WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue novice surgeons

  1. Feasibility of an AI-Based Measure of the Hand Motions of Expert and Novice Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munenori Uemura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether parameters derived from hand motions of expert and novice surgeons accurately and objectively reflect laparoscopic surgical skill levels using an artificial intelligence system consisting of a three-layer chaos neural network. Sixty-seven surgeons (23 experts and 44 novices performed a laparoscopic skill assessment task while their hand motions were recorded using a magnetic tracking sensor. Eight parameters evaluated as measures of skill in a previous study were used as inputs to the neural network. Optimization of the neural network was achieved after seven trials with a training dataset of 38 surgeons, with a correct judgment ratio of 0.99. The neural network that prospectively worked with the remaining 29 surgeons had a correct judgment rate of 79% for distinguishing between expert and novice surgeons. In conclusion, our artificial intelligence system distinguished between expert and novice surgeons among surgeons with unknown skill levels.

  2. An evidence-based virtual reality training program for novice laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Eriksen, Jens R; Blirup, Dorthe; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Darzi, Ara

    2006-08-01

    To develop an evidence-based virtual reality laparoscopic training curriculum for novice laparoscopic surgeons to achieve a proficient level of skill prior to participating in live cases. Technical skills for laparoscopic surgery must be acquired within a competency-based curriculum that begins in the surgical skills laboratory. Implementation of this program necessitates the definition of the validity, learning curves and proficiency criteria on the training tool. The study recruited 40 surgeons, classified into experienced (performed >100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies) or novice groups (<10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies). Ten novices and 10 experienced surgeons were tested on basic tasks, and 11 novices and 9 experienced surgeons on a procedural module for dissection of Calot triangle. Performance of the 2 groups was assessed using time, error, and economy of movement parameters. All basic tasks demonstrated construct validity (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05), and learning curves for novices plateaued at a median of 7 repetitions (Friedman's test, P < 0.05). Expert surgeons demonstrated a learning rate at a median of 2 repetitions (P < 0.05). Performance on the dissection module demonstrated significant differences between experts and novices (P < 0.002); learning curves for novice subjects plateaued at the fourth repetition (P < 0.05). Expert benchmark criteria were defined for validated parameters on each task. A competency-based training curriculum for novice laparoscopic surgeons has been defined. This can serve to ensure that junior trainees have acquired prerequisite levels of skill prior to entering the operating room, and put them directly into practice.

  3. Supervision by a technically qualified surgeon affects the proficiency and safety of laparoscopic colectomy performed by novice surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Nobuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Ohno, Yosuke; Kawamura, Hideki; Kamiizumi, You; Iijima, Hiroaki; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2018-01-01

    The use of laparoscopic colectomy is becoming widespread and acquisition of its technique is challenging. In this study, we investigated whether supervision by a technically qualified surgeon affects the proficiency and safety of laparoscopic colectomy performed by novice surgeons. The outcomes of 23 right colectomies and 19 high anterior resections for colon cancers performed by five novice surgeons (experience level of <10 cases) between 2014 and 2016 were assessed. A laparoscopic surgeon qualified by the Endoscopic Surgical Skill Qualification System (Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery) participated in surgeries as the teaching assistant. In the right colectomy group, one patient (4.3%) required conversion to open surgery and postoperative morbidities occurred in two cases (8.6%). The operative time moving average gradually decreased from 216 to 150 min, and the blood loss decreased from 128 to 28 mL. In the CUSUM charts, the values for operative time decreased continuously after the 18th case, as compared to the Japanese standard. The values for blood loss also plateaued after the 18th case. In the high anterior resection group, one patient (5.2%) required conversion to open surgery and no postoperative complication occurred in any patient. The operative time moving average gradually decreased from 258 to 228 min, and the blood loss decreased from 33 to 18 mL. The CUSUM charts showed that the values of operative time plateaued after the 18th case, as compared to the Japanese standard. In the CUSUM chart for blood loss, no distinguishing peak or trend was noted. Supervision by a technically qualified surgeon affects the proficiency and safety of laparoscopic colectomy performed by novice surgeons. The trainee's learning curve in this study represents successful mentoring by the laparoscopic surgeon qualified by the Endoscopic Surgical Skill Qualification System.

  4. Portal placement in elbow arthroscopy by novice surgeons: cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Kachooei, Amir R; Kolovich, Gregory P; Buijze, Geert A; Oh, Luke S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N

    2017-07-01

    In this anatomical cadaver study, the distance between major nerves and ligaments at risk for injury and portal sites created by trainees was measured. Trainees, inexperienced in elbow arthroscopy, have received a didactic lecture and cadaver instruction prior to portal placement. The incidence of iatrogenic injury from novice portal placement was also determined. Anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial arthroscopic portals were created in ten cadavers by ten inexperienced trainees in elbow arthroscopy. After creating each portal, the trajectory of the portal was marked with a guide pin. Subsequently, the cadavers were dissected and the distances between the guide pin in the anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial portals and important ligaments and nerves were measured. The difference between the distance of the direct lateral portal and the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN) (22 mm, p cadaver instruction session alone. Level of evidence V.

  5. Comparing the da Vinci si single console and dual console in teaching novice surgeons suturing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusco, Salvatore; Jackson, Tiffany; Advincula, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is often taught with the surgical mentor at the surgeon console and the trainee at the patient's bedside. The da Vinci dual console (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) allows a surgical mentor to teach with both the mentor and the trainee working at a surgeon console simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dual console versus the single console for teaching medical students robotic tasks. Forty novice medical students were randomized to either the da Vinci single-console or dual-console group and were taught 4 knot-tying techniques by a surgical mentor. The students were timed while performing the tasks. No statistically significant differences in mean task times were observed between the single- and dual-console groups: interrupted stitch with a 2-handed knot (300 seconds for single vs 294 seconds for dual, P=.59), interrupted stitch with a 1-handed knot (198 seconds for single vs 212 seconds for dual, P=.88), figure-of-8 stitch with a 2-handed knot (261 seconds for single vs 219 seconds for dual, P=.20), and figure-of-8 stitch with a 1-handed knot (200 seconds for single vs 199 seconds for dual, P=.53). No significant difference was observed in performance time when teaching knot-tying techniques to medical students using the da Vinci dual console compared with the single console. More research needs to be performed on the utility of the da Vinci dual console in surgical training.

  6. Muscle-Cooling Intervention to Reduce Fatigue and Fatigue-Induced Tremor in Novice and Experienced Surgeons: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lauren; Dancisak, Michael; Korndorffer, James

    2016-01-01

    A localized, intermittent muscle-cooling protocol was implemented to determine cooling garment efficacy in reducing upper extremity muscular fatigue and tremor in novice ( n  = 10) and experienced surgeons ( n  = 9). Subjects wore a muscle-cooling garment while performing multiple trials of a forearm exercise and paired suturing task to induce muscular fatigue and exercise-induced tremor. A reduction in tremor amplitude and an extension in time to fatigue were expected with muscle...

  7. Impaired laparoscopic performance of novice surgeons due to phone call distraction: a single-centre, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Heinze, Julia; Helmert, Jens; Weitz, Juergen; Reissfelder, Christoph; Mees, Soeren Torge

    2017-12-01

    Distractions such as phone calls during laparoscopic surgery play an important role in many operating rooms. The aim of this single-centre, prospective study was to assess if laparoscopic performance is impaired by intraoperative phone calls in novice surgeons. From October 2015 to June 2016, 30 novice surgeons (medical students) underwent a laparoscopic surgery training curriculum including two validated tasks (peg transfer, precision cutting) until achieving a defined level of proficiency. For testing, participants were required to perform these tasks under three conditions: no distraction (control) and two standardised distractions in terms of phone calls requiring response (mild and strong distraction). Task performance was evaluated by analysing time and accuracy of the tasks and response of the phone call. In peg transfer (easy task), mild distraction did not worsen the performance significantly, while strong distraction was linked to error and inefficiency with significantly deteriorated performance (P phone call distractions result in impaired laparoscopic performance under certain circumstances. To ensure patient safety, phone calls should be avoided as far as possible in operating rooms.

  8. 3D straight-stick laparoscopy versus 3D robotics for task performance in novice surgeons: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Fevzi; Jan, Haider; Kent, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The advent of three-dimensional passive stereoscopic imaging has led to the development of 3D laparoscopy. In simulation tasks, a reduction in error rate and performance time is seen with 3D compared to two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy with both novice and expert surgeons. Robotics utilises 3D and instrument articulation through a console interface. Robotic trials have demonstrated that tasks performed in 3D produced fewer errors and quicker performance times compared with those in 2D. It was therefore perceived that the main advantage of robotic surgery was in fact 3D. Our aim was to compare 3D straight-stick laparoscopic task performance (3D) with robotic 3D (Robot), to determine whether robotic surgery confers additional benefit over and above 3D visualisation. We randomised 20 novice surgeons to perform four validated surgical tasks, either with straight-stick 3D laparoscopy followed by 3D robotic surgery or in the reverse order. The trial was conducted in two fully functional operating theatres. The primary outcome of the study was the error rate as defined for each task, and the secondary outcome was the time taken to complete each task. The participants were asked to perform the tasks as quickly and as accurately as possible. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. The median error rate for completion of all four tasks with the robot was 2.75 and 5.25 for 3D with a P value performance time for completion of all four tasks with the robot was 157.1 and 342.5 s for 3D with a P value 3D robotic systems over 3D straight-stick laparoscopy, in terms of reduced error rate and quicker task performance time.

  9. Muscle-Cooling Intervention to Reduce Fatigue and Fatigue-Induced Tremor in Novice and Experienced Surgeons: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lauren; Dancisak, Michael; Korndorffer, James

    2016-10-01

    A localized, intermittent muscle-cooling protocol was implemented to determine cooling garment efficacy in reducing upper extremity muscular fatigue and tremor in novice ( n  = 10) and experienced surgeons ( n  = 9). Subjects wore a muscle-cooling garment while performing multiple trials of a forearm exercise and paired suturing task to induce muscular fatigue and exercise-induced tremor. A reduction in tremor amplitude and an extension in time to fatigue were expected with muscle cooling as compared with control trials. Each subject completed an intervention session (5°C cooling condition) and a control session (32°C or thermal neutral condition). A paired samples t test indicated that tremor amplitude was significantly reduced ( t [8] = 1.89458; p  effect was not significant. Time to fatigue and suture time improved in both cohorts with muscle cooling, but the effect did not reach significance. Results from the pilot work suggest muscle cooling as an intervention for reduction of fatigue and tremor is very promising, warranting further investigation. Surgical specialties that require prolonged procedures might benefit more from this intervention.

  10. Simultaneous development of laparoscopy and robotics provides acceptable perioperative outcomes and shows robotics to have a faster learning curve and to be overall faster in rectal cancer surgery: analysis of novice MIS surgeon learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, George; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Jieun; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sender Liberman, A; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopy offers some evidence of benefit compared to open rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery is evolving into an accepted approach. The objective was to analyze and compare laparoscopic and robotic rectal surgery learning curves with respect to operative times and perioperative outcomes for a novice minimally invasive colorectal surgeon. One hundred and six laparoscopic and 92 robotic LAR rectal surgery cases were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by a surgeon who was primarily trained in open rectal surgery. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Operative time and CUSUM plots were used for evaluating the learning curve for laparoscopic versus robotic LAR. Laparoscopic versus robotic LAR outcomes feature initial group operative times of 308 (291-325) min versus 397 (373-420) min and last group times of 220 (212-229) min versus 204 (196-211) min-reversed in favor of robotics; major complications of 4.7 versus 6.5 % (NS), resection margin involvement of 2.8 versus 4.4 % (NS), conversion rate of 3.8 versus 1.1 (NS), lymph node harvest of 16.3 versus 17.2 (NS), and estimated blood loss of 231 versus 201 cc (NS). Due to faster learning curves for extracorporeal phase and total mesorectal excision phase, the robotic surgery was observed to be faster than laparoscopic surgery after the initial 41 cases. CUSUM plots demonstrate acceptable perioperative surgical outcomes from the beginning of the study. Initial robotic operative times improved with practice rapidly and eventually became faster than those for laparoscopy. Developing both laparoscopic and robotic skills simultaneously can provide acceptable perioperative outcomes in rectal surgery. It might be suggested that in the current milieu of clashing interests between evolving technology and economic constrains, there might be advantages in embracing both approaches.

  11. Ensuring Competency of Novice Laparoscopic Surgeons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    and the Zealand Region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were recruited among surgical trainees in their first year of specialty training from surgery, gynecology, and urology departments. A total of 40 participants were included and completed the trial. RESULTS: The different standard setting methods......OBJECTIVE: Simulation-based assessment tools have been developed to allow for proficiency-based simulator training in laparoscopy. However, few studies have examined the consequences of different standard setting methods or examined what level of proficiency is considered adequate for trainees....... The objectives of the present study were to explore the consequences of different standard setting methods and to examine the proficiency level that surgical trainees are expected to reach, before performing supervised surgery on patients. DESIGN: Study participants undertook the Training and Assessment of Basic...

  12. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  13. Socialization of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Guided by new structuralism theory, this study examined the context of novice teacher socialization, identified the frequency and substance of interactions between novice teachers and their mentors and other colleagues, and reported on novices' evaluation of the support that they received. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with…

  14. Development and evaluation of a simulator-based laparoscopic training program for surgical novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Emmeline; Shirilla, Nicole; Hafeez, Adnan; O'Riordain, Diarmuid S; Traynor, Oscar; Harrison, Anthony M; Neary, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The use of simulation to train novice surgeons in laparoscopic skills is becoming increasingly popular. To maximize benefit from simulation, training needs to be delivered and assessed in a structured manner. This study aimed to define performance goals, demonstrate construct validity of the training program, and evaluate whether novice surgeons could reach the preset performance goals. Nine expert laparoscopic surgeons established performance goals for three basic modules of an augmented-reality laparoscopic simulator. The three laparoscopic modules were used by 40 novice surgeons and 40 surgical trainees (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1-4). The performance outcomes were analyzed across the different groups (novice, PGYs 1 and 2, PGYs 3 and 4, expert) to determine construct validity. Then 26 recruited novices trained on the three modules with the aim of reaching the performance goals. The results demonstrated a significant difference in performance between all levels of experience for time (p < 0.001), motion analysis (p < 0.001), and error score (p < 0.001), thus demonstrating construct validity. All 26 novice surgeons significantly improved in performance with repetition for the metrics of time (p < 0.001) and motion analysis (p < 0.001). For two of the modules, the proficiency goals were reached in fewer than 10 trials by 80% of the study participants. Basic skills in laparoscopic surgery can be learned and improved using proficiency-based simulation training. It is possible for novice surgeons to achieve predefined performance goals in a reasonable time frame.

  15. Surgeon-tool force/torque signatures--evaluation of surgical skills in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; MacFarlane, M; Richards, C; Hannaford, B; Sinanan, M

    1999-01-01

    The best method of training for laparoscopic surgical skills is controversial. Some advocate observation in the operating room, while others promote animal and simulated models or a combination of surgical related tasks. The mode of proficiency evaluation common to all of these methods has been subjective evaluation by a skilled surgeon. In order to define an objective means of evaluating performance, an instrumented laparoscopic grasper was developed measuring the force/torque at the surgeon hand/tool interface. The measured database demonstrated substantial differences between experienced and novice surgeon groups. Analyzing forces and torques combined with the state transition during surgical procedures allows an objective measurement of skill in MIS. Teaching the novice surgeon to limit excessive loads and improve movement efficiency during surgical procedures can potentially result in less injury to soft tissues and less wasted time during laparoscopic surgery. Moreover the force/torque database measured in this study may be used for developing realistic virtual reality simulators and optimization of medical robots performance.

  16. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon Aho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available.

  17. The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future.

  18. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  19. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...

  20. Novice Mathematics Teachers Create Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz Oppenheimer, Orna; Dvir, Nurit

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative research based on three narratives written by novice mathematics teachers. We examine their unique professional world during their first year of work. The methodology of narrative framework, on which this article is based, helps to gain better understanding of the need for novice mathematics teachers to have…

  1. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...

  2. Objective psychomotor skills assessment of experienced, junior, and novice laparoscopists with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A G; Richie, K; McClure, N; McGuigan, J

    2001-11-01

    Objective assessment of psychomotor skills in surgery is now a priority; however, this assessment is difficult to achieve because of measurement difficulties associated with the reliability and validity of assessing surgical skills in vivo and in the laboratory. In this study virtual reality (VR) was used to overcome these problems in the objective psychomotor assessment of senior, junior, and novice laparoscopists. Twelve experienced laparoscopic surgeons (performed >50 Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) procedures), 12 inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons (psychomotor skills for laparoscopic surgery.

  3. Da Vinci© Skills Simulator™: is an early selection of talented console surgeons possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Mark; Horton, Kevin; John, Hubert

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether the learning curve of robotic surgery simulator training depends on the probands' characteristics, such as age and prior experience, we conducted a study of six distinct proband groups, using the da Vinci Skills Simulator: experienced urological robotic surgeons, surgeons with experience as da Vinci tableside assistants, urological surgeons with laparoscopic experience, urological surgeons without laparoscopic experience, and complete novices aged 25 and younger and 40 and older. The results showed that all experienced robotic surgeons reached expert level (>90 %, as defined previously in the literature) within the first three repetitions and remained on a high level of performance. All other groups performed worse. Tableside assistants, laparoscopically experienced surgeons, and younger novices showed a better performance in all exercises than surgeons without laparoscopic experience and older novices. A linear mixed-effects model analysis demonstrated no significant difference in learning curves between proband groups in all exercises except the RW1 exercise for the younger proband group. In summary, we found that performance in robotic surgery, measured by performance scores in three virtual simulator modules using the EndoWrist techniques, was dependent on age and prior experience with robotic and laparoscopic surgery. However, and most importantly, the learning curve was not significantly affected by these factors. This suggests that the da Vinci Skills Simulator™ is a useful practice tool for everyone learning or performing robotic surgery, and that early selection of talented surgeons is neither possible nor necessary.

  4. Snapchat media retrieval for novice device users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available procedures that are easily enough for novice smartphone users to employ: not necessarily hackers or information security specialists, but an average smartphone user. The results indicate that, it is indeed possible for novices to retrieve Snapchat data...

  5. [The surgeon and deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucila, Antanas

    2002-01-01

    The aim of study is to recall surgeons deontological principles and errors. The article demonstrates some specific deontological errors, performed by surgeon on patients and his colleagues; points out painful sequela of these errors as well. CONCLUSION. The surgeon should take in account deontological principles rigorously in routine daily practice.

  6. Development and Validation of a Novice Teacher and Supervisor Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This brief presents initial evidence about the reliability and validity of a novice teacher survey and a novice teacher supervisor survey. The novice teacher and novice teacher supervisor surveys assess how well prepared novice teachers are to meet the job requirements of teaching. The surveys are designed to provide educator preparation programs…

  7. The effect of divided attention on novices and experts in laparoscopic task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Mudassar Ali; Cook, Malcolm; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain; Alijani, Afshin

    2015-03-01

    Attention is important for the skilful execution of surgery. The surgeon's attention during surgery is divided between surgery and outside distractions. The effect of this divided attention has not been well studied previously. We aimed to compare the effect of dividing attention of novices and experts on a laparoscopic task performance. Following ethical approval, 25 novices and 9 expert surgeons performed a standardised peg transfer task in a laboratory setup under three randomly assigned conditions: silent as control condition and two standardised auditory distracting tasks requiring response (easy and difficult) as study conditions. Human reliability assessment was used for surgical task analysis. Primary outcome measures were correct auditory responses, task time, number of surgical errors and instrument movements. Secondary outcome measures included error rate, error probability and hand specific differences. Non-parametric statistics were used for data analysis. 21109 movements and 9036 total errors were analysed. Novices had increased mean task completion time (seconds) (171 ± 44SD vs. 149 ± 34, p 0.05). Divided attention conditions in theatre environment require careful consideration during surgical training as the junior surgeons are less able to focus their attention during these conditions.

  8. The Surgeon and Advocacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and how the hospital administration handles and resolves ... regard to having systems that improve patient care. Surgeons have been ... implementation of the Surgical safety checklist (9). ... aviation industry, has helped to streamline patient.

  9. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  10. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  11. Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Minimally Invasive Surgery and Therapy World. Nezhat’s History of Endoscopy In 2005 pioneering surgeon Dr. Camran Nezhat was awarded a fellowship by The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology to research and write this important ...

  12. Concerns of the Novice Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evelyn J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine novice physical education teachers in the first and second year of teaching. Participants included two novice physical education teachers, John in Year 1 and Mark in Year 2. Methodology included observations, semistructured interviews, and documents. Data were analyzed using open coding and constant…

  13. Stress in surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Duthie, H L; Young, H L; Peters, T J

    1990-10-01

    A sample of 1000 members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland was circulated with a postal questionnaire relating to their occupational stressors, their type A coronary-prone behaviour and their mental health. Six hundred and seventy-two (67 per cent) useable forms were returned anonymously. The major individual stressors were: (1) the interference of the job with personal life, (2) general administration, and (3) the number of patients in clinics. Type A behaviour was similar to that of other professional groups. Surgeons showed mean scores significantly higher than the general population on two subscales of the mental health index (free-floating anxiety and hysterical anxiety). The findings for the few female surgeons (2 per cent) were similar to those in men but they did not exhibit raised free-floating anxiety levels.

  14. Surgeons' vision rewarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    Surgeons and clinical staff, theatre circulation and scrub personnel, and anaesthetists, as well as the estates and facilities team at Kent's Maidstone Hospital, have worked with specialist supplier of integrated audio, video, and instrumentation systems for the operating room, Olympus Medical, to develop what is claimed is among the UK's most advanced operating theatres yet built for laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed the project with Amir Nisar, the surgeon who championed efforts to get the facility built, and Olympus Medical national sales manager, systems integration, James Watts.

  15. What surgeons can learn from athletes: mental practice in sports and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Margaret; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Luu, Shelly; Cil, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Mental practice has been successfully applied in professional sports for skills acquisition and performance enhancement. The goals of this review are to describe the literature on mental practice within sport psychology and surgery and to explore how the specific principles of mental practice can be applied to the improvement of surgical performance-both in novice and expert surgeons. The authors reviewed the sports psychology, education, and surgery literatures through Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase. In sports, mental practice is a valuable tool for optimizing existing motor skill sets once core competencies have been mastered. These techniques have been shown to be more advantageous when used by elite athletes. Within surgery, mental practice studies have focused on skill acquisition among novices with little study of how expert surgeons use it to optimize surgical preparation. We propose that performance optimization and skills acquisition should be viewed as 2 separate domains of mental practice. Further understanding of this phenomenon has implications for changing how we teach and train not only novice surgeons but also how experienced surgeons continue to maintain their skills, acquire new ones, and excel in surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Business knowledge in surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2004-07-01

    Surgeons and residents in training receive little, if any, formal education in the economic side of clinical practice during medical school or residency. As medical professionals face shrinking reimbursement, loss of control over health care decisions, and limited resources, surgical specialties must reevaluate the need to teach their members business survival skills. Before designing business related-teaching modules, educators must know the exact gaps in knowledge that exist among surgeons. This article reports a survey of 133 surgeons in the Midwest who were asked to rate their knowledge base in 11 business topics relevant to the practice of medicine. The survey showed that the average surgeon perceives himself or herself to be poorly equipped to understand basic financial accounting principles, financial markets, economics of health care, tools for evaluating purchases, marketing, budgets, antitrust and fraud and abuse regulations, and risk and return on investments. Armed with this data, teaching faculty, health care systems, and medical specialty societies should design business education seminars to better position surgical specialists and trainees to communicate with insurers, hospital administrators, health care organizations, and their own personal financial advisors.

  17. Surgeon-performed ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Surgeons are increasingly using ultrasonography (US) in their clinical management of patients. However, US is a very user-dependent imaging modality and proper skills of the US operator are needed to ensure quality in patient care. This thesis explores the validity evidence for assessment...

  18. Role of Surgeons in Determining Outcome of Histopathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: To ensure the quality of histopathological diagnosis with minimal turnaround time, the surgeon plays a vital role by ensuring adequate and prompt fixation of tissue biopsies, put in the right container and accompanied by well labeled request cards. Keywords: Formalin, fixative, outcome, pathologist, surgeon ...

  19. Educational system based on the TAPP checklist improves the performance of novices: a multicenter randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Kawase, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoichi M; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    Despite recent developments in surgical education, obstacles including inadequate budget, limited human resources, and a scarcity of time have limited its widespread adoption. To provide systematic training for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, we had previously developed and validated a checklist to evaluate the recorded performance of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair. We had also developed an educational system that included didactic materials based on the TAPP checklist and incorporated remote evaluation and feedback system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact of the TAPP education system on novice surgeons. Residents and surgeons from participating hospitals, who had performed 0 or 1 TAPP procedure, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG), who trained using this new educational tool, and the control group (CG), who trained using the conventional system. Their surgical videos were rated by blinded raters. All participants performed their first case prior to randomization. The primary outcome was improvement of TAPP checklist score from the first to the third case. Eighteen participants from 9 institutes were recruited for this study. Seven participants in the IG and 5 participants in the CG were included in the final analysis. The participants in the IG demonstrated significant improvement in their TAPP performance (p = 0.044) from their first case to their third case, whereas their counterparts in the CG failed to make any significant progress during the same period (p = 0.581). The new TAPP educational system was effective in improving the TAPP performance of novice surgeons.

  20. Does training novices to criteria and does rapid acquisition of skills on laparoscopic simulators have predictive validity or are we just playing video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Nancy J; Widmann, Warren D; Ude, Aku O; Hardy, Mark A; Fowler, Dennis L

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether LapSim training (version 3.0; Surgical Science Ltd, Göteborg, Sweden) to criteria for novice PGY1 surgical residents had predictive validity for improvement in the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In all, 21 PGY1 residents performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies in pigs after minimal training; their performance was evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using the validated tool GOALS (global operative assessment of laparoscopic operative skills: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, tissue handling, and overall competence). From the group, 10 residents trained to competency on the LapSim Basic Skills Programs (camera navigation, instrument navigation, coordination, grasping, lifting and grasping, cutting, and clip applying). All 21 PGY1 residents again performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies on pigs; their performance was again evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using GOALS. Additionally, we studied the rate of learning to determine whether the slow or fast learners on the LapSim performed equivalently when performing actual cholecystectomies in pigs. Finally, 6 categorical residents were tracked, and their clinical performance on all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies in which they were "surgeon, junior" was prospectively evaluated using the GOALS criteria. We found a statistical improvement of depth perception in the operative performance of cholecystectomies in pigs in the group trained on the LapSim. In the other 4 domains, a trend toward improvement was observed. No correlation between being a fast learner and the ultimate skill was demonstrated in the clinical performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. We did find that the fast learners on LapSim all were past or current video game players ("gamers"); however, that background did not translate into better clinical performance. Using current criteria, we doubt that the time and effort spent training novice PGY1 Surgical Residents on the basic

  1. Novice teen driving : education and training administrative standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-09

    The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...

  2. Assessment, surgeon, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John; Talati, Jamsheer

    2009-08-01

    An increasing public demand to monitor and assure the quality of care provided by physicians and surgeons has been accompanied by a deepening appreciation within the profession of the demands of self-regulation and the need for accountability. To respond to these developments, the public and the profession have turned increasingly to assessment, both to establish initial competence and to ensure that it is maintained throughout a career. Fortunately, this comes at a time when there have been significant advances in the breadth and quality of the assessment tools available. This article provides an overview of the drivers of change in assessment which includes the educational outcomes movement, the development of technology, and advances in assessment. It then outlines the factors that are important in selecting assessment devices as well as a system for classifying the methods that are available. Finally, the drivers of change have spawned a number of trends in the assessment of competence as a surgeon. Three of them are of particular note, simulation, workplace-based assessment, and the assessment of new competences, and each is reviewed with a focus on its potential.

  3. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  4. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  5. Using Facebook to Support Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Denise; St. Clair, Norman; Martinez, Elda E.

    2013-01-01

    Providing quality support for novice teachers as they enter the profession has been an ongoing concern of educator preparation programs. This article describes the efforts of one teacher preparation program in addressing this matter by utilizing Facebook[R] to provide sustained support and professional development for its beginning teachers. We…

  6. Predictors of Errors of Novice Java Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Manabat, Geecee Maybelline A.; Tolentino, Miguel Angelo A.; Torres, Edmon L.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study determined which of the sources of errors would predict the errors committed by novice Java programmers. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents perceived that they committed the identified eighteen errors infrequently. Thought error was perceived to be the main source of error during the laboratory programming…

  7. Novice Career Changers Weather the Classroom Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft

    2013-01-01

    A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…

  8. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  9. The Affective Experience of Novice Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Novice students (N = 99) participated in a lab study in which they learned the fundamentals of computer programming in Python using a self-paced computerized learning environment involving a 25-min scaffolded learning phase and a 10-min unscaffolded fadeout phase. Students provided affect judgments at approximately 100 points (every 15 s) over the…

  10. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  11. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  12. Novice Teachers' Attention to Student Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel M.; Hammer, David; Coffey, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Stage-based views of teacher development hold that novice teachers are unable to attend to students' thinking until they have begun to identify themselves as teachers and mastered classroom routines, and so the first emphases in learning to teach should be on forming routines and identity. The authors challenge those views, as others have done,…

  13. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  14. Surgeon-performed ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todsen, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Surgeons are increasingly using ultrasonography (US) in their clinical management of patients. However, US is a very user-dependent imaging modality and proper skills of the US operator are needed to ensure quality in patient care. This thesis explores the validity evidence for assessment of competence in abdominal and head & neck ultrasonography using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. With the use of Messick's unitary framework of validity, five sources of validity evidence were explored: test content, response processes, inter-nal structure, relations to other variables, and consequences. Research paper I examined validity evidence for the use of the OSAUS scale to assess physicians' abdominal point-of-care US competence in an experimental setting using patient cases with and without pathological conditions. The RESULTS provided validity evidence of the internal structure of the OSAUS scale and a deci-sion study predicted that four cases and two raters or five cases and one rater could ensure sufficient reliability in future test setups. The relation to other variables was supported by a signifi-cant difference in scores between US experience levels, and by a strong correlation between the OSAUS score and diagnostic accuracy. Research paper II explored the transfer of learning from formal point-of-care US training to performance on patients in a randomized controlled study. The RESULTS supported validity evi-dence regarding OSAUS scores' relation to other variables by demonstrating a significant discrimination in the progress of training-a more refined validity evidence than the relation to difference experience levels. The RESULTS showed that physicians could transfer the skills learned on an ultrasonography course to improved US performance and diagnostic accuracy on patients. However, the RESULTS also indicated that following an initial course, additional training is needed for physicians to achieve competence in US

  15. The surgeon and casemix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J A; Wallace, D

    1998-10-19

    Casemix funding has markedly increased surgeons' awareness of the economies of the activities they undertake. Surgery has become a major focus at all large public hospitals, because of its high earning potential, and this pressure to maximise funding could influence surgical practice. Casemix funding's emphasis on length of hospital stay has encouraged forward planning for earlier discharge after surgical procedures. Patients are now assessed in pre-admission clinics, educated about their condition and their hospital stay, and a plan formulated for their discharge and rehabilitation. Funding for major surgical procedures of long duration in patients with complex conditions should reflect the higher level of resource utilisation. Tertiary referral centres, because of their commitment to training and research and their more severely ill patient population, are less cost-effective and require funding to ensure their viability. The improved information that casemix generates should be used to evaluate outcomes and improve patient care; efficiency must not take precedence over quality of care and compassion.

  16. Professional Development of Novice Special Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara de Oliveira Gomes Papi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional development of novice teachers in the profession and in special education is poorly understood, despite its relevance to the improvement of teaching. This study analyzes the challenges faced by such teachers with a view to understanding their professional development. The participants in the research were teachers of classrooms equipped with multifunctional resources (SRM in state schools. The research follows a critical-dialectic approach and a qualitative focus. The results indicate deficiencies in the professional development of novices, who experience difficulties related to teaching and bureaucracy, despite having specific training in the area. They also feel alienated in the schools and seek alternatives to fill existing gaps related to their professional practice.

  17. Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kölling, Michael; McKay, Fraser

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a proliferation of novice programming tools. The availability of a large number of systems has made it difficult for many users to choose among them. Even for education researchers, comparing the relative quality of these tools, or judging their respective suitability for a given context, is hard in many instances. For designers of such systems, assessing the respective quality of competing design decisions can be equally difficult.\\ud Heuristic evaluation provides...

  18. Thomas Vicary, barber-surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duncan P

    2006-05-01

    An Act of Parliament in 1540 uniting the barbers and surgeons to form the Barber-Surgeons' Company represented an important foundation stone towards better surgery in England. Thomas Vicary, who played a pivotal role in promoting this union, was a leading surgeon in London in the middle of the 16th century. While Vicary made no direct contribution to surgical knowledge, he should be remembered primarily as one who contributed much towards the early organization and teaching of surgery and to the consequent benefits that flowed from this improvement.

  19. Novice supervisors' tasks and training - a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus H.; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    development, experience, and practice. In this presentation we focus on the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared......There is a lack of data on the influence of the debut as a supervisor on the later career. However, extrapolating data from therapist development, we assume that the first years as novice supervisor are important for the following career as supervisor in particular. The first job as novice......, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting....

  20. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  1. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Page Content Article Body If your ... require heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical ...

  2. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  3. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beginning Python from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Hetland, Magnus Lie

    2005-01-01

    ""Beginning Python: From Novice to Professional"" is the most comprehensive book on the Python ever written. Based on ""Practical Python,"" this newly revised book is both an introduction and practical reference for a swath of Python-related programming topics, including addressing language internals, database integration, network programming, and web services. Advanced topics, such as extending Python and packaging/distributing Python applications, are also covered. Ten different projects illustrate the concepts introduced in the book. You will learn how to create a P2P file-sharing applicati

  5. Administrative Context and Novice Teacher-Mentor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring can improve novice teacher effectiveness and reduce teacher attrition, yet the depth and breadth of mentoring can vary greatly within and between schools. The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent to which a school's administrative context is associated with the focus and frequency of novice teacher-mentor…

  6. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  7. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  8. Competency-based assessment in surgeon-performed head and neck ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Melchiors, Jacob; Charabi, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    and to establish validity evidence for an objective structured assessment of ultrasound skills (OSAUS) used for competency-based assessment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective experimental study. METHODS: Six otolaryngologists and 11 US novices were included in a standardized test setup for which they had to perform...... and the diagnostic accuracy was found (Spearman's ρ, 0.85; P competence with good reliability, significant discrimination between US competence levels, and a strong...... correlation of assessment score to diagnostic accuracy. An OSAUS pass/fail score was established and could be used for competence-based assessment in surgeon-performed HNUS. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2017....

  9. The laparoscopic performance of novice surgical trainees: testing for acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J A; Zoha, F

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested that virtual reality (VR) might be useful for the selection of surgical trainees and the measurement of technical performance during preoperative training and retraining. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to define and measure the acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills in novice surgical trainees. Novice surgical trainees (NSTs n = 10, junior surgical registrars with little or no prior experience with laparoscopic surgery) were tested and retested after 1 month using the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality. Two tasks were used: the simple task [stretch diathermy (SD)] and the more complex task [manipulation diathermy (MD)]. The score was derived from the time taken to complete the task and the number of errors that occurred. Acquisition is the difference between the first and last score of the first training session, loss is the difference in score that occurs between the last score of the first training session and the first score of the second training session, and reacquisition is the difference in the first and last scores of the second training session. A performance criterion level was defined for each task by testing a group of experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n = 10). Groups were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, with p psychomotor skills in individual NSTs and to compare them with a predefined performance criterion level. This study defines parameters that will be useful in repeated training sessions of NSTs in the preoperative phase of training and during retraining.

  10. Kant and the cosmetic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J S

    1989-07-01

    Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.

  11. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    teenage drivers.. Discussion The findings are the first comparing crash and near-crash rates among novice teenage drivers with those of adults using the same vehicle over the same period of time. The finding of highly elevated crash rates of novice teenagers during the first six months of licensure are consistent with and confirm the archival crash data showing high crash risk for novice teenagers. The NTDS convenience sample of teenage drivers was similar to the U.S. teenage driver population in terms of exposure and crash experience. The dataset is expected be a valuable resource for future in-depth analyses of crash risk, exposure to risky driving conditions, and comparisons of teenage and adult driving performance in various driving situations. PMID:21545880

  12. A Learning Partnership: Exploring Preceptorship through Interviews with Registered and Novice Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerby, Cherene M.; Newton, Jennifer M.; Cross, Wendy M.; Jolly, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Novice nurses encounter numerous factors that impact on their learning in the complex healthcare workplace. Registered nurses often work one-on-one with novices as preceptors to facilitate the development of novices' clinical skills and socialisation into the profession. This paper explores the concept of preceptorship from novice nurses' and…

  13. THE ROLE OF MENTORING IN PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION OF NOVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Līga Paula

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Entering teaching profession is considered as the most determining stage in a teacher’s professional life. The aim of this research is to explore opinions of novice teachers in Latvia about the role of mentoring in their professional socialization. The following research questions were defined: (1 what difficulties novice teachers faced during their in-service experience? (2 what support novice teachers needed when they started teaching? (3 what the role of mentoring in teachers’ professional socialization is? Qualitative research design was developed for the research. Empirical data were obtained during the focus group discussion with ten teachers representing Council of young teachers (in age below 35 of the Latvian Trade Union of Education and Science Employees, nine semi-structured interviews with novice teachers, and interview with a mentor. Novice teachers face teaching reality which often differs from perceptions about the profession developed during the studies at university. The research shows that teachers from the sample faced following challenges during their first years of in-service: establishing teacher’s authority and self-positioning as a teacher, time management, problems with discipline in a classroom, lack of skills to develop curriculum and lesson plans, difficulties in communication with parents. During socialization novice teachers learned their responsibilities and acquired specific knowledge; appropriate support such as mentoring reduced level of stress and uncertainty while novice teachers adapted to school during the period of transition from pre-service period to in-service period. In relation to mentoring, novice teachers expected that a mentor would introduce them to school traditions and internal rules and would advise on discipline in a classroom as well as would help to develop curriculum. Policy makers should focus on teachers’ support guidelines at national level, which would allow schools to ensure the

  14. MODELING PARADOXES IN NOVICE AND EXPERT DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorst, Kees; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2011-01-01

    In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition’ for para......In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition...... at play in a design situation, and extract themes that can lead to reformulation of the problem as well as the creation of innovative solutions. This behaviour is compared to the ways of working of novice designers (students) in the original case study....

  15. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections...... on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified:There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being student centered, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus...... on students' activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers' own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching...

  16. Women surgeons in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppmann, Kathrin M; Palis, Bryan E; Goodnight, James E; Ho, Hung S; Troppmann, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Women are increasingly entering the surgical profession. To assess professional and personal/family life situations, perceptions, and challenges for women vs men surgeons. National survey of American Board of Surgery-certified surgeons. A questionnaire was mailed to all women and men surgeons who were board certified in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, or 2004. Of 3507 surgeons, 895 (25.5%) responded. Among these, 178 (20.3%) were women and 698 (79.7%) were men. Most women and men surgeons would choose their profession again (women, 82.5%; men, 77.5%; P = .15). On multivariate analysis, men surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 2.5) and surgeons of a younger generation (certified in 2000 or 2004; OR, 1.3) were less likely to favor part-time work opportunities for surgeons. Most of the surgeons were married (75.6% of women vs 91.7% of men, P women surgeons (OR, 5.0) and surgeons of a younger generation (OR, 1.9) were less likely to have children. More women than men surgeons had their first child later in life, while already in surgical practice (62.4% vs 32.0%, P women surgeons vs 79.4% of men surgeons (P women surgeons than men surgeons thought that maternity leave was important (67.8% vs 30.8%, P work (86.5% vs 69.7%, P Women considering a surgical career should be aware that most women surgeons would choose their profession again. Strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of women surgeons should include serious consideration of alternative work schedules and optimization of maternity leave and child care opportunities.

  17. Social media and the surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, David A

    2013-03-01

    As the Internet has matured, social media has developed and become a part of our everyday life. Whether it is Facebook, YouTube, or LinkedIn, we now communicate with each other and the world in a very different manner. As physicians, and specifically colon and rectal surgeons, it is important that we understand this new technology, learn its limitations, and utilize it to foster growth of our practice, trade, and potentially result in better patient care.

  18. Musculoskeletal Pain in Gynecologic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sonia R.; Hacker, Michele R.; McKinney, Jessica L.; Elkadry, Eman A.; Rosenblatt, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and symptoms in gynecologic surgeons. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting Virtual. All study participants were contacted and participated via electronic means. Participants Gynecologic surgeons. Interventions An anonymous, web-based survey was distributed to gynecologic surgeons via electronic newsletters and direct E-mail. Measurements and Main Results There were 495 respondents with complete data. When respondents were queried about their musculoskeletal symptoms in the past 12 months, they reported a high prevalence of lower back (75.6%) and neck (72.9%) pain and a slightly lower prevalence of shoulder (66.6%), upper back (61.6%), and wrist/hand (60.9%) pain. Many respondents believed that performing surgery caused or worsened the pain, ranging from 76.3% to 82.7% in these five anatomic regions. Women are at an approximately twofold risk of pain, with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.2; p 5 .02) in the lower back region, OR 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4–4.8; p 5 .002) in the upper back, and OR 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6; p 5 .001) in the wrist/hand region. Conclusion Musculoskeletal symptoms are highly prevalent among gynecologic surgeons. Female sex is associated with approximately twofold risk of reported pain in commonly assessed anatomic regions. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology (2013) 20, 656-660 PMID:23796512

  19. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  20. Novice designers’ use of prototypes in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; Daly, Shanna R.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    Prototypes are essential tools in product design processes, but are often underutilized by novice designers. To help novice designers use prototypes more effectively, we must first determine how they currently use prototypes. In this paper, we describe how novice designers conceptualized prototypes and reported using them throughout a design project, and compare reported prototyping use to prototyping best practices. We found that some of the reported prototyping practices by novice designers, such as using inexpensive prototypes early and using prototypes to define user requirements, occurred infrequently and lacked intentionality. Participants’ initial descriptions of prototypes were less sophisticated than how they later described using them and only upon prompted reflection did participants recognize more specific benefits of using prototypes. PMID:29398740

  1. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...

