein, E; Hadju, S; Kaltenecker, G; Laslo, I; Lang, S; Roschger, P; Vecsei, V; Wintersteiger, R

    2002-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of the major component of teicoplanin in tissue is reported. Comparing fluorescamine and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as derivatizing agents, the derivative formed with the latter exhibits superior fluorescence intensity allowing detection of femtomole quantities. Pretreatment for tissue samples is by solid-phase extraction which uses Bakerbond PolarP C(18) cartridges and gives effective clean up from endogenous by-products. Linearity was given from 0.6 to 100 ng per injection. The coefficient of variation did not exceed 5.8% for both interday and intraday assays. It was found that when bone defects are repaired with a hydroxyapatite-teicoplanin mixture, the antibiotic does not degrade, even when it is in the cement for several months. The stability of teicoplanin in bone cement was determined fluorodensitometrically.

  15. A method for the determination of potassium concentration in organic tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.C.A.

    1976-12-01

    An original method has been developed to detect small variations of potassium in several samples of organic tissue. These variations are relative to elements that are biologically representative, such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. The samples are irradiated with a beam of protons from a Van de Graaff accelerator (4MV). Vacancies are created in the K-shell of potassium, and x-rays are emitted when these vacancies are filled with outer electrons. These X-rays and the protons elastically scattered by the nuclei of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are detected and their energy spectra are analysed by computer programs especially elaborated for this purpose. A technique for routine preparation of samples in the laboratory was developed including the production of aluminum support layers, and the preparation of organic tissue samples with a low temperature microtome. The unique features of this method are that it does not destroy the tissue, permitting further analysis with the microscope, and the normalization of the amount of potassium using other elements (C,O,N) instead of the total mass of the sample. (Author) [pt

  16. Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats ( and Sika deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Na

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4 emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods Three male growing goats (body weight [BW] = 19.0±0.7 kg and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3±1.2 kg were respectively allotted to a 3×3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75, moderate (50:50, and high (73:27 F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg BW0.75, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI, and g/kg OM intake (OMI decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric CH4 emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 3.36+4.71×DMI (kg/d−0.0036×neutral detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC, g/kg+0.01563×dry matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg−0.0108×neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg. For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 66.3+27.7×DMI (kg/d−5.91×NDFC (g/kg−7.11× DMD (g/kg+0.0809×NDFD (g/kg. Conclusion Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the CH4 generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric CH4 prediction model for goats and Sika deer were estimated.

  17. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (<0.05)=muscle (<0.05)tissue concentrations in the toothed cetaceans are suggested. Marked high concentrations of Ag and Cd found in Gg and Lh are highly related to their squid-eating and deep diving habits. The highest ever recorded concentrations of liver-Ag and kidney-Cd were found in two Lh. These Taiwanese cetaceans indicate marked Ag and Cd pollution in the recent two decades in the western Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  19. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration of Potassium in Plasma, Erythrocytes, and Muscle Tissue in Cows with Decreased Feed Intake and Gastrointestinal Ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Müller, A; Wittek, T

    2016-01-01

    Healthy cows consume large amounts of potassium and a sudden loss in appetite can lead to hypokalemia. The routine method to evaluate potassium homeostasis is the measurement of the extracellular potassium in plasma or serum, but this does not provide information about the intracellular potassium pool. To evaluate potassium homeostasis by comparing the extracellular and intracellular potassium concentration in cows with reduced feed intake and gastrointestinal ileus. Twenty cows 1-3 days postpartum (group 1) and 20 cows with gastrointestinal ileus (group 2). Observational cross-sectional study. Plasma potassium was measured by using an ion-sensitive electrode. Intracellular potassium was measured in erythrocytes and muscle tissue (muscle biopsy) by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cows of group 1 did not have hypokalemia. Overall cows with gastrointestinal ileus were hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 mmol/L ± 0.78), but potassium concentration in erythrocytes and muscle tissue was not lower than in postpartum cows. Intracellular potassium in erythrocytes varied very widely; group 1: 3497-10735 mg/kg (5559 ± 2002 mg/kg), group 2: 4139-21678 mg/kg (7473 ± 4034 mg/kg). Potassium in muscle tissue did not differ between group 1 (3356 ± 735 mg/kg wet weight) and group 2 (3407 ± 1069 mg/kg wet weight). No association between extracellular and intracellular potassium concentrations was detected. That measurement of plasma potassium concentration is not sufficient to evaluate potassium metabolism of cows. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Concentration of folate in colorectal tissue biopsies predicts prevalence of adenomatous polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: Folate has been implicated as a potential aetiological factor for colorectal cancer. Previous research has not adequately exploited concentrations of folate in normal colonic mucosal biopsies to examine the issue. Methods: Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs ...

  2. Heavy metal concentration in different tissues of fishes from coastal waters of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.

    Information on the concentration of trace metals in the environment is essential to assess the possible accumulation of these metals in the body of organisms and its transfer to man through the food chain. Muscles, alimentary canal and gills of 14...

  3. Regulating NH4+, N0-, and K+ concentration and proportions improves in vitro tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture-amount experiment that simultaneously varied both the ratios and total ionic concentration (from 20-100 mM) of NH4+, NO3+, and K+ was used to maximize sweet orange callus growth cv. ‘Hamlin.’ These experiments were free of ion confounding effects, i.e. ions added via pH adjustments and sa...

  4. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  5. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  6. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  7. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  8. Evaluation of Metal Ion Concentration in Hard Tissues of Teeth in Residents of Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wychowanski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was an assessment of the content of trace elements in enamel and dentin of teeth extracted in patients residing in urban and agricultural areas of Poland. Methods. The study included 30 generally healthy patients with retained third molars. 65 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in urban areas and 85 samples of enamel and dentin from individuals living in agricultural areas were prepared. The content of manganese, lead, cadmium, and chromium in the studied enamel and dentin samples from retained teeth was determined by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. In the process of statistical hypothesis testing, the level of significance was assumed at α=0.05. Results. A comparative analysis of the data showed that enamel and dentin of inhabitants of industrialized areas contain significantly higher amounts of lead and cadmium than hard tissues of teeth in residents of agricultural areas and comparable amounts of manganese and chromium. Significance. It appears that hard tissues of retained teeth may constitute valuable material for assessment of long-term environmental exposure to metal ions. The study confirms that the risk of exposure to heavy metals depends on the place of residence and environmental pollution.

  9. Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Eric G; Spur, Bernd W; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D

    2006-11-01

    The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for "survival" studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead- (II) nitrate was added to three aquaria attaining concentrations of 20-30 ppb (aquarium B), 100-140 ppb (aquarium C), and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about 4-fold higherthan in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5-25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness.

  10. Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli densities in tributaries of the Niantic River estuary, southeastern Connecticut, 2005 and 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli (E. coli) densities were studied in 2005 and from 2008 through 2011 in water-quality samples from tributaries of the Niantic River Estuary in southeastern Connecticut. Data from a water-quality survey of the base flow of subbasins in the watershed in June 2005 were used to determine the range of total nitrogen concentrations (0.09 to 2.4 milligrams per liter), instantaneous loads (less than 1 to 62 pounds per day) and the yields of total nitrogen ranging from 0.02 to 11.2 pounds per square mile per day (less than 1 to 7.2 kilograms per hectare per year) from basin segments. Nitrogen yields were positively correlated with the amount of developed land in each subbasin. Stable isotope measurements of nitrate (δ15N) and oxygen (δ18O) ranged from 3.9 to 9.4 per mil and 0.7 to 4.1 per mil, respectively, indicating that likely sources of nitrate in base flow are soil nitrate and ammonium fertilizers, sewage or animal waste, or a mixture of these sources. Continuous streamflow and monthly water-quality sampling, with additional storm event sampling, were conducted at the three major tributaries (Latimer Brook, Oil Mill Brook, and Stony Brook) of the Niantic River from October 2008 through September 2011. Samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus constituents and E. coli densities. Total freshwater discharge from these tributaries, which is reduced by upstream withdrawals, ranged from 25.9 to 37.8 million gallons per day. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations generally were low, with the mean values below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended nutrient concentration values of 0.71 milligram per liter and 0.031 milligram per liter, respectively. Total nitrogen was predominantly in the form of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen at the Oil Mill Brook and Stony Brook sites and in the form of nitrate at Latimer Brook. Annual total nitrogen loads that flowed into the Niantic River estuary from

