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Sample records for tissue injury primarily

  1. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  2. Ultraviolet injury of connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, K.P.; Sanyal, Sabitri; Biswas, S.K.; Pal, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Changes induced by UV irradiation of rat skin could be divided morphologically into prenecrotic, necrotic and regenerating phases. During prenecrotic and necrotic phases, decrease in water content, collagenous protein, citrate buffer soluble fraction, elastin and total lipid and its fractions, and increase in noncollagenous protein nitrogen and fucoglycoprotein were observed. Increase in serum and urinary hydroxyproline and hexosamine, and serum sialic acid and fucose revealed the complicated nature of intrinsic changes occurring systemically. The study revealed that the ground substance was more easily affected while collagen, elastin and fat appeared to be more resistant to injury. This could be due to superficial action of radiation of short duration (30 min) on the dermal connective tissue. (author)

  3. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  4. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  5. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-09

    Sep 9, 2012 ... Conclusion: The leading causes of MF-STIs apparently differ from those of skeletal fractures. INTRODUCTION. Maxillofacial (MF) soft tissue injuries (STIs) are often overlooked in clinical surveys compared to fractures, yet these injuries negatively impact both on function and esthetics. Previous surveys on ...

  6. Pressure induced deep tissue injury explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Bader, D.L.; Loerakker, S.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    The paper describes the current views on the cause of a sub-class of pressure ulcers known as pressure induced deep tissue injury (DTI). A multi-scale approach was adopted using model systems ranging from single cells in culture, tissue engineered muscle to animal studies with small animals. This

  7. AT2 Receptor and Tissue Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namsolleck, Pawel; Recarti, Chiara; Foulquier, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of tissue injuries in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The detrimental actions of the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in hypertension and vascular injury, myocardial infarction and brain ischemia are well...... established. In the past twenty years, protective actions of the RAS, not only in the cardiovascular, but also in the nervous system, have been demonstrated. The so-called protective arm of the RAS includes AT2-receptors and Mas receptors (AT2R and MasR) and is characterized by effects different from...... and often opposing those of the AT1R. These include anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-apoptosis and neuroregeneration that can counterbalance pathological processes and enable recovery from disease. The recent development of novel, small-molecule AT2R agonists offers a therapeutic potential in humans...

  8. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baaijen, Johannes C.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by

  9. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  10. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  11. The tissue injury and repair in cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    One of the difficulties in cancer radiotherapy arises from the fact that the tissue tolerance dose is much smaller than the tumor lethal dose. In our opinion the former depends upon the tolerance of the endothelial cell of the blood vessel in the normal tissue. In this introduction, a new concept regarding the estimation of tissue radiosensitivity was described, and the possible significance of the mode of radiation injury and the repair capability of normal tissue in the cancer radiotheraphy was discussed. (author)

  12. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

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    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells.

  13. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  14. The tissue injury and repair in cancer radiotherapy. A concept of tissue architecture and radio sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-06-01

    One of the difficulties in cancer radiotherapy arises from the fact that the tissue tolerance dose is much smaller than the tumor lethal dose. In our opinion the former depends upon the tolerance of the endothelial cell of the blood vessel in the normal tissue. In this introduction, a new concept regarding the estimation of tissue radiosensitivity was described, and the possible significance of the mode of radiation injury and the repair capability of normal tissue in the cancer radiotheraphy was discussed.

  15. Optical spectroscopy for the detection of ischemic tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Fitzgerald, Jason [Sacramento, CA; Troppmann, Christoph [Sacramento, CA; Michalopoulou, Andromachi [Athens, GR

    2009-09-08

    An optical method and apparatus is utilized to quantify ischemic tissue and/or organ injury. Such a method and apparatus is non-invasive, non-traumatic, portable, and can make measurements in a matter of seconds. Moreover, such a method and apparatus can be realized through optical fiber probes, making it possible to take measurements of target organs deep within a patient's body. Such a technology provides a means of detecting and quantifying tissue injury in its early stages, before it is clinically apparent and before irreversible damage has occurred.

  16. Extracellular histones in tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin's histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other forms of regulated necrosis including pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cyclophilin D-mediated regulated necrosis. Beyond these toxic effects, extracellular histones also trigger thrombus formation and innate immunity by activating Toll-like receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thereby, extracellular histones contribute to the microvascular complications of sepsis, major trauma, small vessel vasculitis as well as acute liver, kidney, brain, and lung injury. Finally, histones prevent the degradation of extracellular DNA, which promotes autoimmunization, anti-nuclear antibody formation, and autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Here, we review the current evidence on the pathogenic role of extracellular histones in disease and discuss how to target extracellular histones to improve disease outcomes.

  17. Hyperextension injuries of the knee. Do patterns of bone bruising predict soft tissue injury?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.M.; Gibbons, C.E.R. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Pillai, J.K.; Roberton, B.J. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Gulati, V. [Homerton University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-15

    To establish whether patterns of soft tissue injury following knee hyperextension are associated with post-traumatic 'bone bruise' distribution. Patients with a knee MRI within one year of hyperextension injury were identified at our institution over a 7 year period. MRIs, plain radiographs and clinical details of these patients were reviewed. Twenty-five patients were identified (median time from injury to MRI = 24 days). The most common sites of bone bruising were the anteromedial tibial plateau (48%) and anterolateral tibial plateau (44%). There were high rates of injury to the posterior capsule (52%), ACL (40%) and PCL (40%) but lower rates of injury to the menisci (20%), medial and lateral collateral ligaments (16%) and posterolateral corner (16%). Anterior tibial plateau oedema and rupture of the posterior capsule predicted cruciate ligament injury [OR = 10.5 (p = 0.02) and 24.0 (p = 0.001) respectively]. Whilst anterolateral tibial plateau oedema strongly predicted PCL injury [OR = 26.0, p = 0.003], ACL injury was associated with a variable pattern of bone bruising. Meniscal injury was unrelated to the extent or pattern of bone bruising. 5 out of 8 patients with a 'double sulcus' on the lateral radiograph had ACL injury. The presence of a double sulcus showed significant association with anteromedial kissing contusions (OR = 7.8, p = 0.03). Following knee hyperextension, bone bruising patterns may be associated with cruciate ligament injury. Other structures are injured less frequently and have weaker associations with bone bruise distribution. The double sulcus sign is a radiographic marker that confers a high probability of ACL injury. (orig.)

  18. Mathematical model of normal tissue injury in telegammatherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S.A.; Lyass, F.M.; Mamin, R.G.; Minakova, E.I.; Raevskaya, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of normal tissue injury as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation is based on an assumption that the degree of tissue injury is determined by the degree of destruction by certain critical cells. The dependence of the number of lethal injuriies on a single dose is expressed by a trinomial - linear and quadratic parts and a constant, obtained as a result of the processing of experimental data. Quantitative correlations have been obtained for the skin and brain. They have been tested using clinical and experimental material. The results of the testing point out to the absence of time dependence on a single up to 6-week irradiation cources. Correlation with an irradiation field has been obtained for the skin. A conclusion has been made that the concept of isoefficacy of irradiation cources is conditional. Spatial-time fractionation is a promising direction in the development of radiation therapy

  19. Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W; Gillespie, Lesley D

    2011-07-06

    Overuse soft-tissue injuries occur frequently in runners. Stretching exercises, modification of training schedules, and the use of protective devices such as braces and insoles are often advocated for prevention. This is an update of a review first published in 2001. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2011); The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1966 to January 2011); EMBASE (1980 to January 2011); and international trial registries (17 January 2011). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating interventions to prevent lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias (relating to sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data) and extracted data. Data were adjusted for clustering if necessary and pooled using the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We included 25 trials (30,252 participants). Participants were military recruits (19 trials), runners from the general population (three trials), soccer referees (one trial), and prisoners (two trials). The interventions tested in the included trials fell into four main preventive strategies: exercises, modification of training schedules, use of orthoses, and footwear and socks. All 25 included trials were judged as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias for at least one of the four domains listed above.We found no evidence that stretching reduces lower limb soft-tissue injuries (6 trials; 5130 participants; risk ratio [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.65 to 1.12). As with all non-significant results, this is compatible with either a reduction or an increase in soft-tissue injuries. We found no evidence to support a training regimen of conditioning exercises to improve strength, flexibility and coordination (one trial; 1020 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87).We found no

  20. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  1. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

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    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  2. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  3. A case of lethal soft tissue injuries due to assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagawa Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia

  4. Experience with wound VAC and delayed primary closure of contaminated soft tissue injuries in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Brian E; Rasmussen, Todd E; Smith, David L; Jenkins, Donald H; Coppola, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    Wartime missile injuries are frequently high-energy wounds that devitalize and contaminate tissue, with high risk for infection and wound complications. Debridement, irrigation, and closure by secondary intention are fundamental principles for the management of these injuries. However, closure by secondary intention was impractical in Iraqi patients. Therefore, wounds were closed definitively before discharge in all Iraqi patients treated for such injures at our hospital. A novel wound management protocol was developed to facilitate this practice, and patient outcomes were tracked. This article describes that protocol and discusses the outcomes in a series of 88 wounds managed with it. High-energy injuries were treated with rapid aggressive debridement and pulsatile lavage, then covered with negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure [VAC]) dressings. Patients underwent serial operative irrigation and debridement until wounds appeared clean to gross inspection, at which time they were closed primarily. Patient treatment and outcome data were recorded in a prospectively updated database. Treatment and outcomes data from September 2004 through May 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 88 high-energy soft tissue wounds identified in 77 patients. Surprisingly, for this cohort of patients the wound infection rate was 0% and the overall wound complication rate was 0%. This series of 88 cases is the first report of the use of a negative pressure dressing (wound VAC) as part of the definitive management of high-energy soft tissue wounds in a deployed wartime environment. Our experience with these patients suggests that conventional wound management doctrine may be improved with the wound VAC, resulting in earlier more reliable primary closure of wartime injuries.

  5. One Stage Reconstruction of Skull Exposed by Burn Injury Using a Tissue Expansion Technique

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    Jae Young Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn area of the skull exposed by burn injury has been covered by various methods including local flap, skin graft, or free flap surgery. Each method has disadvantages, such as postoperative alopecia or donor site morbidities. Due to the risk of osteomyelitis in the injured skull during the expansion period, tissue expansion was excluded from primary reconstruction. However, successful primary reconstruction was possible in burned skull by tissue expansion.MethodsFrom January 2000 to 2011, tissue expansion surgery was performed on 10 patients who had sustained electrical burn injuries. In the 3 initial cases, removal of the injured part of the skull and a bone graft was performed. In the latter 7 cases, the injured skull tissue was preserved and covered with a scalp flap directly to obtain natural bone healing and bone remodeling.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 49.9±12.2 years, with 8 male and 2 female. The size of the burn wound was an average of 119.6±36.7 cm2. The mean expansion duration was 65.5±5.6 days, and the inflation volume was an average of 615±197.6 mL. Mean defect size was 122.2±34.9 cm2. The complications including infection, hematoma, and the exposure of the expander were observed in 4 cases. Nonetheless, only 1 case required revision.ConclusionsSuccessful coverage was performed by tissue expansion surgery in burned skull primarily and no secondary reconstruction was needed. Although the risks of osteomyelitis during the expansion period were present, constant coverage of the injured skull and active wound treatment helped successful primary reconstruction of burned skull by tissue expansion.

  6. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  7. Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project Manager Boston Biomedical Innovation Center 215 First Street, Suite 500; Cambridge, MA 02142 857-307-2441 | rblackman1@partners.org | b...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0480 TITLE: Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain PRINCIPAL...31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tissue Injury

  8. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-01-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  9. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  10. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  11. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  12. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  13. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Feng, Q.-F.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Amin, Khalid; Samulski, Thaddeus S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Haroon, Zishan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  14. Strain-time cell death threshold for skeletal muscle in a tissue-engineered model system for deep tissue injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefen, A.; Nierop, van B.J.; Bader, D.L.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe pressure ulcer that results from sustained deformation of muscle tissue overlying bony prominences. In order to understand the etiology of DTI, it is essential to determine the tolerance of muscle cells to large mechanical strains. In this study, a new

  15. Different tissue type categories of overuse injuries to cricket fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cricket fast bowlers have a high incidence of injury and have been the subject of previous research investigating the effects of previous injury, workload and technique. Bone stress injuries are of particular concern as they lead to prolonged absences from the game, with younger bowlers appearing to be at ...