  2. [Improving the surgeon's image: introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Tomoo

    2004-05-01

    The number of medical students who aspire to become surgeons has been decreasing in recent years. With a vicious spiral in the decreasing number and the growing deterioration of surgeons' working conditions, there is fear of deterioration of surgical care and subsequent disintegration of overall health care in Japan. The purpose of this issue is to devise a strategy for improving surgeons' image and their working conditions to attract future medical students. However, we cannot expect a quick cure for the problem of the decreasing number of applicants for surgery since this issue is deeply related to many fundamental problems in the health care system in Japan. The challenge for surgical educators in coming years will be to solve the problem of chronic sleep deprivation and overwork of surgery residents and to develop an efficient program to meet the critical educational needs of surgical residents. To solve this problem it is necessary to ensure well-motivated surgical residents and to develop an integrated research program. No discussion of these issues would be complete without attention to the allocation of scarce medical resources, especially in relation to financial incentives for young surgeons. The authors, who are conscientious representatives of this society, would like to highlight these critical problems and issues that are particularly relevant to our modern surgical practice, and it is our sincere hope that all members of this society fully recognize these critical issues in the Japanese health care system to take leadership in improving the system. With the demonstration of withholding unnecessary medical conducts we may be able to initiate a renewal of the system and eventually to fulfill our dreams of Japan becoming a nation that can attract many patients from all over the world. Furthermore, verification of discipline with quality control and effective surgical treatment is needed to avoid criticism by other disciplines for being a self

  3. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. A surgeon's glove is a device made of natural or synthetic rubber intended to be worn by...

  4. The Nonwhite Woman Surgeon: A Rare Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Heather A; Nguyen, Thu-Hoai C; Co, Franka; Rosemurgy, Alexander S; Ross, Sharona B

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 39% of medical student graduates were nonwhite, yet very few nonwhite women graduates chose to become surgeons. To better understand issues regarding nonwhite women in surgery, an online survey was sent to surgeons across the United States. Results are based on self-reported data. Mean data are reported. A total of 194 surgeons (42% women) completed the survey; only 12% of responders were nonwhite. Overall, 56% of nonwhite women felt they earned less than what men surgeons earn for equal work. Nonwhite women surgeons earned less than what men surgeons ($224,000 vs. 351,000, p women surgeons ($285,000, p = 0.02) earned. Overall, 96% of nonwhite surgeons believed that racial discrimination currently exists among surgeons. The few nonwhite women surgeons in the United States recognize that they are paid significantly less than what other surgeons are paid. Inequitable remuneration and a discriminatory work environment encountered by nonwhite women surgeons must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lived Experience: Perceptions of Competency of Novice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Swee Choo Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study bridges the gap of an outsider-insider perspective of competency and captures the essence of what constitutes competency among 18 novice teachers in their own actions performed in real classrooms. In this study, relevant aspects of the novice teachers’ ‘lived-experience’ in their schools make up their conceptions of competency. Novice teachers’ talk about achieving their aims of competency in strategically different ways and in each of these ways, the novice teachers’ strategies are critical to their understanding of the novice teacher-student roles. Five identified conceptions are: controls in the classroom and behaviour of students, methodical preparation, uses of sound in pedagogical knowledge and skills, understanding and empowering their students to take charge of their own learning, and an awareness of themselves as teachers. The conceptions of competency are represented diagrammatically and are discussed with respect to levels of complexity. Variation exists in the way novice teachers conceive of their competency. Teacher educators should be cognizant of the diversity in practices of teachers and not limit that to say that there is just one acceptable conception of competency.

  6. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  7. Administrative support of novice science teachers: A multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacuone, Leann

    Novice science teachers leave the confines of colleges and universities to embark on a new adventure in education where they aim to influence young minds, make a difference in the world, and share their love for their content. They have learned their pedagogical skills with the support and assistance of fellow classmates, a supporting professor, and a cooperating teacher. These teachers enter their new place of employment and are met with many unexpected challenges, such as a lack of resources, no one to ask questions of, and a busy staff with already established relationships, causing them to feel an overall lack of support and resulting in many new teachers rethinking their career choice and leaving the field of education within 5 years of entering. This multiple-case study investigated the administrative support 4 novice science teachers received during an academic year and the novice teachers' perceptions of the support they received to answer the following research question: How do novice science teachers who have consistent interactions with administrators develop during their first year? To answer this question, semistructured interviews, reflection journals, observations, resumes, long-range plans, and student discipline referrals were collected. The findings from this study show novice science teachers who had incidents occur in the classroom requiring administrative assistance and guidance felt more confident in enforcing their classroom management policies and procedures as the year progressed to change student behavior. The novice science teachers perceived administrators who provided resources including technology, office supplies, science supplies, and the guidance of a mentor as supportive. Novice science teachers who engaged in dialogue after administrative observations, were provided the opportunity to attend professional development outside the district, and had a mentor who taught the same discipline made more changes to their instructional

  8. Novice nurse productivity following workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy A; Gillespie, Gordon L; Gates, Donna; Schafer, John

    2012-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and effects of workplace bullying (WPB) on the work productivity of novice nurses (NNs). Internet-based descriptive cross-sectional survey design. One hundred ninety seven NNs (91.4% female, 8.6% male) in practice less than 2 years completed the Healthcare Productivity Survey, Negative Acts Questionnaire, and a demographic survey. The majority (72.6%, n= 147) of NNs reported a WPB event within the previous month, with 57.9% (n= 114) the direct targets and another 14.7% (n= 29) witnesses of WPB behaviors. Using a weighted Negative Acts Questionnaire score, 21.3% (n= 43) of NNs were bullied daily over a 6-month period. When asked if bullied over the past 6 months, approximately 44.7% (n= 88) of NNs reported repeated, targeted WPB, with 55.3% (n= 109) reporting no WPB. WPB acts were primarily perpetrated by more experienced nursing colleagues (63%, n= 126). Further, work productivity regression modeling was significant and NN productivity was negatively impacted by workplace bullying (r=-.322, p= .045). WPB continues in the healthcare environment and negatively affects bullied NNs' productivity by affecting cognitive demands and ability to handle or manage their workload. Healthcare facilities should continue to measure WPB in the work environment after policy implementation as well as eliminate negative behaviors through root-cause analysis to correct environmental factors associated with WPB. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Developing resilience: Stories from novice nurse academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Fiona; Peters, Kath; Daly, John; Jackson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    It is acknowledged that novice nurse academics face many challenges on commencement of their new role. Most are recruited from the clinical arena, with little understanding of the academic triumvirate of teaching, research and service. They struggle with role expectation and experience feelings of isolation and anxiety. The aim of this paper is to report on an exploration of 14 new nurse academics from two major nursing education institutions as they utilised and developed resilience building strategies. The paper is drawn from a qualitative study that sought to see the world through the eyes of the participants through storytelling. Data was collected using semi-structured, conversational style interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and revealed themes that captured resilience strategies. These themes were: Developing supportive collegial relationships; Embracing positivity; and Reflection and transformative growth. The first theme, developing supportive relationships, provides insight into the mentoring process and the relationships developed with peers and colleagues. The second theme, embracing positivity, describes the factors that assisted them to face the adversity and challenges in the new role. The final theme, reflection and transformative growth, demonstrated participants' reflecting on difficult situations and demonstrating the ability to learn from the experiences and move forward. The strategies utilised by the participants in this study were key factors in the development of resilience which assisted in the transition from clinical nurse to academic. These strategies were often tacit and it is imperative that in a time of acute nurse academic shortages where retention is paramount, that employing organisations support employees and contribute to resilience development. Education on resilience building strategies is fundamental for all new academics and is essential in the transition from clinical nurse to academic. Crown Copyright © 2016

  10. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

  11. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  12. [What Do Young Surgeons Want? Modern Requirements for Senior Surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, Anjali A; Mille, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Due to the shortage of surgical specialists, the question arises as to what surgical residents want and how the fascination of general and visceral surgery may be highlighted. The surgical working group "Young Surgeons" (CAJC) of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) has organised and subdivided the aspects of an attractive surgical workplace and provides solutions. On the one hand, there is the structured and transparent residency which includes a defined curriculum, assistance of sub-steps during surgery, residency dialogues held on a regular basis, logbooks, the possibility of training and simulation in the clinic as well as permission to participate in further education and training. This has to go hand in hand with a "livable surgery" that is characterised by the compatibility of family and work, better planning of the routine in the clinic, a positive feedback culture, work-life balance, new work (time) models and more time for teaching and research. For many of these aspects, the head of surgery has to be the central role model to initiate structural changes in the clinic, especially as many of these key points may be easily implemented. In this way, the attraction of surgery can be rapidly enhanced and a "livable surgery" may be lived. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max

    2015-09-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Acknowledge Uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Much of the decision-making in orthopaedics rests on uncertain evidence. Uncertainty is therefore part of our normal daily practice, and yet physician uncertainty regarding treatment could diminish patients' health. It is not known if physician uncertainty is a function of the evidence alone or if other factors are involved. With added experience, uncertainty could be expected to diminish, but perhaps more influential are things like physician confidence, belief in the veracity of what is published, and even one's religious beliefs. In addition, it is plausible that the kind of practice a physician works in can affect the experience of uncertainty. Practicing physicians may not be immediately aware of these effects on how uncertainty is experienced in their clinical decision-making. We asked: (1) Does uncertainty and overconfidence bias decrease with years of practice? (2) What sociodemographic factors are independently associated with less recognition of uncertainty, in particular belief in God or other deity or deities, and how is atheism associated with recognition of uncertainty? (3) Do confidence bias (confidence that one's skill is greater than it actually is), degree of trust in the orthopaedic evidence, and degree of statistical sophistication correlate independently with recognition of uncertainty? We created a survey to establish an overall recognition of uncertainty score (four questions), trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (four questions), confidence bias (three questions), and statistical understanding (six questions). Seven hundred six members of the Science of Variation Group, a collaboration that aims to study variation in the definition and treatment of human illness, were approached to complete our survey. This group represents mainly orthopaedic surgeons specializing in trauma or hand and wrist surgery, practicing in Europe and North America, of whom the majority is involved in teaching. Approximately half of the group has more than 10 years

  15. The First Five Years: Novice Teacher Beliefs, Experiences, and Commitment to the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Heather Ann

    2013-01-01

    Novice teacher attrition is a valid concern for public education. Some studies have found that 40-50% of novice teachers will leave the profession before they reach their fifth year of teaching. Previous literature states that novice teachers leave because of job dissatisfaction, school conditions and feeling ineffective with their students. This…

  16. A Content Analysis of Images of Novice Teacher Induction: First-Semester Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Webb, Angela W.; Latham, Samantha J.

    2016-01-01

    The powerful nature of novice teachers' experiences in their first years of teaching has been well documented. However, the variance in novices' initial immersion in the school environment is largely dependent on perceived personal and professional support as well as the environmental inducements that lend to novice teachers' success in the…

  17. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Learning in Lesson Rehearsals in Second Language Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, Francis John; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2016-01-01

    Although scholars working in core practices have put forth lesson rehearsals as central to novice teachers' learning and development, there is little work on how novice teachers experience rehearsals. This qualitative research investigated learning opportunities for novice teachers of language learners during rehearsals. The analysis examines two…

  18. Challenges and Induction Needs of Novice English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Rufaida

    2018-01-01

    The first year of teaching poses massive challenges that lead to attrition among novice teachers. School communities often fail to provide adequate support to novice teachers to help them adapt to their new professional environments. In Saudi Arabia, attrition among novice teachers is a significant problem that hinders the development of the…

  19. The Effects of Mentor Instruction on Teaching Visual Supports to Novice, Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrstik, Samantha L.; Vasquez, Eleazar; Pearl, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    The use of mentor teachers to sustain the longevity of a novice special education teacher is not a new tactic nor is the use of a mentor teacher's guidance in professional development for novice teachers. This study examines a new method of mentor teachers conducting professional development sessions for novice special educators through the use of…

  20. Burnout and career satisfaction among American surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Balch, Charles M; Bechamps, Gerald J; Russell, Thomas; Dyrbye, Lotte; Satele, Daniel; Collicott, Paul; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff; Freischlag, Julie A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence of burnout among American surgeons and evaluate personal and professional characteristics associated with surgeon burnout. : Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization that leads to decreased effectiveness at work. A limited amount of information exists about the relationship between specific demographic and practice characteristics with burnout among American surgeons. Members of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey in June 2008. The survey evaluated demographic variables, practice characteristics, career satisfaction, burnout, and quality of life (QOL). Burnout and QOL were measured using validated instruments. Of the approximately 24,922 surgeons sampled, 7905 (32%) returned surveys. Responders had been in practice 18 years, worked 60 hours per week, and were on call 2 nights/wk (median values). Overall, 40% of responding surgeons were burned out, 30% screened positive for symptoms of depression, and 28% had a mental QOL score >1/2 standard deviation below the population norm. Factors independently associated with burnout included younger age, having children, area of specialization, number of nights on call per week, hours worked per week, and having compensation determined entirely based on billing. Only 36% of surgeons felt their work schedule left enough time for personal/family life and only 51% would recommend their children pursue a career as a physician/surgeon. Burnout is common among American surgeons and is the single greatest predictor of surgeons' satisfaction with career and specialty choice. Additional research is needed to identify individual, organizational, and societal interventions that preserve and promote the mental health of American surgeons.

  1. Breast imaging: a surgeon's prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Anne M.; Comstock, Christopher; Hoh, Carl K.; Vera, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, gamma camera and intraoperative gamma detection, and computed tomography are employed in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This paper summarizes the role of each modality from the perspective of the physician responsible for management of the patient's care. An understanding of an imaging modality's current role can provide insights into the design of new applications and diagnostic agents. Moreover, knowledge of the mechanism by which each modality provides clinical information can guide the design of new imaging methods that complement and add certainty to the patient's management. The reader should note the lack of molecular information provided by the current imaging methods. The perspective concludes with a request for an imaging technique that can measure the biologic aggressiveness of a woman's cancer. The surgeon notes that basing the formation of an image on a molecular process would be compatible with current medical practice, which utilizes molecular concepts to base medical decisions. In addition, molecular imaging will enable rapid translation between basic science and medical practice

  2. Working night shifts affects surgeons' biological rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitor...

  3. The Future Medical Science and Colorectal Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin

    2017-12-01

    Future medical technology breakthroughs will build from the incredible progress made in computers, biotechnology, and nanotechnology and from the information learned from the human genome. With such technology and information, computer-aided diagnoses, organ replacement, gene therapy, personalized drugs, and even age reversal will become possible. True 3-dimensional system technology will enable surgeons to envision key clinical features and will help them in planning complex surgery. Surgeons will enter surgical instructions in a virtual space from a remote medical center, order a medical robot to perform the operation, and review the operation in real time on a monitor. Surgeons will be better than artificial intelligence or automated robots when surgeons (or we) love patients and ask questions for a better future. The purpose of this paper is looking at the future medical science and the changes of colorectal surgeons.

  4. Danish surgeons' views on minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Advancements in minimally invasive surgery have led to increases in popularity of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American...... Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) due to their postulated benefits of better cosmesis, less pain, and quicker recovery. This questionnaire-based study investigated Danish surgeons' attitudes toward these new procedures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire was developed...... and distributed electronically via e-mail to a total of 1253 members of The Danish Society of Surgeons and The Danish Society of Young Surgeons. RESULTS: In total, 352 (approximately 30%) surgeons completed the questionnaire, 54.4% were over 50 years of age, and 76.6% were men. When choosing surgery, the most...

  5. Performing Systematic Literature Reviews with Novices: An Iterative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…

  6. Novice in Secondary School--The Coin Has Two Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvik, Marit; Smith, Kari; Helleve, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain an insight into novice teachers' diverse experiences. The study is conducted among nine beginning teachers in upper secondary school in Norway, and the research instrument was semi structured interviews. The main findings indicate that there are two sides of the coin of being a new teacher, positive as well as less…

  7. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  8. Taking on Critical Literacy: The Journey of Newcomers and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi; Flint, Amy Seely; Van Sluys, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Describes a portion of the authors' work with a group of elementary teachers during the first eight months of an ongoing study investigating critical literacy in classrooms. Examines the understandings and classroom practices of two groups of teachers: newcomers and novices. Provides insights into the concerns teachers have when they begin…

  9. Novice Counselors' Conceptualizations and Experiences of Therapeutic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alison E.; LaFollette, Julie R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Wong, Y. Joel

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated three novice counselors' experiences and characterizations of therapeutic relationships. Thematic analyses of interviews and diaries revealed six common themes: (a) the centrality of supervision and training experiences to navigating interpersonal experiences with clients; (b) anxiety about counselors' roles in…

  10. Plagiarism: Misconduct Awareness on Novice Research within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More often than not, there exists some form of infringement relating to the use of other authors' work. This is particularly so in instances in which novice authors make use of the information available within the cyber-digital environment. The article explains the meaning of plagiarism and describes the many manifestations ...

  11. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  12. A Model for Teaching Experiential Counseling Interventions to Novice Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes model for teaching experiential interventions to novice counselors. Includes two experiential interventions that are focus for new model: two-chair approach based on Gestalt therapy principles and resolution of problematic reaction points. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral concepts of model are related to transfer of learning with the…

  13. Exploring the Evolving Professional Identity of Novice School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Olamojiba Omolara

    2017-01-01

    The study employed a grounded theory approach to explore the evolving professional identity of novice school counselors. Participants, who are currently employed as school counselors at the elementary, middle, or high school level with 1-4 years' experience, were career changers from other helping professions and graduates from an intensive school…

  14. Teaching Physics Novices at University: A Case for Stronger Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Christine; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 a new type of tutorial, called Map Meeting, was successfully trialled with novice first year physics students at the University of Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, in first semester 2007 a large-scale experiment was carried out with 262 students who were allocated either to the strongly scaffolding Map Meetings or to the less scaffolding…

  15. Systematic Literature Review Protocol: Teaching Novices Programming Using Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Teaching computer programming to novices is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the subject, as negative stereotypes are associated with programming and because introductory programming courses often fail to encourage student understanding. This Protocol outlines the plan that is to be followed in order to investigate the effectiveness…

  16. Rural Rides in Queensland: Travels with Novice Teaching Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth; Wildy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with the nature of novice teaching principals' interactions in Queensland rural communities. Stories selected from case accounts are used to provide insights into the teaching principals' interrelationship with the community. The article concludes with a discussion of some implications for practice suggested by these…

  17. Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers through Quality Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The special education teaching environment is a teaching environment with unique duties that often challenge novice special education teachers. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain clarity of the work environment of special education teachers to uncover professional development practices that would work to support them. Research…

  18. How Do Novice Art Teachers Define and Implement Meaningful Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Christina; Newton, Connie; Kuster, Deborah; Milbrandt, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Four researchers collaborated on this qualitative case study that examined 11 first-year novice art teachers' understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Participants were selected through a criterion method sampling strategy; the subjects were employed in rural, urban, and suburban public school districts. In order to conduct a…

  19. Novice Teachers' Case Dilemmas: Surprising Perspectives Related to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Thomas; Sardo-Brown, Deborah; Hinson, Stephanie

    This study described novice teachers' case dilemmas, analyzing them for assumptions made by teachers about teaching and learning as well as for solutions to the dilemmas. Twenty-one of the thirty-six dilemmas emphasized either minority students, students of low socioeconomic status, or students from single-parent households. Among the issues…

  20. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that, in order to sufficiently adapt to task demands in traffic, drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills. There are indications that drivers in general, and novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. The objective of this

  1. The Metamorphosis of Industrial Designers from Novices to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ju-Joan; Chen, Po-Yu; Chen, Chun-Di

    2016-01-01

    Professional training for designers is crucial in the field of design studies. The characteristics of novices versus those of expert designers have been identified in the literature; however, studies exploring the issue of professional training processes in the actual workplace are not well developed. Our study addresses the topic by using…

  2. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  3. Initial experience using a robotic-driven laparoscopic needle holder with ergonomic handle: assessment of surgeons' task performance and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the surgeons' performance and ergonomics during the use of a robotic-driven needle holder in laparoscopic suturing tasks. Six right-handed laparoscopic surgeons with different levels of experience took part in this study. Participants performed a set of three different intracorporeal suturing tasks organized in ten trials during a period of five weeks. Surgeons used both conventional (Conv) and robotic (Rob) laparoscopic needle holders. Precision using the surgical needle, quality of the intracorporeal suturing performance, execution time and leakage pressure for the urethrovesical anastomosis, as well as the ergonomics of the surgeon's hand posture, were analyzed during the first, fifth and last trials. No statistically significant differences in precision and quality of suturing performance were obtained between both groups of instruments. Surgeons required more time using the robotic instrument than using the conventional needle holder to perform the urethrovesical anastomosis, but execution time was significantly reduced after training ([Formula: see text] 0.05). There were no differences in leakage pressure for the anastomoses carried out by both instruments. After training, novice surgeons significantly improved the ergonomics of the wrist ([Formula: see text] 0.05) and index finger (Conv: 36.381[Formula: see text], Rob: 30.389[Formula: see text]; p = 0.024) when using the robotic instrument compared to the conventional needle holder. Results have shown that, although both instruments offer similar technical performance, the robotic-driven instrument results in better ergonomics for the surgeon's hand posture compared to the use of a conventional laparoscopic needle holder in intracorporeal suturing.

  4. Challenging Transitions and Crossing Borders: Preparing Novice Mathematics Teacher Educators to Support Novice K-12 Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, Jan A.; Eli, Jennifer A.; Beisiegel, Mary; McCloskey, Andrea; Welder, Rachael M.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-nine recently graduated doctoral students in mathematics education completed a survey to determine their perceptions of transitioning from a doctoral program into an academic position at an institution of higher education. Research literature for novice mathematics school teachers was also reviewed to document their experiences transitioning…

  5. Projecting surgeon supply using a dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Sheldon, George F; Meyer, Anthony; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-05-01

    To develop a projection model to forecast the head count and full-time equivalent supply of surgeons by age, sex, and specialty in the United States from 2009 to 2028. The search for the optimal number and specialty mix of surgeons to care for the United States population has taken on increased urgency under health care reform. Expanded insurance coverage and an aging population will increase demand for surgical and other medical services. Accurate forecasts of surgical service capacity are crucial to inform the federal government, training institutions, professional associations, and others charged with improving access to health care. The study uses a dynamic stock and flow model that simulates future changes in numbers and specialty type by factoring in changes in surgeon demographics and policy factors. : Forecasts show that overall surgeon supply will decrease 18% during the period form 2009 to 2028 with declines in all specialties except colorectal, pediatric, neurological surgery, and vascular surgery. Model simulations suggest that none of the proposed changes to increase graduate medical education currently under consideration will be sufficient to offset declines. The length of time it takes to train surgeons, the anticipated decrease in hours worked by surgeons in younger generations, and the potential decreases in graduate medical education funding suggest that there may be an insufficient surgeon workforce to meet population needs. Existing maldistribution patterns are likely to be exacerbated, leading to delayed or lost access to time-sensitive surgical procedures, particularly in rural areas.

  6. Retention of Mohs surgeons in academic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Mina, Mary Alice; Brown, Marc D; Zwald, Fiona O

    2015-08-01

    Retention of academic Mohs surgeons is important for the growth of this specialty and teaching of residents and students. To examine factors that influence retention of Mohs surgeons in academics and to better understand reasons for their departure. A survey was electronically distributed to academic Mohs surgeons in the American College of Mohs Surgery, asking them to rate the importance of several variables on their decision to remain in academia. Private practice Mohs surgeons who had left academics were also surveyed. Two hundred thirty-six dermatologic surgeons completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent work full time in academics, and approximately 7% work part time. The top reasons for practicing in the academic setting are intellectual stimulation, teaching opportunities, and collaboration with other university physicians and researchers. Seventy-one percent of respondents reported they would stay in academics, 7% indicated they would not, and 22% were unsure. Unfair compensation, inadequate support staff, poor leadership, increased bureaucracy, and decreased autonomy were top reasons that may compel a Mohs surgeon to leave. Opportunities for intellectual stimulation, collaboration, and teaching remain the main draw for academic Mohs surgeons. A supportive environment, strong leadership, and establishing fair compensation are imperative in ensuring their stay.

  7. Surgeon Participation in Early Accountable Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Matthew J; Graves, Amy J; Buntin, Melinda B; Richards, Michael R; Penson, David F

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to characterize the landscape of surgeon participation in early accountable care organizations (ACOs) and to identify specialty-, organization-, and market-specific factors associated with ACO participation. Despite rapid deployment of alternative payment models (APMs), little is known about the prevalence of surgeon participation, and key drivers behind surgeon participation in APMs. Using data from SK&A, a research firm, we evaluated the near universe of US practices to characterize ACO participation among 125,425 US surgeons in 2015. We fit multivariable logistic regression models to characterize key drivers of ACO participation, and more specifically, the interaction between ACO affiliation and organizational structure. Of 125,425 US surgeons, 27,956 (22.3%) participated in at least 1 ACO program in 2015. We observed heterogeneity in participation by subspecialty, with trauma and transplant reporting the highest rate of ACO enrollment (36% for both) and plastic surgeons reporting the lowest (12.9%) followed by ophthalmology (16.0%) and hand (18.6%). Surgeons in group practices and integrated systems were more likely to participate relative to those practicing independently (aOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50, 1.64; aOR 4.87, 95% CI 4.68, 5.07, respectively). We observed a statistically significant interaction (P organization. Model-derived predicted probabilities revealed that, within each specialty, surgeons in integrated health systems had the highest predicted probabilities of ACO and those practicing independently generally had the lowest. We observed considerable variation in ACO enrollment among US surgeons, mediated at least in part by differences in practice organization. These data underscore the need for development of frameworks to characterize the strategic advantages and disadvantages associated with APM participation.

  8. Digital Footprint of Neurological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Gupta, Raghav; Shah, Aakash; Madill, Evan; Prabhu, Arpan V; Agarwal, Nitin

    2018-05-01

    Patients are increasingly turning to online resources to inquire about individual physicians and to gather health information. However, little research exists studying the online presence of neurosurgeons across the country. This study aimed to characterize these online profiles and assess the scope of neurosurgeons' digital identities. Medicare-participating neurologic surgeons from the United States and Puerto Rico were identified using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Comparable Downloadable File. Each physician was characterized by his or her medical education, graduation year, city of practice, gender, and affiliation with an academic institution. Using a Google-based custom search tool, the top 10 search results for each physician were extracted and categorized as 1 of the following: 1) physician, hospital, or healthcare system controlled, 2) third-party or government controlled, 3) social media-based, 4) primary journal article, or 5) other. Among the physicians within the CMS database, 4751 self-identified as being neurosurgeons, yielding a total of 45,875 uniform resource locator search results pertinent to these physicians. Of the 4751 neurosurgeons, 2317 (48.8%) and 2434 (51.2%) were classified as academic and nonacademic neurosurgeons, respectively. At least 1 search result was obtained for every physician. Hospital, healthcare system, or physician-controlled websites (18,206; 39.7%) and third-party websites (17,122; 37.3%) were the 2 most commonly observed domain types. Websites belonging to social media platforms accounted for 4843 (10.6%) search results, and websites belonging to peer-reviewed academic journals accounted for 1888 (4.1%) search results. The frequency with which a third-party domain appeared as the first search result was higher for nonacademic neurosurgeons than for academic neurosurgeons. In general, neurosurgeons lacked a controllable online presence within their first page of Google Search results

  9. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgeon-patient communication during awake procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire S; Guyton, Kristina; Pariser, Joseph J; Siegler, Mark; Schindler, Nancy; Langerman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Surgeons are increasingly performing procedures on awake patients. Communication during such procedures is complex and underexplored in the literature. Surgeons were recruited from the faculty of 2 hospitals to participate in an interview regarding their approaches to communication during awake procedures. Three researchers used the constant comparative method to transcribe, code, and review interviews until saturation was reached. Twenty-three surgeons described the advantages and disadvantages of awake procedures, their communication with the awake patient, their interactions with staff and with trainees, the environment of awake procedures, and how communication in this context is taught and learned. Surgeons recognized communication during awake procedures as important and reported varied strategies for ensuring patient comfort in this context. However, they also acknowledged challenges with multiparty communication during awake procedures, especially in balancing commitments to teaching with their duty to comfort the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Internet and the paediatric surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, M; Inumpudi, A; Mitra, D K

    1998-12-01

    The Internet, which has truly united the world, is an extensive network of inter-linked computers storing immense bytes of information that can be accessed by anyone, transcending all barriers. The paediatric surgery Internet consists of exponentially growing material that deals with information specifically for paediatric surgeons and patients of the paediatric age group. We reviewed the methods available to take advantage of this network to enable busy paediatric surgeons to accrue the benefits easily and efficiently rather than be lost in the information ocean by surfing individually. By getting connected to the Internet, the paediatric surgeon gains enormous information that can be useful for patient care. The Internet has revolutionised scientific publications by virtue of its fast and accurate transmission of manuscripts. Paediatric surgeons can send manuscripts by this channel and also access journals, obviating the inherent lag period of communication by post.

  12. Surgeons' musculoskeletal pain in minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Bech (Katrine Tholstrup Pedersen), Katrine Tholstrup

    in surgeons performing MIS is high and derives mainly from static postures. Positioning of monitor, adjustment of table height and instrument design also contribute substantially. Robotic assisted laparoscopy seems less physically demanding for the surgeon compared with conventional laparoscopy. However, some...... put the patients at a higher risk of complications, and on the longer term there is an increasing risk for the surgeon to develop chronic musculoskeletal pain that will disable him/her to perform his/her job. Therefore, surgeons’ musculoskeletal health is of vital importance and must be considered...... alongside patient safety. The present literature study supports the need for a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an individually designed training program for surgeons performing MIS....

  13. Income, productivity, and satisfaction of breast surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, David C; Helmer, Stephen D; Osland, Jacqueline S; Tenofsky, Patty L

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how the practice patterns of breast surgeons affect their income and job satisfaction. A 19-question survey regarding practice patterns and income and job satisfaction was mailed to all active US members of the American Society of Breast Surgeons. There were 772 responses. An increasing percentage of breast care was associated with lower incomes (P=.0001) and similar income satisfaction (P=.4517) but higher job satisfaction (P=.0001). The increasing proportion of breast care was also associated with fewer hours worked per week (P=.0001). Although incomes were lower in surgeons with a higher proportion of their practice in breast care, income satisfaction was not affected. Although cause and effect relationships between income and breast surgery are difficult to establish, several trends do emerge. Most significantly, we found that dedicated breast surgeons have higher job satisfaction ratings and similar income satisfaction despite lower incomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Training on a virtual reality simulator--is it really possible a correct evaluation of the surgeons' experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovanu, R; Târcoveanu, E; Lupaşcu, C; Dimofte, G; Filip, V; Vlad, N; Vasilescu, A

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic simulators provide a safe and efficient means of acquiring surgical skills. It is well known that virtual reality training improves the performance of young surgeons. Most of the virtual reality simulators have construct validity and can differentiate between novice and expert surgeons. However, for some training modules and trainees categories the possibility to distinguish the real surgeon's experience is still discussed. A total of 14 young surgeons were evaluated during a 5 days postgraduate laparoscopic course using a LapSim Basic Skills, v. 3.0 simulator and a Virtual Laparoscopic Interface (VLI) hardware. The best performances of the surgeons were included in a MS Access database and statistical analyzed. There were 6 males and 8 women with a mean age of 30.21 +/- 1.01 years old (range 26-38). Nine surgeons (64.28%) were young residents without any laparoscopic surgical experience (group I), and the other 5, had some laparoscopic surgical experience (10 to 30 laparoscopic procedures) (group II). During the instrument navigation task we found that both hands performances were significant better in group II--the navigation time was 12.43 +/- 1.31 vs 19.01 +/- 1.40 seconds for the left hand--p = 0.006 and 13.57 +/- 1.47 vs 22.18 +/- 3.16 seconds for the right hand--p = 0.032); the right instrument angular path degree was also shorter for experienced surgeons (153.17 +/- 16.72 vs 230.88 +/- 22.6 - p = 0.017). The same data were noted for the lifting and grasping module. However, the suturing module tasks revealed contradictory results: the group I residents recorded better performances then the group II surgeons: total time--677.06 +/- 111.48 vs 1122.65 +/- 166.62 seconds; p = 0.043; right instrument path (m)--15.62 +/- 2.47 vs 25.73 +/- 3.13; p = 0.028; right instrument angular path (degree)--3940.43 +/- 572.54 vs 6595.5597 +/- 753.26; p = 0.017. Laparoscopic simulators are useful to evaluate the surgeons' experience; the parameters of the

  15. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Plastic Surgeon at Work and Play: Surgeon Health, Practice Stress, and Work-Home Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Plastic surgeon wellness encompasses physical and mental health, considered in the context of practice stress. In addition, the challenges of work-home balance can lead to substantial negative impact on the surgeon, family, staff, and patients. The data-driven impact of each of these three components with personal vignettes, both individually and collectively, is presented by Michael Bentz, MD as the 2016 presidential address of American Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  17. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...... was found, p values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * -0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...

  18. Exploring physics concepts among novice teachers through CMAP tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Prahani, B. K.; Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Admoko, S.

    2018-03-01

    Concept maps are graphical tools for organising, elaborating and representing knowledge. Through Cmap tools software, it can be explored the understanding and the hierarchical structuring of physics concepts among novice teachers. The software helps physics teachers indicated a physics context, focus questions, parking lots, cross-links, branching, hierarchy, and propositions. By using an exploratory quantitative study, a total 13-concept maps with different physics topics created by novice physics teachers were analysed. The main differences of scoring between lecturer and peer-teachers’ scoring were also illustrated. The study offered some implications, especially for physics educators to determine the hierarchical structure of the physics concepts, to construct a physics focus question, and to see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map.

  19. Clinical decision-making of rural novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seright, T J

    2011-01-01

    Nurses in rural settings are often the first to assess and interpret the patient's clinical presentations. Therefore, an understanding of how nurses experience decision-making is important in terms of educational preparation, resource allocation to rural areas, institutional cultures, and patient outcomes. Theory development was based on the in-depth investigation of 12 novice nurses practicing in rural critical access hospitals in a north central state. This grounded theory study consisted of face-to-face interviews with 12 registered nurses, nine of whom were observed during their work day. The participants were interviewed a second time, as a method of member checking, and during this interview they reviewed their transcripts, the emerging themes and categories. Directors of nursing from both the research sites and rural hospitals not involved in the study, experienced researchers, and nurse educators facilitated triangulation of the findings. 'Sociocentric rationalizing' emerged as the central phenomenon and referred to the sense of belonging and agency which impacted the decision-making in this small group of novice nurses in rural critical access hospitals. The observed consequences, which were conceptualized during the axial coding process and were derived from observations and interviews of the 12 novice nurses in this study include: (1) gathering information before making a decision included assessment of: the credibility of co-workers, patients' subjective and objective data, and one's own past and current experiences; (2) conferring with co-workers as a direct method of confirming/denying decisions being made was considered more realistic and expedient than policy books and decision trees; (3) rural practicum clinical experiences, along with support after orientation, provide for transition to the rural nurse role; (4) involved directors of nursing served as both models and protectors of novice nurses placed in high accountability positions early in

  20. ATTENTION MAINTENANCE IN NOVICE DRIVERS: ASSESSMENT AND TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Anuj; Masserang, Kathleen M.; Divekar, Gautam; Reagan, Ian; Thomas, F. Dennis; Blomberg, Richard; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald

    2009-01-01

    All programs assessing attention maintenance inside the vehicle have required eye trackers and either a driving simulator or a specially equipped field vehicle. Ideally, one would like a way to assess attention maintenance that could be implemented on a desktop PC. Additionally, one would like to have a program that could be used to train novice drivers to maintain their attention more safely on the forward roadway. An experiment was run (a) to determine whether a program FOCAL (Focused Conce...

  1. Usability Issues in the Design of Novice Programming Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    lists this as a design principle for novice programming environments. In traditional compiled languages, beginners are also confused by the need to...programming task external knowledge that might interfere with correct under- standing of the language. Most beginner programming errors can be...language for text editing, but [Curtis 1988] found that a textual pseudocode and graphical flowcharts were both bet- ter than natural language in program

  2. Simplifying the writing process for the novice writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Mary Connie

    2002-10-01

    Nurses take responsibility for reading information to update their professional knowledge and to meet relicensure requirements. However, nurses are less enthusiastic about writing for professional publication. This article explores the reluctance of nurses to write, the reasons why writing for publication is important to the nursing profession, the importance of mentoring to potential writers, and basic information about simplifying the writing process for novice writers. Copyright 2002 by American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses.

  3. Mindfulness for Novice Pediatric Nurses: Smartphone Application Versus Traditional Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison Wylde, Chelsey; Mahrer, Nicole E; Meyer, Rika M L; Gold, Jeffrey I

    The current study compares the effects of a traditionally delivered mindfulness (TDM) intervention to a smartphone delivered mindfulness (SDM) intervention, Headspace, an audio-guided mindfulness meditation program, in a group of novice nurses. Novice nurses participating in a pediatric nurse residency program were asked to participate in either a TDM or SDM intervention. Participants (N=95) completed self-administered pencil and paper questionnaires measuring mindfulness skills, and risk and protective factors at the start of their residency and three months after entering the program. Nurses in the SDM group reported significantly more "acting with awareness" and marginally more "non-reactivity to inner experience" skills compared to the TDM group. The smartphone intervention group also showed marginally more compassion satisfaction and marginally less burnout. Additionally, nurses in the SDM group had lower risk for compassion fatigue compared to the TDM group, but only when the nurses had sub-clinical posttraumatic symptoms at the start of the residency training program. Smartphone delivered mindfulness interventions may provide more benefits for novice nurses than traditionally delivered mindfulness interventions. However, the smart-phone intervention may be better indicated for nurses without existing symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Mindfulness interventions delivered through smartphone applications show promise in equipping nurses with important coping skills to manage stress. Because of the accessibility of smartphone applications, more nurses can benefit from the intervention as compared to a therapist delivered intervention. However, nurses with existing stress symptoms may require alternate interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Training Impact on Novice and Experienced Research Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Prikhidko, Alena; Swords, Stephanie; Sonstein, Stephen; Kolb, H Robert

    2017-12-01

    Competency-based training and professional development is critical to the clinical research enterprise. Understanding research coordinators' perspectives is important for establishing a common core curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe participants' perspectives regarding the impact of online and classroom training sessions. 27 participants among three institutions, completed a two-day classroom training session. 10 novice and seven experienced research coordinators participated in focus group interviews. Grounded theory revealed similarities in novice and experienced coordinator themes including Identifying Preferences for Instruction and Changing Self Perceptions. Differences, seen in experienced participants, focused on personal change, in the theme of Re-Assessing Skills. Infrastructure and cultural issues were evident in their theme, Promoting Leadership and Advocacy. Novice participants recommended ways to improve training via their theme of Making Programmatic Improvements. Participants reported a clear preference for classroom learning. Training played an influential role in changing participants' self-perceptions by validating their experiences. The findings provided guidance for developing a standardized curriculum. Training must be carefully tailored to the needs of participants while considering audience needs based on work experience, how technology can be used and offering content that is most urgently needed.

  5. CBT competence in novice therapists improves anxiety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; Craske, Michelle G; Glenn, Daniel E; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander; Welch, Stacy S; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Lang, Ariel; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Rose, Raphael D

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the relationships between therapist variables (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] competence, and CBT adherence) and clinical outcomes of computer-assisted CBT for anxiety disorders delivered by novice therapists in a primary care setting. Participants were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of evidence-based treatment, including computer-assisted CBT, versus treatment as usual. Therapists (anxiety clinical specialists; ACSs) were nonexpert clinicians, many of whom had no prior experience in delivering psychotherapy (and in particular, very little experience with CBT). Trained raters reviewed randomly selected treatment sessions from 176 participants and rated therapists on measures of CBT competence and CBT adherence. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups on measures of anxiety, depression, and functioning, and an average Reliable Change Index was calculated as a composite measure of outcome. CBT competence and CBT adherence were entered as predictors of outcome, after controlling for baseline covariates. Higher CBT competence was associated with better clinical outcomes whereas CBT adherence was not. Also, CBT competence was inversely correlated with years of clinical experience and trended (not significantly, though) down as the study progressed. CBT adherence was inversely correlated with therapist tenure in the study. Therapist competence was related to improved clinical outcomes when CBT for anxiety disorders was delivered by novice clinicians with technology assistance. The results highlight the value of the initial training for novice therapists as well as booster training to limit declines in therapist adherence. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary tendencies as predictors of marathon time in novice marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B; Ingraham, Stacy J; Lundstrom, Chris; Rhodes, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    The effects of dietary factors such as carbohydrate (CHO) on endurance-running performance have been extensively studied under laboratory-based and simulated field conditions. Evidence from "real-life" events, however, is poorly characterized. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the associations between prerace and in-race nutrition tendencies and performance in a sample of novice marathoners. Forty-six college students (36 women and 10 men) age 21.3 ± 3.3 yr recorded diet for 3 d before, the morning of, and during a 26.2-mile marathon. Anthropometric, physiological, and performance measurements were assessed before the marathon so the associations between diet and marathon time could be included as part of a stepwise-regression model. Mean marathon time was 266 ± 42 min. A pre-marathon 2-mile time trial explained 73% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R2 = .73, p marathon time, explaining an additional 4% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R2 = .77, p = .006). Other factors such as age, body-mass index, gender, day-before + morning-of energy, and in-race CHO were not significant independent predictors of marathon time. In this sample of primarily novice marathoners, DBMC intake was associated with faster marathon time, independent of other known predictors. These results suggest that novice and recreational marathoners should consider consuming a moderate to high amount of CHO in the 24-36 hr before a marathon.

  7. Expert and novice categorization of introductory physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven Frederick

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, Chi et al.'s seminal paper on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Chi et al. Cognitive Science 5, 121 -- 152 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems. The study firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by "surface features" (e.g. "incline," "pendulum," "projectile motion,"... ), while experts use "deep structure" (e.g. "energy conservation," "Newton 2,"... ). While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In most experiments, the clean-cut outcome of the original study cannot be reproduced. Given the widespread implications of the original study, the frequent failure to reproduce its findings warrants a closer look. We developed a less subjective statistical analysis method for the card sorting outcome and studied how the "successful" outcome of the experiment depends on the choice of the original card set. Thus, in a first step, we are moving beyond descriptive statistics, and develop a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. These graphs are compared macroscopically, using standard graph theoretic statistics, and microscopically, using a distance metric that we have developed. This macroscopic sorting behavior is described using our Cognitive Categorization Model. The microscopic comparison allows us to visualize our sorters using Principal Components Analysis and compare the expert sorters to the novice sorters as a group. In the second step, we ask the question: Which properties of problems are most important in problem

  8. The kinds of questions asked by novice teachers in learning mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, L.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Usodo, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study describes the kinds of questions asked by novice teachers during mathematics learning process in senior high school. This study used descriptive analysis. The subjects of this study were two novice teachers who teach mathematics in 10th grade. The result showed that the frequently asked questions by novice teachers based on the objective were compliance questions, rethorical questions and sometimes prompting questions and probing questions. The frequently questions asked by novice teacher based on the cognitive process dimension of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy were questions of remembering, questions of understanding, questions of applying, questions of analyzing and questions of evaluating. The novice teachers asked the routine questions which had same thinking level. The question with the highest level of thinking did not asked by the novice teachers.