  11. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on rumen digesta nutrient concentration, pH, and fermentation products in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Y; Rottman, L W; Crawford, C; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    There is a daily pattern of feed intake in the dairy cow, and feeding a single total mixed ration results in variation in the amount of fermentable substrate entering the rumen over the day. The object of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations over the day that complement the pattern of feed intake would stabilize rumen pool sizes and fermentation. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control diet [33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The LF and HF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed 3 parts of LF and 7 parts of HF. Cows on the control treatment (CON) were fed at 0900h, cows on the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h, and cows on the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Preplanned contrasts compared CON with H/L and H/L with L/H. Feeding the LF diet in the evening resulted in a large increase in the amount of feed consumed immediately after feed delivery at that feeding. Rumen digesta starch concentration increased and NDF concentration decreased following feeding of the LF diet in both the L/H and H/L treatments. Starch pool size also increased following feeding of the LF diet in the evening and tended to increase after feeding the LF diet in the morning. Rumen ammonia concentration was increased following feeding of the HF diet in the morning and the LF diet in the evening in the H/L treatment. Additionally, cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 are higher in concentrate feeds and were increased after feeding the LF diet in both treatments. Trans fatty acid isomers of the normal and alternate biohydrogenation pathways followed a daily pattern, and the H

  12. Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandevijvere, S.; Geelen, A.; Gonzalez-Gross, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Dallongeville, J.; Mouratidu, T.; Dekkers, A.; Börnhorst, C.; Breidenassel, C.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated

  13. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  14. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  15. [Studies on antimicrobial concentrations of flomoxef in serum, pelvic dead space exudate, and pelvic organs/tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, T; Koishi, K; Sasaki, J; Eguchi, M; Yamamoto, Y

    1987-10-01

    To women undergoing radical and total hysterectomy, flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) in a dose of 2 g was administered by intravenous drip infusion over 1 hour and drug concentrations in serum and pelvic dead space exudate as well as pelvic organs/tissues were determined over time. The following results were obtained: 1. Serum concentrations of FMOX after intravenous infusion showed the peak value of 92.86 +/- 17.05 micrograms/ml at the end of infusion and then gradually decreased to 29.00 +/- 10.49 micrograms/ml in 1 hour and 1.16 +/- 1.08 micrograms/ml in 6 hours. 2. Concentrations in pelvic dead space exudate, which were 6.54 +/- 3.21 micrograms/ml at the end of intravenous infusion, gradually increased to 31.28 +/- 12.69 micrograms/ml in 30 minutes, and the peak of 35.21 +/- 13.29 micrograms/ml in 1 hour. Exudate concentrations gradually decreased to 11.10 +/- 6.64 micrograms/ml at 6 hours after infusion. 3. The serum concentration at the ligature of uterine artery was 103.21 +/- 51.69 micrograms/ml. Among concentrations in pelvic organ/tissues 37.17 +/- 18.20 micrograms/ml in uterine cervix was the highest, followed by 35.77 +/- 7.68 micrograms/g in portio vaginalis, 26.35 +/- 14.15 micrograms/g in tube, 21.62 +/- 12.15 micrograms/g in ovary, 20.56 +/- 9.82 micrograms/g in myometrium, and 16.45 +/- 8.10 micrograms/g in endometrium, in this order. 4. From an analysis of the two-compartment model, the maximum serum concentration was 92.81 micrograms/ml, which was very high. The time of 50% reduction of concentration in beta phase was 1.21 hours. In the pelvic dead space exudate, the maximum concentration was 32.38 micrograms/ml and the time of 50% reduction was 2.44 hours. The AUC was 147 micrograms.hr/ml in serum and 201 micrograms.hr/ml in the pelvic dead space. The shift to the pelvic dead space was 137% when AUC's were used as the basis of the comparison. 5. Clinically, FMOX was excellently effective against adnexitis caused by Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus

  16. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Correlation of tissue concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin with neurotoxicity in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Scollon, Edward J.; Starr, James M.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Wolansky, Marcelo J.; DeVito, Michael J.; Hughes, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for human exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has prompted pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research to better characterize risk. This work tested the hypothesis that blood and brain concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin are predictive of neurotoxic effects. Adult male Long Evans rats received a single oral dose of bifenthrin dissolved in corn oil. Using figure-eight mazes, motor activity was measured for 1 h at 4- and 7-h following exposure to bifenthrin (0–16 mg/kg or 0...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully...... explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between...... exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist...

  19. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  20. Concentration change of DA, DOPAC, Glu and GABA in brain tissues in schizophrenia developmental model rats induced by MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Tang, Yamei; Pu, Weidan; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-08-01

    To explore the related neurobiochemical mechanism by comparing the concentration change of dopamine (DA), dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues in schizophrenia (SZ) developmental model rats and chronic medication model rats. A total of 60 neonatal male Spragur-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups at the postnatal day 6: an SZ developmental rat model group (subcutaneous injection with MK-801 at the postnatal day 7-10, 0.1 mg/kg, Bid), a chronic medication model group (intraperitoneal injection at the postnatal day 47-60, 0.2 mg/kg,Qd), and a normal control group (injection with 0.9% normal saline during the corresponding periods). DA, DOPAC, Glu, and GABA of the tissue homogenate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus were examined with Coularray electrochemic detection by high performance liquid chromatogram technique. The utilization rate of DA and Glu was calculated. Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of DA and DOPAC in the mPFC and the hippocampus in the SZ developmental model group significantly decreased (PGABA concentration and Glu utilization rate in the mPFC also decreased (PGABA system decrease in the mPFC and the DA system function reduces in the hippocampus of SZ developmental rats.

  1. {sup 226}Ra concentrations in crayfish tissues, water, and sediments from the Serpent River Basin in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhan, M.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Lower Serpent River, as well as Elliot, McCarthy and McCabe lakes had highest {sup 226}Ra contamination, Chrisman, Quirke and Whiskey lakes a moderate one, Flack and Semiwhite lakes and the `distant` control, Lake Wanapitei, the lowest. {sup 226}Ra activity in Cambarus robustus tissues was directly related to their background levels. Thus, concentration coefficient (tissue/sediment concentrations) for {sup 226}Ra ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 in highly contaminated Elliot and McCarthy lakes, 0.28 to 0.59 in moderately contaminated Quirke and Whiskey lakes, and from 0.27 to 3.44 in least contaminated Semiwhite and Flack lakes. Among various organs analysed, exoskeleton showed the highest (43.04 - 90.69%) and the tail muscles the lowest (2.95 -17.14%) {sup 226}Ra activity. {sup 226}Ra concentrations in the alimentary canal were considered a part of the ambient environment as they had not been absorbed. 12 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  2. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  3. Digital photography provides a fast, reliable, and noninvasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, José C; Gallardo-López, Antonio; Buide, Mª Luisa; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    anthocyanin concentrations in both floral and vegetative tissues. This method is efficient, completely noninvasive, applicable to both uniform and patterned color, and works with samples of any size.

  4. Effects of biochar and alkaline amendments on cadmium immobilization, selected nutrient and cadmium concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldetsadik, Desta; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of seven treatments including biochars produced from dried faecal matter and manures as stabilizing agents of cadmium (Cd)-spiked soils, lettuce was grown in glasshouse on two contrasting soils. The soils used were moderately fertile silty loam and less fertile sandy loam...... and the applied treatments were 7 % w/w. The reduction of bioavailable Cd (ammonium nitrate extractable) and its phytoavailability for lettuce were used as assessment criteria in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each treatment. Moreover, the agronomic values of the treatments were also investigated...... extracts. The immobilization potential of faecal matter biochar and lime were superior than the other treatments. However, lime and egg shell promoted statistically lower yield and P, K and Zn concentrations response of lettuce plants compared to the biochar treatments. The lowest Cd and highest P tissue...