  16. Time to significant pain reduction following DETP application vs placebo for acute soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchick, J; Magelli, M; Bodie, J; Sjogren, J; Rovati, S

    2010-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provide fast and effective acute pain relief, but systemic administration has increased risk for some adverse reactions. The diclofenac epolamine 1.3% topical patch (DETP) is a topical NSAID with demonstrated safety and efficacy in treatment of acute pain from minor soft tissue injuries. Significant pain reduction has been observed in clinical trials within several hours following DETP application, suggesting rapid pain relief; however, this has not been extensively studied for topical NSAIDs in general. This retrospective post-hoc analysis examined time to onset of significant pain reduction after DETP application compared to a placebo patch for patients with mild-to-moderate acute ankle sprain, evaluating the primary efficacy endpoint from two nearly identical studies. Data from two double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies (N = 274) of safety and efficacy of the DETP applied once daily for 7 days for acute ankle sprain were evaluated post-hoc using statistical modeling to estimate time to onset of significant pain reduction following DETP application. Pain on active movement on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) recorded in patient diaries; physician- and patient-assessed tolerability; and adverse events. DETP treatment resulted in significant pain reduction within approximately 3 hours compared to placebo. Within-treatment post-hoc analysis based on a statistical model suggested significant pain reduction occurred as early as 1.27 hours for the DETP group. The study may have been limited by the retrospective nature of the analyses. In both studies, the DETP was well tolerated with few adverse events, limited primarily to application site skin reactions. The DETP is an effective treatment for acute minor soft tissue injury, providing pain relief as rapidly as 1.27 hours post-treatment. Statistical modeling may be useful in estimating time to onset of pain relief for comparison of topical

  17. Connective tissue injury in calf muscle tears and return to play: MRI correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashutosh; Entwisle, Tom; Schneider, Michal; Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2017-10-26

    The aim of our study was to assess a group of patients with calf muscle tears and evaluate the integrity of the connective tissue boundaries and interfaces. Further, we propose a novel MRI grading system based on integrity of the connective tissue and assess any correlation between the grading score and time to return to play. We have also reviewed the anatomy of the calf muscles. We retrospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion and MRI confirmation of calf muscle injury. We evaluated each calf muscle tear with MRI for the particular muscle injured, location of injury within the muscle and integrity of the connective tissue structure at the interface. The muscle tears were graded 0-3 depending on the degree of muscle and connective tissue injury. The time to return to play for each patient and each injury was found from the injury records and respective sports doctors. In 100 patients, 114 injuries were detected. Connective tissue involvement was observed in 63 out of 100 patients and failure (grade 3 injury) in 18. Mean time to return to play with grade 0 injuries was 8 days, grade 1 tears was 17 days, grade 2 tears was 25 days and grade 3 tears was 48 days (pmuscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Mathematical models of soft tissue injury repair : towards understanding musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dunster, Joanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The process of soft tissue injury repair at the cellular lew I can be decomposed into three phases: acute inflammation including coagulation, proliferation and remodelling. While the later phases are well understood the early phase is less so. We produce a series of new mathematical models for the early phases coagulation and inflammation. The models produced are relevant not only to soft tissue injury repair but also to the many disease states in which coagulation and inflammation play a rol...

  19. Repair of radiation injury by transplantation of hemopoietic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: endogenous repair of tissue by surviving cells; exogenous repair by transplantation of tissue from unirradiated donor; repair of hematopoietic tissue following sublethal exposure or exposure in the LD 1 to LD 100 range; early studies on regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in x-irradiated dogs by giving bone marrow; hypotheses as to how bone marrow injections result in regeneration of blood-forming tissue; effects of rat bone marrow transplants on survival of lethally irradiated mice; and effect of tissue transplants on dose-response curve

  20. The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is "Inflammation" Always Inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Onkar P; Lichtnekert, Julia; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of "proinflammatory" cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine "inflammation"? In this review, we discuss the functions of "inflammatory" mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine tissue environments to fulfill the need of the tissue while regaining homeostasis after injury.

  1. Soft-tissue injuries of the fingertip: methods of evaluation and treatment. An algorithmic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Joshua A; Janis, Jeffrey E; Rohrich, Rod J

    2008-09-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the anatomy of the fingertip. 2. Describe the methods of evaluating fingertip injuries. 3. Discuss reconstructive options for various tip injuries. The fingertip is the most commonly injured part of the hand, and therefore fingertip injuries are among the most frequent injuries that plastic surgeons are asked to treat. Although microsurgical techniques have enabled replantation of even very distal tip amputations, it is relatively uncommon that a distal tip injury will be appropriate for replantation. In the event that replantation is not pursued, options for distal tip soft-tissue reconstruction must be considered. This review presents a straightforward method for evaluating fingertip injuries and provides an algorithm for fingertip reconstruction.

  2. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibres as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about...... the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibres, and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesising this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodelling demonstrate a strong response that appears...

  3. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Soft tissue injuries of the face: early aesthetic reconstruction in polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveta, Achille; Casati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Facial injuries are often accompanied by soft tissue injuries. The complexity of these injuries is represented by the potential for loss of relationships between the functional and the aesthetic subunits of the head. Most reviews of craniofacial trauma have concentrated on fractures. With this article, we want to emphasize the importance of early aesthetic reconstruction of the face in polytrauma patients. We present 13 patients with soft tissue injuries of the face, treated in our emergency department in the 'day one surgery", without "second look"procedures. The final result always restored a sense of normalcy to the face. The face is the first most visible part of the human anatomy, so, in emergency, surgeons must pay special attention also to the reconstruction of the face, in polytrauma patients.

  5. Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Products for Chondral Knee Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Flórez Cabrera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The articular cartilage is prone to suffer lesions of different etiology, being the articular cartilage lesions of the knee the most common. Although most conventional treatments reduce symptoms they lead to the production of fibrocartilage, which has different characteristics than the hyaline cartilage of the joint. There are few therapeutic approaches that promote the replacement of damaged tissue by functional hyaline cartilage. Among them are the so-called advanced therapies, which use cells and tissue engineering products to promote cartilage regeneration. Most of them are based on scaffolds made of different biomaterials, which seeded or not with endogenous or exogenous cells, can be used as cartilage artificial replacement to improve joint function. This paper reviews some therapeutic approaches focused on the regeneration of articular cartilage of the knee and the biomaterials used to develop scaffolds for cell therapy and tissue engineering of cartilage.

  6. Pattern, severity, and management of cranio-maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Babatunde Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of craniofacial soft-tissue injuries occurring either in isolation or in association with fractures vary in different societies and is multiply influenced. The effects are enormous because of the prominence of the face; therefore, the purpose of this study was to document any changing pattern, severity and management of these craniofacial injuries in our center. Patients and Method: Cranio-maxillofacial region was classified into upper, middle and lower face. The cause, type, and site of the injuries were documented. Gunshot injuries were further categorized as penetrating, perforating or avulsions. Further, classification of injuries into mild, moderate, and severe was carried out based on multiple factors. Result: A total of 126 patients with soft-tissue injuries presented to our hospital out of which 85 (67.5% were males and 41 (32.5 were females. The age range of the patients was between 10 months and 90 years with a mean ± SD of 26.4 ± 15.5 years. Road traffic accident was the most common etiology of which vehicular accidents constituted 50 (54.9% and the motorcycle was 2 (2.2%. Assault contributed 16 (17.6% while cases due to gun shots were 13 (14.3%. A total of 19 (15.1% patients had associated head injuries, 11 (8.7% patients had craniofacial fractures involving any of the bones while 3 (2.4% patients had limb fractures and 2 (1.6% patients had rib fractures. There were 51 (41.8% cases classified as mild injuries, 37 (30.3% cases as moderate injuries and 24 (19.7% cases as severe injuries. Total of 126 cases managed, 121 (96.0% received primary closure of the wounds while 5 (4.0% received delayed closure under general anesthesia.

  7. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S; Melo, Luis G; Hart, Melanie L; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D; Stahl, Gregory L; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2004-08-17

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  8. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S.; Melo, Luis G.; Hart, Melanie L.; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Pratt, Richard E.; Dzau, Victor J.

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  9. Knee Ligament Injury and the Clinical Application of Tissue Engineering Techniques: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Thomas C; Mafi, Reza; Mafi, Pouya; Khan, Wasim S

    2018-02-23

    The incidence of knee ligament injury is increasing and represents a significant cost to healthcare providers. Current interventions include tissue grafts, suture repair and non-surgical management. These techniques have demonstrated good patient outcomes but have been associated graft rejection, infection, long term immobilization and reduced joint function. The limitations of traditional management strategies have prompted research into tissue engineering of knee ligaments. This paper aims to evaluate whether tissue engineering of knee ligaments offers a viable alternative in the clinical management of knee ligament injuries. A search of existing literature was performed using OVID Medline, Embase, AMED, PubMed and Google Scholar, and a manual review of citations identified within these papers. Silk, polymer and extracellular matrix based scaffolds can all improve graft healing and collagen production. Fibroblasts and stem cells demonstrate compatibility with scaffolds, and have been shown to increase organized collagen production. These effects can be augmented using growth factors and extracellular matrix derivatives. Animal studies have shown tissue engineered ligaments can provide the biomechanical characteristics required for effective treatment of knee ligament injuries. There is a growing clinical demand for a tissue engineered alternative to traditional management strategies. Currently, there is limited consensus regarding material selection for use in tissue engineered ligaments. Further research is required to optimize tissue engineered ligament production before clinical application. Controlled clinical trials comparing the use of tissue engineered ligaments and traditional management in patients with knee ligament injury could determine whether they can provide a cost-effective alternative. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Gustatory tissue injury in man: radiation dose response relationships and mechanisms of taste loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this report dose response data for gustatory tissue damage in patients given total radiation doses ranging from 3000 to 6000 cGy are presented. In order to evaluate direct radiation injury to gustatory tissues as a mechanism of taste loss, measurements of damage to specific taste structures in bovine and murine systems following radiation exposure in the clinical range are correlated to taste impairment observed in radiotherapy patients. (author)

  11. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Matsuzawa, T

    1975-06-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140 to 300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200 to 300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma.

  12. Compression-induced deep tissue injury examined with magnetic resonance imaging and histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, A.; Oomens, C. W. J.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.; Bader, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to deep tissue injury after sustained compressive loading are not well understood. It is hypothesized that initial damage to muscle fibers is induced mechanically by local excessive deformation. Therefore, in this study, an animal model was used to study early

  13. Relation between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to make clear the relationships between radiation-induced tissue injury and its carcinogenesis in the rat small intestine. The abdomens of Wistar rats were irradiated locally with 1000 to 2000 rads. Approximately 2 months following irradiation, visible nodules were found in the intestines of the groups receiving irradiation. Nodule incidence was 80 to 100% in groups that received 1750 or 2000 rads, 50% in the 1500-rad groups, and 3% in the 1000-rad groups, respectively. The histology of the nodules within 70 days postirradiation, revealed adenomatous hyperplasia, including invasion of submucosa, muscle layers, and serosa of the small intestine accompanied by an area of fibrous tissue resulting from desmoplastic reaction by irradiation injury. The nodule within 140-300 days postirradiation induced advanced tissue injuried, that is, a polypoid lesion in histology and intestinal nodular adhesion in macroscopic anatomy. Running parallel with the advance of the above mentioned tissue injuries, the nodules in 3 out of 18 rat during 200-300 days postirradiation showed mucoid adenocarcinoma. (author)

  14. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoty, Dikshya; Young, Pampee P.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an evolutionarily conserved set of signals with critical roles in embryonic and neonatal development across species. In mammals the pathway is quiescent in many organs. It is reactivated in response to injury and is reported to play complex and contrasting roles in promoting regeneration and fibrosis. We review the current understanding of the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in injury of various mammalian organs and discuss the current advances and potential of Wnt inhibitory therapeutics toward promoting tissue regeneration and reducing fibrosis.—Bastakoty, D., Young, P. P. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration. PMID:27335371