  9. Young transplant surgeons and NIH funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Sung, R S; Segev, D L

    2011-02-01

    Transplant surgeons have historically been instrumental in advancing the science of transplantation. However, research in the current environment inevitably requires external funding, and the classic career development pathway for a junior investigator is the NIH K award. We matched transplant surgeons who completed fellowships between 1998 and 2004 with the NIH funding database, and also queried them regarding research effort and attitudes. Of 373 surgeons who completed a fellowship, only 6 (1.8%) received a K award; of these, 3 subsequently obtained R-level funding. An additional 5 individuals received an R-level grant within their first 5 years as faculty without a K award, 3 of whom had received a prior ASTS-sponsored award. Survey respondents reported extensive research experience during their training (78.8% spent median 24 months), a high proportion of graduate research degrees (36%), and a strong desire for more research time (78%). However, they reported clinical burdens and lack of mentorship as their primary perceived barriers to successful research careers. The very low rate of NIH funding for young transplant surgeons, combined with survey results that indicate their desire to participate in research, suggest institutional barriers to access that may warrant attention by the ASTS and the transplant surgery community. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Designing a leadership development program for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Gregory A; Pradarelli, Jason C; Lemak, Christy Harris; Mulholland, Michael W; Dimick, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous leadership development programs (LDPs) exist in health care, no programs have been specifically designed to meet the needs of surgeons. This study aimed to elicit practicing surgeons' motivations and desired goals for leadership training to design an evidence-based LDP in surgery. At a large academic health center, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24 surgical faculty members who voluntarily applied and were selected for participation in a newly created LDP. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed using analyst triangulation and thematic coding to extract major themes regarding surgeons' motivations and perceived needs for leadership knowledge and skills. Themes from interview responses were then used to design the program curriculum specifically to meet the leadership needs of surgical faculty. Three major themes emerged regarding surgeons' motivations for seeking leadership training: (1) Recognizing key gaps in their formal preparation for leadership roles; (2) Exhibiting an appetite for personal self-improvement; and (3) Seeking leadership guidance for career advancement. Participants' interviews revealed four specific domains of knowledge and skills that they indicated as desired takeaways from a LDP: (1) leadership and communication; (2) team building; (3) business acumen/finance; and (4) greater understanding of the health care context. Interviews with surgical faculty members identified gaps in prior leadership training and demonstrated concrete motivations and specific goals for participating in a formal leadership program. A LDP that is specifically tailored to address the needs of surgical faculty may benefit surgeons at a personal and institutional level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison expert and novice scan behavior for using e-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita Sari, Felisia; Insap Santosa, Paulus; Wibirama, Sunu

    2017-06-01

    E-Learning is an important media that an educational institution must have. Successful information design for e-learning depends on its user's characteristics. This study explores differences between novice and expert users' eye movement data. This differences between expert and novice users were compared and identified based on gaze features. Each participant must do three main tasks of e-learning. This paper gives the result that there are differences between gaze features of experts and novices.

  12. The Surgeons' Leadership Inventory (SLI): a taxonomy and rating system for surgeons' intraoperative leadership skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson Parker, Sarah; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen; Yule, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Surgeons must demonstrate leadership to optimize performance and maximize patient safety in the operating room, but no behavior rating tool is available to measure leadership. Ten focus groups with members of the operating room team discussed surgeons' intraoperative leadership. Surgeons' leadership behaviors were extracted and used to finalize the Surgeons' Leadership Inventory (SLI), which was checked by surgeons (n = 6) for accuracy and face validity. The SLI was used to code video recordings (n = 5) of operations to test reliability. Eight elements of surgeons' leadership were included in the SLI: (1) maintaining standards, (2) managing resources, (3) making decisions, (4) directing, (5) training, (6) supporting others, (7) communicating, and (8) coping with pressure. Interrater reliability to code videos of surgeons' behaviors while operating using this tool was acceptable (κ = .70). The SLI is empirically grounded in focus group data and both the leadership and surgical literature. The interrater reliability of the system was acceptable. The inventory could be used for rating surgeons' leadership in the operating room for research or as a basis for postoperative feedback on performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experts and novices use the same factors--but differently--to evaluate pearl quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tani

    Full Text Available Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading and expert participants' pearl grading skill and then compare the novices' grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices' grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts' grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices' consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices' trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%. This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts.

  14. Using videorecording to enhance the development of novice researchers´ interviewing skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Paterson, Barbara; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Little has been written about how to teach novice researchers about qualitative research interviewing. In this article, the authors recognize qualitative research interviewing as a practice that one develops through reflexivity. They propose that novices can develop a reflexive...... to enhance the development of novice researchers as qualitative research interviewers....... interviewing practice by using a guided framework to review video records of the interviews they conduct. The authors discuss the framework and illustrate its use with an exemplar derived from the experience of a novice researcher. They conclude with a discussion of the need for further research about how best...

  15. Do Surgeons Treat Their Patients Like They Would Treat Themselves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Stein J.; Teunis, Teun; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; Spoor, Andy B.; Chauhan, Aakash; Shafritz, Adam B.; Wasterlain, Amy; Terrono, Andrew L.; Neviaser, Andrew S.; Schmidt, Andrew; Nelson, Andy; Miller, Anna N.; Kristan, Anze; Apard, Thomas; Berner, Arne; Ilyas, Asif; Jubel, Axel; Jost, Bernhard; Babis, George; Watkins, Barry; Kreis, Barbara; Nolan, Betsy M.; Crist, Brett D.; Cross, Brian J.; Wills, Brian P. D.; Barreto, Camilo Jose Romero; Ekholm, Carl; Swigart, Carrie; Spath, Catherine; Zalavras, Charalampos; Cassidy, Charles; Garnavos, Christos; Moreno-Serrano, Constanza L.; Rodner, Craig; Klostermann, Cyrus; Osei, Daniel A.; Rikli, Daniel A.; Haverkamp, Daniel; Polatsch, Daniel; Drosdowech, Darren; Edelstein, David M.; Eygendaal, Denise; Verbeek, Diederik O. F.; Doornberg, Job N.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Schep, Niels; Kloen, Peter; Haverlag, Robert; Schepers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial unexplained geographical and surgeon-to-surgeon variation in rates of surgery. One would expect surgeons to treat patients and themselves similarly based on best evidence and accounting for patient preferences. (1) Are surgeons more likely to recommend surgery when choosing for

  16. Concurrent Surgery and the Role of the Pediatric Attending Surgeon: Comparing Parents' and Surgeons' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jennie K; Ibarra, Christopher; Feinn, Richard S; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Carter, Cordelia W

    2018-06-01

    The common practice of performing concurrent or overlapping operations has been intensely scrutinized by lay media and academic press to investigate its safety and cost-effectiveness. However, there is little information about its use within the pediatric population. Even less is known about parents' expectations about the surgeon's role on the day of operation and how they align with those of pediatric surgeons and surgical trainees, despite the potential for significant discrepancies in expectations to erode trust and damage the physician-family relationship. A 5-point Likert-style survey was designed to characterize expectations about the degree of involvement by pediatric attending surgeons throughout a surgical case (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = neutral, 5 = strongly agree). The survey was administered to parents of pediatric patients undergoing elective operations during a 3-month interval at a single academic institution. The survey was also administered to surgeons and surgical residents at the same institution. Multivariate multiplicity-adjusted t-tests were used to identify significant differences between responders. One hundred and ten parents and 84 pediatric surgeons and trainees completed the survey. Parents' responses to the survey ranged from 4.15 to 4.89, compared with 2.75 to 4.86 from surgeons. The differences achieved statistical significance (p children. There is a significant mismatch between parents' expectations and those of pediatric surgeons about the role of the surgeon on the day of operation, with parents consistently expecting more direct involvement by the attending surgeon. These discrepancies can have implications for both parent/patient satisfaction and medical education. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on postsurgical recovering after implantation of electronic tags in a neotropical fish: Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish can be affected by different parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of type of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on surgical and postsurgical wound healing in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus . In total, eighty fish were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters and forty fish were kept as controls. Forty fish were implanted with a small tag and other forty were implanted with a large tag. Similarly, forty fish were anesthetized with eugenol and forty fish were anesthetized by electroanesthesia, and forty surgeries were performed by an expert surgeon and forty surgeries were performed by novice surgeons. At the end of the experimental period seventeen (21.3% tagged fish had postsurgical complications, including death (1.3%, tag expulsion (2.5%, antenna migration (2.5%, and infection (15%. Tag size was the key determinant for postsurgical complications. Surgical details and postsurgical wound healing were not affected by type of anesthetic. Incision size, duration of surgery, and wound area were significantly affected by tag size and surgeon experience, and the number of sutures was significantly affected by tag size only. The results indicate that successful implantation of telemetry transmitters is dependent upon surgeon experience and tag size.

  18. Validity and reliability of global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS) in novice trainees performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Hoff, Christiaan; Lamme, Bas; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2015-01-01

    Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) assessment has been designed to evaluate skills in laparoscopic surgery. A longitudinal blinded study of randomized video fragments was conducted to estimate the validity and reliability of GOALS in novice trainees. In total, 10 trainees each performed 6 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Sixty procedures were recorded on video. Video fragments of (1) opening of the peritoneum; (2) dissection of Calot's triangle and achievement of critical view of safety; and (3) dissection of the gallbladder from the liver bed were blinded, randomized, and rated by 2 consultant surgeons using GOALS. Also, a grade was given for overall competence. The correlation of GOALS with live observation Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scores was calculated. Construct validity was estimated using the Friedman 2-way analysis of variance by ranks and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The interrater reliability was calculated using the absolute and consistency agreement 2-way random-effects model intraclass correlation coefficient. A high correlation was found between mean GOALS score (r = 0.879, p = 0.021) and mean OSATS score. The GOALS score increased significantly across the 6 procedures (p = 0.002). The trainees performed significantly better on their sixth when compared with their first cholecystectomy (p = 0.004). The consistency agreement interrater reliability was 0.37 for the mean GOALS score (p = 0.002) and 0.55 for overall competence (p < 0.001) of the 3 video fragments. The validity observed in this randomized blinded longitudinal study supports the existing evidence that GOALS is a valid tool for assessment of novice trainees. A relatively low reliability was found in this study. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of different sets of instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in a surgical simulator with novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Long-Qing; Wang, Jing-Min; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Ji, Zhen-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Given the parallel entry of working instruments through a single incision in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, loss of triangulation in the abdominal cavity and counteracting movements of the instruments are inevitable obstacles. Some specially designed devices have emerged to ameliorate these challenges. Twenty-four novice participants were randomized into four groups using assigned instruments, conventional straight instruments, single-curved instruments, double-curved instruments and articulating instruments, respectively, to perform two basic tasks (peg transferring and pattern cutting) 14 times in a modified simulator. A test of the tasks and a resection of the intestine segment of a rat were performed. The task scores and evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of the intestine segment were recorded. The instrument of modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed. The task scores of the groups using single-curved instruments and articulating instruments were better than the other two groups on the simulator tasks, consistent with the evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of intestine segment. As the proficiency with the instruments increased, the task scores improved, as demonstrated by the learning curve. The workload measured by the modified NASA-TLX tool demonstrated that the groups using articulating instruments and double-curved instruments had a heavier workload in most of the categories compared with the other two groups. Single-curved and articulating instruments are more effective than conventional straight and double-curved devices, and are favourable in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for novice learners. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Solo-Surgeon Retroauricular Approach Endoscopic Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid. Endoscopic thyroidectomy using the solo-surgeon technique was performed in 10 patients having papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean patient age was 36.0 ± 11.1 years, and all patients were female. There were no postoperative complications such as vocal cord paralysis and hematoma. When compared with the operating times and volume of drainage of a control group of 100 patients who underwent surgery through the conventional retroauricular approach between May 2013 and December 2015, the operating times and volume of drainage were not significantly different (P = .781 and .541, respectively). Solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy is safe and feasible when performed by a surgeon competent in endoscopic thyroidectomy.

  1. Cardiac Surgeons after Vacation: Refreshed or Rusty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Blayne; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; McClure, Andrew; Dubois, Luc; Nagpal, Dave

    2017-10-01

    Many surgeons describe feeling a bit out of practice when they return from a vacation. There have been no studies assessing the impact of surgeon vacation on patient outcomes. We used administrative data from the province of Ontario to identify patients who underwent a coronary artery bypass grafting. Using a propensity score, we matched patients who underwent their procedure immediately after their surgeon returned from vacation of at least 7 days (n = 1,161) to patients who were not operated immediately before or after a vacation period (n = 2,138). There was no significant difference in patient mortality (odds ratio: 1.23, p = 0.52), length of operation (relative risk [RR]: 1.00 p = 0.58), or intensive care unit/ hospital stay (RR: 0.97 p = 0.66/RR: 0.98 p = 0.54, respectively). There was not a significant change in risk of death, operative length, or hospital stay after a surgeon vacation.

  2. The nature of surgeon human capital depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Helmchen, Lorens A

    2014-09-01

    To test how practice interruptions affect worker productivity, we estimate how temporal breaks affect surgeons' performance of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Examining 188 surgeons who performed 56,315 CABG surgeries in Pennsylvania between 2006 and 2010, we find that a surgeon's additional day away from the operating room raised patients' inpatient mortality by up to 0.067 percentage points (2.4% relative effect) but reduced total hospitalization costs by up to 0.59 percentage points. Among emergent patients treated by high-volume providers, where temporal distance is most plausibly exogenous, an additional day away raised mortality risk by 0.398 percentage points (11.4% relative effect) but reduced cost by up to 1.4 percentage points. This is consistent with the hypothesis that as temporal distance increases, surgeons are less likely to recognize and address life-threatening complications. Our estimates imply additional intraprocedural treatment intensity has a cost per life-year preserved of $7871-18,500, well within conventional cost-effectiveness cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lived Experiences of Novice Male Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Li; Tseng, Ying-Hua; Hodges, Eric; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2016-11-03

    Nursing remains a female-dominated profession around the world. The masculinity and male identity of men who choose nursing careers is questioned by the general public in many countries. Few studies report the situation of novice male nurses at their first year. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of novice male nurses when they first enter the workplace. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using purposive and snowball sampling for recruitment. Fourteen participants, 21 to 25 years old, were recruited, all of whom had at least 5 months of work experience. On average, in-depth, face-to-face interviews lasted 1 hour, with more than one follow-up telephone interview per participant. The following six themes emerged from the transcribed verbatim data based on content analysis: choosing appropriate work departments based on personality and needs, facing the pressure and frustration of independent work, getting help, obtaining acceptance among female cliques, reflecting on the relationship between gender and profession, and concerns about dependents and financial needs. This study addresses masculinity issues and gender stereotyping. In addition, male nurses were very concerned about their career options and development and the likelihood of promotion. This research not only has implications for better understanding of novice male nurses' needs and the challenges in their social life but also makes suggestions for nursing practice to attract and keep more male nurses in the nursing profession. The results illustrate how culturally congruent nursing care can be achieved when we more concern male nurses' role pressure and address traditional gender sensitivity to promote male nurses' career development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A novice's process of object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Exposing students to the process of programming is merely implied but not explicitly addressed in texts on programming which appear to deal with 'program' as a noun rather than as a verb.We present a set of principles and techniques as well as an informal but systematic process of decomposing...... a programming problem. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of process and techniques.The process is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it, we hope to achieve two things...

  5. Classifying BCI signals from novice users with extreme learning machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez Germán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI allows to control external devices only with the electrical activity of the brain. In order to improve the system, several approaches have been proposed. However it is usual to test algorithms with standard BCI signals from experts users or from repositories available on Internet. In this work, extreme learning machine (ELM has been tested with signals from 5 novel users to compare with standard classification algorithms. Experimental results show that ELM is a suitable method to classify electroencephalogram signals from novice users.

  6. Comparative assessment of surgeons' task performance and surgical ergonomics associated with conventional and modified flank positions: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Kong, Gaiqing; Meng, Yisen; Tan, Shutao; Wei, Kunlin; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Flank position is extensively used in retroperitoneoscopic urological practice. Most surgeons follow the patients' position in open approaches. However, surgical ergonomics of the conventional position in the retroperitoneoscopic surgery is poor. We introduce a modified position and evaluated task performance and surgical ergonomics of both positions with simulated surgical tasks. Twenty-one novice surgeons were recruited to perform four tasks: bead transfer, ring transfer, continuous suturing, and cutting a circle. The conventional position was simulated by setting an endo-surgical simulator parallel to the long axis of a surgical desk. The modified position was simulated by rotating the simulator 30° with respect to the long axis of the desk. The outcome measurements include task performance measures, kinematic measures for body alignment, surface electromyography, relative loading between feet, and subjective ratings of fatigue. We observed significant improvements in both task performance and surgical ergonomics parameters under the modified position. For all four tasks, subjects finished tasks faster with higher accuracy (p ergonomics part: (1) The angle between the upper body and the head was decreased by 7.4 ± 1.7°; (2) The EMG amplitude collected from shoulders and left lumber was significantly lower (p ergonomics. With a simulated surgery, we demonstrated that our modified position could significantly improve task performance and surgical ergonomics. Further studies are still warranted to validate these benefits for both patients and surgeons.

  7. Using Simulation to Support Novice Teachers' Classroom Management Skills: Comparing Traditional and Alternative Certification Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Jennifer; Walker, Joan T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from research on situated cognition and the development of expertise and simulations in professional education, we designed two simulation tasks that provided novice teachers with repeated opportunities to deliberately practice managing a classroom under no-fault conditions. The simulations immersed novices in two perennial classroom…

  8. TESOL Teacher Education: Novice Teachers' Perceptions of Their Preparedness and Efficacy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faez, Farahnaz; Valeo, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the teacher education of novice teachers of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL). A survey and follow-up interviews were employed to investigate novice teachers' perceptions about four aspects of their teacher preparation: (a) degree of preparedness to teach after graduating from a teaching English to speakers of other…

  9. Study of the 5E Instructional Model to Improve the Instructional Design Process of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuhua; Gao, Chong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5E instructional model on the teaching processes of novice teachers. First, we conducted a teaching design training project based on the 5E model for 40 novice teachers, and compared pre-texts of the teachers' teaching process from before the training with post-texts obtained immediately following the…

  10. Tracking Professional Development of Novice Teachers When Integrating Technology in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Irina; Stein, Hana; Gorev, Dvora

    2017-01-01

    This research traced changes in choices of technological tools and attitudes toward technology use among novice mathematics teachers at three stages of their professional development: as pre-service teachers, a year later, and in their work as novice teachers. At each stage, the participants were required to evaluate the benefits of technology use…

  11. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  12. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2016-01-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  13. Instructional Leadership Challenges and Practices of Novice Principals in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezorek, Douglas; Manard, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    We report on a phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of six novice, rural public school principals in a midwestern U.S. state. We situated our analysis within existing research on leadership for learning, particularly how novice principals interpreted instructional leadership challenges in the context of rural school leadership. Our…

  14. Rethinking Teacher Preparation: Conceptualizing Skills and Knowledge of Novice Teachers of Secondary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Margarita Borelli

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the extent to which novice secondary mathematics teachers (licensed and currently teaching in Utah) perceive they are prepared to do the work of teaching secondary mathematics. It first examined if novice secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of their knowledge and skills of doing their work fell into four…

  15. Being a Mentor: Novice Teachers' Mentors' Conceptions of Mentoring Prior to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz-Oppenheimer, Orna

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with novice teachers' mentors' conceptions of mentoring prior to their mentoring training. In Israel, all novice teachers have to be supported and assessed by a mentor during their first year of teaching. The aim of this study was to elicit from prospective mentors their own conception of professional mentoring, as a basis for…

  16. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  17. A Mixed Methods Survey Research Study of Novice Special Education Teachers: Investigation of Reading Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Mary P.

    2017-01-01

    Novice special education teachers have become an integral part of the public and private school systems throughout Pennsylvania. This mixed-methods research study explored the expertise and preparedness of current novice special education teachers. A combination of an electronic survey questionnaire and phone and face-to-face interviews were…

  18. Imaging of bone tumors for the musculoskeletal oncologic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errani, C; Kreshak, J; Ruggieri, P; Alberghini, M; Picci, P; Vanel, D

    2013-12-01

    The appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bone tumors requires close collaboration between different medical specialists. Imaging plays a key role throughout the process. Radiographic detection of a bone tumor is usually not challenging. Accurate diagnosis is often possible from physical examination, history, and standard radiographs. The location of the lesion in the bone and the skeleton, its size and margins, the presence and type of periosteal reaction, and any mineralization all help determine diagnosis. Other imaging modalities contribute to the formation of a diagnosis but are more critical for staging, evaluation of response to treatment, surgical planning, and follow-up.When necessary, biopsy is often radioguided, and should be performed in consultation with the surgeon performing the definitive operative procedure. CT is optimal for characterization of the bone involvement and for evaluation of pulmonary metastases. MRI is highly accurate in determining the intraosseous extent of tumor and for assessing soft tissue, joint, and vascular involvement. FDG-PET imaging is becoming increasingly useful for the staging of tumors, assessing response to neoadjuvant treatment, and detecting relapses.Refinement of these and other imaging modalities and the development of new technologies such as image fusion for computer-navigated bone tumor surgery will help surgeons produce a detailed and reliable preoperative plan, especially in challenging sites such as the pelvis and spine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Roles and Performance of Professional Driving Instructors in Novice Driver Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhaidi M. Jawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article aimed to analyse existing literature regarding the roles and performance of professional driving instructors (PDIs in novice driver education (DE. A systematic classification scheme was adopted to analyse identified articles to determine the study context of PDIs in novice DE, the competency level of PDIs in relation to experienced and learner drivers and the contributions of PDIs to the novice driver learning process. A total of 14 original research articles were identified, with no systematic reviews or meta-analyses available. Overall, all of the articles were found to be inadequate in providing an in-depth understanding of the roles and performance of PDIs in novice DE. There is an urgent need to improve current understanding of the roles of PDIs in novice DE and to work towards an internationally recognised PDI management approach.

  20. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  1. Improving Novice Radiology Trainees' Perception Using Fine Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Thomas Rob; Kelleher, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To determine if fine art perception training improved performance in novice radiology trainees. On the first day of their residency, 15 radiology residents underwent a basic radiology perception test in which they were shown 15 different radiographs that each had a significant abnormality. This was followed by a focused session of interpretation training at a local art gallery where art experts taught the trainees how to thoroughly analyze a painting. After this fine art session, the residents were once again shown 15 different radiographs and asked, in the same manner as before, to identify the location of the abnormality. The results of both radiograph assessments were then compared. The 15 residents correctly identified the areas of abnormality on 35 of 225 cases pre-art training with a mean score of 2.33 and a SD of 1.4. After art training, the figure for correctly identifying the area of abnormality rose to 94 of 225 cases with a mean score of 6.27 and a SD of 1.79 (P art gallery may be a novel, effective transitional starting point for novice radiology trainees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Internal and External Imagery Effects on Tennis Skills Among Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Amir; Gozalzadeh, Elmira

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15-18 years, from a summer tennis program participated. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12). The experimental interventions of 15 minutes of mental imagery (internal or external) or mental math exercises followed by 15 minutes of physical practice were held three times a week for six weeks. The performance accuracy of the groups on the serve, forehand, and backhand strokes was measured at pre- and post-test using videotaping. Results showed significant increases in the performance accuracy of all three tennis strokes in all three groups, but serve accuracy in the internal imagery group and forehand accuracy in the external imagery group showed greater improvements, while backhand accuracy was similarly improved in all three groups. These findings highlight differential efficacy of internal and external visual imagery for performance improvement on complex sport skills in early stage motor learning.

  3. Choosing a Surgeon: An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Selection of a Gender Affirmation Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Randi; Ettner, Frederic; White, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Selecting a healthcare provider is often a complicated process. Many factors appear to govern the decision as to how to select the provider in the patient-provider relationship. While the possibility of changing primary care physicians or specialists exists, decisions regarding surgeons are immutable once surgery has been performed. This study is an attempt to assess the importance attached to various factors involved in selecting a surgeon to perform gender affirmation surgery (GAS). It was hypothesized that owing to the intimate nature of the surgery, the expense typically involved, the emotional meaning attached to the surgery, and other variables, decisions regarding choice of surgeon for this procedure would involve factors other than those that inform more typical healthcare provider selection or surgeon selection for other plastic/reconstructive procedures. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to individuals who had undergone GAS and individuals who had undergone elective plastic surgery to assess decision-making. Results: The results generally confirm previous findings regarding how patients select providers. Conclusion: Choosing a surgeon to perform gender-affirming surgery is a challenging process, but patients are quite rational in their decision-making. Unlike prior studies, we did not find a preference for gender-concordant surgeons, even though the surgery involves the genital area. Providing strategies and resources for surgical selection can improve patient satisfaction.

  4. Median sternotomy - gold standard incision for cardiac surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Matache

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sternotomy is the gold standard incision for cardiac surgeons but it is also used in thoracic surgery especially for mediastinal, tracheal and main stem bronchus surgery. The surgical technique is well established and identification of the correct anatomic landmarks, midline tissue preparation, osteotomy and bleeding control are important steps of the procedure. Correct sternal closure is vital for avoiding short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. The two sternal halves have to be well approximated to facilitate healing of the bone and to avoid instability, which is a risk factor for wound infection. New suture materials and techniques would be expected to be developed to further improve the patients evolution, in respect to both immediate postoperative period and long-term morbidity and mortality

  5. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2008-11-01

    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  6. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh Venkataram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight ′non-medical′ or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit.

  7. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  8. Clinical decision making: how surgeons do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebbin, Wendy; Beasley, Spencer W; Watters, David A K

    2013-06-01

    Clinical decision making is a core competency of surgical practice. It involves two distinct types of mental process best considered as the ends of a continuum, ranging from intuitive and subconscious to analytical and conscious. In practice, individual decisions are usually reached by a combination of each, according to the complexity of the situation and the experience/expertise of the surgeon. An expert moves effortlessly along this continuum, according to need, able to apply learned rules or algorithms to specific presentations, choosing these as a result of either pattern recognition or analytical thinking. The expert recognizes and responds quickly to any mismatch between what is observed and what was expected, coping with gaps in information and making decisions even where critical data may be uncertain or unknown. Even for experts, the cognitive processes involved are difficult to articulate as they tend to be very complex. However, if surgeons are to assist trainees in developing their decision-making skills, the processes need to be identified and defined, and the competency needs to be measurable. This paper examines the processes of clinical decision making in three contexts: making a decision about how to manage a patient; preparing for an operative procedure; and reviewing progress during an operative procedure. The models represented here are an exploration of the complexity of the processes, designed to assist surgeons understand how expert clinical decision making occurs and to highlight the challenge of teaching these skills to surgical trainees. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Meeting Increasing Demands for Rural General Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.

  10. Molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering, the fourth volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in molecular biology, transport phenomena, physiological modeling, tissue engineering, stem cells, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, and personalized medicine. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including DNA vaccines, biomimetic systems, cardiovascular dynamics, biomaterial scaffolds, cell mechanobiology, synthetic biomaterials, pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, nanobiomaterials for tissue engineering, biomedical imaging of engineered tissues, gene therapy, noninvasive targeted protein and peptide drug deliver...

  11. Surgeon Reliability for the Assessment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis on MRI: The Impact of Surgeon Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marawar, Satyajit V; Madom, Ian A; Palumbo, Mark; Tallarico, Richard A; Ordway, Nathaniel R; Metkar, Umesh; Wang, Dongliang; Green, Adam; Lavelle, William F

    2017-01-01

    Treating surgeon's visual assessment of axial MRI images to ascertain the degree of stenosis has a critical impact on surgical decision-making. The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyze the impact of surgeon experience on inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of assessing severity of spinal stenosis on MRIs by spine surgeons directly involved in surgical decision-making. Seven fellowship trained spine surgeons reviewed MRI studies of 30 symptomatic patients with lumbar stenosis and graded the stenosis in the central canal, the lateral recess and the foramen at T12-L1 to L5-S1 as none, mild, moderate or severe. No specific instructions were provided to what constituted mild, moderate, or severe stenosis. Two surgeons were "senior" (>fifteen years of practice experience); two were "intermediate" (>four years of practice experience), and three "junior" (< one year of practice experience). The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was calculated to assess inter-observer reliability. Seven MRI studies were duplicated and randomly re-read to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Surgeon experience was found to be a strong predictor of inter-observer reliability. Senior inter-observer reliability was significantly higher assessing central(p<0.001), foraminal p=0.005 and lateral p=0.001 than "junior" group.Senior group also showed significantly higher inter-observer reliability that intermediate group assessing foraminal stenosis (p=0.036). In intra-observer reliability the results were contrary to that found in inter-observer reliability. Inter-observer reliability of assessing stenosis on MRIs increases with surgeon experience. Lower intra-observer reliability values among the senior group, although not clearly explained, may be due to the small number of MRIs evaluated and quality of MRI images.Level of evidence: Level 3.

  12. A narrative inquiry into novice science mentor teachers' mentoring practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Samina

    Many teacher education programs hire new mentors every year to work with their student teacher population. The literature about teacher mentoring suggests the importance of relevant and ongoing professional development (PD) for teacher mentors at all levels. However, it is much more commonly the case that most teacher mentors volunteer and do not have access to PD. Past research about mentoring provides a descriptive sense of the practices of experienced mentors, especially within a PD context, but little is known about how novice mentors, who are mentoring for the first or the second time, with no prior PD related to mentoring articulate their work as mentors. Using the telling form of narrative inquiry, my study documented how four novice science mentors (NSMs) who had no prior mentoring-related PD articulated the work of mentoring through the stories they told about their past experiences as learners and teachers. The term learner included experiences that the NSMs had before school through K-12 and in their teacher education programs. The experiences as a teacher referred to NSMs' in-service experiences -- teaching, coaching, and mentoring (if any). Each NSM was interviewed once a month for a period of five months. The interviews captured experiences of the NSMs since their childhood to present day experiences as teachers to summarize the experiences that informed their current mentoring practices; to document salient mentoring practices they employed; to identify sources and factors that shaped those practices, and to understand mentoring from mentor teachers' perspectives. Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) three commonplaces (temporality- sociality- place ) framework was used for structuring interview questions and analyzing data. The NSMs employed number of practices discussed in the literature. The study found that the most influential life experiences were upbringing, student teaching, teaching, prior mentoring, and coaching. By taking temporality into

  13. Current trends in chaperone use by plastic and reconstructive surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Umar; Barta, Ruth J; Kim, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the use of chaperones by surgeons when examining patients. Use of a chaperone not only makes the patient comfortable but also potentially protects the surgeon from perceived misconduct. This is especially true for plastic surgeons who examine sensitive areas commonly. The purpose of this study was to determine the current trends in chaperone use by plastic surgeons when examining patients. A 23-question online survey was sent to all members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Data collected online were analyzed using Student t test and Pearson χ test. A P use by plastic surgeons during all examinations of patients was 30%. This rate increased up to 60% while examining sensitive areas. Male surgeons reported a higher frequency of chaperone use than female surgeons (P use compared to reconstructive surgeons (P = 0.001). Similarly, surgeons who had been in practice for more than 20 years reported a higher rate of chaperone use compared to surgeons in practice for less than 20 years (P = 0.032). Sixty-one (7.6%; 56 male and 5 female) surgeons reported being accused of inappropriate behavior by patients, of whom 49 (80%) did not have a chaperone present. There was no significant difference among male and female surgeons in rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior (7.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.19). There was a higher rate of chaperone use by male plastic surgeons, surgeons with more than 20 years experience, and cosmetic surgeons. Despite the difference in chaperone use between the sexes, both had similar rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior during examinations by patients, and although these incidents were quite low, most had no chaperone present during those examinations.

  14. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  16. Differences of ballet turns (pirouette) performance between experienced and novice ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns (pirouettes). Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination angles of rotation axis with respect to vertical axis were calculated in the early single-leg support phase as well as the initiation sequence of ankle, knee, and hip joints on the supporting leg. Moreover, the anchoring index of the head was computed in the transverse plane during turning. The novice dancers applied a greater push force, an increased inclination angle of rotation axis, and an insufficient proximal-to-distal extension sequence pattern. The novice dancers also had a smaller head-anchoring index compared with experienced dancers, which meant novice dancers were not using a space target as a stability reference. A poorer performance in novice dancers could result from higher push force in propulsion, lack of a "proximal-to-distal extension sequence" pattern, and lack of visual spotting for postural stability. Training on sequential initiation of lower-extremity joints and rehearsal of visual spotting are essential for novice dancers to obtain better performance on ballet turns.

  17. Perspectives of South African general surgeons regarding their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To canvass the perceptions of SA general surgeons regarding certain aspects of their training. Methods. An electronic postal survey was conducted. All general surgeons on the Association of Surgeons of South Africa database were requested to complete a structured questionnaire. Four Likert scale items were ...

  18. HISTORICAL NOTE JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON) John Hunter FRS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN HUNTER (SURGEON). John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728-16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, friend and ...

  19. Patient Attitudes Toward Orthopedic Surgeon Ownership of Related Ancillary Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Johnson, Staci R; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Nunley, Ryan M; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-08-01

    Physician ownership of businesses related to orthopedic surgery, such as surgery centers, has been criticized as potentially leading to misuse of health care resources. The purpose of this study was to determine patients' attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses. We surveyed 280 consecutive patients at 2 centers regarding their attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses using an anonymous questionnaire. Three surgeon ownership scenarios were presented: (1) owning a surgery center, (2) physical therapy (PT), and (3) imaging facilities (eg, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner). Two hundred fourteen patients (76%) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that it is ethical for a surgeon to own a surgery center (73%), PT practice (77%), or imaging facility (77%). Most (>67%) indicated that their surgeon owning such a business would have no effect on the trust they have in their surgeon. Although >70% agreed that a surgeon in all 3 scenarios would make the same treatment decisions, many agreed that such surgeons might perform more surgery (47%), refer more patients to PT (61%), or order more imaging (58%). Patients favored surgeon autonomy, however, believing that surgeons should be allowed to own such businesses (78%). Eighty-five percent agreed that patients should be informed if their surgeon owns an orthopedic-related business. Although patients express concern over and desire disclosure of surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses, the majority believes that it is an ethical practice and feel comfortable receiving care at such a facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How surgeons make decisions when the evidence is inconclusive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; Osterman, A. Lee; Spoor, A. B.; van der Zwan, A. L.; Shrivastava, Abhay; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Aida, E. Garcia G.; Aita, M. A.; Castillo, Alberto Pérez; Marcus, Alexander; Ladd, Amy; Terrono, Andrew L.; Gutow, Andrew P.; Schmidt, Andrew; Wang, Angela A.; Eschler, Anica; Miller, Anna N.; Wikerøy, Annette K. B.; Barquet, Antonio; Armstrong, April D.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Bedi, Asheesh; Shyam, Ashok K.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Jubel, Axel; Babst, Reto H.; Nolan, Betsy M.; Arciero, Bob; Bremer, Vanden; Bamberger, Brent; Peterson, Bret C.; Crist, Brett D.; Cross, Brian J.; Badman, Brian L.; Henley, C. Noel; Ekholm, Carl; Swigart, Carrie; Manke, Chad; Zalavras, Charalampos; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Cassidy, Charles; Cornell, Charles; Getz, Charles L.; Metzger, Charles; Wilson, Chris; Heiss, Christian; Perrotto, Christian J.; Wall, Christopher J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Garnavos, Christos; Jiang, Chunyan; Lomita, Craig; Torosian, Craig M.; Rikli, Daniel A.; Whelan, Daniel B.; Wascher, Daniel C.; Hernandez, Daniel; Polatsch, Daniel; Beingessner, Daphne; Drosdowech, Darren; Tate, David E.; Hak, David; Rowland, David J.; Kalainov, David M.; Nelson, David; Weiss, David; McKee, Desirae M.; van Deurzen, D. F. G.; Endrizzi, Donald; Erol, Konul; Overbeck, Joachim P.; Baer, Wolfgang; Schwab, Eckart; Maza, Edgardo Ramos; Harvey, Edward; Rodriguez, Edward K.; Preloggler, Elisabeth; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Shin, Eon K.; Hofmeister, Eric P.; Kaplan, Thomas D.; Beeres, F. J. P.; Suarez, Fabio; Fernandes, C. H.; Cayón, Fidel Ernesto Cayón; Dolatowski, Filip Celestyn; Martin, Fischmeister; Sierra, Francisco Javier Aguilar; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Walter, Frank; Seibert, Franz Josef; Baumgaertel, Fred; Frihagen, Frede; Fuchs, P. C.; Huemer, Georg M.; Kontakis, George; Athwal, George S.; Dyer, George S. M.; Thomas, George; Kohut, Georges; Williams, Gerald; Hernandez, German Ricardo; Caro, Gladys Cecilia Zambrano; Garrigues, Grant; Merrell, Greg; DeSilva, Gregory; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Regazzi, Gustavo; de Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo; Ruggiero, Gustavo Mantovani; Helling, H. J.; MccUtchan, Hal; Goost, Hans; Kreder, Hans J.; Hasenboehler, Paula M.; Routman, Howard D.; van der Heide, Huub; Kleinlugtenbelt, I.; McGraw, Iain; Harris, Ian; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Mohammad; Lin, Ines C.; Iossifidis, A.; Andrew, J.; Trenholm, I.; Goslings, J. Carel; Wiater, J. Michael; Choueka, Jack; Ahn, Jaimo; Kellam, James; Biert, Jan; Pomerance, Jay; Johnson, Jeff W.; Greenberg, Jeffrey A.; Yao, Jeffrey; Watson, Jeffry T.; Giuffre, Jennifer L.; Hall, Jeremy; Park, Jin-Young; Fischer, Jochen; Murachovsky, Joel; Howlett, John; McAuliffe, John; Evans, John P.; Taras, John; Braman, Jonathan; Hobby, Jonathan L.; Rosenfeld, Jonathan; Boretto, Jorge; Orbay, Jorge; Rubio, Jorge; Ortiz, Jose A.; Abboud, Joseph; Conflitti, Joseph M.; Vroemen, Joseph P. A. M.; Adams, Julie; Clarke, J. V.; Kabir, K.; Chivers, Karel; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Segalman, Keith; Lee, Kendrick; Eng, Kevin; Chhor, Kimberlly S.; Ponsen, K. J.; Jeray, Kyle; Marsh, L.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; Mica, Ladislav; Borris, Lars C.; Halperin, Lawrence; Weiss, Lawrence; Benson, Leon; Elmans, Leon; de Mendonca, Leonardo Alves; Rocha, Leonardo; Katolik, Leonid; Lattanza, Lisa; Taitsman, Lisa; Guenter, Lob; Catalano, Louis; Buendia, Luis Antonio; Austin, Luke S.; Palmer, M. Jason; de Vries, M. R.; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Abdel-Ghany, Mahmoud I.; van de Sande, M. A. J.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Rizzo, Marco; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Pirpiris, Marinis; Baratz, Mark; Lazarus, Mark D.; Boyer, Martin; Richardson, Martin; Kastelec, Matej; Mormino, Matt; Budge, Matthew D.; Turina, Matthias; Wood, Megan M.; Baskies, Michael; Baumgaertner, Michael; Behrman, Michael; Hausman, Michael; Jones, Michael; LeCroy, Michael; Moskal, Michael; Nancollas, Michael; Prayson, Michael; Grafe, Michael W.; Kessler, Michael W.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Mckee, Mike; Merchant, Milind; Tyllianakis, Minos; Felipe, Naquira Escobar Luis; Chen, Neal C.; Saran, Neil; Wilson, Neil; Shortt, Nicholas L.; Schep, Niels; Rossiter, Nigel; Lasanianos, N. G.; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Weiss, Noah D.; Harvey, Norah M.; van Eerten, P. V.; Melvanki, Parag; McCulloch, Patrick T.; Martineau, Paul A.; Appleton, Paul; Guidera, Paul; Levin, Paul; Giannoudis, Peter; Evans, Peter J.; Jebson, Peter; Kloen, Peter; Krause, Peter; Brink, Peter R. G.; Peters, J. H.; Blazar, Philip; Streubel, Philipp N.; Inna, Prashanth; Prashanth, S.; Solanki, Punita V.; Wang, Qiugen; Quell, M.; Benafield, R. Bryan; Haverlag, R.; Peters, R. W.; Varma, Rajat; Nyszkiewicz, Ralf; Costanzo, Ralph M.; de Bedout, Ramon; Ranade, Ashish S.; Smith, Raymond Malcolm; Abrams, Reid; Fricker, Renato M.; Omid, Reza; Barth, Richard; Buckley, Richard; Jenkinson, Richard; GIlbert, Richard S.; Page, Richard S.; Wallensten, Richard; Zura, Robert D.; Feibel, Robert J.; Gray, Robert R. L.; Tashijan, Robert; Wagenmakers, Robert; Pesantez, Rodrigo; van Riet, Roger; Norlin, Rolf; Pfeifer, Roman; Liem, Ronald; Kulick, Roy G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Shatford, Russell; Klinefelter, Ryan; Calfee, Ryan P.; Moghtaderi, Sam; Sodha, Samir; Sprujt, Sander; Kakar, Sanjeev; Kaplan, Saul; Duncan, Scott; Kluge, Sebastian; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian; Checchia, Sergio L.; Rowinski, Sergio; Dodds, Seth; Hurwit, Shep; Sprengel, K.; van der Stappen, W. A. H.; Kronlage, Steve; Belded, Steven; Morgan, Steven J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Hilliard, Stuart; Gosens, Taco; Sasaki, Takashi; Taleb, C.; Pritsch, Tamir; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Wyrick, Theresa; DeCoster, Thomas; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Stackhouse, Thomas G.; Hughes, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Ly, Thuan V.; Havenhill, Timothy G.; Omara, Timothy; Siff, Todd; McLaurin, Toni M.; Wanich, Tony; Rueger, Johannes M.; Vallim, Frederico C. M.; Sabesan, Vani J.; Nikolaou, Vasileios S.; Knoll, Victoria D.; Telang, Vidyadhar; Iyer, Vishwanath M.; Jokhi, Vispi; Batson, W. Arnnold; Willems, W. Jaap; Smith, Wade R.; Belangero, William Dias; Wolkenfelt, J.; Weil, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    To address the factors that surgeons use to decide between 2 options for treatment when the evidence is inconclusive. We tested the null hypothesis that the factors surgeons use do not vary by training, demographics, and practice. A total of 337 surgeons rated the importance of 7 factors when

  1. Clinical decision making of experienced and novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, N; Bar-Tal, Y; Cohen-Mansfield, J

    1996-10-01

    Decision making is an important daily nursing activity. Given contradictory past findings concerning the ease of use cognitive schema for reaching decisions among experts and novices, we chose to examine consistency of information as a parameter that may clarify the process of decision making. Ninety-two experienced nurses and 65 nursing students rated their decisional difficulty and levels of certainty in reaching a diagnosis for two scenarios: one including consistent information and one providing information that was partly inconsistent with the given diagnosis. For the consistent information, students showed more difficulty and less certainty in the given diagnosis than the experienced nurses. The inconsistent scenario was perceived as more difficult by nurses in comparison to students. The cognitive processes responsible for these results are discussed.

  2. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    .354) Nm/kg. CONCLUSION: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...... was found, p gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * -0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0...