  5. Alterações no teores de nutrientes em dois solos alagados, com e sem plantas de arroz Nutrients concentration changes in two flooded soils during the rice cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O alagamento e a presença de plantas alteram as propriedades biológicas e químicas do solo em relação ao ambiente anteriormente oxidado, influenciando a disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações dos teores de alguns nutrientes na solução de um Planossolo e um Gleissolo durante o ciclo do arroz. Os solos foram acondicionados em vasos (50 litros contendo dispositivos para coleta da solução em diferentes profundidades, mantidos sem ou com plantas de arroz. A solução foi coletada aos 10, 19, 44, 77 e 113 dias de alagamento e determinados os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e Mn. A concentração dos nutrientes na solução, especialmente o K, variou com a profundidade de coleta e com a presença de plantas, demonstrando a influência desses fatores na disponibilidade dos nutrientes em solos alagados.Flooding a soil and growing plant on it can change its biological and chemistry properties, in comparison with a non-flooded environment. An experiment was conducted in order to study the nutrients dynamics in the solution of two soils (Planossolo and Gleissolo during the rice cycle. Rice plants were cultivated in 50L containers having devices to collect soil solution at several depths (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 31cm. In the soil solution, with and without plant, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, were measured at 10, 19, 44, 77, and 113 days after the flooding. Potassium was especially sensible to the rice plant and depth of sampling

  6. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  7. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  8. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  9. Estimates of Water-Column Nutrient Concentrations and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Sauzède

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A neural network-based method (CANYON: CArbonate system and Nutrients concentration from hYdrological properties and Oxygen using a Neural-network was developed to estimate water-column (i.e., from surface to 8,000 m depth biogeochemically relevant variables in the Global Ocean. These are the concentrations of three nutrients [nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and silicate (Si(OH4] and four carbonate system parameters [total alkalinity (AT, dissolved inorganic carbon (CT, pH (pHT, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2], which are estimated from concurrent in situ measurements of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen (O2 together with sampling latitude, longitude, and date. Seven neural-networks were developed using the GLODAPv2 database, which is largely representative of the diversity of open-ocean conditions, hence making CANYON potentially applicable to most oceanic environments. For each variable, CANYON was trained using 80 % randomly chosen data from the whole database (after eight 10° × 10° zones removed providing an “independent data-set” for additional validation, the remaining 20 % data were used for the neural-network test of validation. Overall, CANYON retrieved the variables with high accuracies (RMSE: 1.04 μmol kg−1 (NO3−, 0.074 μmol kg−1 (PO43−, 3.2 μmol kg−1 (Si(OH4, 0.020 (pHT, 9 μmol kg−1 (AT, 11 μmol kg−1 (CT and 7.6 % (pCO2 (30 μatm at 400 μatm. This was confirmed for the eight independent zones not included in the training process. CANYON was also applied to the Hawaiian Time Series site to produce a 22 years long simulated time series for the above seven variables. Comparison of modeled and measured data was also very satisfactory (RMSE in the order of magnitude of RMSE from validation test. CANYON is thus a promising method to derive distributions of key biogeochemical variables. It could be used for a variety of global and regional applications ranging from data quality control

  10. Relationship between Concentrations of Lutein and StARD3 among Pediatric and Geriatric Human Brain Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirayu Tanprasertsuk

    Full Text Available Lutein, a dietary carotenoid, selectively accumulates in human retina and brain. While many epidemiological studies show evidence of a relationship between lutein status and cognitive health, lutein's selective uptake in human brain tissue and its potential function in early neural development and cognitive health have been poorly evaluated at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between concentrations of brain lutein and StARD3 (identified as its binding protein in retinal tissue among three age groups: infants (1-4 months, n = 10, older adults (55-86 years, n = 8, and centenarians (98-105 years, n = 10. Brain lutein concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and StARD3 levels were analyzed by Western Blot analysis. The strong relationship in infant brains (r = 0.75, P 0.05, seven of whom had mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. These exploratory findings suggest an age-related decrease or abnormality of StARD3 activity in human brain. Given that StARD3 is also involved in cholesterol transportation, a process that is aberrant in neurodegenerative diseases, the potential protective function of lutein against these diseases remains to be explored.

  11. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on nitrogen retention, apparent digestibility, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues in lambs fed low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Robinson, T J; Harmon, D L; Ludden, P A

    2010-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on intake, apparent digestibility, N retention, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues of lambs fed a low-quality forage diet. In both experiments, wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements provided on alternate days. In Exp. 1, 12 lambs (29.9 +/- 2.7 kg initial BW) were used. Forage OM, NDF, and ADF intake were not affected by treatment. Total tract digestibilities (OM, NDF, ADF, and N) were unaffected (P >or= 0.15) by treatment. Neither protein degradability nor supplementation frequency had an effect (P >or= 0.52) on N retention. In Exp. 2, 15 lambs (34 +/- 4 kg initial BW) fitted with indwelling catheters in a hepatic vein, the hepatic portal vein, a mesenteric vein, and a mesenteric artery were used. Release of ammonia N by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) was reduced (P = 0.004) in alternate-day-supplemented lambs compared with RDP-D. Consequently, hepatic uptake of ammonia N was least (P = 0.003) in all alternate-day lambs. Alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN) release by the PDV and hepatic uptake of AAN were not affected by treatment or supplementation frequency. Additionally, hepatic output and PDV uptake of urea N were not affected by treatment. Hepatic N uptake (ammonia N + AAN) accounted for urea synthesized by the liver in all treatments; however, hepatic urea synthesis was approximately 4.5-fold less for RUP-A lambs. This suggests that the provision of AA as RUP may provide a delay in ureagenesis, thus altering the timing of N recycling.

  12. Concentrations and transport of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during the 2011 Mississippi River flood, April through July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Coupe, Richard H.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    High streamflow associated with the April–July 2011 Mississippi River flood forced the simultaneous opening of the three major flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin for the first time in history in order to manage the amount of water moving through the system. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples for analysis of field properties, suspended-sediment concentration, particle-size, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and up to 136 pesticides at 11 water-quality stations and 2 flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin from just above the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers downstream from April through July 2011. Monthly fluxes of suspended sediment, suspended sand, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor were estimated at 9 stations and 2 flood-control structures during the flood period. Although concentrations during the 2011 flood were within the range of what has been observed historically, concentrations decreased during peak streamflow on the lower Mississippi River. Prior to the 2011 flood, high concentrations of suspended sediment and nitrate were observed in March 2011 at stations downstream of the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, which probably resulted in a loss of available material for movement during the flood. In addition, the major contributor of streamflow to the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during April and May was the Ohio River, whose water contained lower concentrations of suspended sediment, pesticides, and nutrients than water from the upper Mississippi River. Estimated fluxes for the 4-month flood period were still quite high and contributed approximately 50 percent of the estimated annual suspended sediment, nitrate, and total phosphorus fluxes in 2011; the largest fluxes were estimated at

  13. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  14. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  15. An example of the application of Mössbauer spectroscopy for determination of concentration of iron in lyophilized brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepecka Patrycja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy is not routinely used for the determination of the concentration of iron. However, as this method does not need any pre-treatment of samples before measurements, it may be of extreme importance for the assessment of iron in samples, which can then be used for further investigations. Biological samples are a good example, however, as the concentrations of iron are very low in these, it is important to exclude possible artefacts from the background spectrum related to iron present in the counter and cryostat windows. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of determination of the amounts of iron in investigated sample: one, in which the background spectrum was subtracted from the sample spectrum measured, and the other, in which the obtained non-elaborated spectrum was fitted with two doublets - a doublet for the measured sample and a doublet for the background spectrum. Three samples containing known amounts of natural iron (400, 800 and 1600 μg and a sample of lyophilized human brain tissue obtained from globus pallidus were assessed. Both methods led to the creation of a very good calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Although both methods gave similar results for the concentration of iron in the sample, the subtraction of the background spectrum had a significantly lower error of the final result.

  16. A near infrared instrument to monitor relative hemoglobin concentrations of human bone tissue in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Khambatta, Faram; Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Thomas, John C.; Clark, Jillian M.; Marshall, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A continuous wave near infrared instrument has been developed to monitor in vivo changes in the hemoglobin concentration of the trabecular compartment of human bone. The transmitter uses only two laser diodes of wavelengths 685 and 830 nm, and the receiver uses a single silicon photodiode operating in the photovoltaic mode. The functioning of the instrument and the depth of penetration of the near infrared signals was determined in vitro using tissue-equivalent phantoms. The instrument achieves a depth of penetration of approximately 2 cm for an optode separation of 4 cm and, therefore, has the capacity to interrogate the trabecular compartment of human bone. The functioning of the instrument was tested in vivo to evaluate the relative oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of the proximal tibial bone of apparently healthy, normal weight, adult subjects in response to a 3 min on, 5 min off, vascular occlusion protocol. The traces of the relative Hb and HbO2 concentrations obtained were reproducible in controlled conditions. The instrument is relatively simple and flexible, and offers an inexpensive platform for further studies to obtain normative data for healthy cohorts, and to evaluate disease-specific performance characteristics for cohorts with vasculopathies of bone.