  15. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  16. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  17. Tissue and cellular biomechanics during corneal wound injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Thomasy, Sara M; Strøm, Peter; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Garland, Shaun P; Sermeno, Jasmyne; Reilly, Christopher M; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Corneal wound healing is an enormously complex process that requires the simultaneous cellular integration of multiple soluble biochemical cues, as well as cellular responses to the intrinsic chemistry and biophysical attributes associated with the matrix of the wound space. Here, we document how the biomechanics of the corneal stroma are altered through the course of wound repair following keratoablative procedures in rabbits. Further we documented the influence that substrate stiffness has on stromal cell mechanics. Following corneal epithelial debridement, New Zealand white rabbits underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on the right eye (OD). Wound healing was monitored using advanced imaging modalities. Rabbits were euthanized and corneas were harvested at various time points following PTK. Tissues were characterized for biomechanics with atomic force microscopy and with histology to assess inflammation and fibrosis. Factor analysis was performed to determine any discernable patterns in wound healing parameters. The matrix associated with the wound space was stiffest at 7days post PTK. The greatest number of inflammatory cells were observed 3days after wounding. The highest number of myofibroblasts and the greatest degree of fibrosis occurred 21days after wounding. While all clinical parameters returned to normal values 400days after wounding, the elastic modulus remained greater than pre-surgical values. Factor analysis demonstrated dynamic remodeling of stroma occurs between days 10 and 42 during corneal stromal wound repair. Elastic modulus of the anterior corneal stroma is dramatically altered following PTK and its changes coincide initially with the development of edema and inflammation, and later with formation of stromal haze and population of the wound space with myofibroblasts. Factor analysis demonstrates strongest correlation between elastic modulus, myofibroblasts, fibrosis and stromal haze thickness, and between edema and central corneal

  18. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

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    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  19. An ex vivo spinal cord injury model to study ependymal cells in adult mouse tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; Codeluppi, Simone; Uhlén, Per

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation. Moreover, we show that these cells respond to external adenosine triphosphate and exhibit spontaneous Ca 2+ activity, processes that may play a significant role in the regulation of their response to spinal cord injury. This model provides an attractive tool to deepen our understanding of the ependymal cell response after spinal cord injury, which may contribute to the development of new treatment options for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissues Use Resident Dendritic Cells and Macrophages to Maintain Homeostasis and to Regain Homeostasis upon Tissue Injury: The Immunoregulatory Role of Changing Tissue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Maciej; Gröbmayr, Regina; Weidenbusch, Marc; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Most tissues harbor resident mononuclear phagocytes, that is, dendritic cells and macrophages. A classification that sufficiently covers their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity during homeostasis and disease does not yet exist because cell culture-based phenotypes often do not match those found in vivo. The plasticity of mononuclear phagocytes becomes obvious during dynamic or complex disease processes. Different data interpretation also originates from different conceptual perspectives. An immune-centric view assumes that a particular priming of phagocytes then causes a particular type of pathology in target tissues, conceptually similar to antigen-specific T-cell priming. A tissue-centric view assumes that changing tissue microenvironments shape the phenotypes of their resident and infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes to fulfill the tissue's need to maintain or regain homeostasis. Here we discuss the latter concept, for example, why different organs host different types of mononuclear phagocytes during homeostasis. We further discuss how injuries alter tissue environments and how this primes mononuclear phagocytes to enforce this particular environment, for example, to support host defense and pathogen clearance, to support the resolution of inflammation, to support epithelial and mesenchymal healing, and to support the resolution of fibrosis to the smallest possible scar. Thus, organ- and disease phase-specific microenvironments determine macrophage and dendritic cell heterogeneity in a temporal and spatial manner, which assures their support to maintain and regain homeostasis in whatever condition. Mononuclear phagocytes contributions to tissue pathologies relate to their central roles in orchestrating all stages of host defense and wound healing, which often become maladaptive processes, especially in sterile and/or diffuse tissue injuries. PMID:23251037

  1. Tissue classification and segmentation of pressure injuries using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahia, Sofia; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Elmaghraby, Adel

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for automatic tissue classification in pressure injuries. These wounds are localized skin damages which need frequent diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a reliable and accurate systems for segmentation and tissue type identification are needed in order to achieve better treatment results. Our proposed system is based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) devoted to performing optimized segmentation of the different tissue types present in pressure injuries (granulation, slough, and necrotic tissues). A preprocessing step removes the flash light and creates a set of 5x5 sub-images which are used as input for the CNN network. The network output will classify every sub-image of the validation set into one of the three classes studied. The metrics used to evaluate our approach show an overall average classification accuracy of 92.01%, an average total weighted Dice Similarity Coefficient of 91.38%, and an average precision per class of 97.31% for granulation tissue, 96.59% for necrotic tissue, and 77.90% for slough tissue. Our system has been proven to make recognition of complicated structures in biomedical images feasible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  3. Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Ari B; Savage, Adam K; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-06-16

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a nuclear-associated cytokine of the IL-1 family originally described as a potent inducer of allergic type 2 immunity. IL-33 signals via the receptor ST2, which is highly expressed on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, thus underpinning its association with helminth infection and allergic pathology. Recent studies have revealed ST2 expression on subsets of regulatory T cells, and for a role for IL-33 in tissue homeostasis and repair that suggests previously unrecognized interactions within these cellular networks. IL-33 can participate in pathologic fibrotic reactions, or, in the setting of microbial invasion, can cooperate with inflammatory cytokines to promote responses by cytotoxic NK cells, Th1 cells, and CD8(+) T cells. Here, we highlight the regulation and function of IL-33 and ST2 and review their roles in homeostasis, damage, and inflammation, suggesting a conceptual framework for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yong Qing Nan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil on soft tissue injury (swelling. Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation. The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury.

  5. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bouaicha, Samy [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Naraghi, Ali [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  6. Association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities of the knee, the trauma mechanism and associated soft-tissue knee injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Nicole; Andreisek, Gustav; Karer, Anissja T.; Manoliu, Andrei; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Bouaicha, Samy; Naraghi, Ali; Seifert, Burkhardt

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between traumatic bone marrow abnormalities, the knee injury mechanism, and associated soft tissue injuries in a larger cohort than those in the published literature. Retrospective study including 220 patients with traumatic knee injuries. Knee MRIs were evaluated for trauma mechanism, soft tissue injury, and the location of bone marrow abnormalities. The locations of the abnormalities were correlated with trauma mechanisms and soft tissue injuries using the chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. One hundred and forty-four valgus injuries, 39 pivot shift injuries, 25 lateral patellar dislocations, 8 hyperextensions, and 4 dashboard injuries were included. Valgus and pivot shift injuries showed traumatic bone marrow abnormalities in the posterolateral regions of the tibia. Abnormalities after patellar dislocation were found in the anterolateral and centrolateral femur and patella. Hyperextension injuries were associated with abnormalities in almost all regions, and dashboard injuries were associated with changes in the anterior regions of the tibia and femur. Our study provides evidence of associations between traumatic bone marrow abnormality patterns and different trauma mechanisms in acute knee injury, and reveals some overlap, especially of the two most common trauma mechanisms (valgus and pivot shift), in a large patient cohort. (orig.)

  7. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  8. Outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in mine blast limb injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Zafar, A.; Khan, N.; Mufti, N.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the pattern of mine blast limb injuries in civilian population of Kashmir, to evaluate the outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in these injuries and to determine the sensitivity of hand-held percutaneous Doppler for tissue viability. One hundred and three patients who sustained mine blast injuries to upper or lower limbs, along side the line of control between the Indian-held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir, regardless of age and gender, were included in this study. Patients who already had amputation after injury at some other place were excluded. All patients were initially managed in emergency and had more than one surgical intervention. Transcutaneous Doppler was used to evaluate the vascularity of the remaining tissue. All patients were operated under spinal or general anaesthesia and had repeated debridements followed by skin cover by split skin graft, full thickness skin graft or rotational flaps. Every patient received at least 5 days course of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis. Postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up was conducted for at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Mean age of victims in this study was 22 years. Out of 103 patients, 72 (69.9%) received initial wound care in the peripheral primary health care centre but were not amputated while 31 patients (30%) were just dressed and referred for further treatment at tertiary care hospitals. Eighty five patients (82.5%), out of the total, had some sort of traumatic amputation at presentation due to the original injury. That included loss of limb below knee in 19 (18.45%) patients, at distal tibiofibular region in 13 (12.6%), mid tarsal amputations in 39(37.9%), and hemi foot amputation in 15 (14.6%) patients. Nine (8.7%) patients had losses of two or less than two toes, 1 (0.97%) patient had injury at mid palmer region, and 5 (4.9%) patients had 2 fingers traumatic amputation. Eighteen (17.5%) patients had soft tissue ( with or without bony injury) injury only

  9. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  10. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyan; Qi Yali; Gong Shouliang; Song Xiangfu; Liu Liping; Chen Yubing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the migration,colonization and repairing effects of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice. Methods: MSCs of C57BL/6 mice were isolated, purified and cultivated in vitro. Their migration and colorization were observed with laser confocal microscopy 1, 5 and 10 d after DAPI labeled. MSCs were injected into the thymus tissue of mice through tail vein. The model of thymus tissue injury induced by whole-body X-irradiation was established. The mice were divided into four groups: normal, irradiation, irradiation+saline, and irradiation+MSCs groups. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the repairing effect of MSCs on thymus tissue injury was observed by histological method 3 months later. Results: The occurrence of MSCs in the thymus was observed 1 d after MSCs injection, the diffusion of MSCs in the thymus appeared 5 d later, and widely dispersed 10 d later. The apoptotic rate of thymocytes in irradiation group was higher than that in normal (P<0.05) and was lower than that in MSCs group (P<0.05). The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were clear in mice in normal group, there were a large number of lymphocytes in the cortex and small number of lymphocytes in the medulla. The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were unclear in mice in both irradiation, irradiation and saline groups. The lymphocytes in thymus showed extensive coagulation necrosis. There were remnants or newborn lymphoid tissue in the cortex and medulla in mice in irradiation+MSCs groups. Conclusion: MSCs can be rapidly enriched in thymus tissue and promote regeneration and repair of damaged thymus. (authors)

  11. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  12. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibers as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell-mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibers and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesizing this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodeling demonstrate a strong response that appears to be sustained for a long time after the major myofiber responses have subsided. While the use of electrical stimulation to induce eccentric contractions vs. voluntary eccentric contractions appears to lead to a greater extent of myofiber necrosis and regenerative response, this difference is not apparent when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning against this, however, is the association between muscle matrix protein remodeling and protection against reinjury, which suggests that a (so far undefined) period of vulnerability to reinjury may exist during the remodeling phases. The role of individual muscle matrix components and their spatial interaction during adaptation to eccentric contractions is an unexplored field in human skeletal muscle and may provide insight into the optimal timing of rest vs. return to activity after muscle injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is “Inflammation” Always Inflammation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Lichtnekert, Julia; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of “proinflammatory” cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine “inflammation”? In this review, we discuss the functions of “inflammatory” mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine t...