  3. Problem Solving: Helping Students Move From Novices Toward Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2010-10-01

    When introductory physics students engage in problem solving, they often exhibit behaviors that can frustrate their teachers. Some well-known examples of these habits include refusing to draw free-body diagrams, hunting through the book to find an example problem to use as a (perhaps inappropriate) template, and the classic ``plug-n-chug'' mentality. Studies in science education and cognitive science have yielded rational explanations for many of these novice behaviors and lay a groundwork for instructors to aid their students in beginning to develop more expert-like skills and behaviors. A few examples of these studies, as well as curricular tools that have developed as a result, will be shared. These tools not only encourage students to try more expert-like strategies, but also prime them for developing conceptual understanding.

  4. Time distortion for expert and novice online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Peng, Shu-Yun; Yang, Chin-Chow

    2006-08-01

    Online game addiction is a new mental disorder. This disorder is difficult to describe because of its comprehensive nature. Many online game players have problems controlling their playing time. They cannot stop playing a game that they enjoy. This research surveyed the past literature on "flow" and time disorder theory. A time distortion experiment was conducted. This research invited 64 children, teenagers, and young adults to investigate player skill and playing time effects on online game break-off. The playing experience and degree of time distortion were measured and analyzed. The results showed that both novice and expert online game players were subject to time distortion. The participants had difficulty breaking off from the game without intrusion by others in the real world. This research also suggests eight questions for self-evaluation for online game addiction.

  5. A novice researcher's reflection on recruiting participants for qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Anne; Wilkes, Lesley; Blythe, Stacy; Griffiths, Rhonda

    2017-09-19

    This paper is a reflection by a PhD candidate on her qualitative study involving parents, diabetes educators and school teachers who were caring for a child with type 1 diabetes using intensive insulin therapy in primary school. To reflect on a novice researcher's experience of recruiting research participants from community, health and education settings in Australia. Participants were successfully recruited for the study using internet communication tools: Facebook support groups; the Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA) e-newsletter; and emails sent to school principals. These methods were successful as Facebook and online support groups are popular, the study topic was of interest, the ADEA has many members, and numerous emails were sent to schools. Potential barriers to recruitment were a lack of access to those who did not use Facebook or the internet, gatekeepers, the high workloads of diabetes educators and teachers, and the time needed to obtain ethics approval and send a large number of emails to schools. Internet communication tools were successful in recruiting participants from community, health and education settings. However, different approaches were required for each type of participant. Lessons learned from this experience were: the importance of taking time to plan recruitment, including an in-depth understanding of potential participants and recruitment tools, the benefit of being an insider, and the need to work closely with gatekeepers. An understanding of recruitment is essential for ensuring access to appropriate participants and timely collection of data. The experience of the novice researcher may provide insight to others planning to use internet communication tools for recruitment. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  6. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    There is an increased risk of running related injuries (RRI) among novice runners with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25. Information about BMI can be collected through questionnaires, when studies investigate if there is an association between BMI and RRI among novice runners. But can self...... of RRI. Healthy novice runners between the age of 18 to 65 and without lower extremity injuries were able to participate in the study. During July and August 2011 the participants were included in the study based on an online questionnaire. 1532 persons completed the questionnaire, of these, 970 were...

  7. Comparison of Complications and Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Between Junior Attending Surgeons and Senior Attending Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Xiao, Lingyan; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Benlong; Qian, Bangping; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong

    2018-04-24

    To our knowledge, few studies have compared complications and surgical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) between junior attending surgeons and senior attending surgeons. To compare surgical strategies, complications, and outcomes of posterior corrective surgery for AIS between junior attending surgeons and senior attending surgeons. According to experience level of operation surgeons, the patients were assigned to 2 groups. Group A was the "junior surgeon" group. Group B was the "senior surgeon" group. The following parameters were compared between the 2 groups: age, sex, diagnosis, hospital of record, surgeon experience level, type of instrumentation, type of screws, estimated blood loss, duration of surgery, length of fusion, correction techniques, main curve correction, and thoracic kyphosis correction. A total of 132 patients with AIS were included in group A, whereas 207 were in group B. The translational technique was used more often in group A (P Senior surgeons used more monoaxial screws than junior surgeons (P senior group (P senior group had significant better correction rates of severe main curve (>70°) and thoracic kyphosis than the junior group (P Senior attending surgeons outperformed junior surgeons in blood loss control, thoracic kyphosis correction, and correction of severe curves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgeons' motivation for choice of workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Lena; Kristiansen, Maria; Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2012-09-01

    To ensure qualified health care professionals at public hospitals in the future, it is important to understand which factors attract health care professionals to certain positions. The aim of this study was to explore motives for choosing employment at either public or private hospitals in a group of Danish surgeons, as well as to examine if organizational characteristics had an effect on motivation. Eight qualitative interviews were conducted with surgeons from both public and private hospitals sampled using the snowball method. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by means of phenomenological theory. Motivational factors such as personal influence on the job, the opportunity to provide the best possible patient care, challenging work tasks colleagues, and ideological reasons were emphasized by the surgeons as important reasons for their choice of employment. Motivational factors appeared to be strongly connected to the structure of the organization; especially the size of the organization was perceived to be essential. It is worth noting that salary, in contrast to the general belief, was considered a secondary benefit rather than a primary motivational factor for employment. The study revealed that motivational factors are multidimensional and rooted in organizational structure; i.e. organizational size rather than whether the organization is public or private is crucial. There is a need for further research on the topic, but it seems clear that future health care planning may benefit from taking into account the implications that large organizational structures have for the staff working within these organizations. not relevant. not relevant.

  9. Assessment of surgeon fatigue by surgical simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuwairqi K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Tuwairqi,1 Jessica H Selter,2 Shameema Sikder3 1College of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The impact of fatigue on surgical performance and its implications for patient care is a growing concern. While investigators have employed a number of different tools to measure the effect of fatigue on surgical performance, the use of the surgical simulator has been increasingly implemented for this purpose. The goal of this paper is to review the published literature to achieve a better understanding of evaluation of fatigue on performance as studied with surgical simulators. Methods: A PubMed and Cochrane search was conducted using the search terms “simulator”, “surgery”, and “fatigue”. In total, 50 papers were evaluated, and 20 studies were selected after application of exclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they did not use the simulator to assess the impact of fatigue on surgeon performance. Systematic reviews and case reports were also excluded. Results: Surgeon fatigue led to a consistent decline in cognitive function in six studies. Technical skills were evaluated in 18 studies, and a detrimental impact was reported in nine studies, while the remaining nine studies showed either no change or positive results with regard to surgical skills after experience of fatigue. Two pharmacological intervention studies reversed the detrimental impact of fatigue on cognitive function, but no change or a worsening effect was recognized for technical skills. Conclusion: Simulators are increasingly being used to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the surgeon's performance. With regard to the impact of fatigue in this regard, studies have demonstrated a consistent decline in cognitive function and mixed outcomes for technical skills. Larger studies that relate the simulator's results to real surgical

  10. Are the surgeon's movements repeatable? An analysis of the feasibility and expediency of implementing support procedures guiding the surgical tools and increasing motion accuracy during the performance of stereotypical movements by the surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsędkowski, Leszek Robert; Moll, Jacek; Moll, Maciej; Frącczak, Łukasz

    2014-03-01

    The developments in surgical robotics suggest that it will be possible to entrust surgical robots with a wider range of tasks. So far, it has not been possible to automate the surgery procedures related to soft tissue. Thus, the objective of the conducted studies was to confirm the hypothesis that the surgery telemanipulator can be equipped with certain routines supporting the surgeon in leading the surgical tools and increasing motion accuracy during stereotypical movements. As the first step in facilitating the surgery, an algorithm will be developed which will concurrently provide automation and allow the surgeon to maintain full control over the slave robot. The algorithm will assist the surgeon in performing typical movement sequences. This kind of support must, however, be preceded by determining the reference points for accurately defining the position of the stitched tissue. It is in relation to these points that the tool's trajectory will be created, along which the master manipulator will guide the surgeon's hand. The paper presents the first stage, concerning the selection of movements for which the support algorithm will be used. The work also contains an analysis of surgical movement repeatability. The suturing movement was investigated in detail by experimental research in order to determine motion repeatability and verify the position of the stitched tissue. Tool trajectory was determined by a motion capture stereovision system. The study has demonstrated that the suturing movement could be considered as repeatable; however, the trajectories performed by different surgeons exhibit some individual characteristics.

  11. What expects orthopedic surgeon from bone scan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, B.; Cazenave, A.

    2003-01-01

    The isotope bone scan continues to be one of the 'lost widely performed nuclear medicine investigations. Beyond the common clinical indication like detection of skeletal metastases, bone scan use is increasing in benign orthopedic conditions, and after orthopedic surgery, despite development of new investigations modalities (US, MRI). Three (or two) phase bone scintigraphy, Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography have increased its value and provided new clinical roles. This review emphasizes through some practical clinical examples how to increase diagnostic value of the method and to offer an adapted response to the orthopedic surgeon's attempts. (author)

  12. Opportunities in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Worldwide Surgeons' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael; Newman, Jared M; Khlopas, Anton; Chughtai, Morad; Martinez, Nick; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-25

    This study surveyed a group of US and international orthopaedic surgeons to prioritize areas of improvement in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Specifically, we assessed surgeon responses regarding the top five areas of TKA needing improvement; which were stratified by: a) US surgeons, b) international surgeons, c) US surgeons' implant-brand-loyalty, and d) surgeons' years of experience and case volume. Four hundred and eighteen surgeons who were board-certified, in practice for at least two years, spent 60% of their time in clinical practice, and performed a minimum of 25 lower extremity joint arthroplasties per year were surveyed. They chose the top five areas (among 17) needing improvement for TKA. Results were stratified by surgeons' location (US and international), implant-brand-loyalty, years of experience, and case volume. Functional outcomes was the top identified area for improvement (US 63% and international 71%), followed by brand loyalty (Company I 68%, other brand 59%, and multi-brand/no loyalty 66%), years of experience (early-career 64%, mid-career 63%, and late-career 75%) and case volume (low-volume 69%, mid-volume 60%, and high-volume 71%). Following this was costs for US surgeons (47%) and implant survivorship for international surgeons (57%). While costs were the next highest area for specific Company-loyal surgeons (57%), implant survivorship was the next highest area for the other two cohorts. Implant survivorship was the second most important area of improvement regardless of years of experience and for low- and mid-volume surgeons. Surgeons identified functional outcomes as the most important area needing improvement. Cost of implants was more important for American as compared to international surgeons.

  13. Perspectives of being spouse, parent, and surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Achieving a balance between one's career and personal life is a never-ending challenge. As a surgeon, add-on cases and double-booked clinics can lead to long hours at work and make availability for family time unpredictable. It may seem like the threat of interruption because of patient needs always loom. Disruptions to family time extend beyond the long hours spent in surgery and clinics. Inattentiveness at home because of the technology tethers that keep one available for constant questions and patient care issues can also distract from time spent with family. Although the practice of an orthopaedic trauma surgeon can involve unpredictable schedules and patient care issues, there are means of mitigating the chaos that can envelop one's personal life as a result of a chosen career track. Clear priorities and expectations in both personal and professional arenas can improve the work-life balance. Flexible jobs that allow for more time with family do exist. Negotiating for this flexibility and self-assurance in holding fast to personal ideals are important in achieving a successful balance.

  14. Emergency surgeon-performed hepatobiliary ultrasonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Acute hepatobiliary pathology is a common general surgical emergency referral. Diagnosis requires imaging of the biliary tree by ultrasonography. The accuracy and impact of surgeon-performed ultrasonography (SUS) on the diagnosis of emergent hepatobiliary pathology was examined. METHODS: A prospective study, over a 6-month period, enrolled all patients with symptoms or signs of acute hepatobiliary pathology. Patients provided informed consent and underwent both SUS and standard radiology-performed ultrasonography (RUS). SUS was performed using a 2-5-MHz broadband portable ultrasound probe by two surgeons trained in ultrasonography, and RUS using a 2-5-MHz fixed unit. SUS results were correlated with those of RUS and pathological diagnoses. RESULTS: Fifty-three consecutive patients underwent 106 ultrasonographic investigations. SUS agreed with RUS in 50 (94.3 per cent) of 53 patients. SUS accurately detected cholelithiasis in all but two cases and no patient was inaccurately diagnosed as having cholelithiasis at SUS (95.2 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity). As an overall complementary diagnostic tool SUS provided the correct diagnosis in 96.2 per cent of patients. Time to scan was significantly shorter following SUS (3.1 versus 12.0 h, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: SUS provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis of emergency hepatobiliary pathology and may contribute to the emergency management of hepatobiliary disease.

  15. The world's best-known surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, A J

    1983-10-01

    Henry Norman Bethune was born in Ontario in 1890 and was to become the best-known physician in the world. Bethune, a thoracic surgeon, spent his professional life in Detroit and Montreal, with these periods separated by a year spent as a patient in a tuberculosis sanatorium. This was where his interest in pulmonary disease was stimulated. Pioneer thoracic surgeon, councillor to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, artist, poet, polemist, conservative-turned-communist, iconoclast, and soldier, Bethune was a highly complex individual. Diverting his energies from surgery to social issues during the depression, Bethune participated in the Spanish Civil War, at which time he designed the world's first mobile blood transfusion unit. Eight months later, Bethune joined Mao Tse-tung's Eight Route Army in China. In 1939 he died of septicemia acquired from a sliver of infected bone while he was operating on a wounded Chinese patient. Bethune's fame today derives principally from the popularization of his accomplishments by Mao, whom he met once and who subsequently decreed that all in China should learn about him. Bethune's posthumous influence played an important role in the reopening of relations between China and the West.

  16. Developing business opportunities from concept to end point for craniofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer A

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial surgeons repair a wide variety of soft and hard tissues that produce the clinical expertise to recognize the need for an improved device or novel regenerative stem cell or use of molecules that may dramatically change the way clinical care for improved patient outcomes. The business pathway to bring a concept to clinical care requires knowledge, mentoring, and a team of experts in business and patent law.

  17. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  18. Lowering the Barriers to Programming: A Survey of Programming Environments and Languages for Novice Programmers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelleher, Caitlin; Pausch, Randy

    2003-01-01

    .... The systems are organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to empower their users, and then by the authors' approach to making learning to program easier for novice programmers...

  19. The effects of experience and attrition for novice high-school science and mathematics teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gary T; Fortner, C Kevin; Bastian, Kevin C

    2012-03-02

    Because of the current high proportion of novice high-school teachers, many students' mastery of science and mathematics depends on the effectiveness of early-career teachers. In this study, which used value-added models to analyze high-school teachers' effectiveness in raising test scores on 1.05 million end-of-course exams, we found that the effectiveness of high-school science and mathematics teachers increased substantially with experience but exhibited diminishing rates of return by their fourth year; that teachers of algebra 1, algebra 2, biology, and physical science who continued to teach for at least 5 years were more effective as novice teachers than those who left the profession earlier; and that novice teachers of physics, chemistry, physical science, geometry, and biology exhibited steeper growth in effectiveness than did novice non-science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teachers.

  20. Significant Value Found in Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Academic Librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-01-01

    A Review of: Goodsett, M., & Walsh, A. (2015). Building a strong foundation: Mentoring programs for novice tenure-track librarians in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 76(7), 914-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.914 Objective – To examine the effectiveness of mentoring programs for novice tenure-track academic librarians, and to identify critical elements that define a successful mentoring program in various academic library settings. Design – Survey questionn...

  1. Dialando: tangible programming for the novice with scratch, processing and arduino

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programming for the Novice with Scratch, Processing and Arduino Andrew Cyrus Smith CSIR Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa acsmith @ csir.co.za Abstract This paper reports on a tangible programming system designed... the Arduino controlling circuitry which is connected to the laptop computer using a USB cable. 2. Our Approach Our research aims to provide the novice user a gentle introduction to the abstract programming abilities of the PC. In order to achieve...

  2. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  3. Novices and Experts in Geoinformatics: the Cognitive Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, M.

    2012-04-01

    structured in the long-term memory. Expert easily adopt domain-specific information because they (a) understand terminology and consider the information to be important thus passing it through the perceptual filter and (b) have a lot of complex domain-specific chunks that are processed by the working memory as a whole thus avoiding to overload it. Novices (students and general public) have neither understanding and feeling importance nor necessary chunks. The following measures should be taken to bridge experts' and novices' understanding of geoinformatics. Expert community should popularize geoscientific problems developing understandable language and available tools for their solving. This requires close collaboration with educational system (especially second education). If students understand a problem, they can find and apply appropriate tool for it. Geoscientific problems and models are extremely complex. In cognitive terms, they require hierarchy of chunks. This hierarchy should coherently develop beginning from simple ones later joining them to complex. It requires an appropriate sequence of learning tasks. There is no necessity in correct solutions - the students should understand how are they solved and realize limitations of models. We think that tasks of weather forecast, global climate modeling etc are suitable. The first step on bridging experts and novices is the elaboration of a set and a sequence of learning tasks and its sequence as well as tools for their solution. The tools should be easy for everybody who understands the task and as versatile as possible - otherwise students will waste a lot of time mastering it. This development requires close collaboration between geoscientists and educators.

  4. Biomechanical differences between expert and novice workers in a manual material handling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Andre; Denis, Denys; Delisle, Alain; Lariviere, Christian; Salazar, Erik

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to verify whether the methods were safer and more efficient when used by expert handlers than by novice handlers. Altogether, 15 expert and 15 novice handlers were recruited. Their task was to transfer four boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Different characteristics of the load and lifting heights were modified to achieve a larger variety of methods by the participants. The results show that the net moments at the L5/S1 joint were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for the two groups. However, compared with the novices, the experts bent their lumbar region less (experts 54° (SD 11°); novices 66° (SD 15°)) but bent their knees more (experts approx. 72° (SD approx. 30°); novices approx. 53° (SD approx. 33°), which brought them closer to the box. The handler's posture therefore seems to be a major aspect that should be paid specific attention, mainly when there is maximum back loading. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The findings of this research will be useful for improving manual material handling training programmes. Most biomechanical research is based on novice workers and adding information about the approach used by expert handlers in performing their tasks will help provide new avenues for reducing the risk of injury caused by this demanding physical task.

  5. Effects of a novel mental skills curriculum on surgical novices' attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Nicholas E; Mulji, Neelam; Howley, Lisa D; Yurco, Ashley M; Tobben, Daniel; Bean, Eric; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2017-11-01

    Surgery is very cognitively demanding, particularly for novices. Novices are required to direct full attention on the procedure at hand, and additional demands can lead to cognitive overload. Through extensive practice, experts develop spare attentional capacity (SAC) for simultaneous tasks. However, little effort has been made to enhance novices' SAC. Mental skills may enhance attention management and increase SAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel mental skills curriculum (MSC) to enhance novices' attention management. Sixty novice volunteers were randomly stratified to a control or MSC group based on baseline laparoscopic skill and mental skill use (assessed with the Test of Performance Strategies version 2 [TOPS-2]). All participants received laparoscopic training, whereas the MSC group received additional mental skills training. At all sessions, participants completed a secondary task during laparoscopy, which assessed SAC. Participants also completed the D2 Test of Attention and the TOPS-2 attention control subscale, which are valid attention measures. Fifty-five novices completed the study. Both groups displayed significantly improved laparoscopic suturing ability (P attention control scores. However, only the MSC group displayed significantly improved hit rate on the secondary task (P attentional capacity is currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  7. Objective psychomotor skills assessment of experienced and novice flexible endoscopists with a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, E Matt; McClusky, David A; Lederman, Andrew B; Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the GI Mentor II virtual reality simulator can distinguish the psychomotor skills of intermediately experienced endoscopists from those of novices, and do so with a high level of consistency and reliability. A total of five intermediate and nine novice endoscopists were evaluated using the EndoBubble abstract psychomotor task. Each subject performed three repetitions of the task. Performance and error data were recorded for each trial. The intermediate group performed better than the novice group in each trial. The differences were significant in trial 1 for balloons popped (P=.001), completion time (P=.04), and errors (P=.03). Trial 2 showed significance only for balloons popped (P=.002). Trial 3 showed significance for balloons popped (P=.004) and errors (P=.008). The novice group showed significant improvement between trials 1 and 3 (P<0.05). No improvement was noted in the intermediate group. Measures of consistency and reliability were greater than 0.8 in both groups with the exception of novice completion time where test-retest reliability was 0.74. The GI Mentor II simulator can distinguish between novice and intermediate endoscopists. The simulator assesses skills with levels of consistency and reliability required for high-stakes assessment.

  8. Burnout in the Plastic Surgeon: Implications and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Christina; Ketteler, Erika; Evans, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    A career as a plastic surgeon is both rewarding and challenging. The road to becoming a surgeon is a long arduous endeavor and can bring significant challenges not only to the surgeon but their family. A study by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) suggested that over 40% of surgeons experience burnout and a recent survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) showed that more than one-fourth of plastic surgeons have signs of professional burnout. Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion. The three main components of burnout are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Exhaustion occurs as a result of emotional demands. Depersonalization refers to a cynical, negative or a detached response to patient care. The reduced accomplishment refers to a belief that one can no longer work effectively. There has been a recent explosion in the literature characterizing burnout within the surgical profession. Reports of burnout, burnout victims, and burnout syndrome are filling the medical literature, books, blogs, and social media across all different specialties. Burnout in a plastic surgeon has negative and potentially fatal repercussions to the surgeon, their family, their patients, their staff, colleagues, coworkers, and their organization. To date, there are a limited number of publications addressing burnout in the plastic surgery community. The goals of this paper are to review the symptoms of burnout, its effect on plastic surgeons, and discuss potential solutions for burnout prevention and physician wellness.

  9. Image interpretation performance: A longitudinal study from novice to professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C.; Reeves, P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Universities need to deliver educational programmes that create radiography graduates who are ready and able to participate in abnormality detection schemes, ultimately delivering safe and reliable performance because junior doctors are exposed to the risk of misdiagnosis if unsupported by other healthcare professionals. Radiographers are ideally suited to this role having the responsibility for conducting the actual X-ray examination. Method: The image interpretation performance of one cohort of student radiographers was measured upon enrolment from UCAS in the first week of university education and then again prior to graduation using RadBench (n = 23). Results: The results identified that novices have a range of natural image interpretation skills; accuracy 35–85%, sensitivity 45–100%, specificity 15–85%, mean ROC 0.691. Graduates presented a narrower range; accuracy 60–90%, sensitivity 40–100%, specificity 60–90%, mean ROC 0.841. The positive shift in graduate mean accuracy (+16%) was driven by increases in specificity (+27%) rather than sensitivity (+5%). No statistically significant differences (ANOVA) could be found between age group, gender and previous education however trends were identified. 56.5% of the population (n = 13) met a benchmark accurate standard of 80%, including one graduate who met 90%. Conclusion: Image interpretation testing at the point of UCAS entry is a useful indicator of future performance and is a recommended factor for consideration as part of the selection process. Whilst image interpretation now forms an integral part of undergraduate radiography programmes, new graduates may not necessary possess the reliability in decision making to justify participation in abnormality detection schemes, highlighting the need for continuous professional development. - Highlights: • Some novices appear to have inherent skills in fracture identification. • RadBench testing as part of the UCAS selection process

  10. Should advertising by aesthetic surgeons be permitted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Nagpal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic, aesthetic and cutaneous surgical procedures require qualified specialists trained in the various procedures and competent to handle complications. However, it also requires huge investments in terms of infrastructure, trained staff and equipment. To be viable advertising is essential to any establishment which provides cosmetic and aesthetic procedures. Business men with deep pockets establish beauty chains which also provide these services and advertise heavily to sway public opinion in their favour. However, these saloons and spas lack basic medical facilities in terms of staff or equipment to handle any complication or medical emergency. To have a level playing field ethical advertising should be permitted to qualified aesthetic surgeons as is permitted in the US and UK by their respective organisations.

  11. Norman Bethune, Canadian surgeon: his Chinese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, G V

    1983-07-01

    Norman Bethune, a Canadian thoracic surgeon who dabbled in painting, poetry, criticism, teaching and invention, was a member of the Communist Party of Canada. He became involved in two civil wars on opposite sides of the world and amassed both criticism and respect from colleagues and national leaders. The author describes Bethune's time in China, during which he developed front line field hospitals for Mao Tse-tung and his guerrillas in their struggle against the Japanese during 1938 and 1939. His efforts in China on behalf of the wounded brought him into contact with the primitive military medicine of the country and the poverty of its people; it earned for him a local reputation as saviour and benefactor and gave him an honoured place in Chinese military history.

  12. Risk of ionising radiation to trainee orthopaedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishrat A; Kamalasekaran, Senthil; Fazal, M Ali

    2012-02-01

    We undertook this study to determine the amount of scattered radiation received by the primary surgeon, assistant and patient during dynamic hip screw fixation for proximal femoral fractures. Data was collected from fifty patients. Five registrars were included as operating surgeon and four senior house officers as assistant surgeon. Radiation was monitored by thermo luminescent dosimeters placed on the surgeon and assistant. The approximate distance of surgeon and assistant from the operative site was measured. A dosimeter on the unaffected hip of patients measured the radiation to the patient. The results show that the surgeon's dominant hand receives the highest dose of radiation and radiation exposure is dependent on the experience of the operator. Our study concludes that exposure to radiation during this procedure is well below the toxic levels; however greater awareness is needed for harmful effects of exposure to long term low dose radiation.

  13. Distance-mediated mentoring: A telecommunication-supported model for novice rural mathematics and science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, Jennifer Lyn

    Rural educators face unique professional challenges and limitations. This study investigated the effectiveness of an innovative distance-mediated mentoring program for rural novice mathematics and science teachers. Four purposes were pursued: (1) characterize and document the nature and development of the mentor-novice relationship; (2) describe how discourse influenced the novice teachers' perceptions about mathematics and science teaching; (3) determine whether telecommunication effectively supported a distance-mediated mentoring relationship for novice rural teachers; and (4) investigate program effects on novice teachers' attitudes, concerns, and professional growth. A qualitative research design was implemented during academic years 1996-98. Primary data collection focused on nine rural novice teachers and their mentors and included three sets of interviews spanning three semesters, field observation of classrooms, schools, and communities, and analysis of electronic mail messages over a four-month period. Supporting data were collected during observation of workshops and training sessions, and through surveys administered to all program participants in early 1997 and 1998. Categories of mentor-novice communication were identified: curriculum and content, validation of teaching practice, classroom and school issues, moral support, and social talk. Impact on mathematics and science teaching was accomplished by: sharing materials and activities; planning units and projects; locating resources; classroom and student concerns; long-range curriculum design, and improvement of teaching practices. Professional growth (for both novices and mentors) occurred through individual contact with partners and interaction within the larger mentoring community in both face-to-face and on-line venues. Telecommunication was highly valued by successful users. Technical difficulty curtailed access for a significant number of teachers, but they maintained successful relationships

  14. Cyclist-related content in novice driver education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Jennifer; Johnson, Marilyn

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, the increasing public profile and policy interest in cycling contrasts with variable cycling participation rates across jurisdictions (Australian Bicycle Council, 2017) and lack of cyclist-specific infrastructure. Cyclists and drivers often share road space, usually without indication from the built environment about how to maximise each other's safety and utility. Yet despite this regular interaction, cyclists are largely absent from the driver licensing process in Australia. That is, novice drivers are not taught how to share the road with cyclists. This case study used a mixed methods approach to examine the cyclist-related content in the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The case study was conducted in four stages: 1) content analysis of all documents used through the GDLS; 2) observations of the Road Ready course and learner driver lessons; 3) online survey; and, 4) semi-structured interviews. Cyclists are rarely mentioned in the GDLS in the ACT and references often constructed cyclists as problematic or were based in instructors' personal opinion (rather than scripted responses). Outcomes from this study have directly informed a new vulnerable road user driver licence competency in the ACT and findings include recommendations for greater inclusion of cyclists in the driver licensing system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichter, Stephen; Klimo, Jon; Krippner, Stanley

    2009-06-01

    Ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic plant brew from the Amazon basin used as part of healing ceremonies by the local indigenous people of the region for centuries, is now being consumed by growing numbers of people throughout the world. Anecdotal evidence and previous research suggest that there are spiritual effects experienced among participants who take part in ayahuasca ceremonies. The current study examined whether novice participants' spirituality was affected through participation in an ayahuasca ceremony, and if so, how. A mixed-design method was used, comparing those participating in an ayahuasca ceremony to those who did not participate. This investigation used the Peak Experience Profile, the Spiritual Well-being Scale, and the Mysticism Scale as quantitative measures. Participant interviews and written accounts of ceremony experiences were analyzed. Results showed that neither the SWB score nor the M-Scale score increased significantly after participating in an ayahuasca ceremony. However, it was found that the higher the PEP score, the greater the positive change in SWB and M-Scale scores. Qualitative data revealed common spiritual themes in many of the participants' interviews and written accounts. Experiential differences were displayed within the ayahuasca ceremony group, warranting continued investigation into, and identification of, various confounding variables that prompt reported changes in spirituality within some participants while not in others.

  16. Solving the surgeon ergonomic crisis with surgical exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanglei; Hemming, Daniel; Luo, Ran B; Reynolds, Jessica; Delong, Jonathan C; Sandler, Bryan J; Jacobsen, Garth R; Horgan, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    The widespread adoption of laparoscopic surgery has put new physical demands on the surgeon leading to increased musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. Shoulder, back, and neck pains are among the most common complaints experienced by laparoscopic surgeons. Here, we evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a non-intrusive progressive arm support exosuit worn by surgeons under the sterile gown to reduce pain and fatigue during surgery. This is a prospective randomized crossover study approved by the Internal Review Board (IRB). The study involves three phases of testing. In each phase, general surgery residents or attendings were randomized to wearing the surgical exosuit at the beginning or at the crossover point. The first phase tests for surgeon manual dexterity wearing the device using the Minnesota Dexterity test, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) modules. The second phase tests the effect of the device on shoulder pain and fatigue while operating the laparoscopic camera. The third phase rates surgeon experience in the operating room between case-matched operating days. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study. Surgeons had the similar dexterity scores and FLS times whether or not they wore the exosuit (p value ranges 0.15-0.84). All exosuit surgeons completed 15 min of holding laparoscopic camera compared to three non-exosuit surgeons (p Exosuit surgeons experienced significantly less fatigue at all time periods and arm pain (3.11 vs 5.88, p = 0.019) at 10 min. Surgeons wearing the exosuit during an operation experienced significant decrease in shoulder pain and 85% of surgeons reported some form of pain reduction at the end of the operative day. The progressive arm support exosuit can be a minimally intrusive device that laparoscopic surgeons wear to reduce pain and fatigue of surgery without significantly interfering with operative skills or manual dexterity.

  17. Among Musculoskeletal Surgeons, Job Dissatisfaction Is Associated With Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wulfften Palthe, Olivier D R; Neuhaus, Valentin; Janssen, Stein J; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David

    2016-08-01

    Burnout is common in professions such as medicine in which employees have frequent and often stressful interpersonal interactions where empathy and emotional control are important. Burnout can lead to decreased effectiveness at work, negative health outcomes, and less job satisfaction. A relationship between burnout and job satisfaction is established for several types of physicians but is less studied among surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions. We asked: (1) For surgeons treating musculoskeletal conditions, what risk factors are associated with worse job dissatisfaction? (2) What risk factors are associated with burnout symptoms? Two hundred ten (52% of all active members of the Science of Variation Group [SOVG]) surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions (94% orthopaedic surgeons and 6% trauma surgeons; in Europe, general trauma surgeons do most of the fracture surgery) completed the Global Job Satisfaction instrument, Shirom-Malamed Burnout Measure, and provided practice and surgeon characteristics. Most surgeons were male (193 surgeons, 92%) and most were academically employed (186 surgeons, 89%). Factors independently associated with job satisfaction and burnout were identified with multivariable analysis. Greater symptoms of burnout (β, -7.13; standard error [SE], 0.75; 95% CI, -8.60 to -5.66; p job satisfaction. Having children (β, -0.45; SE, 0.0.21; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.043; p = 0.030; adjusted R(2), 0.046) was the only factor independently associated with fewer symptoms of burnout. Among an active research group of largely academic surgeons treating musculoskeletal conditions, most are satisfied with their job. Efforts to limit burnout and job satisfaction by optimizing engagement in and deriving meaning from the work are effective in other settings and merit attention among surgeons. Level II, prognostic study.

  18. Mentorship as Experienced by Women Surgeons in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozuya, Kyoko; Kawase, Kazumi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Women have accounted for over 30% of new medical students since 1995 in Japan. Establishing support systems for women surgeons to continue their work is a major issue in Japan. Mentorship can be one of the most effective means to help women surgeons to continue their work. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current status of mentorship among Japanese women surgeons and to discuss the role of mentors for women surgeons. Invitation letters were sent to all female members of the Japan Association of Women Surgeons in April 2011. An 84-item questionnaire survey was sent to those who agreed to participate in this study via the internet. Fifty-five surgeons participated in this study, a response rate of 48.7%. Sixty-seven percent of respondents found it difficult to continue in their job; 85% thought mentorship was necessary for women surgeons to progress in their careers; and 84% reported that they already had a mentor. Respondents thought that a mentor helped them to advance their clinical career, to stay in their job, and to provide moral support. However, mentors appeared to be less useful in helping them to advance their research career, to network, to increase their status, and to achieve a work-life balance. This study revealed areas where mentors appeared to be less helpful to women surgeons. The survey gave an indication of how to help improve and develop the career and personal life of women surgeons in Japan.

  19. [Management abilities of the head surgeon: essential for survival!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, J

    2012-04-01

    Due to increased economic challenges in the management of hospitals head surgeons do not only need excellent surgical expertise but also significant management qualities. The personality of head surgeons should include authenticity, sincerity, fairness and the ability to cooperate. Visionary leadership, strategic thinking and strategic management of the personnel are further prerequisites for success. Besides good abilities in communication head surgeons need knowledge of the operating figures for interpretation. To keep up with the own capabilities time and self-management is essential. A survival as head surgeon is likely if these qualities and abilities exist.

  20. Challenges and Induction Needs of Novice English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufaida Alhamad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first year of teaching poses massive challenges that lead to attrition among novice teachers. School communities often fail to provide adequate support to novice teachers to help them adapt to their new professional environments. In Saudi Arabia, attrition among novice teachers is a significant problem that hinders the development of the educational system. This study was conducted to examine the challenges that Saudi Arabian EFL novice teachers face as they transit into their first teaching jobs, and to determine whether these teachers have adequate support or would benefit from a formal induction process.  Two kinds of data collection methods were used in this study, namely quantitative and qualitative. In this mixed methods study, 150 novice teachers were surveyed and 5 teachers were selected for semi-structured interviews. The quantitative analysis of the data was accomplished using descriptive and inferential statistics to answer the research questions. The qualitative analysis of the data was accomplished by interpreting the responses provided to the interview questions. The findings indicated that the challenges surrounding novice teachers hinder them in their development as new teachers. The most conspicuous challenges reported by the study participants were dealing with low English proficiency students and managing the negative attitudes of students toward learning English. This report also determined additional perceptible challenges: adoption of various teaching methods and the establishment of a student-centered approach, student behavior management, course planning, dealing with individual differences, and communication with parents.  This study showed that these teachers had left their pre-service training with a very limited knowledge and skills for dealing with the reality of teaching. Mentoring and observing veteran teachers were identified by novice teachers as the two most beneficial strategies for implementing a teacher

  1. Impact of Different Surgeons on Dental Implant Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    To assess the influence of several factors on the prevalence of dental implant failure, with special consideration of the placement of implants by different dental surgeons. This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants at one specialist clinic. Only the data of patients and implants treated by surgeons who had inserted a minimum of 200 implants at the clinic were included. Kaplan-Meier curves were stratified with respect to the individual surgeon. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were placed in a single patient. The factors bone quantity, bone quality, implant location, implant surface, and implant system were analyzed with descriptive statistics separately for each individual surgeon. A total of 10 surgeons were eligible. The differences between the survival curves of each individual were statistically significant. The multivariate GEE model showed the following variables to be statistically significant: surgeon, bruxism, intake of antidepressants, location, implant length, and implant system. The surgeon with the highest absolute number of failures was also the one who inserted the most implants in sites of poor bone and used turned implants in most cases, whereas the surgeon with the lowest absolute number of failures used mainly modern implants. Separate survival analyses of turned and modern implants stratified for the individual surgeon showed statistically significant differences in cumulative survival. Different levels of failure incidence could be observed between the surgeons, occasionally reaching significant levels. Although a direct causal relationship could not be ascertained, the results of the present study suggest that the surgeons' technique, skills, and/or judgment may negatively influence implant survival rates.

  2. The Glass Houses of Attending Surgeons: An Assessment of Unprofessional Behavior on Facebook Among Practicing Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Sean J; Sudbeck, Craig; Luers, Thomas; Adamson, Peter; Cook, Gates; Schenarts, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Our recent publication demonstrated that unprofessional behavior on Facebook is common among surgical residents. In the formulation of standards and curricula to address this issue, it is important that surgical faculty lead by example. Our current study refocuses on the Facebook profiles of faculty surgeons involved in the education of general surgery residents. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) web site was used to identify general surgery residencies located in the Midwest. Departmental web sites were then searched to identify teaching faculty for the general surgery residency. Facebook was then searched to determine which faculty had profiles available for viewing by the general public. Profiles were then placed in 1 of the 3 following categories: professional, potentially unprofessional, or clearly unprofessional. A chi-square test was used to determine significance. In all, 57 residency programs were identified on the ACS web site, 100% of which provided an institutional web site listing the surgical faculty. A total of 758 general surgery faculty were identified (133 women and 625 men), of which 195 (25.7%) had identifiable Facebook accounts. In all, 165 faculty (84.6%) had no unprofessional content, 20 (10.3%) had potentially unprofessional content, and 10 (5.1%) had clearly unprofessional content. Inter-rater reliability was good (88.9% agreement, κ = 0.784). Clearly unprofessional behavior was found only in male surgeons. For male surgeons, clearly unprofessional behavior was more common among those in practice for less than 5 years (p = 0.031). Alcohol and politics were the most commonly found variables in the potentially unprofessional group. Inappropriate language and sexually suggestive material were the most commonly found variables in the clearly unprofessional group. Unprofessional behavior on Facebook is less common among surgical faculty compared with surgical residents. However, the rates remain unacceptably high, especially among men and

  3. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics.

  4. [Surgeons and Neurosurgeons as Nobel Prize Winners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastina, Jan; Jančálek, Radim; Hrabovský, Dušan; Novák, Zdeněk

    Since 1901 Nobel Prize is awarded for exceptional achievements in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, economy (since 1968) and medicine or physiology. The first aim of the paper is to provide an overview of surgeons - winners of Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology. Although the prominent neurosurgeons were frequently nominated as Nobel Prize candidates, surprisingly no neurosurgeon received this prestigious award so far despite that the results of their research transgressed the relatively narrow limits of neurosurgical speciality.The most prominent leaders in the field of neurosurgery, such as Victor Horsley, Otfrid Foerster, Walter Dandy and Harvey Cushing are discussed from the point of their nominations. The overview of the activity of the Portuguese neurologists and Nobel Prize Winter in 1949 Egas Moniz (occasionally erroneously reported as neurosurgeon) is also provided. Although his work on brain angiography has fundamentally changed the diagnostic possibilities in neurology and neurosurgery, he was eventually awarded Nobel Prize for the introduction of the currently outdated frontal lobotomy.The fact that none of the above mentioned prominent neurosurgeons has not been recognised by Nobel Prize, may be attributed to the fact that their extensive work cannot be captured in a short summary pinpointing its groundbreaking character.

  5. Nanotechnology tolls the bell for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Hajiliasgari, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline, having power to revolutionarize every scientific field to a very deep level which previously thought to be a science fiction. Having a great potential to beneficially change the way a disease is diagnosed, treated and prevented, nanotechnology practically impacts on state of the art healthcare technologies and plays a crucial role in changing the field of surgery. Surgeons are constantly looking for minimally invasive ways to treat their patients, as recovery is faster when a lesser trauma is inflicted upon a patient, scarring is lessened and there are usually fewer complications in the aftermath of the operation. Through nanotechnology, tiny biosensors could be constructed which could take these factors into account, thus shortening the patient recovery period and saving hospitals money, reducing infection rates within the hospital, reducing the waiting lists for operation and allowing doctors to treat more patients in the same period of time. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers focuses on the potentials of nanotechnology in surgery, especially in plastic surgery and addresses the possible future prospects of nanotechnology in this field.

  6. Augmented reality for the surgeon: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; Kim, Esther J; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Han, Phillip K; Si, Phong; Freeman, William D; Diaz, Roberto J; Komotar, Ricardo J; Pirris, Stephen M; Brown, Benjamin L; Bydon, Mohamad; Wang, Michael Y; Wharen, Robert E; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2018-04-30

    Since the introduction of wearable head-up displays, there has been much interest in the surgical community adapting this technology into routine surgical practice. We used the keywords augmented reality OR wearable device OR head-up display AND surgery using PubMed, EBSCO, IEEE and SCOPUS databases. After exclusions, 74 published articles that evaluated the utility of wearable head-up displays in surgical settings were included in our review. Across all studies, the most common use of head-up displays was in cases of live streaming from surgical microscopes, navigation, monitoring of vital signs, and display of preoperative images. The most commonly used head-up display was Google Glass. Head-up displays enhanced surgeons' operating experience; common disadvantages include limited battery life, display size and discomfort. Due to ergonomic issues with dual-screen devices, augmented reality devices with the capacity to overlay images onto the surgical field will be key features of next-generation surgical head-up displays. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Chikushi Hospital

    1995-09-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 {mu}SV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 {mu}SV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 {mu}SV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 {mu}SV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 {mu}SV, 16.24 {mu}SV, 32.04 {mu}SV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author).

  8. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori

    1995-01-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 μSV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 μSV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 μSV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 μSV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 μSV, 16.24 μSV, 32.04 μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author)

  9. The Novice-Expert Continuum in Astronomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The nature of expertise in astronomy was investigated across a broad spectrum of ages and experience in China and New Zealand. Five hypotheses (capable of quantification and statistical analysis) were used to probe types of expertise identified by previous researchers: (a) domain-specific knowledge-skill in the use of scientific vocabulary and language and recognising relationships between concepts in linguistic and schematic forms; (b) higher-order theory in terms of conceptual structure and enriched scientific knowledge and reasoning; with an expectation of cultural similarity. There were 993 participants in all, age 3-80 years, including 68 junior school pupils; 68 pre-school pupils; 112 middle-school students; 109 high-school students; 79 physics undergraduates; 60 parents; 136 pre-service primary teachers; 131 pre-service secondary teachers; 72 primary teachers; 78 secondary teachers; 50 amateur astronomers and astronomy educators; and 30 astronomers and physicists; with approximately equal numbers of each group in both cultures; and of boys and girls in the case of children. For them, the methodology utilised Piagetian interviews with three media (verbal language, drawing, play-dough modelling), and for adults a questionnaire inviting responses in writing and drawing was used. The data from each group were categorised into ordinal scales and then analysed by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests. The findings supported the hypotheses with evidence of all forms of expertise increasing with experience in both cultures (α level 0.05). The relative gains, overlaps and deficits in expertise across the novice-expert continuum are explored in detail.