  17. MR image enhancement as a function of tissue gadolinium concentration, measured with polarized X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Morita, Y.; White, D.L.; Kaufman, L.; Brasch, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging contrast agents alter intensities nonlinearly relative to their tissue concentrations. To extract Gd concentrations from image intensity data, a 13-tube phantom (Gd-DTPA dilutions, 0-10/sup -2/M) was imaged (2 T, 3 mm, spin echo, 300 = msec repetition time, 15 = msec echo time, 128 X 256, four excitations). Also, 18 rats were studied with Gd-DTPA or albumin-(Gd-DTPA)/sub 19/ (nine each, three doses). Liver and renal cortex were imaged before and 10 minutes after contrast material administration, with immediate killing and harvesting, and enhancement was calculated. These samples were assayed by x-ray fluorescent excitation analysis (150-kVp beam, B/sub 4/C ceramic polarizer, Mo-Cu-Ni filter, Si[Li] detector). Gd levels as low as 0.5 ppm (--3.18 x 10/sup -6/M) could be detected in liquid or solid samples. Enhancement increased with a nonlinear relationship to Gd in the range measured. This assay for Gd permits empiric assessment of the relationship between pulse variables, intensity, and paramagnet concentration, allowing Gd values to be estimated from image intensities

  18. Study of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle tissue of cow and sheep marketed in Hamedan in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of heavy metals in food safety and detrimental effects of their high concentrations in food stuff is well documented. In this study, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in kidney, liver and muscle tissues of cow and sheep at Hamedan retails were evaluated. A total number of 180 samples was assessed for the amount of heavy metals as ppb in wet weight. For this, wet-digestion method was used to determine the concentration of given elements by ICP (Varian ES-710. Results showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals was determined in the liver and kidney samples, while the lowest concentration was found in muscle tissue. Among the heavy metals, Fe in cow’s liver had the highest concentration (25507±879 ppb and Cd in muscle tissue of sheep has the lowest concentration (192±54 ppb. In overall, accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of cows was higher than sheep. Statistical comparison of accumulated metals concentration in various tissues of these two animal groups showed significant difference (P

  19. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F.; Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie; Villamil, Luisa; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Ahrens, Michael J.; Luna-Acosta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  20. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F. [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Villamil, Luisa [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Thomas-Guyon, Hélène [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Ahrens, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ahrens@utadeo.edu.co [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Luna-Acosta, Andrea [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  1. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  2. Nutrient cycling, connectivity, and free-floating plant abundance in backwater lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.; Giblin, Shawn M.; James, William F.; Langrehr, H.A.; Rogala, James T.; Sullivan, John F.; Gray, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    River eutrophication may cause the formation of dense surface mats of free floating plants (FFP; e.g., duckweeds and filamentous algae) which may adversely affect the ecosystem. We investigated associations among hydraulic connectivity to the channel, nutrient cycling, FFP, submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in ten backwater lakes of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) that varied in connectivity to the channel. Greater connectivity was associated with higher water column nitrate (NO3-N) concentration, higher rates of sediment phosphorus (P) release, and higher rates of NO3-N flux to the sediments. Rates of sediment P and N (as NH4-N) release were similar to those of eutrophic lakes. Water column nutrient concentrations were high, and FFP tissue was nutrient rich suggesting that the eutrophic condition of the UMR often facilitated abundant FFP. However, tissue nutrient concentrations, and the associations between FFP biomass and water column nutrient concentrations, suggested that nutrients constrained FFP abundance at some sites. FFP abundance was positively associated with SAV abundance and negatively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration. These results illustrate important connections among hydraulic connectivity, nutrient cycling, FFP, SAV, and DO in the backwaters of a large, floodplain river.

  3. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meador, James P.; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. - Highlights: • Fish Plasma Model (FPM) to assess risk based on water and fish tissue concentrations. • Plasma levels predicted with receiving water concentrations underestimate exposure for feral fish.

  4. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1 em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca, da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano.This study aimed to evaluate the content of

  5. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, nutrient concentrations, and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient availability imbalan...

  6. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents (LA) in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient avail...

  7. Lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. Interim report No. 1, June-July 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, M.B.; Brun, P.; Gal, J.Y.; Reza, A.

    1987-07-01

    The objective of this phase of Toxicological Research on Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms is to improve both ecotoxicological tests in a chemically defined medium and a procedure of bioavailability study in field. In this first period the authors worked on breeding stock of earthworms (species Eisenia fetida andrei) in decomposing manure heaps to increase them and make them grow. They also installed two chambers with thermostats fixed at 20 C to do toxicity tests and chose chemical species of heavy-metal contaminants. For field procedure, they improved a practical way to sample both earthworms and soil in very close connections, avoiding artifacts. For both field procedure and laboratory tests, they tried to standardize a method to dissolve earthworms in acids and to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals inside. A preliminary set of samples in calcareous soils was started and analysis of them are in progress. For lab tests, the first part of the test (preliminary test) was started with the different contaminants (cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury) in an artificial medium named Artisol.

  8. Adipose tissue concentrations of PCB, HCB, chlordane, PBDE and P,P'-DDE and the risk for endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G.; Bavel, B. van; Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Oerebro Univ., Oerebro (Sweden); Hardell, L. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    adipose tissue concentrations of certain POPs, parity and hormone replacement as potential risk factors in women in relation to development of endometrial cancer.

  9. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  10. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  11. Doses de N e K no tomateiro sob estresse salino: I. Concentração de nutrientes no solo e na planta Doses of N and K in tomato under saline stress: I. Concentration of nutrients in the soil solution and plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F. Blanco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, culturas tolerantes à salinidade geralmente apresentam maiores teores foliares de certos nutrientes, sugerindo que a adubação em culturas sensíveis poderia elevar os teores desses nutrientes nas folhas, aumentando sua tolerância aos sais. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar os efeitos do N e do K na condutividade elétrica, pH e concentração de nutrientes da solução do solo e nos teores de nutrientes e prolina nas folhas do tomateiro irrigado com água salina. Os tratamentos foram compostos da combinação de três níveis de N (7,5; 15,0 e 22,5 g por planta e de K (8, 16 e 24 gK2O por planta aplicados via fertirrigação por gotejamento, no esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com cinco repetições, sendo que à água de irrigação foram adicionados os sais cloreto de sódio e cloreto de cálcio, para obtenção de condutividade elétrica da água de 9,5 dS m-1. As concentrações de NO3 e K na solução do solo e de N e K nas folhas do tomateiro aumentaram com as doses de N e K mas não promoveram redução dos teores de Cl nem de Na nas folhas das plantas. O aumento do teor de prolina com as doses de K e a redução de Cl/N com as doses de N, sugerem que o aumento na adubação potássica e nitrogenada pode ser benéfico para o tomateiro sob condições de salinidade moderada.Crops tolerant to salinity generally present higher concentrations of some nutrients in the leaves, suggesting that the fertilization of sensitive crops could increase the contents of these nutrients in the leaves to increase the crop tolerance to salts. This work had the objective of studying the effects of N and K on electrical conductivity, pH and nutrient concentrations of soil solution and on concentration of nutrients and proline in the leaves of tomatos irrigated with saline water. The treatments were composed of the combination of three levels of N (7.5, 15.0 and 22.5 g per plant and K (8, 16 and 24 g K2O per plant applied by drip fertigation, in a 3

  12. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-11-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  14. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  15. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximize anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167–404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g−1, respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all −1.

  16. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J R; Porcher, S T; Smerud, J R; Gaikowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximise anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167-404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g(-1), respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all < 39 µg g(-1).

  17. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  18. Mercury and Methylmercury Concentrations in Muscle Tissue of Fish Caught in Major Rivers of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kružíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate mercury contamination at twelve outlet sites of rivers in the Czech Republic (Labe, Ohře, Vltava, Berounka, Sázava, Otava, Lužnice, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra. As an indicator, we used muscle tissue of the chub (Leuciscus cephalus caught at selected sites in 2007. A total of 96 fish were examined. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the AMA 254 analyzer and methylmercury was determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Total mercury (THg and methylmercury (MeHg concentrations ranged 0.039–0.384 mg kg-1 fresh weight and 0.033–0.362 mg kg-1 fresh weight, respectively. Mercury bound in methylmercury (HgMe made up on average about 82.2% of total mercury. The highest mercury concentrations were found in fish from Obříství, a site on Labe (THg 0.263 ± 0.086 mg kg-1; MeHg 0.256 ± 0.084 mg kg-1. Mercury concentrations in fish from rivers that cross the borders of the Czech Republic (Labe, Odra and Morava were low. The Czech Republic therefore does not contribute significantly to river pollution outside its national borders. Hazard indices of the sites monitored were well below 1, and reached 1.365 only in Obříství on Labe for fisherman’s family members (i.e. in the case of annual consumption of 10 kg fish. This indicates possible hazards involved in eating meat of fish caught in that location. Based on PTWI for methylmercury, the maximum amount of fish meat allowed for consumption per week was calculated. The site with the lowest value was Obříství on Labe (0.44 kg. The results of this study present a partial contribution to health risk assessment on the major rivers in Czech Republic.