  14. A novel radiation responsive cis-acting element regulates gene induction and mediates tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kuchibahtla, Jaya

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) binds and activates inflammatory cells and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. To characterize a model for radiation-induction of tissue injury, we studied radiation-mediated lung injury in mice deficient in the ICAM-1 gene. To study the mechanisms of x-ray mediated ICAM induction, we studied transcriptional activation of the ICAM promoter and nuclear protein binding to the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to study the histologic pattern of ICAM expression in irradiated tissue. The ICAM-1 knockout mice were bred with wild type mice to create heterozygous mice with attenuated ICAM expression. ICAM -/-, ICAM+/- and ICAM +/+ mice were treated with thoracic irradiation and lung sections were stained for leukocyte common antigen (CD45) to study inflammation. To study the mechanism of x-ray induction of ICAM, we linked the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene to the luciferase reporter gene and delated DNA segments from the promoter to determine which elements are required for induction. We performed electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of nuclear proteins from irradiated endothelial cells to study transcription factor activation. Results: Immunohistochemistry showed dose and time dependent increases in ICAM protein expression in irradiated lungs which was prolonged as compared to endothelial cells in vitro. The histologic pattern of ICAM expression was in the capillary endothelium and was distinct from the pattern of expression of other radiation-inducible adhesion molecules. ICAM knockout mice had no ICAM expression and no inflammatory cell accumulation in the irradiated lung. ICAM+/+ mice developed leukocyte adhesion to irradiated endothelium within hours of irradiation and radiation pneumonitis 5 to 6 weeks later. The DNA sequence between -981 and -769 (relative to start codon) contains two 16-base pair repeats, each

  15. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  16. Precision Medicine for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): Redefining AKI by Agnostic Kidney Tissue Interrogation and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Bomback, Andrew S; Cheng, Yim-Ling; Xu, Katherine; Camara, Pablo G; Rabadan, Raul; Sims, Peter A; Barasch, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) currently is diagnosed by a temporal trend of a single blood analyte: serum creatinine. This measurement is neither sensitive nor specific to kidney injury or its protean forms. Newer biomarkers, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, Lipocalin 2, Siderocalin), or kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1), accelerate the diagnosis of AKI as well as prospectively distinguish rapidly reversible from prolonged causes of serum creatinine increase. Nonetheless, these biomarkers lack the capacity to subfractionate AKI further (eg, sepsis versus ischemia versus nephrotoxicity from medications, enzymes, or metals) or inform us about the primary and secondary sites of injury. It also is unknown whether all nephrons are injured in AKI, whether all cells in a nephron are affected, and whether injury responses can be stimulus-specific or cell type-specific or both. In this review, we summarize fully agnostic tissue interrogation approaches that may help to redefine AKI in cellular and molecular terms, including single-cell and single-nuclei RNA sequencing technology. These approaches will empower a shift in the current paradigm of AKI diagnosis, classification, and staging, and provide the renal community with a significant advance toward precision medicine in the analysis AKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  18. Does the ratio and thickness of prevertebral soft tissue provide benefit in blunt cervical spine injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, J-P; Chin, C-C; Yeh, C-N; Chen, J-F; Lee, S-T; Fang, J-F; Liao, C-C

    2013-06-01

    Although many reports advocate computed tomography (CT) as the initial surveillance tool for occult cervical spine injury (CSI) at the emergency department (ED), the role of a lateral cervical spine radiograph (LCSX) has still not been replaced. We hypothesized that the increased width of the prevertebral soft tissue on an LCSX provides helpful information for selecting the high-risk patients who need to be evaluated with more accurate diagnostic tools. This was a retrospective and consecutive series of injured patients requiring cervical spine evaluation who were first imaged with three-view plain films at the ED. The prevertebral soft tissue thickness (PVST) and ratio of prevertebral soft tissue thickness to the cervical vertebrae diameter (PVST ratio) were calculated on the LCSX. Suspicion of CSI was confirmed by either CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A total of 826 adult trauma patients requiring cervical spine evaluation were enrolled. The C3 PVST and PVST ratio were significantly different between patients with or without upper cervical area injury (UCAI, 8.64 vs. 5.49 mm, and 0.394 vs. 0.276, respectively), and, likewise, the C6 PVST and PVST ratio for patients with or without lower cervical area injury (LCAI, 16.89 vs. 14.66 mm, and 0.784 vs. 0.749, respectively). The specificity was greater than 90 % in predicting UCAI and LCAI when combining these two parameters. This method maximizes the usefulness of LCSX during the initial assessment of a conscious patient with blunt head and neck injury, especially for the identification of high-risk patients requiring prompt CT or MRI; on the other hand, it prevents the overuse of these high-cost imaging studies as initial diagnostic tools.

  19. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  20. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  1. Single-stage soft tissue reconstruction and orbital fracture repair for complex facial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng Sen; Matoo, Reshvin; Sun, Hong; Song, Li Yuan; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair. Inclusion criteria were open soft tissue wounds with clinical and radiographic evidence of orbital fractures and repair performed within 48 h after injury. Surgical complications and reconstructive outcomes were assessed over 6 months. The main outcome measures were enophthalmos, pre- and post-CT imaging of orbits, scar evaluation, presence of diplopia, and eyelid position. Enophthalmos was corrected in 16/19 cases and improved in 3/19 cases. 3D reconstruction of CT images showed markedly improved orbital alignment with objective measurements of the optic foramen to cornea distance (mm) in reconstructed orbits relative to intact orbits of 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (lower 0.33, upper 0.99) mm. The mean baseline of Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale was 0.6, 95%CI (0.30-0.92), and for 6 months, the mean score was 3.4, 95%CI (3.05-3.73). Residual diplopia in secondary gazes was present in two patients; one patient had ectropion. Complications included one case of local wound infection. An early single-stage repair of combined soft tissue and orbital fractures yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes. Complications are low and likely related to trauma severity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  3. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, palbumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic

  4. Podocytes degrade endocytosed albumin primarily in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, plysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin.

  5. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates tissue injury in response to AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Navankasattusas, Sutip; Li, Dean Y; Kim, Il-man; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-02-01

    Netrin-1 regulates cell survival and apoptosis by activation of its receptors, including UNC5B. However, the in vivo role of UNC5B in cell survival during cellular stress and tissue injury is unknown. We investigated the role of UNC5B in cell survival in response to stress using mice heterozygously expressing the UNC5B gene (UNC5B(-/flox)) and mice with targeted homozygous deletion of UNC5B in kidney epithelial cells (UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre)). Mice were subjected to two different models of organ injury: ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Both mouse models of UNC5B depletion had normal organ function and histology under basal conditions. After AKI, however, UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre) mice exhibited significantly worse renal function and damage, increased tubular apoptosis, enhanced p53 activation, and exacerbated inflammation compared with UNC5B(-/flox) and wild-type mice. shRNA-mediated suppression of UNC5B expression in cultured tubular epithelial cells exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell death in a p53-dependent manner and blunted Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3 kinase similarly exacerbated cisplatin-induced apoptosis; in contrast, overexpression of UNC5B reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results show that the netrin-1 receptor UNC5B plays a critical role in cell survival and kidney injury through Akt-mediated inactivation of p53 in response to stress.

  6. In vivo evidence for an endothelium-dependent mechanism in radiation-induced normal tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, Emilie; François, Agnès; Toullec, Aurore; Guipaud, Olivier; Buard, Valérie; Tarlet, Georges; Mintet, Elodie; Jaillet, Cyprien; Iruela-Arispe, Maria Luisa; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism involved in side effects of radiation therapy, and especially the role of the endothelium remains unclear. Previous results showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) contributes to radiation-induced intestinal injury and suggested that this role could be driven by an endothelium-dependent mechanism. We investigated whether endothelial-specific PAI-1 deletion could affect radiation-induced intestinal injury. We created a mouse model with a specific deletion of PAI-1 in the endothelium (PAI-1KOendo) by a Cre-LoxP system. In a model of radiation enteropathy, survival and intestinal radiation injury were followed as well as intestinal gene transcriptional profile and inflammatory cells intestinal infiltration. Irradiated PAI-1KOendo mice exhibited increased survival, reduced acute enteritis severity and attenuated late fibrosis compared with irradiated PAI-1flx/flx mice. Double E-cadherin/TUNEL labeling confirmed a reduced epithelial cell apoptosis in irradiated PAI-1KOendo. High-throughput gene expression combined with bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative involvement of macrophages. We observed a decrease in CD68+cells in irradiated intestinal tissues from PAI-1KOendo mice as well as modifications associated with M1/M2 polarization. This work shows that PAI-1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury by an endothelium-dependent mechanism and demonstrates in vivo that the endothelium is directly involved in the progression of radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:26510580

  7. The experimental study of radiation injury on bile duct and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guiwen; Wang Bin; Sun Yequan; Shao Xueye; Ning Houfa; Sui Shouguang; Wang Xiuchun; Bai Xuming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety, acceptance and the effective extent of 192 Ir-internal irradiation, providing theoretical guidelines for HC. Methods: Sixteen male healthy hybrid dogs enrolled in the experiment were divided into 4 groups of 4 each. The brachytherapy applicator was introduced from gall bladder into the convergence of cystic duct with common hepatic duct during the operation and a small chip of 1 cm 3 liver tissue was cut off and taken for control later on. The animals in group A-D were irradiated by 192 Ir-internal irradiation with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy arid 60 Gy at the correlative dose points respectively. Animals were put to death after 10 days subsequently, with sampling specimens obtained from radiation cystic duct and the in between liver tissue with the distant cystic duct. The radiation injury of the cystic duct and liver tissue near bile ducts were observed and studied by light microscope and transmission election microscope. Results: By the limit of the safest endurance dose(50 Gy) of Bile duct, unreversed injury of the nuclei of liver cells occurred at 0 to 15 mm from bile duct revealed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. The whole biliary duct wall would be undergone necrosis with irradiation dose over 60 Gy. Conclusions: Normal bile duct possesses good endurance to 192 Ir-internal irradiation. Within the safest endurance limit of 50 Gy the effective irradiation field could reach 15 mm from the involved bile duct. (authors)

  8. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Liangwen; Diao Ruiying; Wang Shaoxia; Xu Xinping; Luo Qingliang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60 Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  9. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  10. Pressure Combined with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Induces Deep Tissue Injury via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Rat Pressure Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer is a complex and significant health problem in long-term bedridden patients, and there is currently no effective treatment or efficient prevention method. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis contributing to the deep injury of pressure ulcers are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and Akt/GSK3β signaling in pressure ulcers. A model of pressure-induced deep tissue injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was established. Rats were treated with 2-h compression and subsequent 0.5-h release for various cycles. After recovery, the tissue in the compressed regions was collected for further analysis. The compressed muscle tissues showed clear cellular degenerative features. First, the expression levels of ER stress proteins GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 were generally increased compared to those in the control. Phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β were upregulated in the beginning of muscle compression, and immediately significantly decreased at the initiation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in compressed muscles tissue. These data show that ER stress may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of cell degeneration after pressure ulcers and that the Akt/GSK3β signal pathway may play an important role in deep tissue injury induced by pressure and ischemia/reperfusion.

  11. Direct conversion of injury-site myeloid cells to fibroblast-like cells of granulation tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mithun; Sen, Chandan K; Singh, Kanhaiya; Das, Amitava; Ghatak, Subhadip; Rhea, Brian; Blackstone, Britani; Powell, Heather M; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati

    2018-03-05

    Inflammation, following injury, induces cellular plasticity as an inherent component of physiological tissue repair. The dominant fate of wound macrophages is unclear and debated. Here we show that two-thirds of all granulation tissue fibroblasts, otherwise known to be of mesenchymal origin, are derived from myeloid cells which are likely to be wound macrophages. Conversion of myeloid to fibroblast-like cells is impaired in diabetic wounds. In cross-talk between keratinocytes and myeloid cells, miR-21 packaged in extracellular vesicles (EV) is required for cell conversion. EV from wound fluid of healing chronic wound patients is rich in miR-21 and causes cell conversion more effectively compared to that by fluid from non-healing patients. Impaired conversion in diabetic wound tissue is rescued by targeted nanoparticle-based delivery of miR-21 to macrophages. This work introduces a paradigm wherein myeloid cells are recognized as a major source of fibroblast-like cells in the granulation tissue.

  12. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  13. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  14. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  15. An acellular biologic scaffold does not regenerate appreciable de novo muscle tissue in rat models of volumetric muscle loss injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Amit; Roe, Janet L; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds continue to be investigated for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries. Clinically, ECM scaffolds have been used for lower extremity VML repair; in particular, MatriStem™, a porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), has shown improved functional outcomes and vascularization, but limited myogenesis. However, efficacy of the scaffold for the repair of traumatic muscle injuries has not been examined systematically. In this study, we demonstrate that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to repair a rodent gastrocnemius musculotendinous junction (MTJ) and tibialis anterior (TA) VML injury does not support muscle tissue regeneration. In the MTJ model, the scaffold was completely resorbed without tissue remodeling, suggesting that the scaffold may not be suitable for the clinical repair of muscle-tendon injuries. In the TA VML injury, the scaffold remodeled into a fibrotic tissue and showed functional improvement, but not due to muscle fiber regeneration. The inclusion of physical rehabilitation also did not improve functional response or tissue remodeling. We conclude that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to treat VML injuries may hasten the functional recovery through the mechanism of scaffold mediated functional fibrosis. Thus for appreciable muscle regeneration, repair strategies that incorporate myogenic cells, vasculogenic accelerant and a myoconductive scaffold need to be developed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, Marko; Škaričić, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; Čuković Bagić, Ivana; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb, Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries.