  10. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience. © 2013.

  11. The relationship between social skills and early resignation in Japanese novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsuma, Mayuko; Katsuki, Takeshi; Sakuma, Yumiko; Sato, Chifumi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between social skills and early resignation in Japanese novice nurses. The early resignation of novice nurses has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the personal sociality of novice nurses and their early resignation. We surveyed 272 nurses with 1-3 years of experience. Instances of early resignation were studied by using a questionnaire, and their social skills were measured using Kikuchi's Scale of Social Skills:18 items (KiSS-18), a tool developed by Kikuchi to estimate sociality. Nurses with low sociality were more likely to resign than those with higher sociality. The lack of advanced social skills was closely associated with a higher likelihood of early resignation. The presence of advanced social skills appeared to potentially prevent resignation among novice nurses. Further investigation is needed to determine the causal relationship between sociality and early resignation. Social skills training for novice nurses may be of benefit in preventing early resignation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  13. Surgeons' Leadership Styles and Team Behavior in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Yung; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Arriaga, Alexander F; Peyre, Sarah E; Corso, Katherine A; Roth, Emilie M; Yule, Steven J; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2016-01-01

    The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards and transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. We videorecorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) was correlated with surgeon behavior (Surgical Leadership Inventory) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (range 2.38 to 2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (range 1.98 to 3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3 times more information-sharing behaviors (p leadership and its impact on team performance in the operating room. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development, therefore, has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Surgeons and HIV: South African attitudes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-01

    Feb 1, 2009 ... Local policies and those from developed countries may not .... National Health Act 61 of 2003, such information (surgeon HIV ... specialist surgeon trainees established that 91% did not think .... 2008 Report on the Global AIDS ... Schulman KA, McDonald RC, Lynn LA, Frank I, Christakis NA, Schwartz JS.

  15. The anatomy lessons of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, F.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mandatory lessons in anatomy, taught by the praelector anatomiae (lecturer in anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, were an important part of the surgical training starting in the 16th century. We describe how surgeons were trained approximately 350 years ago at the Surgeons’ Guild. The role

  16. English law for the surgeon II: clinical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjes, Waseem; Mahil, Jaspal; Upile, Tahwinder

    2011-12-21

    Traditionally, in the United Kingdom and Europe, the surgeon was generally not troubled by litigation from patients presenting as elective as well as emergency cases, but this aspect of custom has changed. Litigation by patients now significantly affects surgical practice and vicarious liability often affects hospitals. We discuss some fundamental legal definitions, a must to know for a surgeon, and highlight some interesting cases.

  17. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-09-01

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pnew implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e825-e830.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Effect of Individual Surgeons and Anesthesiologists on Operating Room Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; Kazemier, Geert; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    BACKGROUND:: Variability in operating room (OR) time causes overutilization and underutilization of the available ORs. There is evidence that for a given type of procedure, the surgeon is the major source of variability in OR time. The primary aim was to quantify the variability between surgeons and

  19. Review of CD Rom: The Virtual Surgeon: ACL Reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE VIRTUAL SURGEON: ACL RECONSTRUCTION Professor George Bentley ChM FRCS, Russell E LVindsor MD, Mr Andrew Williams FRCS(0rth); 4150 + VAT(UK) The Virtual Surgeon - 3D Anatomy of the Knee 469 + VAT(UK). TVF Multimedia Ltd, 375 City Road, London, EClV lNB, UK ...

  20. Ultrasound of the acute abdomen performed by surgeons in training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J.P.; Grantcharov, T.P.; Eriksen, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    , specificity and kappa-agreement of the surgeon performed ultrasound examination was 1.00 (0.77-1.00), 0.96 (0.79-0.99), 0.94 (0.3-1.00) and 0.40 (0.12-0.77), 0.97 (0.83-0.99), 0.44 (0.00-0.96); respectively. Visualization of the common bile duct was poor having 73% non-diagnostic surgeon-performed ultrasound...... perform valid abdominal ultrasound examinations of patients referred with acute abdominal pain. METHODS: Patients referred with acute abdominal pain had an ultrasound examination by a surgeon in training as well as by an experienced consultant radiologist whose results served as the gold standard. All...... participating surgeons were without any pre-existing ultrasound experience and received one hour of introduction to abdominal ultrasound. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent 40 surgeon performed and 30 radiologist performed ultrasound examinations. Regarding gallstone and cholecholecystitis the sensitivity...

  1. Disparities between resident and attending surgeon perceptions of intraoperative teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butvidas, Lynn D; Anderson, Cheryl I; Balogh, Daniel; Basson, Marc D

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to assess attending surgeon and resident recall of good and poor intraoperative teaching experiences and how often these experiences occur at present. By web-based survey, we asked US surgeons and residents to describe their best and worst intraoperative teaching experiences during training and how often 26 common intraoperative teaching behaviors occur in their current environment. A total of 346 residents and 196 surgeons responded (51 programs; 26 states). Surgeons and residents consistently identified trainee autonomy, teacher confidence, and communication as positive, while recalling negatively contemptuous, arrogant, accusatory, or uncommunicative teachers. Residents described intraoperative teaching behaviors by faculty as substantially less frequent than faculty self-reports. Neither sex nor seniority explained these results, although women reported communicative behaviors more frequently than men. Although veteran surgeons and current trainees agree on what constitutes effective and ineffective teaching in the operating room, they disagree on how often these behaviors occur, leaving substantial room for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Toward late career transitioning: a proposal for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Robin; McLeod, Robin; Latter, David; Keshavjee, Shaf; Rotstein, Ori; Fehlings, Michael G; Ahmed, Najma; Nathens, Avery; Rutka, James

    2017-09-01

    In the absence of a defined retirement age, academic surgeons need to develop plans for transition as they approach the end of their academic surgical careers. The development of a plan for late career transition represents an opportunity for departments of surgery across Canada to initiate a constructive process in cooperation with the key stakeholders in the hospital or institution. The goal of the process is to develop an individual plan for each faculty member that is agreeable to the academic surgeon; informs the surgical leadership; and allows the late career surgeon, the hospital, the division and the department to make plans for the future. In this commentary, the literature on the science of aging is reviewed as it pertains to surgeons, and guidelines for late career transition planning are shared. It is hoped that these guidelines will be of some value to academic programs and surgeons across the country as late career transition models are developed and adopted.

  3. Occupational Stress and Burnout among Surgeons in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Huggard, Peter; van Toledo, Annik

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the levels of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji. A document set comprising a cover letter; a consent form; a sociodemographic and supplementary information questionnaire; the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) questionnaires were provided to surgeons from three public divisional hospitals in Fiji. Thirty-six of 43 (83.7%) invited surgeons participated in the study. According to their MBI scores, surgeons suffered from low (10, 27.8%), moderate (23, 63.9%), and high (3, 8.3%) levels of burnout. Comparatively, 23 (63.9%) demonstrated moderate burnout according to their ProQOL scores. Substantial psychiatric morbidity was observed in 16 (44.0%) surgeons per their GHQ-12 scores. Consumption of alcohol was noted in 29 (80.6%) surgeons, and 12 (33.4%) had AUDIT scores characterizing their alcohol use in excess of low-risk guidelines or as harmful or hazardous drinking. Surgeons of Fijian nationality showed higher MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores compared with surgeons of other nationalities. Surgeons with an awareness of the availability of counseling services at their hospitals showed low AUDIT and ProQOL burnout scores. Smokers, alcohol drinkers, and kava drinkers showed higher AUDIT scores. This study highlights a level of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji and a lack of awareness of their mental and physical well-being. The authors recommend that occupational stress and burnout intervention strategies be put in place in hospitals in Fiji.

  4. Cheating experience: Guiding novices to adopt the gaze strategies of experts expedites the learning of technical laparoscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Samuel J; Masters, Rich S W; McGrath, John S; Bright, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that trainees can be taught (via explicit verbal instruction) to adopt the gaze strategies of expert laparoscopic surgeons. The current study examined a software template designed to guide trainees to adopt expert gaze control strategies passively, without being provided with explicit instructions. We examined 27 novices (who had no laparoscopic training) performing 50 learning trials of a laparoscopic training task in either a discovery-learning (DL) group or a gaze-training (GT) group while wearing an eye tracker to assess gaze control. The GT group performed trials using a surgery-training template (STT); software that is designed to guide expert-like gaze strategies by highlighting the key locations on the monitor screen. The DL group had a normal, unrestricted view of the scene on the monitor screen. Both groups then took part in a nondelayed retention test (to assess learning) and a stress test (under social evaluative threat) with a normal view of the scene. The STT was successful in guiding the GT group to adopt an expert-like gaze strategy (displaying more target-locking fixations). Adopting expert gaze strategies led to an improvement in performance for the GT group, which outperformed the DL group in both retention and stress tests (faster completion time and fewer errors). The STT is a practical and cost-effective training interface that automatically promotes an optimal gaze strategy. Trainees who are trained to adopt the efficient target-locking gaze strategy of experts gain a performance advantage over trainees left to discover their own strategies for task completion. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Core Competencies for General Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, James F; Archibald, Douglas; Barber, James W; Christian, Eugene P; D'Ascoli, Richard J; Haynes, Richard J; Hecht, Suzanne S; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Kellam, James F; McLaren, Alexander C; Peabody, Terrance D; Southworth, Stephen R; Strauss, Robert W; Wadey, Veronica M R

    2017-01-18

    With the changing delivery of orthopaedic surgical care, there is a need to define the knowledge and competencies that are expected of an orthopaedist providing general and/or acute orthopaedic care. This article provides a proposal for the knowledge and competencies needed for an orthopaedist to practice general and/or acute care orthopaedic surgery. Using the modified Delphi method, the General Orthopaedic Competency Task Force consisting of stakeholders associated with general orthopaedic practice has proposed the core knowledge and competencies that should be maintained by orthopaedists who practice emergency and general orthopaedic surgery. For relevancy to clinical practice, 2 basic sets of competencies were established. The assessment competencies pertain to the general knowledge needed to evaluate, investigate, and determine an overall management plan. The management competencies are generally procedural in nature and are divided into 2 groups. For the Management 1 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to provide definitive care including assessment, investigation, initial or emergency care, operative or nonoperative care, and follow-up. For the Management 2 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to assess, investigate, and commence timely non-emergency or emergency care and then either transfer the patient to the appropriate subspecialist's care or provide definitive care based on the urgency of care, exceptional practice circumstance, or individual's higher training. This may include some higher-level procedures usually performed by a subspecialist, but are consistent with one's practice based on experience, practice environment, and/or specialty interest. These competencies are the first step in defining the practice of general orthopaedic surgery including acute orthopaedic care. Further validation and discussion among educators, general orthopaedic surgeons, and subspecialists will ensure that these are relevant to clinical practice. These

  6. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...... and achieve outcomes. This illustration is based on a micro-level analysis of a transcript from a Viable System Model workshop held in a food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark. Through our findings we identify two distinct script-supported FM behaviours and related script-supported facilitation practices...... that enable novices to (a) acquire skills and competencies; and (b) switch between and combine skills and competencies to successfully manage workshops and achieve outcomes. Our study links micro-level considerations to a meta-level framework that relates the script-supported FM behaviours and practices...

  7. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven A W; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Data on the performances of 40 novices who had completed repeated, directed, self......-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy were included. Data were analyzed to identify key areas of difficulty as well as the procedures terminated without using all the time allowed. RESULTS: Novices had difficulty in avoiding drilling holes in the outer anatomical boundaries of the mastoidectomy...... and often did not make use of the allowed time, lacking knowledge on when to stop or how to excel. CONCLUSION: Directed, self-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy needs a strong instructional design with specific process goals to support deliberate practice because cognitive effort is needed...

  8. Who should lead a trauma team: surgeon or non surgeon? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Hajibandeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presence of a trauma team leader (TTL in the trauma team is associated with positive patient outcomes in major trauma. The TTL is traditionally a surgeon who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS guidelines. The necessity of routine surgical leadership in the resuscitative component of trauma care has been questioned by some authors. Therefore, it remains controversial who should lead the trauma team. We aimed to evaluate outcomes associated with surgeon versus non-surgeon TTLs in management of trauma patients. Methods: In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement standards, we performed a systematic review. Electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL were searched to identify randomized and non-randomized studies investigating outcomes associated with surgeon versus non-surgeon TTL in management of trauma patients. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the methodological quality and risk of bias of the selected studies. Fixed-effect model was applied to calculate pooled outcome data. Results: Three retrospective cohort studies, enrolling 2,519 adult major trauma patients, were included. Our analysis showed that there was no difference in survival [odds ratio (OR: 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.61-1.10, P=0.19] and length of stay when trauma team was led by surgeon or non-surgeon TTLs; however, fewer injuries were missed when the trauma team was led by a surgeon (OR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.92, P=0.03. Conclusions: Despite constant debate, the comparative evidence about outcomes associated with surgeon and non-surgeon trauma team leader is insufficient. The best available evidence suggests that there is no significant difference in outcomes of surgeon or non-surgeon trauma team leaders. High quality randomized controlled trials are required to compare

  9. Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Miller, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics-either currently or in the past-significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers' age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability.

  10. Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A.

    2018-01-01

    Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics—either currently or in the past—significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers’ age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability. PMID:29364957

  11. Comparing experts and novices in Martian surface feature change detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Jessica; Sprinks, James; Houghton, Robert; Muller, Jan-Peter; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Change detection in satellite images is a key concern of the Earth Observation field for environmental and climate change monitoring. Satellite images also provide important clues to both the past and present surface conditions of other planets, which cannot be validated on the ground. With the volume of satellite imagery continuing to grow, the inadequacy of computerised solutions to manage and process imagery to the required professional standard is of critical concern. Whilst studies find the crowd sourcing approach suitable for the counting of impact craters in single images, images of higher resolution contain a much wider range of features, and the performance of novices in identifying more complex features and detecting change, remains unknown. This paper presents a first step towards understanding whether novices can identify and annotate changes in different geomorphological features. A website was developed to enable visitors to flick between two images of the same location on Mars taken at different times and classify 1) if a surface feature changed and if so, 2) what feature had changed from a pre-defined list of six. Planetary scientists provided ;expert; data against which classifications made by novices could be compared when the project subsequently went public. Whilst no significant difference was found in images identified with surface changes by expert and novices, results exhibited differences in consensus within and between experts and novices when asked to classify the type of change. Experts demonstrated higher levels of agreement in classification of changes as dust devil tracks, slope streaks and impact craters than other features, whilst the consensus of novices was consistent across feature types; furthermore, the level of consensus amongst regardless of feature type. These trends are secondary to the low levels of consensus found, regardless of feature type or classifier expertise. These findings demand the attention of researchers who

  12. Scaffolding Writing Using Feedback in Students' Graphic Organizers--Novice Writers' Relevance of Ideas and Cognitive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien Ching; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to find out two outcomes of feedback in the novice writers' graphic organizers, which are the novice writers' ability to align their ideas to their writing goal, and their perceived germane, metacognitive, extraneous and intrinsic cognitive loads when generating and revising ideas based on the feedback. Data was gathered from the…

  13. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  14. Regressive Imagery in Creative Problem-Solving: Comparing Verbal Protocols of Expert and Novice Visual Artists and Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozbelt, Aaron; Dexter, Scott; Dolese, Melissa; Meredith, Daniel; Ostrofsky, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We applied computer-based text analyses of regressive imagery to verbal protocols of individuals engaged in creative problem-solving in two domains: visual art (23 experts, 23 novices) and computer programming (14 experts, 14 novices). Percentages of words involving primary process and secondary process thought, plus emotion-related words, were…

  15. Using Social Media and Professional Learning Communities as Tools for Novice Teacher Collegiality and Improved Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Teacher attrition and the migration between schools and districts can have a negative impact on quality of education and teacher performance. Novice teachers leave the profession because they are overwhelmed by the workload and responsibilities of the job. In a previous action research cycle, I found that novice teachers' perceptions of…

  16. Pedagogy, Empowerment and Discipline: Comparative Perspectives of Novice Teachers in England and Turkey Reflecting on "the Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Wilkins, Chris; Acun, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the views of Turkish and British novice teachers on pedagogy and pedagogical relationships with school students when confronted with the pedagogical practices of the "Other" in particular policy contexts. Experiences of those practices were gained by novice teachers during an exchange visit for British and Turkish…

  17. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Ida; Bredeweg, Steef W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Diercks, Ron L.

    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a

  18. Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: A Lithuanian Case of Novice Consultants' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkšaitiene, Nijole

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of the investigation into institutional support provided to adults by 12 novice consultants on assessment and recognition of their non-formal and informal learning in four institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Lithuania. Using the general systems perspective and perception theory, novice consultants'…

  19. How Do Novice and Expert Learners Represent, Understand, and Discuss Geologic Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layow, Erica Amanda

    This dissertation examined the representations novice and expert learners constructed for the geologic timescale. Learners engaged in a three-part activity. The purpose was to compare novice learners' representations to those of expert learners. This provided insight into the similarities and differences between their strategies for event ordering, assigning values and scale to the geologic timescale model, as well as their language and practices to complete the model. With a qualitative approach to data analysis informed by an expert-novice theoretical framework grounded in phenomenography, learner responses comprised the data analyzed. These data highlighted learners' metacognitive thoughts that might not otherwise be shared through lectures or laboratory activities. Learners' responses were analyzed using a discourse framework that positioned learners as knowers. Novice and expert learners both excelled at ordering and discussing events before the Phanerozoic, but were challenged with events during the Phanerozoic. Novice learners had difficulty assigning values to events and establishing a scale for their models. Expert learners expressed difficulty with determining a scale because of the size of the model, yet eventually used anchor points and unitized the model to establish a scale. Despite challenges constructing their models, novice learners spoke confidently using claims and few hedging phrases indicating their confidence in statements made. Experts used more hedges than novices, however the hedging comments were made about more complex conceptions. Using both phenomenographic and discourse analysis approaches for analysis foregrounded learners' discussions of how they perceived geologic time and their ways of knowing and doing. This research is intended to enhance the geoscience community's understanding of the ways novice and expert learners think and discuss conceptions of geologic time, including the events and values of time, and the strategies used

  20. Facilitating programming comprehension for novice learners with multimedia approach: A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Subashini; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2017-10-01

    This research paper presents the preliminary investigation on the use of an interactive multimedia courseware named MAFPro, to facilitate C Programming lessons for novice learners. The courseware utilizes the elements of multimedia that focus on enhancing learners' programming comprehension. Among the aspects that were examined were the students' programming comprehension and their perceived motivation of MAFPro. This study was carried out in a survey design method with the participation of 30 undergraduates who are novice learners. The data analysis indicates that the multimedia courseware, MAFPro that has been used in the C programming classroom has a significant difference on the undergraduates' programming comprehension. The students also perceived MAFPro as motivating and engaging.

  1. An In Situ Study of Analogical Reasoning in Novice and Experienced Design Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, B T

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience in an adaptive design domain. Protocol analyses of 12 design engineers have been analyzed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real......-world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the use of analogies by novices and experienced designers and the reasoning from the analogies. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information related to the geometric properties without explicit...

  2. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  3. Characterizing and fostering charity care in the surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D Brad; Scarborough, John E

    2011-07-01

    We sought to determine which demographic and practice characteristics are associated with both a surgeon's willingness to provide any charity care as well as the amount of charity care provided. Although it is known that surgeons tend to provide a greater amount of charity care than other physicians, no studies have attempted to look within the surgeon population to identify which factors lead some surgeons to provide more charity care than others. Using 4 rounds of data from the Community Tracking Study, we employ a 2-part multivariate regression model with fixed effects. A greater amount of charity care is provided by surgeons who are male, practice owners, employed in academic medical centers, or earn a greater proportion of their revenue from Medicaid. Surgeons who work in a group HMO are significantly less likely to provide any charity care. Personal resources (eg, time and money) had a minimal association with charity care provision. Surgeons whose characteristics are associated with a greater propensity for charity care provision as suggested by this study, should be considered as a potential source for building the volunteer workforce.

  4. Surgeons' Leadership Styles and Team Behavior in the Operating Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Yung; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Arriaga, Alexander F; Peyre, Sarah E; Corso, Katherine A; Roth, Emilie M; Yule, Steven J; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards, whereas transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. Study Design We video-recorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon-researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information-sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (MLQ) was correlated with surgeon behavior (SLI) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. Results All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (2.38-2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (1.98-3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3× more information-sharing behaviors (psupportive behaviors (pleadership and its impact on team performance in the OR. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development therefore has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care. PMID:26481409

  5. Ethical challenges in surgery as narrated by practicing surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordam Ann

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the ethical challenges in surgery from the surgeons' point of view and their experience of being in ethically difficult situations. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a university hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of nurses and physicians about being in such situations. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No differences in ethical reasoning between male and female surgeons were found. They reasoned in both action and relational ethical perspectives. Surgeons focused on their relationships with patients and colleagues and their moral self in descriptions of the ethical challenges in their work. Dialogue and personal involvement were important in their relationships with patients. The surgeons emphasized the importance of open dialogue, professional recognition, and an inclusive and accepting environment between colleagues. Conclusion The surgeons are personally challenged by the existential realities of human life in their relationships with patients. They realized that ethical challenges are an inherent part of performing surgery and of life itself, and say that they have to learn to "live with" these challenges in a way that is confirmed both socially and by their inner moral self. This means accepting their personal and professional limitations, being uncertain, being fallible, and being humble. Living with the ethical challenges of surgery seems to contribute to the surgeons' confidence and vulnerability in their professional identity.

  6. Discrepancies in the female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Barber, Mathew D; Steinberg, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether the current distribution of surgeons practicing female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery in the United States is adequate to meet the needs of a growing and aging population. We assessed the geographic distribution of female pelvic surgeons as represented by members of the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS) throughout the United States at the county, state, and American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists district levels. County-level data from the AUGS, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the United States Census were analyzed in this observational study. State and national patterns of female pelvic surgeon density were mapped graphically using ArcGIS software and 2010 US Census demographic data. In 2013, the 1058 AUGS practicing physicians represented 0.13% of the total physician workforce. There were 6.7 AUGS members available for every 1 million women and 20 AUGS members for every 1 million postreproductive-aged women in the United States. The density of female pelvic surgeons was highest in metropolitan areas. Overall, 88% of the counties in the United States lacked female pelvic surgeons. Nationwide, there was a mean of 1 AUGS member for every 31 practicing general obstetrician-gynecologists. These findings have implications for training, recruiting, and retaining female pelvic surgeons. The uneven distribution of female pelvic surgeons throughout the United States is likely to worsen as graduating female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery fellows continue to cluster in urban areas.

  7. Endoscopic Approach for Tissue Expansion for Different Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: The use of tissue expanders in plastic and reconstruction surgery is now well established for large defects in adults & children. Tissue expansion is one of the reconstructive surgeon's alternatives in providing optimal tissue replacement when skin shortage is a major problem. Predesigned plan about ...

  8. An online review of plastic surgeons in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Priya; Kobayashi, Emily; Gupta, Subhas

    2015-05-01

    It has become commonplace for patients to access online reviews of physicians when making choices about health care, just as any consumer would in today's computer-dependent world. Previous studies have shown that online reviews of physicians are generally positive. However, 1 negative review has the potential to adversely affect business and reputations. To characterize the online presence of plastic surgeons in Southern California as portrayed by physician rating websites (PRWs). An extensive online database of board-certified plastic surgeons was used to generate a list of surgeons within a 50-mile radius of Pomona, CA. Ratings from the PRWs HealthGrades.com, Vitals.com, and UCompareHealthcare.com were cataloged by number of reviews and ratings. Two hundred sixty-three surgeons were evaluated with the most-represented cities being Beverly Hills (N=47), Los Angeles (N=31), and Newport Beach (N=27). Ninety-seven percent of the surgeons were rated on at least 1 of the 3 PRWs chosen. In general, surgeons were rated highly, with a mean rating of 85%, SD, 14% (Ponline ratings ranged from 0 to 222 per surgeon. The median number of total reviews was 25 and the mean rating for those surgeons above and below the median were equivocal, at 86% and 85%, respectively (P=0.284). In this study, we found that plastic surgeons in Southern California have an online presence that can be influenced by their patients; they should be aware of this and conscious of their online reputations. Overall, the ratings were high, regardless of the number of reviews.

  9. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons' non-technical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non...... qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected...

  10. The surgeon's perspective: promoting and discouraging factors for choosing a career in surgery as perceived by surgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C Seelandt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the factors perceived by surgeons that promote surgery as an attractive or unattractive career choice for today's graduates. In addition, it examined whether the perspectives of surgeons in different professional situations converges. The content of work, contextual work conditions, and calling to this job are discussed in the context of choosing surgery as a career. METHODS: Eight hundred sixty-nine surgeons were asked to answer open-ended questions regarding the factors that promote surgery as an attractive or unattractive career choice for today's graduates. Four hundred ninety-two surgeons participated, and 1,525 statements were analyzed using Mayring's content-analyses method. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences among hierarchical positions. RESULTS: With respect to the factors that promote surgery as a profession, 40.8% (209/492 of the surgeons stated that surgery is a calling, 29.1% (149/492 of the surgeons provided at least one argument related to the positive task characteristics, and 12.9% (66/492 of the surgeons provided statements related to the positive contextual factors. With respect to the factors that discourage surgery as a profession, 45.7% (234/492 of the surgeons provided at least one argument related to the discouraging work characteristics, and 67.6% (346/492 of the surgeons provided problematic contextual characteristics. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the importance of the calling to surgery as an important factor for choosing surgery as a career. However, the extensive workload, training, and poor work-family balance have been identified as factors that discourage graduates from choosing surgery as a career. The identified positive factors could be used to attract and maintain graduates in surgical disciplines.

  11. The surgeon's perspective: promoting and discouraging factors for choosing a career in surgery as perceived by surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelandt, Julia C; Kaderli, Reto M; Tschan, Franziska; Businger, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors perceived by surgeons that promote surgery as an attractive or unattractive career choice for today's graduates. In addition, it examined whether the perspectives of surgeons in different professional situations converges. The content of work, contextual work conditions, and calling to this job are discussed in the context of choosing surgery as a career. Eight hundred sixty-nine surgeons were asked to answer open-ended questions regarding the factors that promote surgery as an attractive or unattractive career choice for today's graduates. Four hundred ninety-two surgeons participated, and 1,525 statements were analyzed using Mayring's content-analyses method. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences among hierarchical positions. With respect to the factors that promote surgery as a profession, 40.8% (209/492) of the surgeons stated that surgery is a calling, 29.1% (149/492) of the surgeons provided at least one argument related to the positive task characteristics, and 12.9% (66/492) of the surgeons provided statements related to the positive contextual factors. With respect to the factors that discourage surgery as a profession, 45.7% (234/492) of the surgeons provided at least one argument related to the discouraging work characteristics, and 67.6% (346/492) of the surgeons provided problematic contextual characteristics. This study emphasizes the importance of the calling to surgery as an important factor for choosing surgery as a career. However, the extensive workload, training, and poor work-family balance have been identified as factors that discourage graduates from choosing surgery as a career. The identified positive factors could be used to attract and maintain graduates in surgical disciplines.

  12. [Close teamwork between pathologist and surgeon can improve results in colorectal cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicholas P; Quirke, Philip; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke Hjarnø

    2011-04-04

    Colorectal cancer is common in the Western world and is a leading cause of cancer related mortality. The introduction of multidisciplinary teams and focus on quality control has led to improved outcomes in which pathologists play a central role through feedback to surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists. This review focuses on the importance of pathological examination of the resection specimen and subsequent feedback to the surgical team regarding quality. Specific markers of oncological quality including grading the plane of surgery, tissue morphometry and lymph node yields are discussed.

  13. Role of Surgeons in Determining Outcome of Histopathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fixative used, types of specimen containers and appropriate labeling of containers. ... specimen and with wide mouth and tight fitting lid) and adequacy of container .... surgeons in this respect is a reflection of greater availability of prepared ...

  14. Radiation dose to surgeons in theatre | van der Merwe | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements of accumulated dose to specific anatomical regions of a neurosurgeon, gastroenterologist and orthopaedic surgeon performing fluoroscopy on 39 patients undergoing treatment for back pain, 7 for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures, and 48 for ...

  15. Hepatitis-B Vaccination Status Among Dental Surgeons in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    consensus about vaccination rates among dental professionals in the literature as dental surgeons ..... Research Category of the Hatton poster competition in the 3rd. African Middle East ... Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1987;15:125-7. 6.

  16. Predictors of pediatric surgeons' career satisfaction: a national survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediatric surgeons were satisfied with professional career. (77%), and 88% would chose the same ... exists between expectations and real income. Ann Pediatr .... single institution employment (no extra job) (P= 0.015432) are factors related to ...

  17. Disclosure of Individual Surgeon's Performance Rates During Informed Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ingrid; Schill, Kathryn; Goodman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the paper is to examine the ethical arguments for and against disclosing surgeon-specific performance rates to patients during informed consent, and to examine the challenges that generating and using performance rates entail. Methods: Ethical, legal, and statistical theory is explored to approach the question of whether, when, and how surgeons should disclosure their personal performance rates to patients. The main ethical question addressed is what type of information surgeons owe their patients during informed consent. This question comprises 3 related, ethically relevant considerations that are explored in detail: 1) Does surgeon-specific performance information enhance patient decision-making? 2) Do patients want this type of information? 3) How do the potential benefits of disclosure balance against the risks? Results: Calculating individual performance measures requires tradeoffs and involves inherent uncertainty. There is a lack of evidence regarding whether patients want this information, whether it facilitates their decision-making for surgery, and how it is best communicated to them. Disclosure of personal performance rates during informed consent has the potential benefits of enhancing patient autonomy, improving patient decision-making, and improving quality of care. The major risks of disclosure include inaccurate and misleading performance rates, avoidance of high-risk cases, unjust damage to surgeon's reputations, and jeopardized patient trust. Conclusion: At this time, we think that, for most conditions, surgical procedures, and outcomes, the accuracy of surgeon- and patient-specific performance rates is illusory, obviating the ethical obligation to communicate them as part of the informed consent process. Nonetheless, the surgical profession has the duty to develop information systems that allow for performance to be evaluated to a high degree of accuracy. In the meantime, patients should be informed of the quantity of

  18. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  19. Specialization and the Current Practices of General Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marquita R; Dodgion, Christopher M; Kwok, Alvin C; Hu, Yue-Yung; Havlena, Jeff A; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kent, K Craig; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of specialization on the practice of general surgery has not been characterized. Our goal was to assess general surgeons’ operative practices to inform surgical education and workforce planning. Study Design We examined the practices of general surgeons identified in the 2008 State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) for three US states. Operations were identified using ICD-9 and CPT codes linked to encrypted physician identifiers. For each surgeon, total operative volume and the percentage of practice comprised of their most common operation were calculated. Correlation was measured between general surgeons’ case volume and the number of other specialists in a health service area. Results There were 1,075 general surgeons who performed 240,510 operations in 2008. The mean operative volume for each surgeon was 224 annual procedures. General surgeons performed an average of 23 different types of operations. For the majority of general surgeons, their most common procedure comprised no more than 30% of total practice. The most common operations, ranked by the frequency that they appeared as general surgeons’ top procedure, included: cholecystectomy, colonoscopy, endoscopy, and skin excision. The proportion of general surgery practice comprised of endoscopic procedures inversely correlated with the number of gastroenterologists in the health service area (Rho = - 0.50, p = 0.005). Conclusions Despite trends toward specialization, the current practices of general surgeons remain heterogeneous. This indicates a continued demand for broad-based surgical education to allow future surgeons to tailor their practices to their environment. PMID:24210145

  20. Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between NASA TLX and blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Jiang, Xianta; Tien, Geoffrey; Meneghetti, Adam; Panton, O Neely M; Atkins, M Stella

    2012-10-01

    Blinks are known as an indicator of visual attention and mental stress. In this study, surgeons' mental workload was evaluated utilizing a paper assessment instrument (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index, NASA TLX) and by examining their eye blinks. Correlation between these two assessments was reported. Surgeons' eye motions were video-recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker while the surgeons performed a laparoscopic procedure on a virtual reality trainer. Blink frequency and duration were computed using computer vision technology. The level of workload experienced during the procedure was reported by surgeons using the NASA TLX. A total of 42 valid videos were recorded from 23 surgeons. After blinks were computed, videos were divided into two groups based on the blink frequency: infrequent group (≤ 6 blinks/min) and frequent group (more than 6 blinks/min). Surgical performance (measured by task time and trajectories of tool tips) was not significantly different between these two groups, but NASA TLX scores were significantly different. Surgeons who blinked infrequently reported a higher level of frustration (46 vs. 34, P = 0.047) and higher overall level of workload (57 vs. 47, P = 0.045) than those who blinked more frequently. The correlation coefficients (Pearson test) between NASA TLX and the blink frequency and duration were -0.17 and 0.446. Reduction of blink frequency and shorter blink duration matched the increasing level of mental workload reported by surgeons. The value of using eye-tracking technology for assessment of surgeon mental workload was shown.

  1. Social networks uncovered: 10 tips every plastic surgeon should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Phillip; Heller, Justin B; Unger, Jacob G; Graham, Darrell; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-11-01

    Understanding online social networks is of critical importance to the plastic surgeon. With knowledge, it becomes apparent that the numerous networks available are similar in their structure, usage, and function. The key is communication between Internet media such that one maximizes exposure to patients. This article focuses on 2 social networking platforms that we feel provide the most utility to plastic surgeons. Ten tips are provided for incorporation of Facebook and Twitter into your practice.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Surgeon Burnout Syndrome and Specialty Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Houk, Anna K; Pulcrano, Marisa; Shara, Nawar M; Kwagyan, John; Jackson, Patrick G; Sosin, Michael

    2018-02-27

    Surgeon burnout compromises the quality of life of physicians and the delivery of care to patients. Burnout rates and interpretation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) complicates the interpretation of surgeon burnout. The purpose of this study is to apply a standardized interpretation of severe surgeon burnout termed, "burnout syndrome" to analyze inherent variation within surgical specialties. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies reporting MBI data by surgical specialty. Data extraction was performed to isolate surgeon specific data. A meta-analysis was performed. A total of 16 cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis, totaling 3581 subjects. A random effects model approximated burnout syndrome at 3.0% (95% CI: 2.0%-5.0%; I 2 = 78.1%). Subscale analysis of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment indicated subscale burnout in 30.0% (CI: 25.0%-36.0%; I 2 = 93.2%), 34.0% (CI: 25.0%-43.0%; I 2 = 96.9%), and 25.0% (CI: 18.0%-32.0%; I 2 = 96.5%) of surgeons, respectively. Significant differences (p burnout termed "burnout syndrome," although surgeon burnout may occur in up to 34% of surgeons, characterized by high burnout in 1 of 3 subscales. Surgical specialties have significantly different rates of burnout subscales. Future burnout studies should target the specialty-specific level to understand inherent differences in an effort to better understand methods of improving surgeon burnout. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac surgeons and the quality movement: the Michigan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard L; Armenti, Frederick R; Bassett, Joseph S; Bell, Gail F; Drake, Daniel; Hanson, Eric C; Heiser, John C; Johnson, Scott H; Plasman, F B; Shannon, Francis L; Share, David; Theurer, Patty; Williams, Jaelene

    2009-01-01

    The Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons created a voluntary quality collaborative with all the cardiac surgeons in the state and all hospitals doing adult cardiac surgery. Utilizing this collaborative over the last 3 years and creating a unique relationship with a payor, an approach to processes and outcomes has produced improvements in the quality of care for cardiac patients in the state of Michigan.

  4. Exploring novice nurses' needs regarding their work-related health: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Dutch novice nurses' experiences and needs regarding occupational health support to prevent work-related health problems and to keep them well-functioning. A qualitative interview study was conducted with six nursing students and eight newly qualified nurses. The interviews covered

  5. Impact of Expert Teaching Quality on Novice Academic Performance in the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ("jigsaw classroom"). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when…

  6. Extending the Classroom: Digital Micro-Narratives for Novice Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Storytelling offers many advantages for language learning, especially within a project-based framework. In this article, the use of Digital Micro-Narratives is proposed as particularly useful for second language learners at the novice level. As a sub-genre of Digital Storytelling, Digital Micro-Narratives focus more on frequently updated…

  7. Interweaving Teaching and Emotional Support for Novice Special Educators in Alternative Certification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Leila Ansari; Zetlin, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    As the shortage of special education teachers has led to increasing numbers of teacher candidates enrolled in alternative certification programs, there is a need to provide systematic mentoring and coaching. The relationship between support providers and novice teachers enrolled in an alternative certification program in a diverse, urban…

  8. Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals' Schema for District Control and School Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label "controlled autonomy"--a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable…

  9. The Views of Novice and Late Career Principals Concerning Instructional and Organizational Leadership within Their Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of novice and late career principals concerning instructional and organizational leadership within their performance evaluations. An online survey was sent to 251 principals with a return rate of 49%. Instructional leadership components of the evaluation that were most important to all principals were:…

  10. Addressing An Audience: A Study of Expert-Novice Differences in Writing. Technical Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Marshall A.

    To investigate differences in the writing processes of novice and expert writers, a test of writing skills was developed that required subjects to write a business letter in defense of a particular system of public transportation in response to a letter objecting to that system. In the first of three experiments, significant differences were found…

  11. New, Novice or Nervous? The "Quick" Guide to the "No-Quick-Fix"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching History, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching History" presents "New, Novice or Nervous (NNN)" for those new to the published writings of history teachers. Each problem newcomers wrestle with is one other teachers have wrestled with too. Quick fixes do not exist. But in others' writing, there is something better: "conversations in which other history…

  12. Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-12-01

    Holistic processing (i.e., the tendency to process objects as wholes) is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. In the present study, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music-reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but were relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music-reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different natures. To characterize expert perception, it is important not only to measure the tendency to process objects as wholes, but also to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints.

  13. The Effect of Mentor Intervention Style in Novice Entrepreneur Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne; Audet, Josee

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether mentor intervention styles influence benefits gained by novice entrepreneurs through their mentoring relationship. An empirical study conducted with 360 mentees who had received mentoring services shows that an intervention style which combines a maieutic approach with mentor involvement produced the…

  14. Development of PCK for Novice and Experienced University Physics Instructors: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Syh-Jong; Tsai, Meng-Fang; Chen, Ho-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed and compared university students' perceptions' of a novice and an experienced physics instructor's Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Two college physics instructors and 116 students voluntarily participated in this study. The research model comprised three workshops, mid-term and final evaluations and instructor…

  15. Getting and Keeping Nora on Board: A Novice Elementary ESOL Student Teacher's Practices for Lesson Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Hansun Zhang; Hruska, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes how a novice ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) student teacher successfully navigates an instructional path in a one-on-one tutoring session with a second grade student. We document the student teacher's strategies to both engage and disengage her student, who alternately resists and cooperates throughout the…

  16. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    Objectives: Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Design:

  17. Exploring the experiences of novice clinical instructors in physical therapy clinical education: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, B H; Bridges, P H; Phillips, T A; Drill, A N; Gaydosik, C D; Krishnan, A; Yandziak, H J

    2014-12-01

    To explore the perceptions of novice physical therapy clinical instructors (CIs) about their interactions and teaching behaviours with physical therapy students. A phenomenological approach using semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Six novice physical therapy CIs (less than two years as a CI and supervised fewer than three students) were recruited purposefully from a large metropolitan area in the USA. All participants were credentialed by the American Physical Therapy Association as CIs. Transcripts of interview data and focus group data were analysed using interpretative analysis for themes and subthemes. Participants viewed the transition of students from the classroom to the clinic as their primary role, using strategies of 'providing a way in', 'fostering critical thinking', 'finding a balance', 'overcoming barriers' and 'letting go'. While novice CIs showed skill in fostering student reflection and providing orientation, they struggled with student autonomy and balancing the competing obligations of patient care and clinical instruction. They expressed issues related to anxiety and lack of confidence. In the future, novice CIs could benefit from training and support in these areas. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  19. Supporting Secondary Novices' Efforts to Implement Student- and Discourse-Centred Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Novice secondary mathematics teachers attempting teaching consonant with NCTM (1991) Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics experience stresses related to those attempts. Foremost among those stresses are challenges while orchestrating student-centred, whole-class discussions. Such discussions can create uncertainty and stress as novices…

  20. Novice Music Teachers Learning to Improvise in an Improvisation Professional Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    With the intent of improving music improvisation pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to examine experiences of six novice music teachers and a professional development facilitator in an eight-week Improvisation Professional Development Workshop (IPDW). The research questions were: 1. How do teachers learn to improvise within the context of…

  1. Against All Odds: Problem-Solving Strategies and Behavioural Characteristics of Novice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Lin, Miao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates problem-solving difficulties of novices in a classroom setting, using a German instructional tool, the Fischertechnik kit of approximately 400 parts. In order to analyse the students' thinking processes as they solved the problems, verbal protocol analysis (VPA) was used to record the students'' thinking processes and…

  2. Novice Nurses' Experiences of Unpreparedness at the Beginning of the Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Mahbobeh Sajadi; Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unpreparedness of novice nurses during the process of transition to their professional role can has broad consequences for the nurse and health care system and leads to reduction of the quality of patient care. This study has been carried out with the aim of investigating the experiences of the unpreparedness of novice nurses. Method: This study was conducted qualitatively by using conventional content analysis. Participants were 21persons including 17 novice nurses, 2 supervisors, and 2 experienced nurses who were selected through purposeful sampling from four hospitals dependent on Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Findings: Participants' experiences were reflected in three main themes of "functional disability", "communicative problems", and "managerial challenges". Each of these dimensions consisted of several sub-categories. These areas had represented the inability to apply the learned knowledge in practice. Discussion: The sensitivity of health system, especially, educational mentors and nursing managers to create preparation in novice nurses by providing appropriate orientation programs at the beginning of work and the revision and amendment of nursing curriculum can solve this problem to some extent. PMID:24373282

  3. A Content Analysis Concerning the Studies on Challenges Faced by Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikoglu, Ishak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the studies concerning challenges faced by novice teachers in terms of various aspects and compare challenges according to location of the studies conducted in Turkey and abroad. A total of 30 research studies were included in detailed analysis. This is a descriptive study based on qualitative research…

  4. Instructional Support for Novice Law Students: Reducing Search Processes and Explaining Concepts in Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievelstein, Fleurie; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Dijck, Gijs; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Nievelstein, F., Van Gog, T., Van Dijck, C., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011). Instructional support for novice law students: Reducing search processes and explaining concepts in cases. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(3), 408-413. doi:10.1002/acp.1707

  5. Practitioner of Cooperative Learning as Part of Novice Teachers' Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies challenges that English as a foreign language (EFL) novice teachers in Indonesia may face in developing a professional identity, which, in this paper, refers to becoming a practitioner of cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is a mandated teaching method both in the 2006 and 2013 Indonesian curriculum, and is under the…

  6. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  7. Librarian as Advisor: Information Search Process of Undecided Students and Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Claire; Williams, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Faculty librarians who advise undecided students have found the experiences of novice researcher and advisee comparable: Both groups seek to solve a problem or answer a question by finding new information to add to their current understanding and knowledge base. As a result, librarians familiar with needs and stages of the research process may…

  8. Tapping into past design experiences : Knowledge sharing and creation during novice-expert design consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deken, F.; Kleinsmann, M.S.; Aurisicchio, M.; Lauche, K.; Bracewell, R.