  19. Relationship between biomarker responses and contaminant concentration in selected tissues of flounder (Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podolska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the Gulf of Gdańsk discussed the responses of selected enzymatic biomarkers to the contaminant gradient in fish and mussels. In the present study, flounder muscle and liver tissues were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, HCB and DDTs, and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr. An attempt was made to identify the relationship between the measured enzymatic biomarker responses (cholinesterases, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase and contaminant concentrations in selected flounder tissues. The observed differences in enzymatic biomarker levels suggest that chronic exposure to low-concentration mixtures of contaminants may be occurring in the studied area. However, no conclusive evidence was found of a clear link between the biomarker responses and contaminant concentrations in flounder tissues.

  20. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  1. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  2. Maternal nutrient restriction in mid-to-late gestation influences fetal mRNA expression in muscle tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Francois; Wood, Katie M; Swanson, Kendall C; Miller, Stephen P; McBride, Brian W; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn

    2017-08-18

    Manipulating maternal nutrition during specific periods of gestation can result in re-programming of fetal and post-natal development. In this experiment we investigated how a feed restriction of 85% compared with 140% of total metabolizable energy requirements, fed to cows during mid-to-late gestation, influences phenotypic development of fetuses and mRNA expression of growth (Insulin-Like Growth Factor family and Insulin Receptor (INSR)), myogenic (Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1), Myogenin (MYOG), Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A (MEF2A), Serum Response Factor (SRF)) and adipogenic (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)) genes in fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle. DNA methylation of imprinted genes, Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) and Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Receptor (IGF2R), and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, were also examined as potential consequences of poor maternal nutrition, but also potential regulators of altered gene expression patterns. While the nutrient restriction impacted dam body weight, no differences were observed in phenotypic fetal measurements (weight, crown-rump length, or thorax circumference). Interestingly, LD and ST muscles responded differently to the differential pre-natal nutrient levels. While LD muscle of restricted fetal calves had greater mRNA abundances for Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 and its receptor (IGF1 and IGF1R), IGF2R, INSR, MYOD1, MYOG, and PPARG, no significant differences were observed for gene expression in ST muscle. Similarly, feed restriction had a greater impact on the methylation level of IGF2 Differentially Methylated Region 2 (DMR2) in LD muscle as compared to ST muscle between treatment groups. A negative correlation existed between IGF2 mRNA expression and IGF2 DMR2 methylation level in both LD and ST muscles. Differential expression of miRNAs 1 and 133a were also detected in LD muscle. Our data suggests that a nutrient restriction of 85% as compared to 140

  3. Study of relationship of selenium concentration in blood components and tumor tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Bakir, M. A.; Yassine, T.; Sarhel, A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium (Se) concentration in blood components and tumour tissues of breast and GI tract cancers using neutron activation analysis. red blood cell (RBC) and serum Se concentrations were determined in 50 healthy volunteers aged 25-84 years, 70 breast cancer patients aged 25-70 years and 34 GI tract cancer patients aged 31-85 years, Se levels were also determined in malignant and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer and GI tract cancer patients. The results showed that Se concentrations in serum and RBC were significantly lower among breast and GI cancer compared to healthy volunteers. The results also showed that Se concentrations were significantly higher in the cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. These data have shown a relationship between selenium status in blood components and both cancer. selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumours. (author)

  4. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues 60 years after intake: results of TL measurements and applications for Techa River dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A.Yu.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Verdi, E. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Veronese, I. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); El-Faramawy, N.A. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Ain Shams University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Goeksu, H.Y. [German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Adiyaman University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    This article focuses on the study of {sup 90}Sr in the tooth tissues of Techa riverside residents 60 years after intake. The Techa River was contaminated by radioactive wastes in the 1950s. Contamination of the river system, including water, bottom sediment, floodplain soil, and grass, depended on the distance from the source of releases. Therefore, the average {sup 90}Sr intake was different in different settlements located downstream the river. An additional factor influencing {sup 90}Sr accumulation in the teeth is the rate of tissue mineralization at the time of intake which depended on the donor's age at the time of releases. Measurements of {sup 90}Sr concentration in various dental tissues (enamel, crown, and root dentin) of 166 teeth were performed about 60 years after the main intake using the method of thermoluminescence passive beta detection. The paper presents the current levels of tooth tissue contamination, and the tooth-to-tooth variability of {sup 90}Sr concentration in tooth tissues was assessed for the tissues which were matured at the time of massive liquid radioactive waste releases into the Techa River. A model describing the expected levels of {sup 90}Sr in matured dental tissues depending on age and intake has been elaborated for the population under study. The results obtained will be used for calculation of internal dose in enamel and for interpretation of tooth doses measured by means of the electron paramagnetic resonance method, among the population of the Techa River region. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    shahrzad karami; mehdi zarei; jafar yasrebi; najafali karimian; s.Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted fr...

  6. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life

  7. Chronic stress alters concentrations of corticosterone receptors in a tissue-specific manner in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2014-07-15

    The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT). Whereas short-term activation of this response helps animals cope with environmental stressors, chronic activation can result in negative effects including metabolic dysregulation and reproductive failure. However, there is no consensus hormonal profile of a chronically stressed animal, suggesting that researchers may need to look beyond hormone titers to interpret the impacts of chronic stress. In this study, we brought wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) into captivity. We then compared glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor concentrations in sparrows exposed either to a standardized chronic stress protocol (n=26) or to standard husbandry conditions (controls; n=20). We used radioligand binding assays to quantify receptors in whole brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, gonads, gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscle, omental and subcutaneous fat, and bib and back skin. In most tissues, CORT receptors did not differ between controls and stressed animals, although we found marginal increases in receptor density in kidney and testes in stressed birds at some time points. Only in pectoralis muscle was there a robust effect of chronic stress, with both receptor types higher in stressed animals. Increased pectoralis sensitivity to CORT with chronic stress may be part of the underlying mechanism for muscle wasting in animals administered exogenous CORT. Furthermore, the change in pectoralis was not paralleled by gastrocnemius receptors. This difference may help explain previous reports of a greater effect of CORT on pectoralis than on other muscle types, and indicate that birds use this muscle as a protein reserve. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Changes in the concentration of sulfhydryl groups in tissues of rats under the influence of gamma-radiation and adeturon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.; Bychvarova, K.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of SH-groups in the spleen, liver and bone marrow in rats was determined using the method of Sedlak and Lindsey. The changes in thiol level have been traced under the single influence of Adeturon and combined influence of radiation with 7,5 Gy and of Adeturon introduced 15 min before radiation. The animals were killed on 30th, 45th and 90th minute after the exerted influence. The control animals had physiological solution introduced. under the single influence of Adeturon there was increase in SH-groups mainly in the bone marrow in later terms after the exerted influence (the 90th minute), while P-SH in the spleen and liver decrease within the same term. The changes of NP-SH in the spleen and liver are opposite in nature. Under the influence of radiation P-SH in the liver and the spleen slightly decrease, while those in the bone marrow considerably increase on the 60th minute. NP-SH abruptly decrease on the 45th minute in the liver, while those in the spleen and bone marrow slightly differentiate from the control values. In animals protected by Adeturon P-SH in the bone marrow increase on the 30th and 45th minute, while those in the spleen decrease on the 90th minute. NP-SH decrease in the liver. The results obtained show that under the influence of Adeturon some changes occur in the level of thiols in tissues of both nonradiated and radiated animals

  9. Effects of CO 2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic fluctuations of CO 2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO 2 concentration levels of 35 μl l -1 at which CO 2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO 2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO 2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 μmol m -2 s -1, and CO 2 concentrations of 350 ± 50 μl l -1, 650 ± 50 μl l -1 and 950 ± 50 μl l -1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO 2 concentration of 650 ± 50 μl l -1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO 2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO 2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO 2 enrichment to 350 ± 50 μl l -1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2016-05-31