  17. An experimental study of radiation injury on oral tissue at young age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Youichi

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of studying radiation injury on mandibles at growth stage, the mandibles of young adult dogs were irradiated with X-ray of 200 kVp, and the irradiated intraoral tissues such as gingival membrane, teeth and mandibles were investigated macroscopically and the teeth and mandibles radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. As the injury on irradiated skin, partial epilation began two days after irradiation and ulceration (4 out of 16 cases) formed at 79 days and worsened further, and necrosis was seen in all subjects at 195 days. 2. As the injury on the intraoral tissue, pigment loss in the gingival membrane began four days after irradiation. Ulceration of gingiva (2 out of 16) formed at 30 days and worsened, and exposure of the alveolar bone was observed at 208 days. At 220 days, bone fracture (6 out of 16) was observed. 3. Formation of necrosis in the gingiva leading to necrosis of the skin corresponding to the third premolar was found in four cases. Formation of necrosis in the skin corresponding to the third premolar leading to necrosis of the gingival membrane was found in 12 cases. 4. In radiological findings, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, disappearance of lamina dura (6 out of 16), and resporption of the alveolar crest (6 out of 16) began in the subjects at 1 month. Worsening began with bone destruction (10 out of 16), bone destruction accompanied by osteosclerosis, and erosion of inferior border of the cortical bone (8 out of 16) in the subjects at 3 months. Formation of sequestrum (4 out of 16) at 6 months and bone fracture (6 out of 16) at 8 months were observed. 5. In radiological findings for the subjects with formation of ulceration, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, and resorption of the alveolar crest were the early findings and lamina dura image around the bone destruction image followed. (J.P.N.)

  18. Functional brown adipose tissue limits cardiomyocyte injury and adverse remodeling in catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Ernande, Laura; Cheng, Juan; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Yao, Vincent; Miranda-Bezerra, Alexandre; Chen, Chan; Chao, Wei; Panagia, Marcello; Sosnovik, David E; Puppala, Dheeraj; Armoundas, Antonis A; Hindle, Allyson; Bloch, Kenneth D; Buys, Emmanuel S; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has well recognized thermogenic properties mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1); more recently, BAT has been demonstrated to modulate cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate whether BAT also affects myocardial injury and remodeling, UCP1-deficient (UCP1(-/-)) mice, which have dysfunctional BAT, were subjected to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. At baseline, there were no differences in echocardiographic parameters, plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or myocardial fibrosis between wild-type (WT) and UCP1(-/-) mice. Isoproterenol infusion increased cTnI and myocardial fibrosis and induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in both WT and UCP1(-/-) mice. UCP1(-/-) mice also demonstrated exaggerated myocardial injury, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as decreased survival. Transplantation of WT BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice prevented the isoproterenol-induced cTnI increase and improved survival, whereas UCP1(-/-) BAT transplanted to either UCP1(-/-) or WT mice had no effect on cTnI release. After 3 days of isoproterenol treatment, phosphorylated AKT and ERK were lower in the LV's of UCP1(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Activation of BAT was also noted in a model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, and was correlated to LV dysfunction. Deficiency in UCP1, and accompanying BAT dysfunction, increases cardiomyocyte injury and adverse LV remodeling, and decreases survival in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Myocardial injury and decreased survival are rescued by transplantation of functional BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice, suggesting a systemic cardioprotective role of functional BAT. BAT is also activated in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show down regulation of mucosal CD4+ T cell proliferation, IL-2 production and cell surface marker expression of mucosal CD4+ T cells moving towards suppressive-type. Acute burn-injury lead to up-regulation of regulatory marker (CD25+), down regulation of adhesion (CD62L, CD11a) and homing receptor (CD49d) expression, and up-regulation of negative co-stimulatory (CTLA-4) molecule. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ T cells of intestinal origin showed resistance to spontaneous as well as induced apoptosis that may contribute to suppression of effector CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, gut CD4+CD25+ T cells obtained from burn-injured animals were able to down-regulate naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation following adoptive transfer of burn-injured CD4+CD25+ T cells into sham control animals, without any significant effect on cell surface activation markers. Together, these data demonstrate that the intestinal CD4+ T cells evolve a strategy to promote suppressive CD4+ T cell effector responses, as evidenced by enhanced CD4+CD25+ T cells, up-regulated CTLA-4 expression, reduced IL-2 production, tendency towards diminished apoptosis of suppressive CD4+ T cells, and thus lose their natural ability to regulate immune homeostasis following acute burn-injury and prevent immune paralysis.

  20. A new concept of endometriosis and adenomyosis: tissue injury and repair (TIAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyendecker, Gerhard; Wildt, Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Pelvic endometriosis, deeply infiltrating endometriosis and uterine adenomyosis share a common pathophysiology and may be integrated into the physiological mechanism and new nosological concept of 'tissue injury and repair' (TIAR) and may, in this context, just represent the extreme of a basically physiological, estrogen-related mechanism that is pathologically exaggerated in an extremely estrogen-sensitive reproductive organ. The acronym TIAR describes a fundamental and apparently ubiquitous biological system that becomes operative in mesenchymal tissues following tissue injury and, upon activation, results in the local production of estradiol. Endometriosis and adenomyosis are caused by trauma. In the spontaneously developing disease, chronic uterine peristaltic activity or phases of hyperperistalsis induce, at the endometrial-myometrial interface near the fundo-cornual raphe, microtraumatisations, with activation of the TIAR mechanism. With ongoing traumatisations, such sites of inflammation might accumulate and the increasingly produced estrogens interfere in a paracrine fashion with ovarian control over uterine peristaltic activity, resulting in permanent hyperperistalsis and a self-perpetuation of the disease process. Overt autotraumatisation of the uterus with dislocation of fragments of basal endometrium into the peritoneal cavity and infiltration of basal endometrium into the depth of the myometrial wall ensues. In most cases of endometriosis/adenomyosis a causal event early in the reproductive period of life must be postulated, rapidly leading to archimetral hyperestrogenism and uterine hyperperistalsis. In late premenopausal adenomyosis such an event might not have occurred. However, as indicated by the high prevalence of the disease, it appears to be unavoidable that, with time, chronic normoperistalsis throughout the reproductive period of life accumulates to the same extent of microtraumatisation. With activation of the TIAR mechanism followed by

  1. Effects of copper on the sabellid polychaete, Eudistylia vancouveri. II. copper accumulation and tissue injury in the branchial crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J S [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA; Adee, R R; Piscopo, I; Buschbom, R L

    1981-01-01

    Copper in seawater caused injury to the radioles (gills) of the sabellid polychaete, Eudistylia vancouveri. Light and electron microscopy showed the loss of cellular adhesion and the structural derangement that lead to cell necrosis and death. The progression of injury was related to the uptake of copper into the tissues. Copper was found by X-ray microanalysis to be localized subcellularly in membrane-bound vesicles that are similar to lysosomes. Cell breakdown may result from lysosmal labilization.

  2. Blood brain barrier and brain tissue injury by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Huh, Ki Yeong; Han, Jin Yeong; Lee, Yong Chul; Eun, Choong Gi; Yang, Yeong Il

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the morphological changes in the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue caused by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits. Bilateral renal arteries and veins of ten rabbits were ligated. Gd-DTPA(0.2mmol/kg) was intravenously injected into seven rabbits immediately after ligation. After MRI, they were sacrificed 2 or 3 days after ligation in order to observe light and electron microscopic changes in the blood brain barrier and brain tissue. MRI findings were normal, except for enhancement of the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses on T1 weighted images in uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA. On light microscopic examination, these rabbits showed perivascular edema and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression: electron microscopic examination showed separation of tight junctions of endothelial cells, duplication/rarefaction of basal lamina, increased lysosomes of neurons with neuronal death, demyelination of myelin, and extravasation of red blood cells. Uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA showed more severe changes than those without Gd-DTPA injection. Injuries to the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue were aggravated by Gd-DTPA administration in uremia-induced rabbits. These findings appear to be associated with the neurotoxicity of Gd-DTPA

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Various Rat Ocular Tissues after Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Possible Relevance to Acute Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera during ischemia–reperfusion (IR injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group. The analysis results revealed 221 unique differentially expressed proteins of a total of 1481 proteins in the cornea between the two groups. In addition, 97 of 1206 conjunctival proteins, 90 of 1354 uveal proteins, 61 of 1180 scleral proteins, and 37 of 1204 retinal proteins were differentially expressed. These findings imply that different ocular tissues have different tolerances against IR injury. To sum up, this study utilized the acute glaucoma model combined with 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the IR injury affected protein expression on various ocular tissues, and based on the ratio of protein expression alterations, the alterations in the ocular tissues were in the following order: the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, sclera, and retina.

  4. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  5. Further Controversies About Brain Tissue Oxygenation Pressure-Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Donnelly, Joseph; Aries, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. Conflicting results exist concerning its clinical utility. METHODS: Retrospective......BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean...... analysis was performed in 85 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). ORx was calculated using three time windows of 5, 20, and 60 min. Correlation coefficients and individual "optimal CPP" (CPPopt) were calculated using both PRx and ORx, and relation to patient outcome investigated. RESULTS...

  6. An update-tissue engineered nerve grafts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitesh P; Lyon, Kristopher A; Huang, Jason H

    2018-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are caused by a range of etiologies and result in a broad spectrum of disability. While nerve autografts are the current gold standard for the reconstruction of extensive nerve damage, the limited supply of autologous nerve and complications associated with harvesting nerve from a second surgical site has driven groups from multiple disciplines, including biomedical engineering, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and orthopedic surgery, to develop a suitable or superior alternative to autografting. Over the last couple of decades, various types of scaffolds, such as acellular nerve grafts (ANGs), nerve guidance conduits, and non-nervous tissues, have been filled with Schwann cells, stem cells, and/or neurotrophic factors to develop tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs). Although these have shown promising effects on peripheral nerve regeneration in experimental models, the autograft has remained the gold standard for large nerve gaps. This review provides a discussion of recent advances in the development of TENGs and their efficacy in experimental models. Specifically, TENGs have been enhanced via incorporation of genetically engineered cells, methods to improve stem cell survival and differentiation, optimized delivery of neurotrophic factors via drug delivery systems (DDS), co-administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and pretreatment with chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC). Other notable advancements include conduits that have been bioengineered to mimic native nerve structure via cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and the development of transplantable living nervous tissue constructs from rat and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Grafts composed of non-nervous tissues, such as vein, artery, and muscle, will be briefly discussed.

  7. Effects of compression injury on brain mitochondrial and tissue viability evaluated by a multiparametric monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Bachbut, Galit; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2008-02-01

    Neurosurgical procedures involve brain compression created by retractors. Although it is clear that retractors are causing damage to the brain tissue, the pathophysiology of the retraction was not investigated in details. In the present study we used the multiparametric monitoring approach for real time evaluation of mitochondrial function, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical activities monitored contralaterally to the retractor placement on the brain. The aims of the study were to test the effects of retractor size and severity of the compression on the degree of damage to the cerebral tissue. A special probe was lowered towards the cerebral cortex, (2mm and 4mm in depth) using a micromanipulator. Compression lasted for 30 minutes, than the retractor was elevated back to its initial position and monitoring continued for two hours. Additionally, two sizes of retractors were used 6mm and 3mm in diameter, the 3mm retractor included an intracranial pressure (ICP) probe. The results show that the combination of a large retractor with the depth of 4mm yielded high mortality rate (62%) of the rats while the use of a smaller retractor decreased significantly the percentage of mortality. Also, compression to the depth of 4mm increased tissue injury as compared to 2mm depth. In conclusion, the present study raises the importance and significance of multiparametric monitoring, and not only ICP and cerebral blood flow of the areas nearby the retractor position and not only the retraction site, as well as the effect of the retractor size on the damage induced to the cerebral tissue.

  8. Effect of Fucoidan Extracted from Mozuku on Experimental Cartilaginous Tissue Injury 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Minami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on acceleration of healing of experimental cartilage injury in a rabbit model. An injured cartilage model was surgically created by introduction of three holes, one in the articular cartilage of the medial trochlea and two in the trochlear sulcus of the distal femur. Rabbits in three experimental groups (F groups were orally administered fucoidan of seven different molecular weights (8, 50, 146, 239, 330, 400, or 1000 kD for 3 weeks by screening. Control (C group rabbits were provided water ad libitum. After the experimental period, macroscopic examination showed that the degree of filling in the fucoidan group was higher than that in the C group. Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. Image analysis of Alcian blue- and safranin O-stained F-group specimens showed increased production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs, respectively. Some injured holes were well repaired both macroscopically and microscopically and were filled with cartilage tissues; cartilage matrices such as PGs and GAGs were produced in groups F 50, F 146, and F 239. Thus, fucoidan administration enhanced morphologically healing of cartilage injury.