    2011-01-01

    Designing is a knowledge-intensive activity. For novice design engineers, an important means of acquiring knowledge is to consult experienced colleagues. We observed novice–expert consultations as part of three engineering projects in a large aerospace company. Seven meetings were analysed in detail

  9. An Exploration of Self-Efficacy among Novice Nursing Faculty in Formal Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Lisa Marie

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of novice nursing faculty members at one Midwestern Technical college, who were in formal mentoring relationships with seasoned nursing faculty members. A total of nine faculty members participated in a single, sixty minute, semi-structured interview exploring the lived experiences of being…

  10. Induction and Mentoring of Novice Teachers: A Scheme for the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Induction and mentoring of novice teachers have gained considerable worldwide attention. However, in the United Arab Emirates, graduates from teacher education programmes are recruited as teachers without being provided with any formal school-based support. They suffer from stress, overload, and low self-esteem and a high percentage leave…

  11. Vulnerability and Resilience: Working Lives and Motivation of Four Novice EFL Secondary School Teachers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Masako

    2011-01-01

    This study is a longitudinal, qualitative, interpretive inquiry into the work motivation of four novice EFL teachers at public secondary schools in Japan. I employed constructivism as my philosophical framework and narrative inquiry as my primary methodological tool, and attempted to capture the four young teachers' changing motivation as embedded…

  12. Thinking Like Researchers: Action Research and Its Impact on Novice Teachers' Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janine; Clayton, Courtney; Broome, John

    2018-01-01

    This project investigated the effects of novice teachers' responses to an action research project conducting during the student-teaching semester. This study drew on a framework that considered the participants' process of research, practice of teaching, and identity as a researcher and utilized a qualitative, multiple case-study approach with an…

  13. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  14. Workplace Learning: Differential Learning Needs of Novice and More Experienced Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Ian R.; Beven, Fred A.

    1999-01-01

    A literature review identified differing learning needs of new and more experienced workers. Novices need to learn over extended time periods with deliberate practice and feedback. Experienced workers need to develop existing knowledge and skills. Different approaches to training and supervision are needed. (SK)

  15. Exploring Novice and Experienced Teachers' Perceptions of Motivational Constructs with Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesman, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare novice and experienced teachers' perceptions of student motivation at the high school level and to determine if the teachers were likely to incorporate research-based techniques. Survey data were collected on the following motivational constructs: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; performance, mastery,…

  16. Charting an Arid Landscape: The Preparation of Novice Primary Principals in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex matter of initial principal preparation in a context where traditionally beginning principals have learned their role from experience, on the job. Using data from both novice and experienced primary principals it was found that while what was needed in the job was agreed upon--how to deal with place, with people,…

  17. Preparing Novice Principals in Australia and Turkey: How Similar Are Their Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon; Styles, Irene; Beycioglu, Kadir

    2010-01-01

    Part of a 13-nation, cross-cultural study of the extent to which principals perceive their pre-appointment experiences had prepared them for the job, the International Study of Principal Preparation (ISPP), this paper compares the responses of novice principals in Turkey and Western Australia. Using a survey based on data from case studies of…

  18. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  19. The objective assessment of experts' and novices' suturing skills using an image analysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Adam C; Kasten, Steven J; Hamstra, Stanley J; Perkins, Noel C; Gillespie, R Brent; Armstrong, Thomas J; Minter, Rebecca M

    2013-02-01

    To objectively assess suturing performance using an image analysis program and to provide validity evidence for this assessment method by comparing experts' and novices' performance. In 2009, the authors used an image analysis program to extract objective variables from digital images of suturing end products obtained during a previous study involving third-year medical students (novices) and surgical faculty and residents (experts). Variables included number of stitches, stitch length, total bite size, travel, stitch orientation, total bite-size-to-travel ratio, and symmetry across the incision ratio. The authors compared all variables between groups to detect significant differences and two variables (total bite-size-to-travel ratio and symmetry across the incision ratio) to ideal values. Five experts and 15 novices participated. Experts' and novices' performances differed significantly (P 0.8) for total bite size (P = .009, d = 1.5), travel (P = .045, d = 1.1), total bite-size-to-travel ratio (P algorithm can extract variables from digital images of a running suture and rapidly provide quantitative summative assessment feedback. The significant differences found between groups confirm that this system can discriminate between skill levels. This image analysis program represents a viable training tool for objectively assessing trainees' suturing, a foundational skill for many medical specialties.

  20. Conceptions of Teaching Science Held by Novice Teachers in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Upson, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Case studies to investigate the conceptions of teaching science held by three novice teachers participating in an alternative secondary science teacher certification program were conducted, along with the relationships between their conceptions of science teaching and their science teaching practice. Data used to build the cases included the…

  1. Shared Teaching Culture in Different Forms: A Comparison of Expert and Novice Teachers' Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the teaching script and structure of lesson practice of two seventh-grade Japanese mathematics teachers--a "novice" and "expert"--through comparative analysis of mathematics lessons. Specifically, it aims to clarify how the teachers' views of teaching as tacit knowledge determine lesson structure and…

  2. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Novices' Rehearsal Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external focus of attention on novices' rehearsal evaluations. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to these rehearsals, participants were led in score study and…

  3. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  4. Keeping an Eye on Learning: Differences between Expert and Novice Teachers' Representations of Classroom Management Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charlotte E.; van den Bogert, Niek; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom management represents an important skill and knowledge set for achieving student learning gains, but poses a considerable challenge for beginning teachers. Understanding how teachers' cognition and conceptualizations differ between experts and novices is useful for enhancing beginning teachers' expertise development. We created a coding…

  5. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Design:

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness Roles of Variables in the Novice Programmers Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nianfeng; Cui, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Ximing

    2018-01-01

    This research applies the roles of variables to the novice programmers in the C language programming. The results are evaluated using the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy. The participants were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The students from the control group learned programming in the traditional…

  7. Initial Evaluation of a Mobile Scaffolding Application That Seeks to Support Novice Learners of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Chao; Blake, Edwin; Suleman, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of an application that scaffolds the constructions of programs on a mobile device. The application was developed to support novice learners of programming outside the classroom. This paper reports on results of a first experiment conducted to evaluate the mobile application. The main research questions…

  8. The X-factor : A longitudinal study of calibration in young novice drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Craen, S.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills and underestimate the risks in traffic; and therefore insufficiently adapt their driving behaviour (e.g. speed or headway) to the specific situation. This balancing of skills and task demands has been called calibration.

  9. Novice Supervisors' Practices and Dilemmatic Space in Supervision of Student Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereijken, Mayke W. C.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; van Driel, Jan H.; Dekker, Friedo W.

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in student research projects in higher education has led to an emphasis on research supervision. We focus in this study on novice supervisors' approaches to research supervision as they explore their practices and experience difficulties supervising medical-students. Teacher noticing was used as a sensitising concept and relations…

  10. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  11. Acquisition of flexible cystoscopy skills on a virtual reality simulator by experts and novices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Barbara M. A.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Hendrikx, Ad J. M.; Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Dolmans, Valerie E. M. G.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bemelmans, Bart L. H.

    OBJECTIVE To assess the construct validity of the URO MentorTM (Simbionix Corp., Cleveland, OH, USA) virtual reality training model for several variables of skills training in cysto-urethroscopy, addressing two research questions: (i) Does training on the URO Mentor significantly improve novices'

  12. The Impact of Novice Counselors' Note-Taking Behavior on Recall and Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chu-Ling; Wadsworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of note-taking on novice counselors' recall and judgment of interview information in four situations: no notes, taking notes, taking notes and reviewing these notes, and reviewing notes taken by others. Method: The sample included 13 counselors-in-training recruited from a master's level training program in…

  13. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...

  14. Perceptions of Linguistically Responsive Teaching in Teacher Candidates/Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Madhavi; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Hueston, Colin; Milbourn, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined data from 36 teacher candidates and novice teachers to explore their perceptions and understandings of linguistic responsiveness. The findings illustrate the challenge of demonstrating linguistically responsive teaching practices in the early and initial stages of entering the teaching profession, and more research…

  15. Preventing infection in general surgery: improvements through education of surgeons by surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-08-01

    Surgical patients are at particular risk of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) due to the presence of a surgical site leading to surgical site infection (SSI), and because of the need for intravascular access resulting in catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). A two-year initiative commenced with an initial audit of surgical practice; this was used to inform the development of a targeted educational initiative by surgeons specifically for surgical trainees. Parameters assessed during the initial audit and a further audit after the educational initiative were related to intra- and postoperative aspects of the prevention of SSIs, as well as care of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) in surgical patients. The proportion of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to incision across 360 operations increased from 30.0% to 59.1% (P<0.001). Surgical site dressings were observed in 234 patients, and a significant decrease was found in the percentage of dressings that were tampered with during the initial 48h after surgery (16.5% vs 6.2%, P=0.030). In total, 574 PVCs were assessed over the two-year period. Improvements were found in the proportion of unnecessary PVCs in situ (37.9% vs 24.4%, P<0.001), PVCs in situ for >72h (10.6% vs 3.1%, P<0.001) and PVCs covered with clean and intact dressings (87.3% vs 97.6%, P<0.001). Significant improvements in surgical practice were established for the prevention of SSI and CRBSI through a focused educational programme developed by and for surgeons. Potentially, other specific measures may also be warranted to achieve further improvements in infection prevention in surgical practice.

  16. High occupational stress and low career satisfaction of Korean surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hee; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Hyung Joon; Jung, Cheol Woong; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is a demanding and stressful field in Korea. Occupational stress can adversely affect the quality of care, decrease job satisfaction, and potentially increase medical errors. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational stress and career satisfaction of Korean surgeons. We have conducted an electronic survey of 621 Korean surgeons for the occupational stress. Sixty-five questions were used to assess practical and personal characteristics and occupational stress using the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). The mean KOSS score was 49.31, which was higher than the average of Korean occupational stress (45.86) or that of other specialized professions (46.03). Young age, female gender, long working hours, and frequent night duties were significantly related to the higher KOSS score. Having spouse, having hobby and regular exercise decreased the KOSS score. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours and regular exercise were the independent factors associated with the KOSS score. Less than 50% of surgeons answered that they would become a surgeon again. Most surgeons (82.5%) did not want to recommend their child follow their career. Korean Surgeons have high occupational stress and low level of career satisfaction.

  17. Ergonomics in the operating room: protecting the surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Peter L; McKinney, Jessica; Adams, Sonia R

    2013-01-01

    To review elements of an ergonomic operating room environment and describe common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Descriptive video based on clinical experience and a review of the literature (Canadian Task Force classification III). Community teaching hospital affiliated with a major teaching hospital. Gynecologic surgeons. Demonstration of surgical ergonomic principles and common errors in surgical ergonomics by a physical therapist and surgeon. The physical nature of surgery necessitates awareness of ergonomic principles. The literature has identified ergonomic awareness to be grossly lacking among practicing surgeons, and video has not been documented as a teaching tool for this population. Taking this into account, we created a video that demonstrates proper positioning of monitors and equipment, and incorrect and correct ergonomic positions during surgery. Also presented are 3 common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture: forward head position, improper shoulder elevation, and pelvic girdle asymmetry. Postural reset and motion strategies are demonstrated to help the surgeon learn techniques to counterbalance the sustained and awkward positions common during surgery that lead to muscle fatigue, pain, and degenerative changes. Correct ergonomics is a learned and practiced behavior. We believe that video is a useful way to facilitate improvement in ergonomic behaviors. We suggest that consideration of operating room setup, proper posture, and practice of postural resets are necessary components for a longer, healthier, and pain-free surgical career. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Modular Laparoscopic Training Program for Pediatric Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Masafumi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Taniguchi, Eiji; Soh, Hideki; Ohashi, Shuichi; Okada, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: A structured endoscopic training program for pediatric surgeons has not yet been established. This study was conducted to develop a modular training program (MTP) for pediatric surgeons and to evaluate its effectiveness for surgeons with and without previous experience in laparoscopic surgery. Methods: Nine pediatric surgeons participated in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: group A (n=4), surgeons who had experienced more than 10 cases of laparoscopic surgery prior to MTP; group B (n=5), those who had experienced fewer than 10 cases. They participated in a standardized MTP workshop, which consisted of 2 “see-through” and 3 “laparoscopic” tasks. Each participant's psychomotor skills were evaluated objectively before and after MTP with a computer-generated virtual simulator and were evaluated for precision, efficiency, and speed. Results: In participants, speed was significantly enhanced after MTP. In group A, no differences were observed after MTP, whereas significant improvements were noted in efficiency and speed after MTP in group B. Before MTP, efficiency was significantly higher in group A than in group B; however, no difference remained between the 2 groups after MTP. Conclusions: MTP is effective for nonlaparoscopic pediatric surgeons to become familiar with basic endoscopic skills. PMID:12722996

  19. Comparing resident cataract surgery outcomes under novice versus experienced attending supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidharth Puri,1 Amanda E Kiely,2 Jiangxia Wang,3 Alonzo S Woodfield,4 Saras Ramanathan,5 Shameema Sikder21Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 3Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 4Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, 5San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To determine whether supervision by an attending new to surgical teaching or an experienced attending measurably influences intraoperative complications rates or outcomes in phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology residents.Setting: Single tertiary hospital.Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Resident-performed phacoemulsification cases supervised by one novice attending (N=189 and experienced attending (N=172 over 1 year were included. Data included: resident year, patient age, sex, preoperative risk factors (4+ dense/white/brunescent cataracts, Flomax, zonular dialysis, pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma risk, post-vitrectomy, intraoperative risk factors (Trypan blue, iris hooks, and intraoperative complications (capsule tears, vitreous loss, zonular dialysis, zonular dehiscence, burns, nuclear fragment loss, Descemet’s tear. Experienced attending data were compared against those of the novice attending.Results: Regarding preoperative risks, experienced attending cases more likely involved 4+ cataract (P=0.005, Flomax (P<0.001, or glaucoma risk (P=0.001. For intraoperative risks, novice attending cases more likely involved Trypan blue (P<0.001. Regarding complications, novice attending cases were associated with vitreous loss (P=0.002 and anterior capsule tears (P<0.001. When comparing total complications, the novice attending was more likely to have both increased number of cases with complications and total complications than the experienced attending. The novice

  20. Novice chimpanzees cooperate successfully in the presence of experts, but may have limited understanding of the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Malini; Watzek, Julia; Quarles, Luke F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2018-01-01

    Despite many observations of cooperation in nature, laboratory studies often fail to find careful coordination between individuals who are solving a cooperative task. Further, individuals tested are often naïve to cooperative tasks and there has been little exploration of partnerships with mixed expertise. In the current study, we examined acquisition of a cooperative pulling task in a group with both expert (N = 4) and novice (N = 11) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We used five measures of competence and understanding: (1) success at the task, (2) latency to succeed, (3) efficiency, (4) uncoordinated pulling, and (5) pulling when a partner was present versus absent. We found that novices showed evidence of trial and error learning and developed competence over time, whereas the behavior of experts did not change throughout the course of the study. In addition to looking at patterns over time, we compared the performance of novices in this mixed-expertise group to an earlier study of novices in a group of all-novices. Novices in the mixed-expertise group pulled the same overall amount but for shorter periods of time, leading to higher pulling rates than individuals in the all-novice group. Taken together, these results suggest that learning in the presence of experts led to rapid and frequent success, although not necessarily careful coordination.

  1. An examination of the perceived teaching competencies of novice alternatively licensed and traditionally licensed high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen A.

    In most states, there are two routes to teacher licensure; traditional and alternative. The alternative route provides an accelerated entry into the classroom, often without the individual engaging in education coursework or a practicum. No matter the route, teaching skills continue to be learned by novice teachers while in the classroom with the guidance of a school-based mentor. In this study, the perceptions of mentor teachers of traditionally and alternatively licensed high school science teachers were compared with respect to mentees' science teaching competency. Further, the study explored the novice teachers' self-perception of their teaching competency. A survey, consisting of 56 Likert-type questions, was completed by mentors (N = 79) and novice high school science teachers (N = 83) in six northeastern states. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the perceptions of the mentors of traditionally and alternatively licensed novice high school science teachers in the areas of general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional growth, with more favorable perceptions recorded by mentors of traditionally licensed science teachers. There were no differences in the perceptions of the mentors with respect to novice high school teachers' content knowledge. There was no statistical difference in the self-perceptions of competency of the novice teachers. While alternative routes to licensure in science may be a necessity, the results of this study indicate that the lack of professional preparation may need to be addressed at the school level through the agency of the mentor. This study indicates that mentors must be prepared to provide alternatively licensed novice teachers with different assistance to that given to traditionally licensed novice teachers. School districts are urged to develop mentoring programs designed to develop the teaching competency of all novice teachers regardless of the route that led them

  2. Psychophysical workload in the operating room: primary surgeon versus assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Annika; Fenger, Sebastian; Neubert, Sebastian; Weippert, Matthias; Kreuzfeld, Steffi; Stoll, Regina

    2015-07-01

    Working in the operating room is characterized by high demands and overall workload of the surgical team. Surgeons often report that they feel more stressed when operating as a primary surgeon than in the function as an assistant which has been confirmed in recent studies. In this study, intra-individual workload was assessed in both intraoperative functions using a multidimensional approach that combined objective and subjective measures in a realistic work setting. Surgeons' intraoperative psychophysiologic workload was assessed through a mobile health system. 25 surgeons agreed to take part in the 24-hour monitoring by giving their written informed consent. The mobile health system contained a sensor electronic module integrated in a chest belt and measuring physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), and skin temperature. Subjective workload was assessed pre- and postoperatively using an electronic version of the NASA-TLX on a smartphone. The smartphone served as a communication unit and transferred objective and subjective measures to a communication server where data were stored and analyzed. Working as a primary surgeon did not result in higher workload. Neither NASA-TLX ratings nor physiological workload indicators were related to intraoperative function. In contrast, length of surgeries had a significant impact on intraoperative physical demands (p NASA-TLX sum score (p < 0.01; η(2) = 0.287). Intra-individual workload differences do not relate to intraoperative role of surgeons when length of surgery is considered as covariate. An intelligent operating management that considers the length of surgeries by implementing short breaks could contribute to the optimization of intraoperative workload and the preservation of surgeons' health, respectively. The value of mobile health systems for continuous psychophysiologic workload assessment was shown.

  3. "They Have to Adapt to Learn": Surgeons' Perspectives on the Role of Procedural Variation in Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apramian, Tavis; Cristancho, Sayra; Watling, Chris; Ott, Michael; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research increasingly acknowledges the existence of significant procedural variation in surgical practice. This study explored surgeons' perspectives regarding the influence of intersurgeon procedural variation on the teaching and learning of surgical residents. This qualitative study used a grounded theory-based analysis of observational and interview data. Observational data were collected in 3 tertiary care teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Semistructured interviews explored potential procedural variations arising during the observations and prompts from an iteratively refined guide. Ongoing data analysis refined the theoretical framework and informed data collection strategies, as prescribed by the iterative nature of grounded theory research. Our sample included 99 hours of observation across 45 cases with 14 surgeons. Semistructured, audio-recorded interviews (n = 14) occurred immediately following observational periods. Surgeons endorsed the use of intersurgeon procedural variations to teach residents about adapting to the complexity of surgical practice and the norms of surgical culture. Surgeons suggested that residents' efforts to identify thresholds of principle and preference are crucial to professional development. Principles that emerged from the study included the following: (1) knowing what comes next, (2) choosing the right plane, (3) handling tissue appropriately, (4) recognizing the abnormal, and (5) making safe progress. Surgeons suggested that learning to follow these principles while maintaining key aspects of surgical culture, like autonomy and individuality, are important social processes in surgical education. Acknowledging intersurgeon variation has important implications for curriculum development and workplace-based assessment in surgical education. Adapting to intersurgeon procedural variations may foster versatility in surgical residents. However, the existence of procedural variations and their active use in surgeons

  4. The plastic surgeon and Graves disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, A

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is a disease caused by autoimmune processes that also affects the thyroid gland and the lower limbs; at orbital level, it involves the muscle and adipose tissue. When medical treatment fails to achieve appreciable results, surgery aims to decompress the orbital cavity. In recent years, the treatment has been considerably improved by the introduction of transpalpebral lipectomy, which has produced valid results especially in cases when extrinsic muscle hypertrophy is limited; if it is severe, however, lipectomy can be combined with expansion of the orbital cavity, thus enabling the latter to be restricted to one or two walls instead of three. Studying 52 patients who underwent orbital decompression involving lipectomy and/or orbital expansion, affecting a total of 96 orbits, enabled an assessment of the pros and cons of the single techniques in an attempt to identify a rational approach to this pathology. It emerged that lipectomy alone may suffice and obtain valid results in cases of mild-to-moderate proptosis (up to 24 mm) with limited extrinsic muscle hypertrophy, whereas orbital expansion--with or without lipectomy--is likely to be necessary in moderate-to-severe cases (proptosis greater than 24 mm). Additional procedures to correct the elevator and retractor muscles of the eyelids were almost always necessary.

  5. Management of empyema - Role of a surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpneumonic empyema still remains quite common in developing countries, especially during the hot and humid months. While most cases would respond to antibiotic therapy, needle aspiration and intercostal drainage, few cases require further surgical management. The most common nontubercular etiological agent is Staphylococcus. Tubercular etiology is not uncommon in India, especially due to delayed presentation, multiresistant strains, mismanaged cases, and noncompliance with antitubercular treatment amidst malnutrition and anemia. Clinical symptoms, a skiagram chest followed by thoracentesis are enough for diagnosis. Pleural fluid is usually diagnostic and helps in choosing the appropriate antibiotics. Further investigations and management depends on the stage of the disease. Thoracentesis alone may be sufficient for the exudative phase. In fibrinopurulent stage, a properly sized and well-placed tube thoracostomy with underwater seal is curative in most cases. Interventional radiologists have placed small-bore catheters, specifically directed to the loculated collection and have used fibrinolytics like urokinase, streptokinase, and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA to break loculations, ameliorate fibrous peel formation, and fibrin deposition. Thoracoscopic debridement and thoracoscopic decortication is an alternative with distinct advantages over thoracotmy and are indicated if there was no response with intercostal drainage procedure. In the organizing stage, a thoracotomy (for decortication would be required if there is a loculated empyema, underlying lung disease or persistently symptomatic effusions. Timely institution of proper management prevents the need for any surgical intervention and avoids long-term morbid complications.

  6. 3D Bioprinting of Cartilage for Orthopedic Surgeons: Reading between the Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Claudia; Fosang, Amanda; Donati, Davide M; Wallace, Gordon G; Choong, Peter F M

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions represent one of the most challenging and frustrating scenarios for the orthopedic surgeon and for the patient. The lack of therapeutic strategies capable to reconstitute the function and structure of hyaline cartilage and to halt the progression toward osteoarthritis has brought clinicians and scientists together, to investigate the potential role of tissue engineering as a viable alternative to current treatment modalities. In particular, the role of bioprinting is emerging as an innovative technology that allows for the creation of organized 3D tissue constructs via a "layer-by-layer" deposition process. This process also has the capability to combine cells and biomaterials in an ordered and predetermined way. Here, we review the recent advances in cartilage bioprinting and we identify the current challenges and the directions for future developments in cartilage regeneration.

  7. 3D-BIOPRINTING OF CARTILAGE FOR ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS.READING BETWEEN THE LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDi Bella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chondral and Osteochondral lesions represent one of the most challenging and frustrating scenarios for the orthopaedic surgeon and for the patient. The lack of therapeutic strategies capable to reconstitute the function and structure of hyaline cartilage and to halt the progression towards osteoarthritis has brought clinicians and scientists together, to investigate the potential role of tissue engineering as a viable alternative to current treatment modalities. In particular, the role of bioprinting is emerging as an innovative technology that allows for the creation of organized 3D tissue constructs via a layer-by-layer deposition process. This process also has the capability to combine cells and biomaterials in an ordered and predetermined way. Here we review the recent advances in cartilage bioprinting and we identify the current challenges and the directions for future developments in cartilage regeneration.

  8. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jeung; Park, Nam Hee; Lee, Kun Sei; Chee, Hyun Keun; Sim, Sung Bo; Kim, Myo Jeong; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myunghwa; Park, Choon Seon

    2016-12-01

    While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040-an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309-an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time, effort, and resources; therefore, by analyzing the various factors

  9. Projections of Demand for Cardiovascular Surgery and Supply of Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jeung Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. Methods: After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model. To be able to analyze the supply and demand of surgeons, the recent status of new surgeons specializing in thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries and the ratio of their subspecialties in cardiovascular surgeries were investigated. Then, while taking three different scenarios into account, the number of cardiovascular surgeons expected be working in 5-year periods was projected. Results: The number of cardiovascular surgeries, which was recorded at 10,581 cases in 2014, is predicted to increase consistently to reach a demand of 15,501 cases in 2040—an increase of 46.5%. There was a total of 245 cardiovascular surgeons at work in 2014. Looking at 5 year spans in the future, the number of surgeons expected to be supplied in 2040 is 184, to retire is 249, and expected to be working is 309—an increase of -24.9%, 1.6%, and 26.1%, respectively compared to those in 2014. This forecasts a demand-supply imbalance in every scenario. Conclusion: Cardiovascular surgeons are the most central resource in the medical service of highly specialized cardiovascular surgeries, and fostering the surgeons requires much time

  10. Contemporary use of social media by consultant colorectal surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J J; Bisset, C; Coleman, M G; Speake, D; Brady, R R W

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence of significant growth in the engagement of UK health-care professionals with 'open' social media platforms, such as Twitter and LinkedIn. Social media communication provides many opportunities and benefits for medical education and interaction with patients and colleagues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of public social media membership and the characteristics of use of such media channels amongst contemporary UK consultant colorectal surgeons. Colorectal surgeons were identified from the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) national registry of colorectal mortality outcomes and were cross-referenced with the General Medical Council (GMC) register. Individuals were identified by manual searching on a number of social media platforms. Matching accounts were then examined to confirm ownership and to evaluate key markers of use. Six-hundred and eighteen individual consultant colorectal surgeons from 142 health authorities were studied (79.5% were ACPGBI members and 90.8% were male). Two-hundred and twenty-nine (37.1%) had LinkedIn profiles (37.7% male surgeons, 29.8% female surgeons; P = 0.2530). LinkedIn membership was significantly higher in ACPGBI members (P social media than reported studies from other health-care professional groups. Further education and appropriate guidance on usage may encourage uptake and confidence, particularly in younger consultants. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Practice Patterns and Job Satisfaction of Mohs Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nita; Golda, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on Mohs surgery workforce patterns. To identify if gender differences exist in practice patterns of Mohs surgeons, factors that influence these differences, and factors influencing job satisfaction among Mohs surgeons. An electronic survey was distributed to dermatology organizations targeting members of the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS), from October 2015 to April 2016. Two hundred twenty-seven ACMS members responded; 37% were women. Twenty-five percent of women and 19% of men work part time. Thirty-seven percent of women practice in academia versus 22% of men. Forty-three percent of women and 23% of men identified children as a factor affecting their ability to work full time. Gender comparisons for current job satisfaction show 57% of men and 35% of women being very satisfied. Supervision/feedback/recognition adds to satisfaction at a higher rate for women (53%) than for men (29%). For both genders combined, work content, patient base, and autonomy had the highest average job satisfaction ratings. Gender differences exist in practice patterns and job satisfaction of Mohs surgeons. This study demonstrates factors that could influence job satisfaction among female Mohs surgeons-knowledge that is important to individuals who lead, mentor, or supervise female Mohs surgeons.

  12. Burnout syndrome in oral and maxillofacial surgeons: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, G G; Carneiro, S C; Vasconcelos, B C; Nascimento, M M; Leal, J L F

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Brazilian oral and maxillofacial surgeons and its relationship with socio-demographic, clinical, and habit variables. The sample of this study comprised 116 surgeons. The syndrome was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (General Survey), which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. The criteria of Grunfeld et al. were used to evaluate the presence of the syndrome (17.2%). No significant differences between the surgeons diagnosed with and without the syndrome were observed according to age (P=0.804), sex (P=0.197), marital status (P=0.238), number of children (P=0.336), years of professional experience (P=0.102), patients attended per day (P=0.735), hours worked per week (P=0.350), use of alcohol (P=0.148), sports practice (P=0.243), hobbies (P=0.161), or vacation period per year (P=0.215). Significant differences occurred in the variables sex in the emotional exhaustion subscale (P=0.002) and use or not of alcohol in the personal accomplishment subscale (P=0.035). Burnout syndrome among Brazilian surgeons is average, showing a low personal accomplishment. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Productivity change of surgeons in an academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yuichi; Otake, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshihito; Oiso, Giichiro; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate total factor productivity of surgeons in an academic year and to evaluate the effect of surgical trainees on their productivity. We analyzed all the surgical procedures performed from April 1 through September 30, 2013 in the Teikyo University Hospital. The nonradial and nonoriented Malmquist model under the variable returns-to-scale assumptions was employed. A decision-making unit is defined as a surgeon with the highest academic rank in the surgery. Inputs were defined as the number of physicians who assisted in surgery, and the time of surgical operation from skin incision to skin closure. The output was defined as the surgical fee for each surgery. April is the beginning month of a new academic year in Japan, and we divided the study period into April to June and July to September 2013. We computed each surgeon's Malmquist index, efficiency change, and technical change. We analyzed 2789 surgical procedures that were performed by 105 surgeons. The Malmquist index of all surgeons was significantly greater than 1 (p = 0.0033). The technical change was significantly greater than 1 (p productive in the beginning months of a new academic year. The main factor of this productivity loss is considered to be surgical training. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Thoracic Surgeons on Lung Cancer Patients’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning LI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Surgeons are the direct decision-makers and performers in the surgical treatment of patients with lung cancer. Whether the differences among doctors affect the survival of patients is unclear. This study analyzed the five-year survival rates of different thoracic surgeries in patients undergoing surgery to assess the physician's impact and impact. Methods A retrospective analysis of five years between 2002-2007 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, for surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. According to different surgeons grouping doctors to compare the basic information of patients, surgical methods, short-term results and long-term survival differences. Results A total of 712 patients treated by 11 experienced thoracic surgeons were included in this study. The patients have nosignificant difference with gender, age, smoking, pathological type between groups. There were significant differences in clinical staging, surgery type, operation time, blood transfusion rate, number of lymph node dissection, palliative resection rate, postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. There was a significant difference in five-year survival rates among patients treated by different doctors. This difference can be seen in all clinical stage analyzes with consistency. In the multivariate analysis, it was suggested that surgeon was an independent factor influencing the prognosis of patients. Conclusion Thoracic surgeon has a significant effect on the therapeutic effect of lung cancer patients.

  15. Postoperative electrolyte management: Current practice patterns of surgeons and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Fernando A; Dueck, Andrew D; Azouz, Solomon M

    2015-07-01

    Managing postoperative electrolyte imbalances often is driven by dogma. To identify areas of improvement, we assessed the practice pattern of postoperative electrolyte management among surgeons and residents. An online survey was distributed among attending surgeons and surgical residents at the University of Toronto. The survey was designed according to a systematic approach for formulating self-administered questionnaires. Questions addressed workload, decision making in hypothetical clinical scenarios, and improvement strategies. Of 232 surveys distributed, 156 were completed (response rate: 67%). The majority stated that junior residents were responsible for managing electrolytes at 13 University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. Supervision was carried out predominately by senior residents (75%). Thirteen percent reported management went unsupervised. Approximately 59% of residents were unaware how often attending surgeons assessed patients' electrolytes. Despite the majority of residents (53.7%) reporting they were never given tools or trained in electrolyte replacement, they considered themselves moderately or extremely confident. The management of hypothetical clinical scenarios differed between residents and attending surgeons. The majority (50.5%) of respondents considered that an electrolyte replacement protocol is the most appropriate improvement strategy. Electrolyte replacement represents an important component of surgeons' workload. Despite reporting that formal training in electrolyte management is limited, residents consider themselves competent; however, their practice is highly variable and often differs from pharmacologic-directed recommendations. Optimizing how postoperative electrolytes are managed in surgical wards requires building a framework that improves knowledge, training, and limits unnecessary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Musculoskeletal pain among surgeons performing minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Bech, Katrine Tholstrup

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is the most common occupational disease in Europe. Surgeons with awkward and static working postures are no exception. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy has been postulated to be superior to conventional laparoscopy regarding the ergonomic strain for surgeons. In this ......BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is the most common occupational disease in Europe. Surgeons with awkward and static working postures are no exception. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy has been postulated to be superior to conventional laparoscopy regarding the ergonomic strain for surgeons......, and comparative data on surgeons' physical workload with robotic-assisted laparoscopy and conventional laparoscopy. Studies only describing a single surgical modality were excluded. We applied the checklist, STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), to assess the quality...... fulfilled the criteria of STROBE, with an average score of 13 (range 10-16) out of 18. DISCUSSION: Results, mainly self-reported measures, suggest that robotic-assisted laparoscopy is less strenuous compared with conventional laparoscopy. However, results are limited by the large methodological...

  17. Surgeons in Difficulty: An Exploration of Differences in Assistance-Seeking Behaviors between Male and Female Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfey, Hilary; Fromson, John; Mellinger, John; Rakinic, Jan; Williams, Michael; Williams, Betsy

    2015-08-01

    Physician burnout is associated with diminished ability to practice with requisite skill and safety. Physicians are often reluctant to seek help for an impaired colleague or for impairment that affects their own ability to practice. To better support surgeons in difficulty, we explored sex differences in assistance-seeking behaviors under stress. Surgeons in 3 national societies completed an IRB-approved anonymous multiple-choice and free-text response survey. Responses were explored with the general linear model using item-specific continuous and categorical methods. Two hundred and twelve surgeons (n = 79 [37.3%] male, n = 133 [63%] female) responded. Although men and women worked similar hours (p > 0.05), women worked more clinical (p work-life balance, as identified by aggregate variables related to emotional/decisional partnership, non-work-related chore support, and personal fulfillment (F = 15.29; df 3/16; p < 0.01), but change jobs less frequently (F = 4.23; df 1/201; p < 0.05). Males are more likely to seek help from colleagues (chi-square 107.5; p < 0.01) or friends (chi-square 123.8; p < 0.01) and women are more likely to seek support from professional counselors (chi-square 146.8; p < 0.01). Almost one-third of surgeons would ignore behaviors that adversely impact well being and could result in potential personal or patient safety. The differences between the assistance-seeking and reporting behaviors of male and female surgeons in distress could have implications for identification and treatment of this population. These findings can be used to develop educational activities to teach surgeons how to effectively handle these challenging situations. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Educating the surgeon-scientist: A qualitative study evaluating challenges and barriers toward becoming an academically successful surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodadek, Lisa M; Kapadia, Muneera R; Changoor, Navin R; Dunn, Kelli Bullard; Are, Chandrakanth; Greenberg, Jacob A; Minter, Rebecca M; Pawlik, Timothy M; Haider, Adil H

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of surgical science relies on educating new generations of surgeon-scientists. Career development awards (K Awards) from the National Institutes of Health, often considered a marker of early academic success, are one way physician-scientists may foster skills through a mentored research experience. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework to understand institutional support and other factors leading to a K Award. A national, qualitative study was conducted with academic surgeons. Participants included 15 K Awardees and 12 surgery department Chairs. Purposive sampling ensured a diverse range of experiences. Semistructured, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and 2 reviewers analyzed the transcripts using Grounded Theory methodology. Participants described individual and institutional factors contributing to success. K Awardees cited personal factors such as perseverance and team leadership skills. Chairs described the K Awardee as an institutional "investment" requiring protected time for research, financial support, and mentorship. Both K Awardees and Chairs identified a number of challenges unique to the surgeon-scientist, including financial strains and competing clinical demands. Institutional support for surgeons pursuing K Awards is a complex investment with significant initial costs to the department. Chairs act as stewards of institutional resources and support those surgeon-scientists most likely to be successful. Although the K Award pathway is one way to develop surgeon-scientists, financial burdens and challenges may limit its usefulness. These findings, however, may better prepare young surgeons to develop career plans and identify new mechanisms for academic productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  20. Speeding by young novice drivers: What can personal characteristics and psychosocial theory add to our understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Young novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in fatalities and injuries arising from crashes even with the introduction of countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL). Enhancing countermeasures requires a better understanding of the variables influencing risky driving. One of the most common risky behaviours performed by drivers of all ages is speeding, which is particularly risky for young novice drivers who, due to their driving inexperience, have difficulty in identifying and responding appropriately to road hazards. Psychosocial theory can improve our understanding of contributors to speeding, thereby informing countermeasure development and evaluation. This paper reports an application of Akers' social learning theory (SLT), augmented by Gerrard and Gibbons' prototype/willingness model (PWM), in addition to personal characteristics of age, gender, car ownership, and psychological traits/states of anxiety, depression, sensation seeking propensity and reward sensitivity, to examine the influences on self-reported speeding of young novice drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence in Queensland, Australia. Young drivers (n=378) recruited in 2010 for longitudinal research completed two surveys containing the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale, and reported their attitudes and behaviours as pre-Licence/Learner (Survey 1) and Provisional (Survey 2) drivers and their sociodemographic characteristics. An Akers' measurement model was created. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that (1) personal characteristics (PC) explained 20.3%; (2) the combination of PC and SLT explained 41.1%; (3) the combination of PC, SLT and PWM explained 53.7% of variance in self-reported speeding. Whilst there appeared to be considerable shared variance, the significant predictors in the final model included gender, car ownership, reward sensitivity, depression, personal attitudes, and Learner speeding. These results highlight the capacity for

  1. The safe use of surgical energy devices by surgeons may be overestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ally; Richards, Carly; Criman, Erik; Piaggione, Jillian; Yheulon, Christopher; Lim, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Surgical energy injuries are an underappreciated phenomenon. Improper use of surgical energy or poor attention to patient safety can result in operating room fires, tissue injuries, and interferences with other electronic devices, while rare complications can be devastatingly severe. Despite this, there is no current standard requirement for educating surgeons on the safe use of energy-based devices or evaluation of electrosurgery (ES) education in residency training, credentialing, or practice. The study aimed to assess the current baseline knowledge of surgeons and surgical trainees with regards to ES across varying experiences at a tertiary level care center. Surgeons and surgical trainees from seven surgical specialties (General Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vascular Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynecology, Orthopedic Surgery, Urology, and Otorhinolaryngology) at a tertiary level care hospital were tested. Testing included an evaluation regarding their background training and experiences with ES-related adverse events and a 15 multiple-choice-question exam testing critical knowledge of ES. A total of 134 surveys were sent out with 72 responses (53.7%). The mean quiz score was 51.5 ± 15.5% (passing score was 80%). Of staff surgeons, 33/65 (50.8%) completed the survey with mean and median scores of 54.9 and 53.3%, respectively (range 33.3-86.7%). Of surgical trainees, 39/69 (56.5%) completed the survey with mean and median scores of 48.6 and 46.7%, respectively (range 13.3-80.0%). There were no statistically significant differences based on training status (p = 0.08), previous training (p = 0.24), number of cases (p = 0.06), or specialty (p = 0.689). Surgeons and surgical trainees both have a significant knowledge gap in the safe and effective use of surgical energy devices, regardless of surgical specialty and despite what they feel was adequate training. The knowledge gap is not improved with experience. A formal surgical energy education program

  2. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary care.

  3. Towards a model of surgeons' leadership in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson Parker, Sarah; Yule, Steven; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen

    2011-07-01

    There is widespread recognition that leadership skills are essential for effective performance in the workplace, but the evidence detailing effective leadership behaviours for surgeons during operations is unclear. Boolean searches of four on-line databases and detailed hand search of relevant references were conducted. A four stage screening process was adopted stipulating that articles presented empirical data on surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviours. Ten relevant articles were identified and organised by method of investigation into (i) observation, (ii) questionnaire and (iii) interview studies. This review summarises the limited literature on surgeons' intraoperative leadership, and proposes a preliminary theoretically based structure for intraoperative leadership behaviours. This structure comprises seven categories with corresponding leadership components and covers two overarching themes related to task- and team-focus. Selected leadership theories which may be applicable to the operating room environment are also discussed. Further research is required to determine effective intraoperative leadership behaviours for safe surgical practice.

  4. [How much business management does a surgeon need?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, U; Koch, M; Büchler, M W; Weitz, J

    2010-08-01

    The present day healthcare system in Germany is rapidly changing, even more so after the introduction of diagnosis-related groups. The basic requirements for every surgeon remain manual skills, a profound clinical knowledge and the ability for clinical decision-making even in difficult situations. However, these key elements of surgical education no longer fulfill the requirements for today's leaders in surgery. New requirements, consisting of administrative duties, strategic decision-making and department management are too complex to be made only intuitively. Nowadays surgeons also need a profound education in management skills and knowledge of economic mechanisms in order to run an efficient, profitable, patient-oriented surgical department. Every surgeon who aims at obtaining a leadership position should acquire the necessary knowledge and skills.

  5. Was the real Sherlock Holmes a pediatric surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the pioneering efforts of Joseph Bell, the model for Sherlock Holmes, in the surgical care of children during the antiseptic era. I reviewed biographies of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; the biography of Joseph Bell; his surgical textbook, Edinburgh Medical Journals; and the history of the Royal Edinburgh Hospital for Sick Children. Dr Bell was a colleague of Joseph Lister and one of the first surgeons to apply antiseptic methods to operations involving children. He was the surgeon appointed to the first surgical ward of the Royal Edinburgh Hospital for Sick Children; in that role, he cared for many children with surgical diseases. Dr Joseph Bell, by his compassion for children and his surgical skill, was indeed a pioneer pediatric surgeon. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost analysis when open surgeons perform minimally invasive hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Kantartzis, Kelly L; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Bonidie, Michael J; Lee, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The costs to perform a hysterectomy are widely variable. Our objective was to determine hysterectomy costs by route and whether traditionally open surgeons lower costs when performing laparoscopy versus robotics. Hysterectomy costs including subcategories were collected from 2011 to 2013. Costs were skewed, so 2 statistical transformations were performed. Costs were compared by surgeon classification (open, laparoscopic, or robotic) and surgery route. A total of 4,871 hysterectomies were performed: 34.2% open, 50.7% laparoscopic, and 15.1% robotic. Laparoscopic hysterectomy had the lowest total costs (P depreciation included (P < .001) but similar costs if these variables were excluded. Although laparoscopic hysterectomy had lowest costs overall, robotics may be no more costly than laparoscopic hysterectomy when performed by surgeons who predominantly perform open hysterectomy.