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to affect the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. However, potential effects on the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins in lactating animals and co-occurring effects on their offspring are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on concentrations of tocopherol in various tissues of lactating rats and their offspring and expression of genes involved in tocopherol metabolism. Twenty-eight Wistar Han rats were allocated to 2 groups and fed either a control diet (control group) or a diet containing 0.9 % of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group) during pregnancy and lactation. Feed intake of dams and body weight of dams and their pups were recorded weekly. Tocopherol concentrations in various body tissues were determined at day 14 of lactation in dams and 1, 7 and 14 days after birth in pups. Expression of selected genes involved in metabolism of tocopherol was determined in dams and pups. The data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Feed intake and body weight development of nursing rats and their pups was similar in both groups. In livers of CLA-fed dams, tocopherol concentrations decreased by 24 % but expression of TTPA and CYP3A1, involved in tocopherol transport and metabolism, were not influenced. In the dams' adipose tissue, gene expression of receptors involved in tissue tocopherol uptake, LDLR and SCARB1, but not of LPL, increased by 30 to 50 % and tocopherol concentrations increased by 47 % in CLA-fed compared to control dams. Expression of LPL, LDLR and SCARB1 in mammary gland was not influenced by CLA-feeding. Tocopherol concentrations in the pup's livers and lungs were similar in both groups, but at 14 days of age, adipose tissue tocopherol concentrations, and LDLR and SCARB1 expression, were higher in the CLA-exposed pups. We show that dietary CLA affects tissue concentrations of tocopherol in lactating rats and tocopherol metabolism in

  11. Nutrient Concentrations in Upper and Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and Associated Outlet Streams, California and Nevada, 2002-03

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Water samples were collected to determine seasonal and spatial concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus...

  12. Evaluation of a method for determining concentrations of isoeugenol, an AQUI-S residue, in fillet tissue from freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Bernardy, Jeffry A

    2008-01-01

    AQUI-S is a fish anesthetic/sedative that is approved for use in a number of countries throughout the world and has the potential for use in the United States. The active ingredient in AQUI-S is isoeugenol. A method for determining isoeugenol concentrations in edible fillet tissue is needed for regulatory purposes, including surveillance and potential use in studies fulfilling human food safety data requirements if U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval is pursued. A method was developed and evaluated for determining isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue using relatively common procedures and equipment. The method produced accurate and precise results with fillet tissue from 10 freshwater fish species. The percentage of isoeugenol recovered from samples fortified with isoeugenol at nominal concentrations of 1, 50, and 100 microg/g for all species was always >80 and fillet tissue containing biologically incurred isoeugenol was fillet tissue extracts from 9 of the 10 species. The method detection limits for all but one species ranged from 0.004 to 0.014 microg/g, and the quantitation limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.048 microg/g.

  13. The occurence of nitrofuran metabolites in the tissues of chickens exposed to very low dietary concentration in the nitrofurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, R.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Kennedy, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The global problem of food products contaminated by residues of the banned carcinogenic nitrofuran drugs has prompted research into how such residues accumulate in tissues. In the study described here, two aspects have been investigated where the nitrofurans accumulate in tissues from chickens

  14. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khateri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO, containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control, 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05 compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05 in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent

  15. Evaluation of light scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue based on diffuse reflectance signals at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a method to evaluate light-scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in human skin tissue through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the reflectance signals acquired at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (420, 450, 500, and 585 nm). In the proposed method, Monte Carlo simulation-based empirical formulas are used to specify the scattering parameters of skin tissue, such as the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b, as well as the concentration of melanin C m and the total blood concentration C tb. The use of isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin enables the values of C m, C tb, a, and b to be estimated independently of the oxygenation of hemoglobin. The spectrum of the reduced scattering coefficient is reconstructed from the scattering parameters. Experiments using in vivo human skin tissues were performed to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method for evaluating the changes in scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue. The experimental results revealed that light scattering is significantly reduced by the application of a glycerol solution, which indicates an optical clearing effect due to osmotic dehydration and the matching of the refractive indices of scatterers in the epidermis.

  16. Real time monitoring of pulsatile change in hemoglobin concentrations of cerebral tissue by a portable tissue oximeter with a 10-Hz sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Toshikazu; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanabe, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    A portable CW tissue oximeter of a 10-Hz sampling rate was developed for examination of pulsatile components of the output signals as a mean of checking the signal reliability during long-term monitoring. Feasible studies were performed on a healthy subject. Changes in Hb and HbO2 signals of cerebral tissue were continuously measured by placing a photoprobe on the forehead during 6-hour sleep. Pulsatile changes in Hb and HbO2 were steadily observed over a whole period of the recording. The phase relation of pulsation in Hb and HbO2 was almost inverse. Not only information for reliable monitoring but also physiological parameters with respect to cerebral circulation and metabolism could be obtained by measuring the pulsatile components.

  17. Kinetic Behaviour of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in Different Tissues of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Exposed to Non-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Hisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd on the enzymatic activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD were investigated in the gill, liver and kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three test groups of fish were subjected to increasing concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/l of cadmium (Cd in vivo, respectively. The G6PD and 6PGD activities in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of each group of fish were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. G6PD and 6PGD enzyme activities, measured in gill, liver and kidney homogenates, were stimulated by various concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg/l of cadmium. Although the dose-response pattern of G6PD enzyme activities in liver and kidney tissue was very similar, that in gill was different from both other tissues. The enzyme activity of G6PD enzyme was significantly stimulated after three days (Day 3 in liver and kidney tissues at a dose of 1 mg/l Cd (p p p p p p < 0.05 in liver and kidney tissues at the doses of 3 and 1 mg/l Cd. The stimulation effect of cadmium on the three tissues studied was also calculated; for both of the enzymes (G6PD and 6PGD, the enzyme activity levels were stimulated by approximately 60% and 38% in gills, 68% and 44% in liver, and 67% and 41% in kidneys, respectively, over the base-line enzyme activity of the control groups during the sevenday experimental period. These findings indicate that tissue G6PD and 6PGD enzymes function to protect against cadmium toxicity.

  18. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Politécnica

    2017-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of {sup 137}Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  19. Study of the specific activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th in vegetables and their respective covering tissues (peels)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.M.; Garcêz, R.W.D.; Silva, A.X.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of specific concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th in some vegetables that are part of the diet of the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, was analyzed the concentrations of radionuclides in the same coating tissue that compose the vegetables. It can notice an increase of the specific concentration of 40 K in the peels of vegetables that have little or no contact with the ground. Among the samples examined, only the pumpkin showed measurable amount of 137 Cs both saves and in the skin. (author)

  20. Evaluation of iodate toxicity (KIO3 on growth, morpho-physiological characteristics and mineral nutrients concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to assess the effects of different iodate concentrations on morpho-physiological characteristics of potato. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out during the spring and summer 2013. Five concentrations of KIO3 including control beside 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/Kgsoil were applied through irrigation system. The results showed that all selected agronomical and morphological characteristics of potato except dry weight of stem (SDW and root (RDW were negatively affected by high iodate concentrations. The results showed that applying 80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil compared to control resulted in around 15, 86, 84, 41, 16, 25, 20, and 87% reductions in harvest index (HI, leaf dry weight (LDW, tuber dry weight (TDW, plant dry weight (PDW, stem length (SL, root length (RL, plant height (PH, and number of tuber per plant (NT, respectively. Iodate application (80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil vs. control also affected potato’s physiological characteristics including chlorophyll content (SPAD, relative water content (RWC, water use efficiency (WUE, evapo-transpiration efficiency (ETE, cell membrane stability index (CMSI and tolerance index (TI showing around 27, 12, 87, 39, 40, and 77% reductions for each one, respectively. Increasing iodate concentrations, although, showed no effect of Zn concentration of root and Fe and Mn concentrations of leaf, gradually decreased Zn concentration of leaf and increased Fe and Mn concentrations of root and Cu concentrations of root and leaf. Plants also showed several visible symptoms including stunting, chlorosis, browning of leaf tip and reduction in growth due to iodate toxicity.