  9. NK1.1+ cells promote sustained tissue injury and inflammation after trauma with hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhua; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Scott, Melanie; Manson, Joanna; Loughran, Patricia; Ramadan, Mostafa; Demetris, Anthony J; Billiar, Timothy R

    2017-07-01

    Various cell populations expressing NK1.1 contribute to innate host defense and systemic inflammatory responses, but their role in hemorrhagic shock and trauma remains uncertain. NK1.1 + cells were depleted by i.p. administration of anti-NK1.1 (or isotype control) on two consecutive days, followed by hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and peripheral tissue trauma (HS/T). The plasma levels of IL-6, MCP-1, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured at 6 and 24 h. Histology in liver and gut were examined at 6 and 24 h. The number of NK cells, NKT cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in liver, as well as intracellular staining for TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 in liver cell populations were determined by flow cytometry. Control mice subjected to HS/T exhibited end organ damage manifested by marked increases in circulating ALT, AST, and MCP-1 levels, as well as histologic evidence of hepatic necrosis and gut injury. Although NK1.1 + cell-depleted mice exhibited a similar degree of organ damage as nondepleted animals at 6 h, NK1.1 + cell depletion resulted in marked suppression of both liver and gut injury by 24 h after HS/T. These findings indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the persistence of inflammation leading to end organ damage in the liver and gut. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Reduction of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by mechanical tissue resuscitation using sub-atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Louis C; Morykwas, Michael J; Mays, Jennifer J; Thompson, Edreca A; Hammon, John W; Jordan, James E

    2010-03-01

    Reperfusion-induced injury after myocardial infarction is associated with a well-defined sequence of early and late cardiomyocyte death. Most present attempts to ameliorate this sequence focus on a single facet of the complex process in an attempt to salvage cardiomyocytes. We examined, as proof of concept, the effects of mechanical tissue resuscitation (MTR) with controlled negative pressure on myocardial injury following acute myocardial infarction. Anesthetized swine were subjected to 75 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion and three hours of reperfusion. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: (A) untreated control; treatment of involved myocardium for 180 minutes of MTR with (B) -50 mmHg, or (C) -125 mmHg. All three groups were subjected to equivalent ischemic stress. Treatment of the ischemic area with MTR for 180 minutes significantly (p control: 9.3 +/- 1.8% (-50 mmHg) and 11.9 +/- 1.2% (-125 mmHg) versus 26.4 +/- 2.1% (control). Total area of cell death was reduced by 65% with -50 mmHg treatment and 55% in the -125 mmHg group. Treatment of ischemic myocardium with MTR, for a controlled period of time during reperfusion, successfully reduced the extent of myocardial death after acute myocardial infarction. These data provide evidence that MTR using subatmospheric pressure may be a simple, efficacious, nonpharmacological, mechanical strategy for decreasing cardiomyocyte death following myocardial infarction, which can be delivered in the operating room.

  11. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  13. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions

  14. Measuring surface temperature and grading pathological changes of airway tissue in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Di, La-na; Zhao, Xiao-zhuo; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Guo-an

    2013-06-01

    Airway tissue shows unexpected invulnerability to heated air. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are open to debate. This study was designed to measure the surface temperatures at different locations of the airway, and to explore the relationship between the tissue's surface temperature and injury severity. Twenty dogs were randomly divided into four groups, including three experimental groups (six dogs in each) to inhale heated air at 70-80 °C (group I), 150-160 °C (group II) and 310-320 °C (group III) and a control group (two dogs, only for histological observation). Injury time was 20 min. Mucosal surface temperatures of the epiglottis (point A), cricoid cartilage (point B) and lower trachea (point C) were measured. Dogs in group I-III were divided into three subgroups (two in each), to be assayed at 12, 24 and 36 h after injury, respectively. For each dog, four tissue parts (epiglottis, larynx, lower trachea and terminal bronchiole) were microscopically observed and graded according to an original pathological scoring system (score range: 0-27). Surface temperatures of the airway mucosa increased slowly to 40.60±3.29 °C, and the highest peak temperature was 48.3 °C (group III, point A). The pathological score of burned tissues was 4.12±4.94 (0.0-18.0), suggesting slight to moderate injuries. Air temperature and airway location both influenced mucosal temperature and pathological scores very significantly, and there was a very significant positive correlation between tissue temperature and injury severity. Compared to the inhalational air hyperthermia, airway surface temperature was much lower, but was still positively correlated with thermal injury severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia Ziraldo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People with spinal cord injury (SCI are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU. PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to "better" vs. "worse" outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU.

  16. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Solovyev, Alexey; Allegretti, Ana; Krishnan, Shilpa; Henzel, M Kristi; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Brienza, David; An, Gary; Mi, Qi; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU). PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM) was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to "better" vs. "worse" outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU.

  17. A Computational, Tissue-Realistic Model of Pressure Ulcer Formation in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Solovyev, Alexey; Allegretti, Ana; Krishnan, Shilpa; Henzel, M. Kristi; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Brienza, David; An, Gary; Mi, Qi; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are predisposed to pressure ulcers (PU). PU remain a significant burden in cost of care and quality of life despite improved mechanistic understanding and advanced interventions. An agent-based model (ABM) of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation and PU (the PUABM) was created, calibrated to serial images of post-SCI PU, and used to investigate potential treatments in silico. Tissue-level features of the PUABM recapitulated visual patterns of ulcer formation in individuals with SCI. These morphological features, along with simulated cell counts and mediator concentrations, suggested that the influence of inflammatory dynamics caused simulations to be committed to “better” vs. “worse” outcomes by 4 days of simulated time and prior to ulcer formation. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters suggested that increasing oxygen availability would reduce PU incidence. Using the PUABM, in silico trials of anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and a neutralizing antibody targeted at Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) suggested that, at best, early application at a sufficiently high dose could attenuate local inflammation and reduce pressure-associated tissue damage, but could not reduce PU incidence. The PUABM thus shows promise as an adjunct for mechanistic understanding, diagnosis, and design of therapies in the setting of PU. PMID:26111346

  18. Evaluation of Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Injury in Open Musculoskeletal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Manish; Gill, S P S; Sheopaltan, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Pulkesh; Dinesh; Sigh, Jasveer; Rastogi, Prateek; Mishra, L N

    2016-04-01

    The application of controlled levels of negative or sub atmospheric pressure for a prolonged period of time on a wound had shown to accelerate removal of excess fluid and promote hyperaemia, which eventually promote wound healing. The study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy for soft tissue injury in open musculoskeletal trauma. Twenty cases of complex musculoskeletal wound involving different parts of body were included in this progressive randomized study. In patients, aggressive debridement was done before the application of VAC therapy. Controlled negative pressure was uniformly applied to the wound. Dressings were changed after every 4 to 5 days. The evaluation of results included healing rate of the wound, eradication of infection, complication rate, and number of secondary procedures. VAC therapy over the wound was administered for an average of 20.4 days ±6.72 days (range 14 to 42 days). There was decrease in wound size attained by VAC therapy ranged from 2.6 to 24.4cm(2), with an average reduction of 10.55 cm(2). Three wounds were infected at the start of VAC therapy. However, all patients were cleared of bacterial infection by the end of VAC therapy. VAC therapy using negative pressure promote Wound healing by increasing local capillary perfusion and increased rate of granulation tissue formation, decreases the duration of wound healing and requires fewer painful dressing change.

  19. Histomorphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Spinal Tissue Sparing Following Transplantation in the Partial Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

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    H Delaviz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, cellular and tissues transplant has become the focus of attention for spinal cord injury. It has been shown olfactory nerve cells or olfactory mucosa whi have more efficient on nervous tissue repair and they have been more studied in experimental study. Furthermore, they were used in a few clinical centers for spinal defect. But mucosa tissue and spinal tissue have different structure and there is doubt about the integration of mucosa tissue in nervous tissue. Thus, in this research the morphology and the effect of the fetal olfactory mucosa (FOM on spinal tissue sparing were studied after transplanted into the spinal cord hemisection in rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Of thirty eight female Sprague-Dawley (200-250g rats twenty- eight were spinally hemisected at the L1 spinal level and were randomized into two groups of 14 animals. Treatment group received FOM graft and the control group received fetal respiratory mucosa graft (FRM. The other animals received surgical procedure without spinal cord injury as a sham group. The morphology of the transplant region and spinal tissue sparing was examined histological eight weeks after transplantation. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA and the morphology of the transplant region were studied by light microscope. Results: Histological study showed that the both mucosa tissues could not integrate with the parenchyma of the spinal tissue. Although the FOM were fused more than the FRM with the host tissue but clear boundary was seen at the graft–host interface. The mean spinal tissue sparing of the treatment group increased a little compare to the control but a significant difference was not apparent whereas, the spinal tissue sparing in treatment and control groups compare to the sham group decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Transplantation of

  20. Prolonged superficial local cryotherapy attenuates microcirculatory impairment, regional inflammation, and muscle necrosis after closed soft tissue injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Disch, Alexander C; Stover, John F; Lauffer, Annette; Bail, Herman J; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Closed soft tissue injury induces progressive microvascular dysfunction and regional inflammation. The authors tested the hypothesis that adverse trauma-induced effects can be reduced by local cooling. While superficial cooling reduces swelling, pain, and cellular oxygen demand, the effects of cryotherapy on posttraumatic microcirculation are incompletely understood. Controlled laboratory study. After a standardized closed soft tissue injury to the left tibial compartment, male rats were randomly subjected to percutaneous perfusion for 6 hours with 0.9% NaCL (controls; room temperature) or cold NaCL (cryotherapy; 8 degrees C) (n = 7 per group). Uninjured rats served as shams (n = 7). Microcirculatory changes and leukocyte adherence were determined by intravital microscopy. Intramuscular pressure was measured, and invasion of granulocytes and macrophages was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Edema and tissue damage was quantified by gravimetry and decreased desmin staining. Closed soft tissue injury significantly decreased functional capillary density (240 +/- 12 cm(-1)); increased microvascular permeability (0.75 +/- 0.03), endothelial leukocyte adherence (995 +/- 77/cm(2)), granulocyte (182.0 +/- 25.5/mm(2)) and macrophage infiltration, edema formation, and myonecrosis (ratio: 2.95 +/- 0.45) within the left extensor digitorum longus muscle. Cryotherapy for 6 hours significantly restored diminished functional capillary density (393 +/- 35), markedly decreased elevated intramuscular pressure, reduced the number of adhering (462 +/- 188/cm(2)) and invading granulocytes (119 +/- 28), and attenuated tissue damage (ratio: 1.7 +/- 0.17). The hypothesis that prolonged cooling reduces posttraumatic microvascular dysfunction, inflammation, and structural impairment was confirmed. These results may have therapeutic implications as cryotherapy after closed soft tissue injury is a valuable therapeutic approach to improve nutritive perfusion and attenuate leukocyte

  1. Profile of the subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at an occupational health service and the RSI

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    Camila de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the profile of subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at the Reference Center of Occupational Health – CEREST in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state, in 2010, and the social insurance benefits granted.Materials and Methods: Analysis of medical records of the subjects assisted at CEREST in 2010, surveying data on gender, age, occupation, clinical diagnostics, clinical complaints, retirement, etc. The clinical diagnostics were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10, subjects with soft tissue injuries were selected, and the diagnostics related to mental health disorders were registered. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software R Development Core Team.Results: Of the 206 medical records analyzed, 18.0% (n=37 showed soft tissue injuries, 81.1% were female and 18.9% were male, and the subjects’ mean age was 43.24 years (SD=8.76. Subjects between 31 and 50 years old (70.2% were the most affected. The most affected occupations were cleaners, general service workers, and bank clerks. The most prevalent clinical diagnoses were synovitis and tenosynovitis, shoulder bursitis, and rotator cuff syndrome, with 62.2% of the subjects presenting more than one clinical diagnosis. 13.5% of the subjects also presented mental disorders. Association between retirement from work and the presence of soft tissue injury was observed (p=0.032. Only 13.5% of the diagnoses had some association with the work conditions.Conclusions: The general profile of the workers with soft tissue injuries was obtained: prevalence in women, diseases manifested in productive age, difficulty of association with work conditions, need for interdisciplinary interventions.