  7. The Effect of Surgeon Empathy and Emotional Intelligence on Patient Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hui-Ching; Steed, James F.; Yu, Shang-Won; Liu, Yi-Ten; Hsu, Chia-Chang; Yu, Tsan-Jung; Chen, Wency

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations of surgeons' emotional intelligence and surgeons' empathy with patient-surgeon relationships, patient perceptions of their health, and patient satisfaction before and after surgical procedures. We used multi-source approaches to survey 50 surgeons and their 549 outpatients during initial and follow-up visits.…

  8. Non-technical skills of surgical trainees and experienced surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, H; Marlow, N; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P J; Kiermeier, A; Babidge, W; Altree, M; Pena, G; Maddern, G

    2017-05-01

    In addition to technical expertise, surgical competence requires effective non-technical skills to ensure patient safety and maintenance of standards. Recently the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons implemented a new Surgical Education and Training (SET) curriculum that incorporated non-technical skills considered essential for a competent surgeon. This study sought to compare the non-technical skills of experienced surgeons who completed their training before the introduction of SET with the non-technical skills of more recent trainees. Surgical trainees and experienced surgeons undertook a simulated scenario designed to challenge their non-technical skills. Scenarios were video recorded and participants were assessed using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. Participants were divided into subgroups according to years of experience and their NOTSS scores were compared. For most NOTSS elements, mean scores increased initially, peaking around the time of Fellowship, before decreasing roughly linearly over time. There was a significant downward trend in score with increasing years since being awarded Fellowship for six of the 12 NOTSS elements: considering options (score -0·015 units per year), implementing and reviewing decisions (-0·020 per year), establishing a shared understanding (-0·014 per year), setting and maintaining standards (-0·024 per year), supporting others (-0·031 per year) and coping with pressure (-0·015 per year). The drop in NOTSS score was unexpected and highlights that even experienced surgeons are not immune to deficiencies in non-technical skills. Consideration should be given to continuing professional development programmes focusing on non-technical skills, regardless of the level of professional experience. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Surgeon Scientists Are Disproportionately Affected by Declining NIH Funding Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Adishesh K; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Hawkins, Robert B; Charles, Eric J; Baderdinni, Pranav K; Chandrabhatla, Anirudha S; Kocan, Joseph W; Jones, R Scott; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Kron, Irving L; Kern, John A; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding over the last 10 years has become increasingly difficult due to a decrease in the number of research grants funded and an increase in the number of NIH applications. National Institutes of Health funding amounts and success rates were compared for all disciplines using data from NIH, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), and Blue Ridge Medical Institute. Next, all NIH grants (2006 to 2016) with surgeons as principal investigators were identified using the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results (NIH RePORTER), and a grant impact score was calculated for each grant based on the publication's impact factor per funding amount. Linear regression and one-way ANOVA were used for analysis. The number of NIH grant applications has increased by 18.7% (p = 0.0009), while the numbers of funded grants (p rate of funded grants with surgeons as principal investigators (16.4%) has been significantly lower than the mean NIH funding rate (19.2%) (p = 0.011). Despite receiving only 831 R01s during this time period, surgeon scientists were highly productive, with an average grant impact score of 4.9 per $100,000, which increased over the last 10 years (0.15 ± 0.05/year, p = 0.02). Additionally, the rate of conversion of surgeon scientist-mentored K awards to R01s from 2007 to 2012 was 46%. Despite declining funding over the last 10 years, surgeon scientists have demonstrated increasing productivity as measured by impactful publications and higher success rates in converting early investigator awards to R01s. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing industry compensation of cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreco, Joshua; Donath, Elie; Kozol, Robert; Faber, Cristiano

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare payment trends between cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists using the Open Payments website made available for the public by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Data were extracted from the second release of the Open Payments database, which includes payments made between August 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. Total payments to individual physicians were aggregated based on specialty, region of the country, and payment type. The Gini index was calculated for each specialty to measure income disparity. A Gini index of 1 indicates all the payments went to one individual, whereas a Gini index of 0 indicates all individuals received equal payments. During the study period of interest, data were made available for 3587 (80%) cardiothoracic surgeons compared with 2957 (99%) interventional cardiologists. Mean total payments to cardiothoracic surgeons were $7770 (standard deviation, $52,608) compared with a mean of $15,221 (standard deviation, $98,828) for interventional cardiologists. The median total payments to cardiothoracic surgeons was $1050 (interquartile range, $233-$3612) compared with $1851 (interquartile range, $607-$5462) for interventional cardiologists. The overall Gini index was 0.932, whereas the Gini index was 0.862 for interventional cardiologists and 0.860 for cardiothoracic surgeons. The vast majority of interventional cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons received payments from drug and device manufacturers. The mean total payments to interventional cardiologists were higher than any other specialty. However, like cardiothoracic surgery, they were among the most equitably distributed compared with other specialties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  12. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  14. Surgeon and Safari: producing valuable bodies in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaschi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores how concepts of value and cheapness circulate around the bodies of clients of the Johannesburg-based cosmetic surgery tourism company Surgeon and Safari. I show how the production of a luxurious experience and the mitigation of risk take place within a transnational network enabled by the presence of medical tourism in multiple locales. By placing Surgeon and Safari's activities within the context of the neoliberalization of health care in South Africa, I explore how the division between private versus public health spaces functions as both a technique of valuing clients' bodies and as a process of racialization.

  15. Inventing our future: training the next generation of surgeon innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Thomas M; Gertner, Michael; Makower, Josh; Milroy, Craig; Gurtner, Geoff; Woo, Russell; Riskin, Daniel J; Binyamin, Gary; Connor, Jessica Anne; Mery, Carlos M; Shafi, Bilal M; Yock, Paul G

    2006-11-01

    Current surgical care and technology has evolved over the centuries from the interplay between creative surgeons and new technologies. As both fields become more specialized, that interplay is threatened. A 2-year educational fellowship is described which teaches both the process and the discipline of medical/surgical device innovation. Multi-disciplinary teams (surgeons, engineers, business grads) are assembled to educate a generation of translators, who can bridge the gap between scientific and technologic advances and the needs of the physician and the patient.

  16. Patient-specific hip prostheses designed by surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coigny Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient-specific bone and joint replacement implants lead to better functional and aesthetic results than conventional methods [1], [2], [3]. But extracting 3D shape information from CT Data and designing individual implants is demanding and requires multiple surgeon-to-engineer interactions. For manufacturing purposes, Additive Manufacturing offers various advantages, especially for low volume manufacturing parts, such as patient specific implants. To ease these new approaches and to avoid surgeon-to-engineer interactions a new design software approach is needed which offers highly automated and user friendly planning steps.

  17. American College of Surgeons remains committed to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thomas R; Jones, R Scott

    2006-11-01

    Since 1913 the American College of Surgeons has addressed patient safety as a top priority, so they are pleased to contribute this article offering the College's perspective on this critical subject. More specifically, this piece reviews the College's perennial efforts to ensure surgeons and hospitals access to scientifically verifiable standards, availability of effective quality improvement tools, and a better understanding of errors in care. Additionally, they examine the cultural changes required within surgery and provide an overview of the College's recent initiatives in research, accreditation, and education.

  18. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vansteenkiste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5% compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7% and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05. Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions.

  19. Novice supervisee's experiences of what is good and bad psychotherapy supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of novice supervisee’s experiences of good and bad supervisory experiences and on how this change as the supervisees gain more experience. Novice psychotherapists rate supervision as the most important element in their acquisition of professional skills...... was conducted as a series of semi structured qualitative research interviews with 7 student therapist 2 month after their first clinical experience in a university clinic setting. The subjects were re-interviewed when they had almost a year of clinical experience and supervision. The interviews were...... thematically focusing on the experience of specific good and bad supervisory experiences. Also included were the importance of peers in the supervision group and the organisational setting of the supervision. After analysing each individuals experience all individual experiences were examined until patterns...

  20. The Different Inhibition of Return (IOR Effects of Emergency Managerial Experts and Novices: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of return (IOR is an important effect of attention. However, the IOR of emergency managerial experts is unknown. By employing emergency and natural scene pictures in expert-novice paradigm, the present study explored the neural activity underlying the IOR effects for emergency managerial experts and novices. In behavioral results, there were no differences of IOR effects between novices and emergency managerial experts, while the event-related potentials (ERPs results were different between novices and experts. In Experiment 1 (novice group, ERPs results showed no any IOR was robust at both stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA of 200 ms and 400 ms. In Experiment 2 (expert group, ERPs results showed an enhanced N2 at SOA of 200 ms and attenuated P3 at cued location in the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions than uncued location at SOA of 200 ms. The findings of the two experiments showed that, relative to the novices, IOR for the emergency managerial experts was robust, and dominated in the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions, suggesting more flexible attentional processing and higher visual search efficiency of the emergency managerial experts. The findings indicate that the P3, possible N2, over the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions are the biological indicators for IOR elicited by post-cued emergency pictures for emergency managerial experts.

  1. South African novice driver behaviour: findings from a naturalistic driving study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available experienced drivers in similar circumstances;  Informing the development of approaches that could improve driver training methods and systems in South Africa. 4. METHODOLOGY 4.1. Naturalistic Driving Studies NDS is a fairly new methodology... important that novice drivers should be able to not only obey the law, but should be able to recognise hazards associated with stop streets. Scan behaviour especially to the left and the right is considered important to cross and clear the intersection...

  2. Parent involvement in novice teen driving: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Simons‐Morton, B; Ouimet, M C

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain elevated among novice teen drivers for at least several years after licensure. Licensing policies and driver education are the two primary countermeasures employed to decrease young driver crash risks. Graduated driver licensing policies have proved to be effective in reducing crash rates where evaluated. Driver education is an essential part of teaching teens the rules of the road and operating a vehicle, but requires few hours of professional driver training, re...

  3. Expert and Novice Approaches to Using Graphs: Evidence from Eye-Track Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K. R.; Lindgren, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Professionals and students in geology use an array of graphs to study the earth, but relatively little detail is known about how users interact with these graphs. Comprehension of graphical information in the earth sciences is further complicated by the common use of non-traditional formats (e.g., inverted axes, logarithmic scales, normalized plots, ternary diagrams). Many educators consider graph-reading skills an important outcome of general education science curricula, so it is critical that we understand both the development of graph-reading skills and the instructional practices that are most efficacious. Eye-tracking instruments provide quantitative information about eye movements and offer important insights into the development of expertise in graph use. We measured the graph reading skills and eye movements of novices (students with a variety of majors and educational attainment) and experts (faculty and staff from a variety of disciplines) while observing traditional and non-traditional graph formats. Individuals in the expert group consistently demonstrated significantly greater accuracy in responding to questions (e.g., retrieval, interpretation, prediction) about graphs. Among novices, only the number of college math and science courses correlated with response accuracy. Interestingly, novices and experts exhibited similar eye-tracks when they first encountered a new graph; they typically scanned through the title, x and y-axes, and data regions in the first 5-15 seconds. However, experts are readily distinguished from novices by a greater number of eye movements (20-35%) between the data and other graph elements (e.g., title, x-axis, y-axis) both during and after the initial orientation phase. We attribute the greater eye movements between the different graph elements an outcome of the generally better-developed self-regulation skills (goal-setting, monitoring, self-evaluation) that likely characterize individuals in our expert group.

  4. Psychomotor skills acquisition of novice learners: a case for contextual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.

  5. Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, J; Emery, C A; Whittaker, J L; Nigg, B M

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate injury risk in novice runners participating in different strength training interventions. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Novice runners (n = 129, 18-60 years old, running experience) were block randomized to one of three groups: a "resistance" strength training group, a "functional" strength training group, or a stretching "control" group. The primary outcome was running related injury. The number of participants with complaints and the injury rate (IR = no. injuries/1000 running hours) were quantified for each intervention group. For the first 8 weeks, participants were instructed to complete their training intervention three to five times a week. The remaining 4 months was a maintenance period. NCT01900262. A total of 52 of the 129 (40%) novice runners experienced at least one running related injury: 21 in the functional strength training program, 16 in the resistance strength training program and 15 in the control stretching program. Injury rates did not differ between study groups [IR = 32.9 (95% CI 20.8, 49.3) in the functional group, IR = 31.6 (95% CI 18.4, 50.5) in the resistance group, and IR = 26.7 (95% CI 15.2, 43.2)] in the control group. Although this was a pilot assessment, home-based strength training did not appear to alter injury rates compared to stretching. Future studies should consider methods to minimize participant drop out to allow for the assessment of injury risk. Injury risk in novice runners based on this pilot study will inform the development of future larger studies investigating the impact of injury prevention interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Novice User and CD-ROM Database Services. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Linda

    This digest answers the following questions that beginning or novice users may have about CD-ROM (a compact disk with read-only memory) database services: (1) What is CD-ROM? (2) What databases are available? (3) Is CD-ROM difficult to use? (4) How much does CD-ROM cost? and (5) What is the future of CD-ROM? (15 references) (MES)

  7. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  8. Evaluating The Impact Of Novice Students Sketches On Their Mental Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Helmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reinterpretation is one of the activities that occur in visualization the role of reinterpretation is restructuring half form idea and it can be performed with applying sketch as a useful tool and creation development evaluation communication and sharing of ideas can be facilitated by sketching. Reinterpretation basically is the outcome of the lateral thinking process. Investigating of the reinterpretation of some designers indicate that externalizing a design may not be the solitary approach of designing visually and for expert architects sketching is not a crucial action in the early stages of conceptual designing. Moreover experts could progress in design by thinking only. However novice students have problem in reinterpreting patterns in their mental image whether tools such as sketch could help in the better performance of the reinterpretation process. This paper raises a fundamental question that if the sketch of novice students can support their mental imagery in order to answer this question this paper uses documentary method to investigate the previous studies in this field. Finally in accordance to the weakness of novices sketches this study concluded that their sketches could not support their mental imagery.

  9. Expert-novice differences in cognitive and execution skills during tennis competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Villar, Fernando; García González, Luis; Iglesias, Damián; Perla Moreno, M; Cervelló, Eduardo M

    2007-04-01

    This study deals with decision and execution behavior of tennis players during competition. The study is based on the expert-novice paradigm and aims to identify differences between both groups in the decision-making and execution variables in serve and shot actions in tennis. Six expert players (elite Spanish tennis players) and six novice players (grade school tennis players) took part in this study. To carry out this study, the observation protocol defined by McPherson and Thomas in 1989, in which control, decision-making and execution variables were included, was used, where it was applied to the performance of the tennis player in a real match situation. In the analysis, significant differences between experts and novices in decision-making and execution variables are found wherein it can be observed that experts display a greater ability to make the appropriate decisions, selecting the most tactical responses to put pressure on the opponent. Expert tennis players were also able to carry out forceful executions to their opponent with greater efficiency, making the opponent's response to a large extent more difficult. These findings are in accordance with those of McPherson and colleagues.

  10. Preparedness for physiotherapy in private practice: Novices identify key factors in an interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robyn; McElroy, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Physiotherapists in Australia deliver services to a diverse range of clients, across many settings, however little research exists examining graduate preparedness for practice, even in the populous field of private practice. To explore novice physiotherapist perspectives on preparedness for work in private practice. The qualitative approach of interpretive description was used to guide in-depth interviews with 8 novice physiotherapists from 3 universities working in 5 private practices in Melbourne. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Four main themes influencing graduate preparedness for work in private practice were identified: 1) non-curricular experiences (e.g. sports training) 2) elective curricular: practicum experiences; 3) curricular: attainment of skills specific to private practice; and 4) the private practice setting: supportive colleagues. This combination of non-curricular, curricular, and practice setting factors offered the necessary scaffolding for the graduates to report feeling prepared for work in private practice. Non-curricular activities, radiological instruction, clinical placements, building supportive colleague relations and professional development in private practice are recommended as potential means of building preparedness in novice therapists. Findings have implications for physiotherapy students, educators and private practice clinics looking to recruit new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novice to expert practice via postprofessional athletic training education: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibert, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To discover the theoretic constructs that confirm, disconfirm, or extend the principles and their applications appropriate for National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA)-accredited postprofessional athletic training education programs. Interviews at the 2003 NATA Annual Meeting & Clinical Symposia. Qualitative study using grounded theory procedures. Thirteen interviews were conducted with postprofessional graduates. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding procedures. Member checks, reflective journaling, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. The participants' comments confirmed and extended the current principles of postprofessional athletic training education programs and offered additional suggestions for more effective practical applications. The emergence of this central category of novice to expert practice is a paramount finding. The tightly woven fabric of the 10 processes, when interlaced with one another, provides a strong tapestry supporting novice to expert practice via postprofessional athletic training education. The emergence of this theoretic position pushes postprofessional graduate athletic training education forward to the future for further investigation into the theoretic constructs of novice to expert practice.

  12. Does early training improve driving skills of young novice French drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Chloé; Berthelon, Catherine; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study drivers' performances and divided attention depending on their initial training. The performances of young novice drivers who received early training, traditionally trained drivers and more experienced drivers were compared during a dual task consisting of a simulated car-following task and a number' parity judgment task. It was expected that, due to their limited driving experience, the young novice drivers would have more difficulty in adequately distributing their attention between the two tasks. Poorer performances by novice drivers than experienced drivers were therefore expected. The results indicate that traditionally trained drivers had more difficulties in speed regulation and maintaining their position in the lane than drivers with early training and experienced drivers. Performance impairment linked to driving inexperience was also found in the secondary task. The results were interpreted regarding the attentional resources involved in driving with a secondary task and supported the positive effects of French early training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques. Expert/novice paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Unnithan, V B

    1998-12-01

    The primary aim was to assess cardiovascular responses of expert and novice subjects to kung fu techniques. It was hypothesised that experienced subjects would demonstrate improved economy of movement during the techniques, evidenced by reduced exercise intensity. a comparative design was established utilising two groups; experienced (group E), and novice (group N). the experimentation took place under laboratory conditions, but was designed to maximise external validity. the only preselection variables were regular attendance at training and experience. Nine experienced males (group E, exp 9.5 +/- 5.2 yrs) and nine novice males (group N, exp 1.2 +/- 0.1 yrs) participated. The only exclusion guidelines were contraindications to participate within a maximal test, no subjects were excluded upon this basis. N/A. each subject participated in three kung fu protocols (forms, kicking and punching). Each protocol, randomly allocated, consisted of ten work (30 sec) and ten rest periods (30 sec). MEASURES taken during the protocols were heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). These were expressed as a percentage of maximal values to reflect exercise intensity. During both the form protocol and punching protocol group E were found to be working at a significantly (p kung fu techniques differ depending upon experience level. It is difficult to directly relate this to improved economy since work output could not be accurately quantified. It was also found that kung fu protocols elicited exercise intensity into the cardiovascular training zone.

  14. Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Adel; Violato, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare diagnostic success and its relationship with the diagnostic reasoning process between novices and experts in psychiatry. Nine volunteers, comprising five expert psychiatrists and four clinical clerks, completed a think-aloud protocol while attempting to make a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of a selected case with both Axis I and Axis III diagnoses. Expert psychiatrists made significantly more successful diagnoses for both the primary psychiatric and medical diagnoses than clinical clerks. Expert psychiatrists also gave fewer differential options. Analyzing the think-aloud protocols, expert psychiatrists were much more organized, made fewer mistakes, and utilized significantly less time to access their knowledge than clinical clerks. Both novices and experts seemed to use the hypothetic-deductive and scheme-inductive approaches to diagnosis. However, experts utilized hypothetic-deductive approaches significantly more often than novices. The hypothetic-deductive diagnostic strategy was utilized more than the scheme-inductive approach by both expert psychiatrists and clinical clerks. However, a specific relationship between diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic success could not be identified in this small pilot study. The author recommends a larger study that would include a detailed analysis of the think-aloud protocols.

  15. Body dysmorphia, self-mutilation and the reconstructive surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James Kwok-Kwan; Jones, Sophie M; Heywood, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a disabling preoccupation with a slight or an imagined defect in appearance. It is recognised in some patients who present to the plastic surgeon requesting multiple cosmetic procedures. Very rarely, BDD patients may wish for amputation of a healthy limb and may even mutilate themselves deliberately in order to necessitate amputation. These patients pose a diagnostic challenge as BDD is uncommon and they are often uncooperative whilst appearing mentally sound. Furthermore, they raise difficult ethical and legal issues for the surgeon. Although there is some guidance for the management of BDD patients seeking elective amputation, there is currently none for the management of those who present in the emergency setting. Illustrated by the case of a man who, having failed to find a complicit surgeon, attempted self-amputation of the hand, we review the relevant ethical, legal and management issues with advice by the British Medical Association and General Medical Council. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Dysmorphia, the Plastic Surgeon, and the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2003-01-01

    Misperceived ugliness is called body dysmorphia or dysmorphophobia, often only diagnosed after several discontented return visits to a plastic surgeon who refers the patient for counseling--rarely welcome referrals by the patient when they are convinced the problem is physical and not psychological. Careful listening and patient acceptance are…

  17. Where are general surgeons located in South Africa? | Dell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery ... Methods: A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the 1 October 2014 until 31 ...

  18. An audit of nephrectomy by general surgeons | Mungadi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... nephrectomy for non functioning hydronephrotic kidneys. The outcome in the treatment of the congenital renal anomalies, malignant and trauma to the kidney was not satisfactory suggesting the trained urologist will be better equipped to sort things out. Keywords: audit, nephrectomy, general surgeons. Nigerian Journal of ...

  19. Job Hazards Analysis Among A Group Of Surgeons At Zagazig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 75% respectively. Conclusion: Job hazards analysis model was effective in assessment, evaluation and management of occupational hazards concerning surgeons and should considered as part of hospital wide quality and safety program. Key Words: Job Hazard Analysis, Risk Management, occupational Health Safety.

  20. National survey of surgeons\\' attitudes to laparoscopic surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. Laparoscopic surgery forms an integral component of modern surgical practice. The perception exists that laparoscopic training in South Africa has been unplanned and under-resourced. This study set out to assess the opinions of surgeons and surgical trainees with regard to the various facets of laparoscopic surgical ...

  1. Practice patterns and career satisfaction of Canadian female general surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbard, Pamela C; Wirtzfeld, Debrah A

    2009-06-01

    We wanted to study how female general surgeons in Canada manage lifestyle and career demands. All female Canadian general surgeons registered with the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada were asked to complete a survey evaluating their practice patterns, personal lives, and levels of satisfaction related to these factors. Eighty-five surveys (66%) were returned. Most respondents work in full-time clinical practices. While it was rare to find women in part-time or shared practices, 35% of women reported interest in these alternative models. Respondents described the necessary factors for a transition into alternative models. Job satisfaction was high (3.8 out of 5), with personal and parenting satisfaction being less highly rated (3.3 and 3.2, respectively). Canadian female general surgeons have active and satisfying careers, although many would like to work in alternative practice models that better conform to their lifestyle demands. This pressure will have a significant impact on the future surgical workforce.

  2. Coaching Surgeons: Is Culture Limiting Our Ability to Improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabdzic, Dorotea; Mylopoulos, Maria; Murnaghan, Michael Lucas; Patel, Priyanka; Zilbert, Nathan; Seemann, Natashia; Regehr, Glenn; Moulton, Carol-Anne

    2015-08-01

    To explore surgeons' perceptions of and potential concerns about coaching. There is growing recognition that the traditional model of continuing professional development is suboptimal. This has led to increasing interest in alternative strategies that take place within the actual practice environment such as coaching. However, if coaching is to be a successful strategy for continuing professional development, it will need to be accepted by surgeons. This was a qualitative interview-based study using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Participants included 14 surgeons from University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. Participants expressed 3 main concerns about coaching: questioning the value of technical improvement ("As you get older if you don't have the stimulation from surgery to get better or to do things that are different and you are so good at so much, why bother [with coaching]?" P009), worry about appearing incompetent ("I think it would be perceived as either a sign of weakness or a sign of inability" P532), and concern about losing autonomy ("To me that would be real coaching where it's self-identified, I'm motivated, I find the person and then they coach me" P086). Coaching faces unique challenges in the context of a powerful surgical culture that values the portrayal of competency and instills the value of surgical autonomy. This study suggests that hanging on to these tightly held values of competency and autonomy is actually limiting the ways, and extent to which, surgeons can improve their practice.

  3. Leadership theory: implications for developing dental surgeons in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2011-02-12

    The development of leadership in healthcare has been seen as important in recent years, particularly at the clinical level. There have been various specific initiatives focusing on the development of leadership for doctors, nurses and other health care professions: for example, a leadership competency framework for doctors, the LEO programme and the RCN clinical leadership programme for nurses. The NHS has set up a Leadership Council to coordinate further developments. However, there has not been the same focus in dentistry, although the recent review of NHS dental services (Steele review) has proposed a need for leadership initiatives in NHS dentistry as a medium-term action. Central to this will be a need to focus on the leadership role for dental surgeons. Leadership is all the more important in dentistry, given the change of government and the policy of retrenchment, major public sector reform, the emergence of new organisations such as new commissioning consortia, possible changes to the dental contract, new ways of working, and changes to the profession such as the requirements for the revalidation of dental surgeons. The question is: which leadership theory or approach is best for dental surgeons working in primary care? This paper builds on earlier work exploring this question in relation to doctors generally, and GPs, in particular, and planned work on nurses. It will seek to address this question in relation to dental surgeons working in primary care.

  4. Factors Influencing Patient Selection of a Foot and Ankle Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Wang, Kevin C; Hamid, Kamran S; Holmes, George B; Lee, Simon

    2017-09-01

    An increasingly consumer-centric health insurance market has empowered patients to select the providers of their choice. There is a lack of studies investigating the rationale by which patients select a foot and ankle surgeon. In the present study, 824 consecutive new patients seeking treatment from 3 foot-ankle surgeons were consecutively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first appointment. It included rating the importance of 15 factors regarding specialist selection on a 1 to 10 scale, with 10 designated " Very important" and 1 designated " Not important at all." The remaining questions were multiple choice regarding patient perspectives on other surgeon aspects (appointment availability, waiting room times, clinic proximity, etc). Of 824 consecutive patients administered the survey, 305 (37%) responded. Patients rated board certification (9.24 ± 1.87) and on-site imaging availability (8.48 ± 2.37)-on a 1 to 10 scale, with 10 designated "Very important- as the 2 most important criteria in choosing a foot and ankle surgeon. Patients rated advertisements as least important. Among the patients, 91% responded that a maximum of 30 minutes should elapse between clinic check-in and seeing their physician; 61% responded that a maximum of 20 minutes should elapse between clinic check-in and seeing their physician. In the context of an increasingly consumer-driven paradigm of health care delivery and reimbursement, it is important to understand patients' preferences in specialist selection. Level III: Prospective questionnaire.

  5. Hypertensive Patient in the Surgical Ward – What the Surgeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of hypertension are presented to emphasize the need for the surgeons to pay adequate attention to these purely medical conditions that may have a devastating adverse effect on the outcome of surgery. The article also highlights the serious constraints that still characterize the management of these patients in ...

  6. Perspectives of the surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative pain is best managed by a multi-disciplinary team approach. An extensive review of the literature indicated that little is known about the roles of surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists regarding post-operative pain management in Ghana. Therefore, this study was undertaken in order to fully understand ...

  7. Optimal Brain Surgeon on Artificial Neural Networks in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Job, Jonas Hultmann; Klyver, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    It is shown how the procedure know as optimal brain surgeon can be used to trim and optimize artificial neural networks in nonlinear structural dynamics. Beside optimizing the neural network, and thereby minimizing computational cost in simulation, the surgery procedure can also serve as a quick...

  8. Safety of the surgeon: 'Double-gloving' during surgical procedures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during exposure to blood and body fluids are now mandatory. Intact surgical gloves can ... HIV/AIDS infection is for the surgeon to 'double-glove' – wear two standard gloves on .... sharp fractured bones or bony structures.[12,16,17] The rate of ...

  9. Perspectives of South African general surgeons regarding their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perspectives of South African general surgeons regarding their postgraduate training. MD Smith. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  10. Professional interpersonal dynamics and burnout in European transplant surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Michelle T; Abouljoud, Marwan; Eshelman, Anne; De Reyck, Chantal; Lerut, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Burnout within the health professions has become an increasingly important topic. Evidence suggests there are differences in burnout across different countries. Research has yet to examine burnout in transplant surgeons throughout Europe. A cross-sectional survey of transplant surgeons across Europe. Survey included sociodemographics, professional characteristics, frequency and discomfort with difficult patient interactions (PI), decisional autonomy, psychological job demands (PJD), support (coworker, supervisor, and hospital administration), and burnout including emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). One hundred and eight transplant surgeons provided data; 33 (30.6%) reported high EE, 19 (17.6%) reported high DP, and 29 (26.9%) reported low PA. Three hierarchical multiple linear regressions examined the burnout subscales as outcomes (EE, DP, and PA), and predictors selected based upon theoretical relationships with the outcomes. Greater PJD, greater discomfort in managing difficult PI, and lower levels of perceived supervisor support (SS) predicted greater EE. Only decisional autonomy significantly predicted DP, accounting for a small proportion of the variance. None of the steps for PA were significant. Given prior research on burnout, there were several surprising findings from this study. For example, the relatively low levels of EE compared to U.S. physicians and surgeons. At this time, we can only hypothesize why this finding occurred but there are multiple possible explanations including cultural effects, response bias, or other factors unknown at this time. Research is needed to attempt to clarify these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Surgeon and nonsurgeon personalities at different career points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdeck, Joseph M; Osayi, Sylvester N; Peterson, Laura A; Yu, Lianbo; Ellison, Edwin Christopher; Muscarella, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between personality traits and job performance and satisfaction. Evidence suggests that personality differences exist between surgeons and nonsurgeons, some of which may develop during medical training. Understanding these personality differences may help optimize job performance and satisfaction among surgical trainees and be used to identify individuals at risk of burnout. This study aims to identify personality traits of surgeons and nonsurgeons at different career points. We used The Big Five Inventory, a 44-item measure of the five factor model. Personality data and demographics were collected from responses to an electronic survey sent to all faculty and house staff in the Departments of Surgery, Medicine, and Family Medicine at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Data were analyzed to identify differences in personality traits between surgical and nonsurgical specialties according to level of training and to compare surgeons to the general population. One hundred ninety-two house staff and faculty in surgery and medicine completed the survey. Surgeons scored significantly higher on conscientiousness and extraversion but lower on agreeableness compared to nonsurgeons (all P personality differences between surgical and nonsurgical specialties. The use of personality testing may be a useful adjunct in the residency selection process for applicants deciding between surgical and nonsurgical specialties. It may also facilitate early intervention for individuals at high risk for burnout and job dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can statisticians beat surgeons at the planning of operations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, Paul; Meester, Reinier; van Ophem, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The planning of operations in the Academic Medical Center is primarily based on the assessments of the length of the operation by the surgeons. We investigate whether duration models employing the information available at the moment the planning is made, offer a better alternative. Our empirical

  13. Can statisticians beat surgeons at the planning of operations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, P.; Meester, R.; van Ophem, H.

    2011-01-01

    The planning of operations in the Academic Medical Center is primarily based on the assessments of the length of the operation by the surgeons. We investigate whether duration models employing the information available at the moment the planning is made, offer a better alternative. Our empirical

  14. Practice activity trends among oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teusner Dana N

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe practice activity trends among oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia over time. Methods All registered oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Australia were surveyed in 1990 and 2000 using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Results Data were available from 79 surgeons from 1990 (response rate = 73.8% and 116 surgeons from 2000 (response rate = 65.1%. The rate of provision of services per visit changed over time with increased rates observed overall (from 1.43 ± 0.05 services per visit in 1990 to 1.66 ± 0.06 services per visit in 2000, reflecting increases in pathology and reconstructive surgery. No change over time was observed in the provision of services per year (4,521 ± 286 services per year in 1990 and 4,503 ± 367 services per year in 2000. Time devoted to work showed no significant change over time (1,682 ± 75 hours per year in 1990 and 1,681 ± 94 hours per year in 2000, while the number of visits per week declined (70 ± 4 visits per week in 1990 to 58 ± 4 visits per week in 2000. Conclusions The apparent stability in the volume of services provided per year reflected a counterbalancing of increased services provided per visit and a decrease in the number of visits supplied.

  15. The paediatric surgeon and his working conditions in Francophone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study described the current conditions of work of paediatric surgeons in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSSA) and set the debate at the level of the humanist thinking in medicine. Patients and Methods: This was a multicentre study from 1st May to 30th October 2008. The African Society of paediatric ...

  16. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Call to Action for Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therese M.; Catena, Fausto; Tessier, Jeffrey M.; Coccolini, Federico; Kao, Lillian S.; De Simone, Belinda; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; May, Addison K.; Ansaloni, Luca; Mazuski, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution. To effectively accomplish this standardization, providers who actively engage in antimicrobial agent prescribing should participate in the establishment and support of these programs. Hence, surgeons need to play a major role in these collaborations. Surgeons must be aware that judicious antibiotic utilization is an integral part of any stewardship program and necessary to maximize clinical cure and minimize emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The battle against antibiotic resistance should be fought by all healthcare professionals. If surgeons around the world participate in this global fight and demonstrate awareness of the major problem of antimicrobial resistance, they will be pivotal leaders. If surgeons fail to actively engage and use antibiotics judiciously, they will find themselves deprived of the autonomy to treat their patients. PMID:27828764

  17. Occupational Exposure to the Risk of HIV Infection Among Surgeons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority (97%) incorrectly estimated the sero-conversion rate with exposure to a patient with HIV. The most popular recommendation was availability of surgical gloves followed by health education to raise the level of awareness of medical personnel. Conclusion: The high rate of needlestick injuries among surgeons in ...

  18. Role of the plastic surgeon in a cancer hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses and illustrates the complicated problems faced by the plastic surgeon in a cancer hospital. His patients are often weakened, both physically and psychologically, not only by the cancer itself, but also by extensive ablative surgery. The goal of the plastic surgeon is rehabilitation of the patient after he is cured of cancer. Good planning with the cancer surgeon before the ablative operation is very important, as is immediate repair, whenever possible. The simplest procedure with the fewest stages that can accomplish satisfactory repair in the shortest time should be chosen, as we can never, even after the most extensive cancer operation, be sure that no recurrence will appear. Partial surgical repair and the use of a prosthesis should be considered for complicated defects in old and weak patients. Postoperative radiation therapy, if indicated, can be given after the flap has healed into the defect but before the pedicle is separated. The plastic surgeon should always be aware that his most important goal is speedy and satisfactory rehabilitation of the patient

  19. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MARKERS IN SURGEONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers in surgeons in a major city in Nigeria. ... Interventions: Blood samples were taken from subjects and analysed for hepatitis B virus markers ( HBsAg, antiHBs and .... Lagos was comparable to those of Romieu et al (10) who found HBsAg seropositivity ...

  20. Computer technology and the surgeon: what the resident needs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though a compliment to the surgeon, it has its problems including overwhelming information requiring careful scrutiny; computer fraud, hacking and viruses; copyright laws; the 'threat' of a well-informed patient population; and the risk of over dependence. Surgery in Nigeria and most of African is yet to maximize its benefits.

  1. Mentoring the modern African surgeon: A call to arms!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-16

    Jan 16, 2011 ... Hospital, Nairobi, 2-University of Nairobi, Kenya, 3-King Khalid University, UAE. Correspondence: Dr. Miriam Mutebi, Aga Khan. University Hospital. P.O. Bx 30270 .... Galukande M, Kijjambu S, Luboga S Improving recruitment of surgical trainees and training of surgeons in Uganda. East. Cent Afr J Surg.

  2. Techniques used by United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W J M; Timmons, M J; Kauser, S

    2015-10-01

    Techniques used to estimate implant size for primary breast augmentation have evolved since the 1970s. Currently no consensus exists on the optimal method to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. In 2013 we asked United Kingdom consultant plastic surgeons who were full members of BAPRAS or BAAPS what was their technique for implant size selection for primary aesthetic breast augmentation. We also asked what was the range of implant sizes they commonly used. The answers to question one were grouped into four categories: experience, measurements, pre-operative external sizers and intra-operative sizers. The response rate was 46% (164/358). Overall, 95% (153/159) of all respondents performed some form of pre-operative assessment, the others relied on "experience" only. The most common technique for pre-operative assessment was by external sizers (74%). Measurements were used by 57% of respondents and 3% used intra-operative sizers only. A combination of measurements and sizers was used by 34% of respondents. The most common measurements were breast base (68%), breast tissue compliance (19%), breast height (15%), and chest diameter (9%). The median implant size commonly used in primary breast augmentation was 300cc. Pre-operative external sizers are the most common technique used by UK consultant plastic surgeons to select implant size for primary breast augmentation. We discuss the above findings in relation to the evolution of pre-operative planning techniques for breast augmentation. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shark attack-related injuries: Epidemiology and implications for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-01-01

    The increased media attention to shark attacks has led to a heightened fear and public awareness. Although few sharks are considered dangerous, attacks on humans can result in large soft tissue defects necessitating the intervention of reconstructive surgeons. This study aims to evaluate and describe the characteristics of shark-related injuries in order to improve treatment. The Global Shark Accident File, maintained by the Shark Research Institute (Princeton, NJ, USA), is a compilation of all known worldwide shark attacks. Database records since the 1900s were reviewed to identify differences between fatal and nonfatal attacks, including: geography, injury pattern, shark species, and victim activity. Since the 1900s, there have been 5034 reported shark attacks, of which 1205 (22.7%) were fatal. Although the incidence of attacks per decade has increased, the percentage of fatalities has decreased. Characteristics of fatal attacks included swimming (p = 0.001), boating (p = 0.001), three or more bite sites (p = 0.03), limb loss (p = 0.001), or tiger shark attack (p = 0.002). The most common attacks were bites to the legs (41.8%) or arms (18.4%), with limb loss occurring in 7% of attacks. Geographically, the majority of attacks occurred in North America (36.7%) and Australia (26.5%). Most attacks in the USA occurred in Florida (49.1%) and California (13.6%). Although rare, shark attacks result in devastating injuries to patients. As these injuries often involve multiple sites and limb loss, this creates a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Proper identification of the characteristics of the attack can aid in providing optimal care for those affected. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of feedback on attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving: a comparison between novice and experienced drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Reimer, Bryan; Lavallière, Martin; Lesch, Mary F; Horrey, William J; Wu, Su

    2010-10-01

    To assess and compare the effectiveness of a simulation-based approach to change drivers' attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving for younger novice and older experienced drivers. Thirty young novice drivers were tested on a driving simulator in this study. Their performance in dealing with driving tasks was measured for a single task and dual tasks (driving while using a cellular phone) and compared to 30 older experienced drivers tested previously in another study. Half of the younger drivers received video-based feedback regarding their performance in the two conditions, with an emphasis on the contribution of dual-tasking to degraded performance. The other half did not receive any performance feedback. Drivers' perceptions and attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving were investigated by a questionnaire before, immediately after, and again one month following the simulation-based testing for both groups of drivers (feedback; no feedback). All drivers (including the novice and experienced) reported willingness to engage in driving and talking on a cellular phone in some situations. The simulated driving test showed that a secondary cellular phone task significantly degraded driving performance for both the novice and the experienced drivers. The feedback treatment group (both the novice and the experienced) showed significant attitude change toward cellular phone use while driving (toward being less favorable), whereas the control group had no attitude change. At the one-month follow-up, the benefit of feedback was sustained more so in the experienced driver group than the novice driver group, although both groups still benefited relative to the control conditions. Simulation-based feedback training is promising for short-term education in novice drivers but may be more effective in the long-term for drivers with higher levels of experience. Drivers with more experience appear to have a greater, more sustained benefit from the training than

  5. Characterizing novice-expert differences in macrocognition: an exploratory study of cognitive work in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christiane C; Denmark, T Kent; Crandall, Beth; Grome, Anna; Pappas, James

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to elicit and document descriptions of emergency physician expertise, to characterize cognitive differences between novice and expert physicians, and to identify areas in which novices' skill and knowledge gaps are most pronounced. The nature of the differences between novices and experts needs to be explored to develop effective instructional modalities that accelerate the learning curve of inexperienced physicians who work in high-complexity environments. We interviewed novice emergency physicians (first-year residents) and attending physicians with significant expertise, working in an academic Level I trauma center in Southern California. With cognitive task analysis, we used task diagrams to capture nonroutine critical incidents that required the use of complex cognitive skills. Timelines were constructed to develop a detailed understanding of challenging incidents and the decisions involved as the incident unfolded, followed by progressive deepening to tease out situation-specific cues, knowledge, and information that experts and novices used. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted to identify key categories. Using classification techniques for data reduction, we identified a smaller set of key themes, which composed the core findings of the study. Five interns and 6 attending physicians participated in the interviews. Novice physicians reported having difficulties representing the patient's story to attending physicians and other health care providers. Overrelying on objective data, novice physicians use linear thinking to move to diagnosis quickly and are likely to discount and explain away data that do not "fit" the frame. Experienced physicians draw on expertise to recognize cues and patterns while leaving room for altering or even changing their initial diagnosis. Whereas experts maintain high levels of spatial, temporal, and organizational systems awareness when overseeing treatment modalities of

  6. Improving surgeon utilization in an orthopedic department using simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simwita YW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yusta W Simwita, Berit I Helgheim Department of Logistics, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Purpose: Worldwide more than two billion people lack appropriate access to surgical services due to mismatch between existing human resource and patient demands. Improving utilization of existing workforce capacity can reduce the existing gap between surgical demand and available workforce capacity. In this paper, the authors use discrete event simulation to explore the care process at an orthopedic department. Our main focus is improving utilization of surgeons while minimizing patient wait time.Methods: The authors collaborated with orthopedic department personnel to map the current operations of orthopedic care process in order to identify factors that influence poor surgeons utilization and high patient waiting time. The authors used an observational approach to collect data. The developed model was validated by comparing the simulation output with the actual patient data that were collected from the studied orthopedic care process. The authors developed a proposal scenario to show how to improve surgeon utilization.Results: The simulation results showed that if ancillary services could be performed before the start of clinic examination services, the orthopedic care process could be highly improved. That is, improved surgeon utilization and reduced patient waiting time. Simulation results demonstrate that with improved surgeon utilizations, up to 55% increase of future demand can be accommodated without patients reaching current waiting time at this clinic, thus, improving patient access to health care services.Conclusion: This study shows how simulation modeling can be used to improve health care processes. This study was limited to a single care process; however the findings can be applied to improve other orthopedic care process with similar operational characteristics. Keywords: waiting time, patient, health care process

  7. Surgeon Experience and Complications of Transvaginal Prolapse Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin C; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne

    2016-07-01

    To measure the proportion of women with transvaginal prolapse mesh complications and their association with surgeon volume. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all women who underwent a mesh-based prolapse procedure using administrative data (hospital procedure and physician billing records) between 2002 and 2013 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was surgical revision of the mesh. Primary exposure was surgeon volume: high (greater than the 75th percentile, requiring a median of five [interquartile range 5-6] procedures per year) and very high (greater than the 90th percentile, requiring a median of 13 [interquartile range 11-14] procedures per year) volume mesh implanters were identified each year. Primary analysis was an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 5,488 women underwent mesh implantation by 1 of 368 unique surgeons. Median follow-up time was 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0-8.0) years. We found that 218 women (4.0%) underwent mesh reoperation a median of 1.17 (interquartile range 0.58-2.90) years after implantation. The hazard of reoperation for complications was only lower for patients of very high-volume surgeons (3.0% [145/3,001] compared with 4.8% [73/2,447], adjusted hazards ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.40-0.86). In multivariable modeling, younger age, concomitant hysterectomy, blood transfusion, and increased medical comorbidity were all associated with vaginal mesh reoperation. Approximately 5% of women who underwent mesh-based prolapse surgery required reoperation for a mesh complication within 10 years. The risk of reoperation was lowest for surgeons performing 14 or more procedures per year.