  1. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  2. Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver, and lung tissue of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C; Othman, Othman C; Akwilapo, Leonard D; Bouwman, Hindrik; Mwevura, Haji

    2017-09-15

    Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver and lung tissues of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar were determined using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were quantifiable in all tissues at concentration ranges of 0.10-150, 0.08-3.2, 1.1-88 and 14-210μg/g dry mass, respectively. Copper and zinc was significantly higher in liver, and females had significantly higher Cd in liver, and chromium in lung. Generally, T. aduncus dolphins from coastal waters around Zanzibar carry low concentrations of metals compared with dolphins from other areas. Cadmium increased significantly with age in kidney and lung. Copper decreased significantly with age in liver, probably due to foetal metallothionein. This study supplied baseline data against which future trends in marine mammals in the Indian Ocean, the world's third largest, can be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DE HÚMUS DE MINHOCA E DE ESTERCO DE GADO NA CONCENTRAÇÃO FOLIAR DE NUTRIENTES E NA PRODUÇÃO DE MANGA 'TOMMY ATKINS' EFFECT OF EARTHWORM EXCREMENTS AND CATTLE MANURE ON LEAF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND ON THE PRODUCTION OF MANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVI JOSÉ SILVA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de húmus de minhoca e de esterco de gado na concentração foliar de nutrientes e na produção de manga 'Tommy Atkins', conduziu-se um experimento na empresa Meta Export Agrícola Ltda, no período de 1996 a 1999. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação fatorial de três fontes (húmus de minhoca - HM, esterco de gado - EG e mistura de HM + EG e cinco doses de matéria orgânica (0;20; 40; 60 e 80 dm³/planta. Os tratamentos foram aplicados, anualmente, no mês de janeiro, e as avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 1997, 1998 e 1999. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a concentração foliar de nutrientes. Os teores de nitrogênio nas folhas mostraram-se bastante elevados, e a concentração de cálcio apresentou-se muito baixa. Não houve diferença entre as fontes, nem entre as doses de matéria orgânica durante o período de estudo. Houve um crescimento na produção ao longo das safras, devido ao aumento na idade das plantas.Concurrent studies on the benefits of earthworm excrements and of cattle manure on leaf nutrient concentration and on the production of mango (Mangifera indica, variety Tommy Atkins, were conducted at Meta Export Agrícola Ltda, from 1996 to 1999. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination among three sources (earthworm excrements -- HM, cattle manure -- EG and a mixture of HM + EG and five levels of organic matter (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 dm³/plant. The treatments were applied annually always in January. The evaluations were carried out on growing season of 1997, 1998 and 1999. There was no effect of treatments on leaf nutrient concentration. The traits of nitrogen in the leaves were high and the concentration of calcium was low. There was neither difference among sources, nor among the levels of organic matter in the three years of study. There was an increase in production in all growing seasons, because of plant age.

  4. Infant cortisol concentrations do not differ by group in a randomized controlled trial of lipid based nutrient supplements among mothers and infants in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Prenatal malnutrition and stress have been associated with the regulation of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Objective: To evaluate whether maternal and infant nutritional supplementation was associated with salivary cortisol concentrations in Malawian infants. ...

  5. Late-pregnancy salivary cortisol concentrations of Ghanaian women participating in a randomized controlled trial of prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: High maternal circulating cortisol in pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Research in non-pregnant individuals suggests that reducing nutritional deficiencies may lower cortisol concentrations. It is unknown whether nutritional supplementation d...

  6. Effect of transportation stress on heat shock protein 70 concentration and mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues and serum enzyme activities and hormone concentrations of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Bao, En-Dong; Zhao, Ru-Qian; Lv, Qiong-Xia

    2007-11-01

    To determine the enzymatic and hormonal responses, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production, and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues of transport-stressed pigs. 24 pigs (mean weight, 20 +/- 1 kg). Pigs were randomly placed into groups of 12 each. One group was transported for 2 hours. The other group was kept under normal conditions and used as control pigs. Sera were used to detect triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. The heart and kidneys of anesthetized pigs were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen for quantification of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA. No significant differences were detected in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triiodothyronine and cortisol concentrations between groups; however, the serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and thyroxine concentrations were higher in transported pigs. Densitometric readings of western blots revealed that the amount of Hsp70 in heart and kidney tissues was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Results of fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the Hsp70 mRNA transcription in heart tissue, but not kidney tissue, was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Transportation imposed a severe stress on pigs that was manifested as increased serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase and increased amounts of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues. Changes in serum enzyme activities were related to the tissue damage of transport-stressed pigs.

  7. Concentration of nutrient solution in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers Concentração da solução nutritiva na produção hidropônica de minitubérculos de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Benito Novella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nutrient solution concentration on potato plant growth and minituber yield were determined in a sand closed hydroponic system. Minitubers and micropropagated plantlets of the cv. 'Macaca' were used. Treatments were five nutrient solution concentrations at electrical conductivities (EC of 1.0 (T1, 2.2 (T2, 3.4 (T3, 4.7 (T4 and 5.8dS m-1 (T5. The split plot randomised experimental design was used with three replications. Plants from minitubers produced higher fresh and mean weight of minitubers, shoot dry mass and leaf area index than the micropropagated ones. However, higher dry mass of minitubers was found with micropropagated plantlets compared to minitubers. The concentration of the nutrient solution did not affect minituber number. Increasing the nutrient solution concentration decreased total and minituber dry mass production of micropropagated plantlets and plant growth and minituber production of minituber-originated plants. Low concentration of nutrient solution at an EC of about 1.0dS m-1 can be used in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers of both micropropagated and minituber-originated plants.Neste trabalho foi determinado o efeito da concentração da solução nutritiva no crescimento e na produtividade de minitubérculos de batata em um sistema hidropônico fechado empregando areia como substrato. Plântulas micropropagadas e minitubérculos foram plantados em 24 de março de 2004. Os tratamentos foram cinco soluções nutritivas com condutividades elétricas (CE de 1,0 (T1, 2,2 (T2, 3,4 (T3, 4,7 (T4 e 5,8dS m-1 (T5. O experimento foi conduzido em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Plantas originadas de minitubérculos produziram mais massa fresca total e média de minitubérculos, massa seca da parte aérea e maior índice de área foliar que plantas micropropagadas. Entretanto, maior massa seca dos minitubérculos foi obtida em plantas micropropagadas

  8. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  9. Concentration of labelled polyphosphates in soft tissue lesions. Application to the study of cerebral and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemart, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    The biological behavior and tissue localization of phosphorus compounds used in Nuclear Medicine are reviewed. The mechanism of skeletal localization is emphasized. Labeled pyrophosphate compounds have proved extremely useful for skeletal imaging, however the mechanism of increased accumulation of these agents has been observed also in soft tissues. They localize in the acutely infarcted myocardium and in brain lesions. Clinical results obtained with sup(99m)Tc stannous pyrophosphate in brain and myocardium imaging are reported [fr

  10. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  11. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of gadolinium and yttrium on biomass production and nutrient balance of maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatz, Jessica; Vetterlein, Doris; Mattusch, Jürgen; Otto, Matthias; Daus, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L −1 . It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L −1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L −1  Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. - Highlights: • Roots accumulate REE in very high concentrations. • Transfer factors from root to shoot tissue are very low, with HREE higher than MREE. • The nutrient balance of the plant is severely influenced by REE addition. • Phosphate deficiency appears at high concentrations of REE addition. - The addition of the rare-earth elements Gd and Y results in less Ca and Mg uptake and phosphate deficiency in maize plants grown in hydroponics

  13. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue are important biomarkers that are useful in both research and clinical diagnostics of a wide variety of diseases such as cancer. The authors aim to develop simple ratiometric method based on the spectral filtering modulation (SFM) of fluorescence spectra to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum, which will eliminate the need of diffuse reflectance measurements and prolonged data processing as required by most current methods, thus enabling rapid clinical measurements. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the total hemoglobin concentration is determined by comparing a ratio of fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths to a calibration curve. The second step is to estimate oxygen saturation by comparing a double ratio that involves three emission wavelengths to another calibration curve that is a function of oxygen saturation for known total hemoglobin concentration. Theoretical derivation shows that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentrations and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation for the chosen fiber-optic probe geometry. Experiments on synthetic fluorescent tissue phantoms, which included hemoglobin with both constant and varying oxygenation as the absorber, polystyrene spheres as scatterers, and flavin adenine dinucleotide as the fluorophore, were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Tissue phantom experiments confirm that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentration and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin oxygenation. Furthermore, the relations between the two ratios and the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation are insensitive

  14. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  15. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  16. Effects of different concentrations of Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma on vitality and differentiation of autologous Adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthaus, Oliver; Prantl, Lukas; Skaff-Schwarze, Mona; Klein, Silvan; Anker, Alexandra; Ranieri, Marco; Kuehlmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.