  2. The comparison of thermal tissue injuries caused by ultrasonic scalpel and electrocautery use in rabbit tongue tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriat, Guclu Kaan; Akmansu, Sefik Halit; Ezerarslan, Hande; Dogan, Cem; Han, Unsal; Saglam, Mehmet; Senel, Oytun Okan; Kocaturk, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study compares to the increase in tissue temperature and the thermal histological effects of ultrasonic scalpel, bipolar and unipolar electrosurgery incisions in the tongue tissue of rabbits. This study evaluates the histopathological changes related to thermal change and the maximum temperature values in the peripheral tissue brought about by the incisions carried out by the three methods in a comparative way. To assess thermal tissue damage induced by the three instruments, maximum tissue temperatures were measured during the surgical procedure and tongue tissue samples were examined histopathologically following the surgery. The mean maximum temperature values of the groups were 93.93±2.76 C° for the unipolar electrocautery group, whereas 85.07±5.95 C° for the bipolar electrocautery group, and 108.23±7.64 C° for the ultrasonic scalpel group. There was a statistically significant relationship between the increase in maximum temperature values and the separation among tissue layers, edema, congestion, necrosis, hemorrhage, destruction in blood vessel walls and fibrin accumulation, and between the existence of fibrin thrombus and tissue damage depth (pelectrocautery use gives way to less temperature increase in the tissues and less thermal tissue damage in comparison to the other methods. PMID:22938541

  3. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI.

  4. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-11-10

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.

  5. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

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    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency repair of upper extremity large soft tissue and vascular injuries with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi; Fu, Guo; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Yan, Li-Wei; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Gu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Qi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Complex extremity trauma commonly involves both soft tissue and vascular injuries. Traditional two-stage surgical repair may delay rehabilitation and functional recovery, as well as increase the risk of infections. We report a single-stage reconstructive surgical method that repairs soft tissue defects and vascular injuries with flow-through free flaps to improve functional outcomes. Between March 2010 and December 2016 in our hospital, 5 patients with severe upper extremity trauma received single-stage reconstructive surgery, in which a flow-through anterolateral thigh free flap was applied to repair soft tissue defects and vascular injuries simultaneously. Cases of injured artery were reconstructed with the distal trunk of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. A segment of adjacent vein was used if there was a second artery injury. Patients were followed to evaluate their functional recoveries, and received computed tomography angiography examinations to assess peripheral circulation. Two patients had post-operative thumb necrosis; one required amputation, and the other was healed after debridement and abdominal pedicle flap repair. The other 3 patients had no major complications (infection, necrosis) to the recipient or donor sites after surgery. All the patients had achieved satisfactory functional recovery by the end of the follow-up period. Computed tomography angiography showed adequate circulation in the peripheral vessels. The success of these cases shows that one-step reconstructive surgery with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps can be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex upper extremity trauma with soft tissue defects and vascular injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

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    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  8. Heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangbo; Zhang, Guoan; Qiu, Yuxuan; Wen, Chunquan; Fu, Tairan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to further explore heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in an inhalational thermal injury model. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs were divided into four groups to inhale heated air for 10min: the control group, group I (100.5°C), group II (161.5°C), and group III (218°C). The relative humidity and temperature of the inhaled heated air were measured in the heating tube and trachea, as were blood temperatures and flow velocities in both common jugular veins. Formulas were used to calculate the total heat quantity reduction of the heated air, heat dissipation by the blood, and airway tissue heat absorption. The blood temperatures of both the common jugular veins increased by 0.29°C±0.07°C to 2.96°C±0.24°C and the mean blood flow volume after injury induction was about 1.30-1.74 times greater than before injury induction. The proportions of heat dissipated by the blood and airway tissue heat absorption were 68.92%±14.88% and 31.13%±14.87%, respectively. The heat dissipating ability of the blood circulation was demonstrated and improved upon along with tissue heat absorption owing to increased regional blood flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse event reporting and developments in radiation biology after normal tissue injury: International Atomic Energy Agency consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Trotti, Andy; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Mirimanoff, Rene O.; Hay, John; O'Brien, Peter C.; El-Gueddari, Brahim; Salvajoli, Joao V.; Jeremic, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has enhanced our understanding of radiation injury at the molecular-cellular and tissue levels; significant strides have occurred in standardization of adverse event reporting in clinical trials. In response, the International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Division of Human Health and its section for Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, organized a consultation meeting in Atlanta (October 2, 2004) to discuss developments in radiobiology, normal tissue reactions, and adverse event reporting. Methods and Materials: Representatives from cooperative groups of African Radiation Oncology Group, Curriculo Radioterapeutica Ibero Latino Americana, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group held the meeting discussion. Results: Representatives of major radiotherapy groups/organizations and prominent leaders in radiotherapy discussed current understanding of normal tissue radiobiologic effects, the design and implementation of future clinical and translational projects for normal tissue injury, and the standardization of adverse-event reporting worldwide. Conclusions: The consensus was to adopt NCI comprehensive adverse event reporting terminology and grading system (CTCAE v3.0) as the new standard for all cooperative group trials. Future plans included the implementation of coordinated research projects focusing on normal tissue biomarkers and data collection methods

  11. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  12. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

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    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  13. A simple and noninvasive technique using Bohlers stirrup facilitating management of posterior soft tissue injuries of heel

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    Nikil Jayasheelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many techniques have been devised to solve the problems associated with posterior soft tissue injuries. A noninvasive technique with plaster of Paris cast mold has been described by Ravishankar. Plaster casting techniques have been associated with problems such as tight cast and cast damage. Invasive techniques using external fixators as described by Berkowitz and Kim using tubular fixators like "kick back stand" and by Kamath using ring Illizarov fixators. The external fixators have their own problems like maintaining them for weeks and pin tract infection. Materials and Methods: We have tried to achieve as noninvasive technique using a Bohler stirrup incorporated with slab for patients with only soft tissue in injury and in a fixator for patients with skeletal injury already on tubular fixators. Results: In all the 12 cases where this method was used, the authors achieved the purpose of protecting the split skin graft in four cases and flap in eight cases. We did not encounter any problems related to this method such as skin maceration, sores including loosening of the frame. Conclusion: It is a simple and noninvasive method, which can be easily and reliably performed to maintain adequate limb elevation and soft tissue protection, which can be done is any hospital setup.

  14. Relationship between acute and late normal tissue injury after postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Jassem, Jacek; Badzio, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between acute and late normal tissue reactions in 317 consecutive endometrial cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Methods: The data of 317 patients (staging according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) treated with postoperative RT were analyzed. Both low-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam RT were applied in 247 patients (78%); brachytherapy only in 49 (15%) and external beam irradiation only in 21 (7%). The median follow-up was 7.3 years (range 4-21). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system with elements of the late effects of normal tissue, subjective, objective, management, analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale was used to score the RT reactions. The correlation between the occurrence and severity of acute and late bowel and bladder toxicity, as well as the relationship between the severity of acute effects and time to occurrence of late reactions, were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 317 patients, 268 (85%) experienced acute RT reactions of any grade. Severe acute bowel reactions were observed in 15 patients (5%), urinary bladder complications in 1 patient (0.5%), cutaneous in 1 patient (0.5%), and vaginal in 1 patient (0.5%). Severe acute hematologic toxicity was seen in 3 patients (1%). A total of 158 patients (51%) experienced late RT reactions of any grade. Severe late bowel reactions were observed in 19 patients (6%), urinary bladder in 5 (2%), vaginal in 3 (1%), and bone in 10 (4%). When all toxic events were considered, there was a highly significant correlation between the acute and late bowel reactions (p <0.001), but the acute and late urinary bladder reactions did not correlate (p=0.64). The grade of acute toxicity was found to predict the grade of late toxicity for the bowel but not for the bladder (p<0.001 and p=0.47, respectively). The severity of acute

  15. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

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    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  16. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  17. Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model

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    Sarikaya, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli (Turkey); Cemal Aygit, A. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Candan, L. [Department of Pathology, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Sarikaya, A.; Berkarda, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University Medical Faculty, Edirne (Turkey); Tuerkyilmaz, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Trakya University Faculty of Science, Edirne (Turkey)

    2000-01-01

    Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used for this investigation. The right hind limb of the rabbits was immersed to the ankle joint in a container filled with 90% ethanol at -25 C for 10 min. Frostbitten limbs were allowed to thaw in air at room temperature. Imaging and pathological examination of the affected limbs were performed 2 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after freezing. In 2-h images, initial hypoperfusion was seen that corresponded to circulatory collapse. In 24-h images, there was hyperperfusion (so-called period of temporary reperfusion), corresponding to circulatory restoration. In 48-h images, a second hypoperfusion corresponded to viable but ischaemic tissue. In 72-h images, there was non-perfusion of the limb that correlated with the pathologically determined diagnosis of necrosis. All scintigraphic patterns correlated with pathological findings. We suggest that these scintigraphic patterns in soft tissue may be helpful in distinguishing between frank infarction and reversible ischemia and therefore may be useful in selecting early therapeutic or surgical interventions to salvage bone and soft tissue. Further studies are needed to show the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi scintigraphy in clinical frostbite cases. (orig.)

  18. Braque and Kokoschka: Brain Tissue Injury and Preservation of Artistic Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W

    2017-08-19

    The neural underpinning of art creation can be gleaned following brain injury in professional artists. Any alteration to their artistic productivity, creativity, skills, talent, and genre can help understand the neural underpinning of art expression. Here, two world-renown and influential artists who sustained brain injury in World War I are the focus, namely the French artist Georges Braque and the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. Braque is particularly associated with Cubism, and Kokoschka with Expressionism. Before enlisting, they were already well-known and highly regarded. Both were wounded in the battlefield where they lost consciousness and treated in European hospitals. Braque's injury was in the left hemisphere while Kokoschka's was in the right hemisphere. After the injury, Braque did not paint again for nearly a whole year while Kokoschka commenced his artistic works when still undergoing hospital treatment. Their post-injury art retained the same genre as their pre-injury period, and their artistic skills, talent, creativity, and productivity remained unchanged. The quality of their post-injury artworks remained highly regarded and influential. These neurological cases suggest widely distributed and diffuse neural control by the brain in the creation of art.

  19. Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2017-09-01

    α-Synuclein is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissue, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia causes severe neurological disorders and neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we examined α-synuclein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury and neuronal cells damaged by glutamate treatment. MCAO surgical operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and brain samples were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed neurological behavior deficit, infarction area, and histopathological changes following MCAO injury. A proteomic approach and Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in α-synuclein in the cerebral cortices after MCAO injury. Moreover, glutamate treatment induced neuronal cell death and decreased α-synuclein expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line in a dose-dependent manner. It is known that α-synuclein regulates neuronal survival, and low levels of α-synuclein expression result in cytotoxicity. Thus, these results suggest that cerebral ischemic injury leads to a reduction in α-synuclein and consequently causes serious brain damage.

  20. The Effect of Blood Loss in the Presence and Absence of Severe Soft Tissue Injury on Hemodynamic and Metabolic Parameters; an Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of severe soft tissue injury on the severity of hemorrhagic shock is still unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine hemodynamic and metabolic changes in traumatic/hemorrhagic shock in an animal model. Methods: Forty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups including sham, hemorrhagic shock, soft tissue injury, and hemorrhagic shock + soft tissue injury groups. The changes in blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP level, acidity (pH, and base excess were dynamically monitored and comparedsented. Results: Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=10.9; p<0.001 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=11.7; p<0.001 groups 15 minutes and 5 minutes after injury, respectively. A similar trend was observed in CVP in severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock group (df: 12; F=8.9; p<0.001. After 40 minutes, pH was significantly lower in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=6.8; p=0.009 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=7.9; p=0.003 groups. Base excess changes during follow ups have a similar trend. (df: 12; F=11.3; p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the effect of hemorrhage on the decrease of mean arterial blood pressure, CVP, pH, and base excess is the same in the presence or absence of soft tissue injury.

  1. Application of cell and biomaterial-based tissue engineering methods in the treatment of cartilage, menisci and ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Richter, Magdalena; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Over 20 years ago it was realized that the traditional methods of the treatment of injuries to joint components: cartilage, menisci and ligaments, did not give satisfactory results and so there is a need of employing novel, more effective therapeutic techniques. Recent advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and polymer science have led to both the experimental and clinical application of various cell types, adapting their culture conditions in order to ensure a directed differentiation of the cells into a desired cell type, and employing non-toxic and non-immunogenic biomaterial in the treatment of knee joint injuries. In the present review the current state of knowledge regarding novel cell sources, in vitro conditions of cell culture and major important biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, used in cartilage, meniscus and ligament repair by tissue engineering techniques are described, and the assets and drawbacks of their clinical application are critically evaluated.