  8. Do Surgeons React?: A Retrospective Analysis of Surgeons' Response to Harassment of a Colleague During Simulated Operating Theatre Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, Hannah; Vega, Camila Vega; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy

    2017-07-24

    To assess and report on surgeons' ability to identify and manage incidences of harassment. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is committed to driving out discrimination, bullying, harassment, and sexual harassment from surgical training and practice, through changing the culture of the workplace. To eradicate these behaviors, it is first critical to understand how the current workforce responds to these actions. A retrospective analysis of video data of an operating theatre simulation was conducted to identify how surgeons, from a range of experience levels, react to instances of harassment. Thematic analysis was used to categorize types of harassment and participant response characteristics. The frequency of these responses was assessed and reported. The type of participant response depended on the nature of harassment being perpetuated and the seniority of the participant. In the 50 instances of scripted harassment, active responses were enacted 52% of the time, acknowledgment responses 16%, and no response enacted in 30%. One senior surgeon also perpetuated the harassment (2%). Trainees were more likely to respond actively compared with consultants. It is apparent that trainees are more aware of instances of harassment, and were more likely to intervene during the simulated scenario. However, a large proportion of harassment was unchallenged. The hierarchical nature of surgical education and the surgical workforce in general needs to enable a culture in which the responsibility to intervene is allowed and respected. Simulation-based education programs could be developed to train in the recognition and intervention of discrimination, bullying, harassment and sexual harassment.

  9. Knowledge and opinions on oncoplastic surgery among breast and plastic surgeons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Lena Felicia; Rose, Michael; Bentzon, Niels

    2015-01-01

    surgeons and 22 plastic surgeons; the response rate was 67%. All breast surgery units had an established cooperation with plastic surgeons. Most breast surgeons used unilateral displacement techniques; plastic surgeons also included breast reduction techniques and replacement with local flaps. Almost all...... of implementation of OPS in Denmark. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent to breast and plastic surgeons performing breast cancer treatment. The questionnaire included demographics, education, experience with operative procedures and opinions on OPS. RESULTS: The questionnaire was sent to 50 breast...... symmetrisation procedures were performed by plastic surgeons. Breast surgeons had sought more specific education, both international observerships and specific courses. In both groups of surgeons, the majority expressed that both tumour removal and reconstruction should be performed by doctors of their own...

  10. 3D Printed Surgical Simulation Models as educational tool by maxillofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, S M; Zeichner, S J; Berg, B-I; Zeilhofer, H-F; Thieringer, F

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inexpensive 3D models can be suitable to train surgical skills to dental students or oral and maxillofacial surgery residents. Furthermore, we wanted to know which of the most common filament materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA), can better simulate human bone according to surgeons' subjective perceptions. Upper and lower jaw models were produced with common 3D desktop printers, ABS and PLA filament and silicon rubber for soft tissue simulation. Those models were given to 10 blinded, experienced maxillofacial surgeons to perform sinus lift and wisdom teeth extraction. Evaluation was made using a questionnaire. Because of slightly different density and filament prices, each silicon-covered model costs between 1.40-1.60 USD (ABS) and 1.80-2.00 USD (PLA) based on 2017 material costs. Ten experienced raters took part in the study. All raters deemed the models suitable for surgical education. No significant differences between ABS and PLA were found, with both having distinct advantages. The study demonstrated that 3D printing with inexpensive printing filaments is a promising method for training oral and maxillofacial surgery residents or dental students in selected surgical procedures. With a simple and cost-efficient manufacturing process, models of actual patient cases can be produced on a small scale, simulating many kinds of surgical procedures. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Description of Mexican Cleft Surgeons' Experience With Foreign Surgical Volunteer Missions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Buckstaff, Taylor; McIntyre, Joyce K; Sigler, Alicia; Gosman, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Mexican cleft surgeons provide multidisciplinary comprehensive cleft lip and palate care to children in Mexico. Many Mexican cleft surgeons have extensive experience with foreign, visiting surgeons. The purpose of this study was to characterize Mexican cleft surgeons' domestic and volunteer practice and to learn more about Mexican cleft surgeons' experience with visiting surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to Mexican cleft surgeons through 2 Mexican plastic surgery societies and the Asociación Mexicana de Labio y Paladar Hendido y Anomalías Craneofaciales, the national cleft palate society that includes plastic and maxillofacial surgeons who specialize in cleft surgery. We utilized validated survey methodology, including neutral fact-based questions and repeated e-mails to survey nonresponders to maximize validity of statistical data; response rate was 30.6% (n = 81). Mexican cleft surgeons performed, on average, 37.7 primary palate repairs per year with an overall complication rate of 2.5%; 34.6% (n = 28) of respondents had direct experience with patients operated on by visiting surgeons; 53.6% of these respondents performed corrective surgery because of complications from visiting surgeons. Respondents rated 48% of the functional outcomes of visiting surgeons as "acceptable," whereas 43% rated aesthetic outcomes of visiting surgeons as "poor"; 73.3% of respondents were never paid for the corrective surgeries they performed. Thirty-three percent of Mexican cleft surgeons believe that there is a role for educational collaboration with visiting surgeons. Mexican cleft surgeons have a high volume of primary cleft palate repairs in their domestic practice with good outcomes. Visiting surgeons may play an important role in Mexican cleft care through educational collaborations that complement the strengths of Mexican cleft surgeons.

  12. The medicolegal landscape of spine surgery: how do surgeons fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Melvin C; Park, Paul J; Jimenez, Jesus; Saifi, Comron; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Ha, Alex; Figueroa-Santana, Bianca; Lehman, Ronald A; Weidenbaum, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Because of the limited and confidential nature of most legal data, scarce literature is available to physicians about reasons for litigation in spine surgery. To optimally compensate patients while protecting physicians, further understanding of the medicolegal landscape is needed for high-risk procedures such as spine surgery. Based on these, surgeons can explore ways to better protect both their patients and themselves. To characterize the current medicolegal environment of spine surgery by analyzing a recent dataset of malpractice litigation. A retrospective study. All malpractice cases involving spine surgery available to public query between the years of 2010 and 2014. Case outcome for spine surgery malpractice cases between the years of 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext was used to analyze spine surgery malpractice cases at the state and federal level between the years 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext is a subscription-based, legal search engine that contains publicly available federal and state court records. All monetary values were inflation adjusted for 2016. One hundred three malpractice cases were categorized by case descriptors and outcome measures. Claims were categorized as either intraoperative complaints or preoperative complaints. Rulings in favor of the defendant (surgeon) were noted in 75% (77 of 103) of the cases. Lack of informed consent was cited in 34% of cases. For the 26 cases won by the plaintiff, the average amount in settlement was $2,384,775 versus $3,945,456 in cases brought before a jury. Cases involving consent averaged a compensation of $2,029,884, whereas cases involving only intraoperative complaints averaged a compensation of $3,667,530. A significant correlation was seen between increased compensation for plaintiffs and cases involving orthopedic surgeons (p=.020) or nerve injury (p=.005). Wrong-level surgery may be associated with lower plaintiff compensation (p=.055). The length of cases resulting in defense verdicts averaged 5.51 years

  13. Perceptions of conflict of interest: surgeons, internists, and learners compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gara, Christopher J; Rennick, Kim C; Hanson, John

    2013-05-01

    Making a conflict of interest declaration is now mandatory at continuing medical education CME accredited events. However, these declarations tend to be largely perfunctory. This study sought to better understand physician perceptions surrounding conflict of interest. The same PowerPoint (Microsoft, Canada) presentation (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQSOvch7Yg0&feature=g-upl) was delivered at multiple University of Alberta and Royal College CME-accredited events to surgeons, internists, and learners. After each talk, the audience was invited to complete an anonymous, pretested, and standardized 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) questionnaire. A total of 136 surveys were analyzed from 31 surgeons, 49 internists, and 56 learners. In response to the question regarding whether by simply making a declaration, the speaker had provided adequate proof of any conflicts of interest, 71% of surgeons thought so, whereas only 35% of internists and 39% of learners agreed or strongly agreed (P = .004). Further probing this theme, the audience was asked whether a speaker must declare fees or monies received from industry for consulting, speaking, and research support. Once again there was a variance of opinion, with only 43% of surgeons agreeing or strongly agreeing with this statement; yet, 80% of internists and 71% of learners felt that such a declaration was necessary (P = .013). On the topic of believability (a speaker declaration makes him or her and the presentation more credible), the 3 groups were less polarized: 50% of surgeons, 41% of internists, and 52% of learners (P = .2) felt that this was the case. Although two thirds of surgeons (68%) and learners (66%) and nearly all internists (84%) felt that industry-sponsored research was biased, these differences were not significant (P = .2). Even when they are completely open and honest, conflict of interest declarations do not negate the biases inherent in a speaker's talk or research when it is

  14. Malignant mast cell tumor of the thymus in an Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 152-week-old male Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat kept as a non-treated animal in a long-term animal study presented with a soft mass in the anterior mediastinum, which adhered to the pleura of the lung. Histopathologically, the mass mainly consisted of round to short spindle-shaped tumor cells that had infiltrated through the hyperplastic thymic tissue. The tumor cells were arranged in loose to dense sheets. Nuclei were moderate in size and round to spindle-shaped, with small nucleoli. Almost all tumor cells exhibited abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, including eosinophilic granules of a range of sizes. The granules of tumor cells exhibited metachromasia with toluidine blue stain and were positive for c-kit and mast cell protease II. These findings indicate that the tumor described here represents a rare case of spontaneous malignant mast cell tumor with thymic epithelial hyperplasia.

  15. Game theory: applications for surgeons and the operating room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, David W; Tsai, Mitchell; Kadry, Bassam; Souba, Wiley W

    2012-11-01

    Game theory is an economic system of strategic behavior, often referred to as the "theory of social situations." Very little has been written in the medical literature about game theory or its applications, yet the practice of surgery and the operating room environment clearly involves multiple social situations with both cooperative and non-cooperative behaviors. A comprehensive review was performed of the medical literature on game theory and its medical applications. Definitive resources on the subject were also examined and applied to surgery and the operating room whenever possible. Applications of game theory and its proposed dilemmas abound in the practicing surgeon's world, especially in the operating room environment. The surgeon with a basic understanding of game theory principles is better prepared for understanding and navigating the complex Operating Room system and optimizing cooperative behaviors for the benefit all stakeholders. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day.

  17. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection.

  18. Surgeon Design Interface for Patient-Specific Concentric Tube Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tania K; Greer, Joseph D; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M

    2016-06-01

    Concentric tube robots have potential for use in a wide variety of surgical procedures due to their small size, dexterity, and ability to move in highly curved paths. Unlike most existing clinical robots, the design of these robots can be developed and manufactured on a patient- and procedure-specific basis. The design of concentric tube robots typically requires significant computation and optimization, and it remains unclear how the surgeon should be involved. We propose to use a virtual reality-based design environment for surgeons to easily and intuitively visualize and design a set of concentric tube robots for a specific patient and procedure. In this paper, we describe a novel patient-specific design process in the context of the virtual reality interface. We also show a resulting concentric tube robot design, created by a pediatric urologist to access a kidney stone in a pediatric patient.

  19. Relationship between automation trust and operator performance for the novice and expert in spacecraft rendezvous and docking (RVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jianwei; Geng, He; Zhang, Yijing; Du, Xiaoping

    2018-09-01

    Operator trust in automation is a crucial factor influencing its use and operational performance. However, the relationship between automation trust and performance remains poorly understood and requires further investigation. The objective of this paper is to explore the difference in trust and performance on automation-aided spacecraft rendezvous and docking (RVD) between the novice and the expert and to investigate the relationship between automation trust and performance as well. We employed a two-factor mixed design, with training skill (novice and expert) and automation mode (manual RVD and automation aided RVD) serving as the two factors. Twenty participants, 10 novices and 10 experts, were recruited to conduct six RVD tasks for two automation levels. After the tasks, operator performance was recorded by the desktop hand-held docking training equipment. Operator trust was also measured by a 12-items questionnaire at the beginning and end of each trial. As a result, automation narrowed the performance gap significantly between the novice and the expert, and the automation trust showed a marginally significant difference between the novice and the expert. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that the attitude angle control error of the expert was related to the total trust score, whereas other automation performance indicators were not related to the total score of trust. However, automation performance was related to the dimensions of trust, such as entrust, harmful, and dependable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  1. Expert versus novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: Evidence from eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eSheridan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  2. The effects of perceived organisational support and span of control on the organisational commitment of novice leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; Dahinten, V Susan; MacPhee, Maura

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the main and interaction effects of perceived organisational support, span of control and leadership rank on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. As nurse leaders' organisational commitment is eroded at times of healthcare restructuring, it is important to study factors associated with organisational commitment. Cross-sectional data from 69 novice nurse leaders, collected via mailed surveys at two time points, were analysed using hierarchical regression. The findings supported our hypotheses about the positive effect of perceived organisational support, the positive effect of leadership rank and the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment. In addition, perceived organisational support was shown to moderate the negative effect of span of control on novice nurse leaders' organisational commitment at time 2. Organisational strategies aimed at supporting nurse leaders, and attention to span of control, are required to enhance the organisational commitment of novice nurse leaders. Nurse leaders with a wide span of control, in particular those with little leadership experience, need to adopt leadership strategies that maximise their effectiveness, such as organising smaller work groups or teams within their wide span of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Using simulation to improve the cognitive and psychomotor skills of novice students in advanced laparoscopic surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadi, Azzam S; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    Advances in simulation technologies have enhanced the ability to introduce the teaching and learning of laparoscopic surgical skills to novice students. In this meta-analysis, a total of 18 randomized controlled studies were identified that specifically looked at training novices in comparison with a control group as it pertains to knowledge retention, time to completion and suturing and knotting skills. The combined random-effect sizes (ESs) showed that novice students who trained on laparoscopic simulators have considerably developed better laparoscopic suturing and knot tying skills (d = 1.96, p < 0.01), conducted fewer errors (d = 2.13, p < 0.01), retained more knowledge (d = 1.57, p < 0.01) than their respective control groups, and were significantly faster on time to completion (d = 1.98, p < 0.01). As illustrated in corresponding Forest plots, the majority of the primary study outcomes included in this meta-analysis show statistically significant support (p < 0.05) for the use of laparoscopic simulators for novice student training on both knowledge and advanced surgical skill development (28 of 35 outcomes, 80%). The findings of this meta-analysis support strongly the use of simulators for teaching laparoscopic surgery skills to novice students in surgical residency programs.

  4. Burnout syndrome in dental surgeons from Lima Metropolitan hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Velásquez, Ronald; Cáceres Gutiérrez, Lita

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in a probabilistic randomized sample of 117 dental surgeons who work in hospitals from the Armed Forces, Social Security and the Ministry of Health (MINSA) from Lima and El Callao, during the months of March and April 2008. Its objective was to determine the levels of the Burnout Syndrome in this population and its association with some socio-demographic, labor and general health variables. The Maslash Burnout Inventory questionnaire, as well as a personal data s...

  5. [Pierre Mornard (1883-1929), unrecognized plastic surgeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2017-02-01

    Many operations of aesthetic surgery were described between 1920 and 1930. Several French surgeons are recognized as pioneers of the speciality. Pierre Mornard (1883-1929) published numerous articles of plastic and aesthetic surgery between 1925 and 1929 the date of his death. The articles were illustrated with drawings of surgery he had practiced. He described in 1929 the first abdominoplasty with umbilical transposition. Pierre Mornard can be considered a pioneer of aesthetic surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Surgeon preferences regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Geoffrey S; Earhart, Jeffrey S; Gardner, Michael J; Davis, Jason; Merk, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    Scant evidence exists to support antibiotic use for low velocity ballistic fractures (LVBF). We therefore sought to define current practice patterns. We hypothesized that most surgeons prescribe antibiotics for LVBF, prescribing is not driven by institutional protocols, and that decisions are based on protocols utilized for blunt trauma. A web-based questionnaire was emailed to the membership of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA). The questionnaire included demographic information and questions about LVBF treatment practices. Two hundred and twenty surgeons responded. One hundred and fifty-four (70 %) respondents worked at a Level-1 trauma center, 176 (80 %) had received fellowship education in orthopaedic trauma and 104 (47 %) treated at least 10 ballistic fractures annually. Responses were analyzed with SAS 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). One hundred eighty-six respondents (86 %) routinely provide antibiotics for LVBF. Those who did not were more apt to do so for intra-articular fractures (8/16, 50 %) and pelvic fractures with visceral injury (10/16, 63 %). Most surgeons (167, 76 %) do not believe the Gustilo-Anderson classification applies to ballistic fractures, and (20/29, 70 %) do not base their antibiotic choice on the classification system. Few institutions (58, 26 %) have protocols guiding antibiotic use for LVBF. Routine antibiotic use for LVBF is common; however, practice is not dictated by institutional protocol. Although antibiotic use generally follows current blunt trauma guidelines, surgeons do not base their treatment decisions the Gustilo-Anderson classification. Given the high rate of antibiotic use for LVBF, further study should focus on providing evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  7. A basic introduction to statistics for the orthopaedic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Catherine; Van Riet, Roger; Verstreken, Frederik; Michielsen, Jef

    2012-02-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons should review the orthopaedic literature in order to keep pace with the latest insights and practices. A good understanding of basic statistical principles is of crucial importance to the ability to read articles critically, to interpret results and to arrive at correct conclusions. This paper explains some of the key concepts in statistics, including hypothesis testing, Type I and Type II errors, testing of normality, sample size and p values.

  8. Surgeon-Based 3D Printing for Microvascular Bone Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-07-01

    Background  Three-dimensional (3D) printing has developed as a revolutionary technology with the capacity to design accurate physical models in preoperative planning. We present our experience in surgeon-based design of 3D models, using home 3D software and printing technology for use as an adjunct in vascularized bone transfer. Methods  Home 3D printing techniques were used in the design and execution of vascularized bone flap transfers to the upper extremity. Open source imaging software was used to convert preoperative computed tomography scans and create 3D models. These were printed in the surgeon's office as 3D models for the planned reconstruction. Vascularized bone flaps were designed intraoperatively based on the 3D printed models. Results  Three-dimensional models were created for intraoperative use in vascularized bone flaps, including (1) medial femoral trochlea (MFT) flap for scaphoid avascular necrosis and nonunion, (2) MFT flap for lunate avascular necrosis and nonunion, (3) medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap for wrist arthrodesis, and (4) free fibula osteocutaneous flap for distal radius septic nonunion. Templates based on the 3D models allowed for the precise and rapid contouring of well-vascularized bone flaps in situ, prior to ligating the donor pedicle. Conclusions  Surgeon-based 3D printing is a feasible, innovative technology that allows for the precise and rapid contouring of models that can be created in various configurations for pre- and intraoperative planning. The technology is easy to use, convenient, and highly economical as compared with traditional send-out manufacturing. Surgeon-based 3D printing is a useful adjunct in vascularized bone transfer. Level of Evidence  Level IV. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Project Muskan : Social responsibility of the plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are not available, Indian plastic surgeons see around 7,00,000-8,00,000 burn admissions annually with around 10,00,000 cleft patients yet to be operated. In spite of this voluminous load, India does not have national health programs for the various deformities Indian plastic surgeons typically treat. As Plastic Surgeons, it is our social responsibility to treat these patients and bring ′ muskan ′ (smile in Hindi back into their lives. Project Muskan was initiated as an innovative model for targeting these patients and is probably one of its kind in the field of plastic surgery in our country. It is unique because it is a perfect collaboration of government institutions, a Non Government Organization (NGO, and cooperative sectors providing free health care at the doorstep. Identification of the patients was done with the help of the extensive milk dairy network in the state of Gujarat. Provision of transport and other facilities was done by the NGOs and quality health care provision was taken care of by the government hospital. Project Muskan started from a single village but now covers around 3000 villages and tribal areas of Gujarat. It is a system that can be easily reproducible in all hospitals and has reestablished the faith of the common man in government institutes.

  10. The effects of tenure and promotion on surgeon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Adam; Heslin, Martin J; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chen, Herbert

    2018-07-01

    Studies investigating the impact of promotion and tenure on surgeon productivity are lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship of promotion and tenure to surgeon productivity. We reviewed data for the Department of Surgery at our institution. Relative value units (RVUs) billed per year, publications per year, and grant funding per year were used to assess productivity from 2010 to 2016. We analyzed tenure-track (TT) and non-tenure-track (NT) surgeons and compared the productivity within these groups by rank: assistant professor (ASST), associate professor (ASSOC), and full professor (FULL). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess significance and relationships between the groups. A TT faculty was promoted if they produced more research, with the highest publication rates in TT FULL. TT faculty publishing rates increased from ASST to ASSOC (1 versus 2, P = 0.006) and from ASSOC to FULL (2 versus 4, P production (RVUs) was highest between TT ASSOC and NT FULL. TT faculty increased productivity between ASST and ASSOC (7023 versus 8384, P = 0.001) and decreased between ASSOC and FULL (8384 versus 6877, P production and grant funding, whereas NT FULL has the highest clinical production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcoidosis in a dental surgeon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Daniele

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although the causes of sarcoidosis are still unknown, past and current studies have provided evidence that this disease may be associated with occupational exposure to specific environmental agents. We describe a case of sarcoidosis in a dental surgeon with long exposure to inorganic dusts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this kind in the literature. Case presentation At the beginning of 2000, a 52-year-old Caucasian man, who worked as a dental surgeon, presented with shortness of breath during exercise, cough and retrosternal pain. After diagnosis of sarcoidosis, a scanning electronic microscopy with X-ray microanalysis of biopsy specimens was used in order to determine whether the disease could be traced to an occupational environmental agent. Results showed the presence of inorganic dust particles within sarcoidotic granulomas, and demonstrated that the material detected was identical to that found in a powder used by our patient for several years. Conclusions Although these results cannot be considered as definitive proof, they do however provide strong evidence that this disease may be associated with material used by dental surgeons.

  12. Exploring novice nurses' needs regarding their work-related health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-10-01

    To investigate Dutch novice nurses' experiences and needs regarding occupational health support to prevent work-related health problems and to keep them well-functioning. A qualitative interview study was conducted with six nursing students and eight newly qualified nurses. The interviews covered three topics: experiences with the link between work and health, received occupational health support, and occupational health support needs. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Participants reported experiences with work-related health problems early in their career and described experiences with how health problems lead to suboptimal work functioning. Occupational health support needs included knowledge and psychosocial support during nursing education, e.g. through paying attention to dealing with shift work, or career counselling. Also, they reported a need for knowledge and psychosocial support at the start of their clinical placement or new job in the hospital, e.g. information from occupational health services or having a mentor. Furthermore, they reported that occupational health support requires a more general place at work through offering knowledge, e.g. tailored advice on proper lifting position; psychosocial support, e.g. positive team atmosphere; and physical support, e.g. suitable preventive measures. Occupational health support for novice nurses is important, since they already experience work-related health problems and suboptimal work functioning due to health problems early in their career and while still in training to be a nurse. Novice nurses should be given more knowledge and support to help them stay healthy and well-functioning in their work. This is a joint responsibility of nurse educators, the employer and occupational health services.

  13. The effect of virtual endoscopy simulator training on novices: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguang Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in virtual endoscopy simulators have paralleled an interest in medical simulation for gastrointestinal endoscopy training. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine whether the virtual endoscopy simulator training could improve the performance of novices. DESIGN: A systematic review. SETTING: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared virtual endoscopy simulator training with bedside teaching or any other intervention for novices were collected. PATIENTS: Novice endoscopists. INTERVENTIONS: The PRISMA statement was followed during the course of the research. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched (up to July 2013. Data extraction and assessment were independently performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Independent procedure completion, total procedure time and required assistance. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (n = 354 were eligible for inclusion: 9 studies designed for colonoscopy training, 6 for gastroscopy training. For gastroscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 87.7% of participants in simulator training group compared to 70.0% of participants in control group (1 study; 22 participants; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.13-1.39; P<0.0001. For colonoscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 89.3% of participants in simulator training group compared to 88.9% of participants in control group (7 study; 163 participants; RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88-1.37; P = 0.41; I(2 = 85%. LIMITATIONS: The included studies are quite in-homogeneous with respect to training schedule and procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual endoscopy simulator training might be effective for gastroscopy, but so far no data is available to support this for colonoscopy.

  14. Effects of a work-based critical reflection program for novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Min, Ja; Kim, Soon Hee; Shin, Sujin

    2018-02-27

    Critical reflection is effective in improving students' communication abilities and confidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-based critical reflection program to enhance novice nurses' clinical critical-thinking abilities, communication competency, and job performance. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. From October 2014 to August 2015, we collected data from 44 novice nurses working in an advanced general hospital in S city in Korea. Nurses in the experimental group participated in a critical reflection program for six months. Outcome variables were clinical critical-thinking skills, communication abilities, and job performance. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and a Wilcoxon rank sum test were selected to evaluate differences in mean ranks and to assess the null hypothesis that the medians were equal across the groups. The results showed that the clinical critical-thinking skills of those in the experimental group improved significantly (p = 0.003). The differences in mean ranks of communication ability between two groups was significantly statistically different (p = 0.028). Job performance improved significantly in both the experimental group and the control group, so there was no statistical difference (p = 0.294). We therefore suggest that a critical reflection program be considered an essential tool for improving critical thinking and communication abilities among novice nurses who need to adapt to the clinical environment as quickly as possible. Further, we suggest conducting research into critical reflection programs among larger and more diverse samples.

  15. Accuracy of intuition in clinical decision-making among novice clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda; Zulkosky, Kristen; White, Krista; Pretz, Jean

    2017-05-01

    To assess the reliance on intuitive and analytical approaches during clinical decision-making among novice clinicians and whether that reliance is associated with accurate decision-making. Nurse educators and managers tend to emphasize analysis over intuition during clinical decision-making though nurses typically report some reliance on intuition in their practice. We hypothesized that under certain conditions, reliance on intuition would support accurate decision-making, even among novices. This study utilized an experimental design with clinical complication (familiar vs. novel) and decision phase (cue acquisition, diagnosis and action) as within-subjects' factors, and simulation role (observer, family, auxiliary nurse and primary nurse) as between-subjects' factor. We examined clinical decision-making accuracy among final semester pre-licensure nursing students in a simulation experience. Students recorded their reasoning about emerging clinical complications with their patient during two distinct points in the simulation; one point involved a familiar complication and the other a relatively novel complication. All data were collected during Spring 2015. Although most participants relied more heavily on analysis than on intuition, use of intuition during the familiar complication was associated with more accurate decision-making, particularly in guiding attention to relevant cues. With the novel complication, use of intuition appeared to hamper decision-making, particularly for those in an observer role. Novice clinicians should be supported by educators and nurse managers to note when their intuitions are likely to be valid. Our findings emphasize the integrated nature of intuition and analysis in clinical decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of New Tools to Predict Surgical Performance of Novices using a Plastic Surgery Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Roy; Viezel-Mathieu, Alex; Cyr, Shantale; Hemmerling, Thomas M; Lin, Samuel J; Gilardino, Mirko S

    2018-04-09

    To identify new tools capable of predicting surgical performance of novices on an augmentation mammoplasty simulator. The pace of technical skills acquisition varies between residents and may necessitate more time than that allotted by residency training before reaching competence. Identifying applicants with superior innate technical abilities might shorten learning curves and the time to reach competence. The objective of this study is to identify new tools that could predict surgical performance of novices on a mammoplasty simulator. We recruited 14 medical students and recorded their performance in 2 skill-games: Mikado and Perplexus Epic, and in 2 video games: Star War Racer (Sony Playstation 3) and Super Monkey Ball 2 (Nintendo Wii). Then, each participant performed an augmentation mammoplasty procedure on a Mammoplasty Part-task Trainer, which allows the simulation of the essential steps of the procedure. The average age of participants was 25.4 years. Correlation studies showed significant association between Perplexus Epic, Star Wars Racer, Super Monkey Ball scores and the modified OSATS score with r s = 0.8491 (p 41 (p = 0.005), and r s = 0.7309 (p < 0.003), but not with the Mikado score r s = -0.0255 (p = 0.9). Linear regressions were strongest for Perplexus Epic and Super Monkey Ball scores with coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.55, respectively. A combined score (Perplexus/Super-Monkey-Ball) was computed and showed a significant correlation with the modified OSATS score having an r s = 0.8107 (p < 0.001) and R 2 = 0.75, respectively. This study identified a combination of skill games that correlated to better performance of novices on a surgical simulator. With refinement, such tools could serve to help screen plastic surgery applicants and identify those with higher surgical performance predictors. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim, MD

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours.

  18. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of a Tinea Capitis Outbreak Among Novice Buddhist Monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Rujitharanawong, Chuda; Muanprasat, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita

    2017-05-01

    Sixty novice Buddhist monks with tinea capitis confirmed according to clinical presentation and mycological laboratory finding were included in this study. Mixed-type clinical presentation was observed in approximately half of all cases, together with scarring alopecia (95%) and superficial fungal skin infection at locations other than the scalp (43.3%). The major isolated organism was Trichophyton violaceum, and mixed-organism infection was found in 27 cases (45%). Slow-onset presentation and an extensive area of infection were significantly associated with mixed-type clinical presentation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Top tips for PhD thesis examination: nurse clinicians, researchers and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, there are very few guidelines in the literature to assist novice nurse PhD examiners. In this paper, we aim to provide information to nurses, researchers or early career academics who have little experience in assessing a university thesis. The article provides background information about recent changes in the university sector; overviews some research on experienced examiners views; presents factors that differentiate between high and low quality PhD theses; and outlines some pointers that may be useful when marking at the doctoral level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets.

  2. Inexperienced but Effectual: the Importance of Conceptualizing Context in Expert Decision-Logic by Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle

    of effectual decision making logics and why these differ across student groups. Prior research: So far effectuation theory has been validated for expert entrepreneurs. Recent research indicates that even novices may make decisions based on effectual decision logics. Here the questions about what might mitigate...... period, where motivation and expectations are high and context impacts on the student’s ability to begin the process; ii) a phase of identity construction in teams, where relational aspects are integral to supporting the continuation of the process; and iii) a mastery phase where the five principles...

  3. Physiology knowledge plays a role when novices learn technical echocardiography skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about factors of relevance for achieving technical skills of echocardiography (TTE); one of the essential skills defined by the European Society of Cardiology Core Curriculum. In an earlier study we have shown that there is a strong correlation between physiology knowledge...... and interpretation skills of intermediately trained echocardiographers. This study investigates the role of physiology knowledge in the development of echocardiographic technical expertise. Methods: Forty-five physicians (15 novices, 15 intermediates and 15 experts) were evaluated on technical skills. Participants...... of echocardiography relevant physiology knowledge. Results: A strong and significant correlation between expertise level and technical checklist scores was found (r = .76, p

  4. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  5. Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Asfandyar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6% was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9% was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7% were ready

  6. Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Asfandyar; Ali, Sajid; Ejaz, Sadaf; Farooqi, Marium; Ahmed, Syed Salman; Jawaid, Imran

    2012-11-06

    The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most

  7. Malpractice awareness among surgeons at a teaching hospital in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error

  8. The Role of Moral Reasoning and Order Effects on Ethical Decision Making Ability: Novice vs. Experienced Accounting Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    that novice accounting students cannot differentiate between these two types of reasoning, but would exhibit order effects while making ethical decisions. One hundred forty graduate accounting students from universities in Denmark respond to an audit-specific DIT instrument, measuring prescriptive...... investigates the order effects of presentation of dilemmas on ethical decision making ability of novice and experienced accounting students. Rest (1979, 1983, 1991) categorizes moral reasoning into prescriptive reasoning i.e. consideration of what should ideally be done to resolve a particular ethical dilemma...... and deliberative reasoning i.e. consideration of what would actually be done in resolving ethical dilemmas. Because of lack of work experience, novice accounting students often do not face scenarios where there is a difference between their prescriptive and deliberative reasoning. This study hypothesizes...

  9. Quantifying Novice and Expert Differences in Visual Diagnostic Reasoning in Veterinary Pathology Using Eye-Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J

    2018-01-18

    Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (preasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.

  10. The first year of practice: an investigation of the professional learning and development of promising novice physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lisa L; Jensen, Gail M; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Perkins, Jan; Ritzline, Pamela D; Hayward, Lorna; Blackmer, Betsy

    2010-12-01

    The goal in studying expertise is not merely to describe ways in which experts excel but also to understand how experts develop in order to better facilitate the development of novices. The study of novice progression helps us to understand what successful versus unsuccessful learning looks like. This understanding is critical, as autonomous practice places increased demands for advanced clinical judgments and the ability to assume professional responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, learning, and development of promising novice therapists throughout their first year of practice in the United States. A longitudinal, multiple-site qualitative case study method was used for within-case and across-case analysis. A purposive sample of 11 promising new graduates from 4 physical therapist education programs participated. Investigators followed the graduates throughout their first year of practice. Data sources included: (1) semistructured interviews conducted at baseline and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year, (2) reflective journals completed at regular intervals, and (3) review of academic and clinical education records and résumés. Four themes emerged: (1) the clinical environment influenced the novice physical therapists' performance, (2) participants learned through experience and social interaction and learning was primarily directed toward self, (3) growing confidence was directly related to developing communication skills, and (4) therapists were engaged in professional identity formation and role transitions. The findings suggest there are common experiences and themes that emerge as novice physical therapists develop. Although research has been conducted on expertise in physical therapy, few longitudinal investigations have explored the development of therapists across transitions from graduate to novice to expert practitioner. This study explored and described the learning and development of graduates during their first

  11. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-11-01

    To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Prospective cohort study. Primary care. One thousand six hundred ninety-six novice runners (18-65 years) participating in a 6-week running program ("Start-to-Run"). Injury characteristics were assessed by weekly training logs and personal characteristics by a baseline questionnaire. Data on absenteeism and HCU were collected using questionnaires at 2 and 6 weeks after the RRI occurred. A total of 185 novice runners (11%) reported an RRI during the 6-week program. Of these injured novice runners, 78% reported absence from sports, whereas only 4% reported absence from work. Fifty-one percent of the injured novice runners visited a health care professional, mostly physical therapists (PTs) rather than physicians. Absenteeism was more common among women than men and was also more common with acute RRIs than gradual-onset RRIs. As regards HCU, both the variety of professionals visited and the number of PT visits were higher among runners with muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region than among those with other RRIs. Among novice runners sustaining an RRI during a 6-week running program, over three quarters reported short-term absence from sports, whereas absence from work was very limited, and over half used professional health care. Both absence and HCU are associated with injury characteristics. In future running promotion programs (eg in Start-to-Run programs), specific attention should be paid to acute injuries and to muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region.

  12. Predictors of running-related injuries in novice runners enrolled in a systematic training program: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Ida; Bredeweg, Steef W; Lemmink, Koen A P M; van Mechelen, Willem; Diercks, Ron L

    2010-02-01

    The popularity of running is still growing. As participation increases, running-related injuries also increase. Until now, little is known about the predictors for injuries in novice runners. Predictors for running-related injuries (RRIs) will differ between male and female novice runners. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Participants were 532 novice runners (226 men, 306 women) preparing for a recreational 4-mile (6.7-km) running event. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing an orthopaedic examination, they were followed during the training period of 13 weeks. An RRI was defined as any self-reported running-related musculoskeletal pain of the lower extremity or back causing a restriction of running for at least 1 week. Twenty-one percent of the novice runners had at least one RRI during follow-up. The multivariate adjusted Cox regression model for male participants showed that body mass index (BMI) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.26), previous injury in the past year (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.36-5.55), and previous participation in sports without axial load (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.03-4.11) were associated with RRI. In female participants, only navicular drop (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.97) remained a significant predictor for RRI in the multivariate Cox regression modeling. Type A behavior and range of motion (ROM) of the hip and ankle did not affect risk. Male and female novice runners have different risk profiles. Higher BMI, previous injury, and previous sports participation without axial loading are important predictors for RRI in male participants. Further research is needed to detect more predictors for female novice runners.

  13. Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe : a 1-year prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sorensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    Objective To investigate if running distance to first running-related injury varies between foot postures in novice runners wearing neutral shoes. Design A 1-year epidemiological observational prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants A total of 927 novice runners equivalent to 1854

  14. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  15. Novice Nurses' Experiences With Palliative and End-of-Life Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Sawin, Kathleen J; Montgomery, Kitty; Dupree, Claretta; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Carr, Barb; Haase, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    Health care providers recognize that delivery of effective communication with family members of children with life-threatening illnesses is essential to palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL). Parents value the presence of nurses during PC/EOL of their dying child. It is vital that nurses, regardless of their years of work experience, are competent and feel comfortable engaging family members of dying children in PC/EOL discussions. This qualitative-descriptive study used focus groups to explore the PC/EOL communication perspectives of 14 novice pediatric oncology nurses (eg, with less than 1 year of experience). Audio-taped focus group discussions were reviewed to develop the following 6 theme categories: (a) Sacred Trust to Care for the Child and Family, (b) An Elephant in the Room, (c) Struggling with Emotional Unknowns, (d) Kaleidoscope of Death: Patterns and Complexity, (e) Training Wheels for Connectedness: Critical Mentors during PC/EOL of Children, and (f) Being Present with an Open Heart: Ways to Maintain Hope and Minimize Emotional Distress. To date, this is the first study to focus on PC/EOL communication perspectives of novice pediatric oncology nurses. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  16. Listening to music primes space: pianists, but not novices, simulate heard actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K

    2015-03-01

    Musicians sometimes report twitching in their fingers or hands while listening to music. This anecdote could be indicative of a tendency for auditory-motor co-representation in musicians. Here, we describe two studies showing that pianists (Experiment 1), but not novices (Experiment 2) automatically generate spatial representations that correspond to learned musical actions while listening to music. Participants made one-handed movements to the left or right from a central location in response to visual stimuli while listening to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli, which were scales played on a piano. These task-irrelevant scales were either ascending (compatible with rightward movements) or descending (compatible with leftward movements). Pianists were faster to respond when the scale direction was compatible with the direction of response movement, whereas novices' movements were unaffected by the scale. These results are in agreement with existing research on action-effect coupling in musicians, which draw heavily on common coding theory. In addition, these results show how intricate auditory stimuli (ascending or descending scales) evoke coarse, domain-general spatial representations.

  17. Spinal fMRI of Interoceptive Attention/Awareness in Experts and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Kashkouli Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many disciplines/traditions that promote interoceptive (inner sensation of body parts attention/awareness (IAA train practitioners to both attend to and be aware of interoceptive sensory experiences in body parts. The effect of such practices has been investigated in previous imaging studies but limited to cerebral neural activity. Here, for the first time, we studied the impact of these practices on the spinal neural activity of experts and novices. We also attempted to clarify the effect of constant and deep breathing, a paradigm utilized in concentration practices to avoid mind wandering, on IAA-related spinal neural activity. Subjects performed IAA tasks with and without a deep and constant breathing pattern in two sessions. Results showed that neural activity in the spinal segment innervating the attended-to body area increased in experts (P=0.04 when they performed IAA and that this increase was significantly larger for experts versus novices in each of the sessions (P=0.024. The significant effects of IAA and expertise on spinal neural activity are consistent with and elaborate on previous reports showing similar effects on cerebral neural activity. As the spinal cord directly innervates body parts, the results might indicate that IAA has an instantaneous (possibly beneficial effect on the physical body after extended training.

  18. Retention of tracheal intubation skills by novice personnel: a comparison of the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2007-03-01

    Direct laryngoscopic tracheal intubation is a potentially lifesaving manoeuvre, but it is a difficult skill to acquire and to maintain. These difficulties are exacerbated if the opportunities to utilise this skill are infrequent, and by the fact that the consequences of poorly performed intubation attempts may be severe. Novice users find the Airtraq laryngoscope easier to use than the conventional Macintosh laryngoscope. We therefore wished to determine whether novice users would have greater retention of intubation skills with the Airtraq rather than the Macintosh laryngoscope. Twenty medical students who had no prior airway management experience participated in this study. Following brief didactic instruction, each took turns performing laryngoscopy and intubation using the Macintosh and Airtraq devices in easy and simulated difficult laryngoscopy scenarios. The degree of success with each device, the time taken to perform intubation and the assistance required, and the potential for complications were then assessed. Six months later, the assessment process was repeated. No didactic instruction or practice attempts were provided on this latter occasion. Tracheal intubation skills declined markedly with both devices. However, the Airtraq continued to provide better intubating conditions, resulting in greater success of intubation, with fewer optimisation manoeuvres required, and reduced potential for dental trauma, particularly in the difficult laryngoscopy scenarios. The substantial decline in direct laryngoscopy skills over time emphasise the need for continued reinforcement of this complex skill.

  19. Thrive or overload? The effect of task complexity on novices' simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Woods, Nicole; Regehr, Glenn; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Fidelity is widely viewed as an important element of simulation instructional design based on its purported relationship with transfer of learning. However, higher levels of fidelity may increase task complexity to a point at which novices' cognitive resources become overloaded. In this experiment, we investigate the effects of variations in task complexity on novices' cognitive load and learning during simulation-based procedural skills training. Thirty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to simulation training on a simple or complex lumbar puncture (LP) task. Participants completed four practice trials on this task (skill acquisition). After 10 days of rest, all participants completed one additional trial on their assigned task (retention) and one trial on a 'very complex' simulation designed to be similar to the complex task (transfer). We assessed LP performance and cognitive load on each trial using multiple measures. In both groups, LP performance improved significantly during skill acquisition (p ≤ 0.047, f = 0.29-0.96) and was maintained at retention. The simple task group demonstrated superior performance compared with the complex task group throughout these phases (p ≤ 0.002, d = 1.13-2.31). Cognitive load declined significantly in the simple task group (p Education.

  20. [Problems in career planning for novice medical technologists in Japanese national hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shu; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Keiya; Yabaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Skills and knowledge regarding many different types of test are required for medical technologists (MTs) to provide accurate information to help doctors and other medical specialists. In order to become an efficient MT, specialized training programs are required. Certification in specialized areas of clinical laboratory sciences or a doctoral degree in medical sciences may help MTs to realize career advancement, a higher earning potential, and expand the options in their career. However, most young MTs in national university hospitals are employed as part-time workers on a three-year contract, which is too short to obtain certifications or a doctoral degree. We have to leave the hospital without expanding our future. We need to take control of our own development in order to enhance our employability within the period. As teaching and training hospitals, national university hospitals in Japan are facing a difficult dilemma in nurturing MTs. I hope, as a novice medical technologist, that at least university hospitals in Japan create an appropriate workplace environment for novice MTs.