  17. Effect of laser wavelength and protein solder concentration on acute tissue repair using laser welding: initial results in a canine ureter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Poppas, D P

    1997-01-01

    Successful tissue approximation can be performed using low power laser energy combined with human albumin solder. In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the acute repair strengths achieved using different laser wavelengths. Furthermore, we evaluated the change in repair strength with that resulted from changes in protein solder concentration. Intraluminal bursting pressure following ureterotomy repair was measured for the following laser wavelengths: 532, 808, 1,320, 2,100, and 10,600 nm. The tissue absorption characteristics of the 808-nm diode and the KTP-532-nm lasers required the addition of the exogenous chromophores indocyanine green and fluorescein, respectively. A 40% human albumin solder was incorporated in the repair of a 1.0-cm longitudinal defect in the canine ureter. Following determination of an optimal welding wavelength, human albumin solder of varying concentrations (25%, 38%, 45%, and 50%) were prepared and tested. The 1,320-nm YAG laser achieved the highest acute bursting pressure and was the most effective in this model. Of the concentrations of albumin tested, 50% human albumin yielded the greatest bursting pressures. We conclude that of the laser wavelengths evaluated, the 1,320-nm YAG achieves the strongest tissue weld in the acute ex vivo dog ureter model. In addition, when this laser system is used, the acute strength of a photothermal weld appears to be directly proportional to the concentration of human albumin solder in the range of 25 to 50%.

  18. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi,; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. - Highlights: • A method for 10B measurements in samples based on neutron autoradiography was developed. • The results were compared with those of alpha spectrometry applied on tissue and cell samples. • Boronated liposomes were developed and administered to osteosarcoma cell cultures. • Neutron autoradiography was employed to measure boron concentration due to liposomes. • Liposomes were proved to be more effective in concentrating boron in cells than BPA

  19. Odorous volatile organic compounds, Escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations when kiln-dried pine chips and corn stover bedding are used in beef bedded manure packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine (Pinus spp.) bedding has been shown to lower the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pathogenic bacteria compared with corn (Zea mays L.) stover bedding, but availability and cost limit the use of pine bedding in cattle confinement facilities. The objectives of this s...

  20. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  1. Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. Michael; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grace, James B.; Lind, Eric M.; Adler, Peter B.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Daleo, Pedro; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W. Stanley; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schütz, Martin; Seabloom, Eric W.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren; Wragg, Peter; Borer, Elizabeth T.

    2018-01-01

    Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and atmospheric N deposition emerged as strong predictors of plot‐level tissue nutrients, mediated by biomass and plant chemistry. Within sites, fertilization increased total plant nutrient pools, but results were contingent on soil fertility and the proportion of grass biomass relative to other functional types. Total plant nutrient pools diverged strongly in response to herbivore exclusion when fertilized; responses were largest in ungrazed plots at low rainfall, whereas herbivore grazing dampened the plant community nutrient responses to fertilization. Our study highlights (1) the importance of climate in determining plant nutrient concentrations mediated through effects on plant biomass, (2) that eutrophication affects grassland nutrient pools via both soil and atmospheric pathways and (3) that interactions among soils, herbivores and eutrophication drive plant nutrient responses at small scales, especially at water‐limited sites.

  2. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  3. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at sites in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers in northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2009 (water years 2006 to 2009). Nutrient and sediment loads and yields also were computed for the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River not represented by the South and North Pacolet River Basins. Except for a few outliers, the majority of the measurements of total nitrogen concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.69 milligram per liter for streams and rivers in the nutrient ecoregion IX, which includes the study area within the Pacolet River Basin. Dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower at the South Pacolet River site compared to the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites. About 90 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the South Pacolet River site were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.37 milligram per liter, and more than 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites were above that guideline. At all sites, minimum annual nutrient loads for the estimation period were observed during water year 2008 when severe drought conditions were present. An estimated mean annual total nitrogen load of 37,770 kilograms per year and yield of 2.63 kilograms per hectare per year were determined for the South Pacolet River site for the estimation period. The North Pacolet River site had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 65,890 kilograms per year and yield of 2.19 kilograms per hectare per year

  4. Anthropogenic impacts on mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in fish muscle tissue of the Truckee River watershed, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Saito, Laurel; Peacock, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The lower Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada (NV), USA and ends in the terminal water body, Pyramid Lake, NV. The river has minimal anthropogenic inputs of contaminants until it encounters the cities of Reno and Sparks, NV, and receives inflows from Steamboat Creek (SBC). SBC originates at Washoe Lake, NV, where there were approximately six mills that used mercury for gold and silver amalgamation in the late 1800s. Since then, mercury has been distributed down the creek to the Truckee River. In addition, SBC receives agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, and treated effluent from the Reno-Sparks water reclamation facility. Fish muscle tissue was collected from different species in SBC and the Truckee River and analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes. Nitrogen (?δ 15 N) and carbon (?δ 13 C) isotopic values in these tissues provide insight as to fish food resources and help to explain their relative Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations, and ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C values in fish muscle from the Truckee River, collected below the SBC confluence, were significantly different than that found in fish collected upstream. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue collected below the confluence for all but three fish sampled were significantly greater (0.1 to 0.65 μg/g wet wt.) than that measured in the tissue collected above the confluence (0.02 to 0.1 μg/g). ?δ 15 N and ?δ 13 C isotopic values of fish muscle collected from the river below the confluence were higher and lower, respectively, than that measured in fish collected up river, most likely reflecting wastewater inputs. The impact of SBC inputs on muscle tissue isotope values declined down river whereas the impact due to Hg inputs showed the opposite trend

  5. Quantitative determination of localized tissue oxygen concentration in vivo by two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mik, Egbert G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Raat, Nicolaas J.; Ince, Can

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the use of two-photon excitation phosphorescence lifetime measurements for quantitative oxygen determination in vivo. Doubling the excitation wavelength of Pd-porphyrin from visible light to the infrared allows for deeper tissue penetration and a more precise and confined

  6. Absolute nutrient concentration measurements in cell culture media: 1H q-NMR spectra and data to compare the efficiency of pH-controlled protein precipitation versus CPMG or post-processing filtering approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Goldoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The NMR spectra and data reported in this article refer to the research article titled “A simple and accurate protocol for absolute polar metabolite quantification in cell cultures using q-NMR” [1]. We provide the 1H q-NMR spectra of cell culture media (DMEM after removal of serum proteins, which show the different efficiency of various precipitating solvents, the solvent/DMEM ratios, and pH of the solution. We compare the data of the absolute nutrient concentrations, measured by PULCON external standard method, before and after precipitation of serum proteins and those obtained using CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence or applying post-processing filtering algorithms to remove, from the 1H q-NMR spectra, the proteins signal contribution. For each of these approaches, the percent error in the absolute value of every measurement for all the nutrients is also plotted as accuracy assessment. Keywords: 1H NMR, pH-controlled serum removal, PULCON, Accuracy, CPMG, Deconvolution

  7. Short and long term modulation of tissue minerals concentrations following oral administration of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil to laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Irum; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2018-01-15

    Nigella sativa, or commonly called black cumin is a small herb of family Ranunculaceae is a well-known medicinal plant but its effects on tissue mineral concentrations of animal bodies is unknown. To study the effect of oral administration of fixed oil of black cumin seeds on tissues mineral content using laboratory rats as experimental model. Experimental animals were exposed to two oral doses of seed oil (60 and 120 ml kg -1 body weight). Short- and long term experiments lasted 24 h and 60 days respectively, with three replicates each. Oil extracted from black cumin seeds was subjected to GC-MS to identify chemical components. Following the wet digestion in nitric acid, samples of whole blood and organs of rats were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determination of elements concentrations. Data were compared statistically at p < .05. Compared to control, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn showed decrease, whereas Co, Na, Mg and K demonstrated increase, but Ca showed both increase and decrease in most of the tissues upon short term exposure to low and high doses of black cumin oil. During long term exposure, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu exhibited decrease; Co, Na, Mg and Ca concentrations demonstrated an upregulation, whereas Ni and Zn showed increase and decrease in most of the tissues. Comparison of short term with long term experiments at low dose revealed increases in Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, K and Ca, a decrease in Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in most tissues, but both increase and decrease in Na. At high dose, an increase occurred in Fe, Ni, Zn, K, Ca, Mg, a decrease in Cr, while both increase and decrease in Cu, Co and Na concentrations. Our study demonstrates that oral administration of black cumin seeds oil to laboratory rats significantly alters tissue trace elements and electrolytes concentrations. The study appears beneficial but indicates modulatory role of black cumin oil as regards mineral metabolism with far reaching implications in health and disease. Copyright © 2017

  8. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  10. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each