  2. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  3. [Experimental study on the treatment of serious soft tissue injuries with strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-wen; Zhu, Yong-zhan; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Li-lei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of Chinese drugs based on strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule on neoformative capillaries and fibroblast during the soft tissue repair after serious trauma in rats, so as to explore the biological basis of the TCM theory "the spleen dominate extremities and muscles" applied to the treatment of soft tissue injuries. The model rats were established by bleeding from femoral artery and lancing method, and the rats were randomly divided into the control group, strengthening the spleen group and activating blood and resolving stasis group. The samples were got from the tissue of the wounded area at the 5th, 10th and 15th days after oral administration of the traditional Chinese medicine. After fixation and section, the tissues were stained by CD31 and PCNA staining. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the tissue of the wounded area were observed through multi-purpose microscope (ZEISS Axioskop2). Quantitative analysis was carried out on Image-ProPlus image analyzer. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the wounded tissue in the strengthening the spleen group were larger than that in the control group at the 5th, 10th and 15th day. And the proliferation speed of capillaries and fibroblasts was faster than those in the control group or the activating blood and resolving stasis group. The Chinese drugs according to strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule were effective to promote growth of the granulation tissue and facilitate healing of the wounded area. And it has better effect than the treatment of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis.

  4. Mechanisms of injury and protection in cells and tissues at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1976-06-01

    The survival of frozen-thawed cells is importantly influenced by the cooling rate. In general, cells exhibit maximum survival at an intermediate cooling rate, the numerical value of which depends on the type of cell, the additive present, and the warming rate. Theory and experiment now strongly indicate that death at supraoptimal cooling rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice crystals during cooling and their growth to damaging size during warming. The causes of death in cells cooled at suboptimal rates, on the other hand, are more complex and more uncertain. Although additives like glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide do not protect against injury at supraoptimal rates, they are generally essential for the survival of slowly frozen mammalian cells. The two major theories of slow freezing injury predict that protection is chiefly a colligative effect and that it requires the presence of additive inside the cell as well as outside. The evidence of the colligative aspects of protection is conflicting. The evidence on the requirement for permeation is increasingly negative, a fact which suggests that to protect the whole cell it may be sufficient to protect the cell surface. Slow freezing injury appears due to a number of sequential events. The first may well be high electrolyte concentrations. Additives protect against these, but may themselves introduce other forms of injury, the most likely of which is osmotic shock.

  5. The Compression Intensity Index: a practical anatomical estimate of the biomechanical risk for a deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Pressure-related deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer that initiates in compressed muscle tissues under bony prominences, and progresses superficially towards the skin. Patients with impaired motosensory capacities are at high risk of developing DTI. There is a critical medical need for developing risk assessment tools for DTI. A new anatomical index, the Compression Intensity Index: CII=(BW/Rt);[1/2], which depends on the body weight (BW), radius of curvature of the ischial tuberosities (R) and thickness of the underlying gluteus muscles (t), is suggested for approximating the loading intensity in muscle tissue during sitting in permanent wheelchair users, as part of a clinically-oriented risk assessment for DTI. Preliminary CII data were calculated for 6 healthy and 4 paraplegic subjects following MRI scans, and data were compared between the groups and with respect to a gold standard, being a previously developed subject-specific MRI-finite-element (MRI-FE) method of calculating muscle tissue stresses (Linder-Ganz et al., J. Biomech. 2007). Marked differences between the R and t parameters of the two groups caused the CII values of the paraplegics to be approximately 1.6-fold higher than for the healthy (pbedridden patients. Hence, CII measurements can be integrated into DTI-risk-assessment tools, the need of which is now being discussed intensively in the American and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel meetings.

  6. Influence of Bone and Muscle Injuries on the Osteogenic Potential of Muscle Progenitors: Contribution of Tissue Environment to Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molligan, Jeremy; Mitchell, Reed; Schon, Lew; Achilefu, Samuel; Zahoor, Talal; Cho, Young; Loube, Jeffery; Zhang, Zijun

    2016-06-01

    : By using surgical mouse models, this study investigated how the tissue environment influences the osteogenic potential of muscle progenitors (m-progenitors) and potentially contributes to heterotopic ossification (HO). Injury was induced by clamping the gluteus maximus and medius (group M) or osteotomy of greater trochanter (group O) on the right hip, as well as combined muscle injury and osteotomy of greater trochanter (group M+O). The gluteus maximus and medius of the operated hips were harvested at days 1, 3, 5, and 10 for isolation of m-progenitors. The cells were cultured in an osteogenic medium for 3 weeks, and osteogenesis was evaluated by matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The expression of type I collagen, RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), and osteocalcin by the m-progenitors of group M+O was significantly increased, compared with groups M and O. Osteogenic m-progenitors in group O increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and also bone morphogenetic protein antagonist differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma. On histology, there was calcium deposition mostly in the muscles of group M+O harvested at day 10. CD56, representing myogenic progenitors, was highly expressed in the m-progenitors isolated from group M (day 10), but m-progenitors of group M+O (day 10) exhibited the highest expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α), a marker of muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-MSCs). The expressions of PDGFR-α and RUNX2 were colocalized in osteogenic m-progenitors. The data indicate that the tissue environment simulated in the M+O model is a favorable condition for HO formation. Most likely, M-MSCs, rather than myogenic progenitors, in the m-progenitors participate in HO formation. The prevalence of traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) is high in war injury. The pathogenesis of HO is still unknown. This study clarified the contribution of a

  7. Matrix- and plasma-derived peptides promote tissue-specific injury responses and wound healing in diabetic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Anthony R; Massey, Conner J; Cronk, Stephen M; Iafrati, Mark D; Herman, Ira M

    2016-07-02

    Non-healing wounds are a major global health concern and account for the majority of non-traumatic limb amputations worldwide. However, compared to standard care practices, few advanced therapeutics effectively resolve these injuries stemming from cardiovascular disease, aging, and diabetes-related vasculopathies. While matrix turnover is disrupted in these injuries, debriding enzymes may promote healing by releasing matrix fragments that induce cell migration, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and plasma products may also stimulate these processes. Thus, we created matrix- and plasma-derived peptides, Comb1 and UN3, which induce cellular injury responses in vitro, and accelerate healing in rodent models of non-healing wounds. However, the effects of these peptides in non-healing wounds in diabetes are not known. Here, we interrogated whether these peptides stimulate healing in a diabetic porcine model highly reminiscent of human healing impairments in type 1 and type 2-diabetes. After 3-6 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, full-thickness wounds were surgically created on the backs of adult female Yorkshire swine under general anesthesia. Comb1 and UN3 peptides or sterile saline (negative control) were administered to wounds daily for 3-7 days. Following sacrifice, wound tissues were harvested, and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for wound closure, angiogenesis and granulation tissue deposition, along with quantitative molecular analyses of factors critical for angiogenesis, epithelialization, and dermal matrix remodeling. Comb1 and UN3 significantly increase re-epithelialization and angiogenesis in diabetic porcine wounds, compared to saline-treated controls. Additionally, fluorescein-conjugated Comb1 labels keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells in porcine wounds, and Far western blotting reveals these cell populations express multiple fluorescein-Comb1-interacting proteins in vitro. Further

  8. Gene expression profiling of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis at homeostasis and in response to tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbusch, Marc; Rodler, Severin; Song, Shangqing; Romoli, Simone; Marschner, Julian A; Kraft, Franziska; Holderied, Alexander; Kumar, Santosh; Mulay, Shrikant R; Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Kumar Devarapu, Satish; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-12-22

    Notch and interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling are known to regulate tissue homeostasis and respond to injury in humans and mice, and the induction of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) ligands through Notch links the two pathways in a hierarchical fashion. However in adults, the species-, organ- and injury-specific gene expression of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis components is unknown. We therefore performed gene expression profiling of DLL1, DLL3, DLL4, DLK1, DLK2, JAG1, JAG2, Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, Notch4, ADAM17/TNF-α ADAM metalloprotease converting enzyme (TACE), PSEN1, basigin (BSG)/CD147, RBP-J, HES1, HES5, HEY1, HEYL, AHR, ARNT, ARNT2, CYP1A1, CYP24A1, IL-22, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL10RB, and STAT3 under homeostatic conditions in ten mature murine and human organs. Additionally, the expression of these genes was assessed in murine models of acute sterile inflammation and progressive fibrosis. We show that there are organ-specific gene expression profiles of the Notch-AhR-IL22 axis in humans and mice. Although there is an overall interspecies congruency, specific differences between human and murine expression signatures do exist. In murine tissues with AHR/ARNT expression CYP1A1 and IL-22 were correlated with HES5 and HEYL expression, while in human tissues no such correlation was found. Notch and AhR signaling are involved in renal inflammation and fibrosis with specific gene expression changes in each model. Despite the presence of all Notch pathway molecules in the kidney and a model-specific induction of Notch ligands, IL-22 was only up-regulated in acute inflammation, but rapidly down-regulated during regeneration. This implies that for targeting injury responses, e.g. via IL-22, species-specific differences, injury type and time points have to be considered. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajarem, Jamaan S.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. PMID:28588748

  10. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) For Soft Tissue Injuries (ASSERT): An Online Database Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, G; Hemmings, S; Maffulli, N

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue injuries and tendinopathies account for large numbers of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is popular, and effective in the management of chronic tendon conditions in the elbow, shoulder, and pain at and around the heel. Ethical approval was granted from the South East London Research Ethics Committee to implement a database for the Assessment of Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Soft Tissue Injuries (ASSERT) to prospectively collect information on the effectiveness of ESWT across the UK. All participants will give informed consent. All clinicians follow a standardised method of administration of the ESWT. The primary outcome measures are validated outcome measures specific to the condition being treated. A Visual Analogue Score for pain and the EuroQol will be completed alongside the condition specific outcome tool at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post treatment. The development of the ASSERT database will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of ESWT for patients suffering from chronic conditions (plantar fasciopathy, tennis elbow, Achilles tendinopathy, greater trochanter pain syndrome and patellar tendinopathy). The results will aid the clinicians in the decision making process when managing these patients.

  11. Functional Regulation of the Plasma Protein Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein by Zn2+ in Settings of Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Priebatsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn2+. HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interestingly, these processes are often associated with sites of tissue injury or tumour growth, where the concentration and distribution of Zn2+ is known to vary. Changes in Zn2+ levels have been shown to modify HRG function by altering its affinity for certain ligands and/or providing protection against proteolytic disassembly by serine proteases. This review focuses on the molecular interplay between HRG and Zn2+, and how Zn2+ binding modifies HRG-ligand interactions to regulate function in different settings of tissue injury.

  12. The iliac wing sign: An indicator of the presence of bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakigi, Takahide, E-mail: t.a.kakigi@dance.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Ibaraki Hospital, 2-1-45 Mitsukeyama, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0035 (Japan); Hosono, Makoto, E-mail: hosono@med.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hiraoka, Taizo; Nishimura, Kazumasa [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Ibaraki Hospital, 2-1-45 Mitsukeyama, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0035 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of using the “iliac wing sign (IWS)” as an indicator of bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. IWS means edema of the iliacus muscle attachment entering the iliac wing that is visualized as a linear high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images. Methods: Consecutive 106 patients who complained of hip pain were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the correlation between IWS and bone and/or soft-tissue injury of the pelvis and hips using Fisher's exact test. Further, performance parameters of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of IWS were calculated. Results: Thirty-eight of the 106 (36%) patients had bone and/or soft-tissue injury. Twenty-seven of these 38 (71%) patients with injury showed a positive IWS, while only 11 of 68 (16%) patients without injury showed a positive IWS (p < .0001). IWS, thus, yielded a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 84%, accuracy of 79%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 71%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 84%. Conclusion: In cases with a positive IWS, the careful interpretation of MR images is needed because injury presence is highly likely, as suggested by the relatively high sensitivity and PPV. IWS absence may mean a low probability of injury because of the high specificity and NPV.

  13. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  14. A systematic review of extravasation and local tissue injury from administration of vasopressors through peripheral intravenous catheters and central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubani, Osama M; Green, Robert S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to collect and describe all published reports of local tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via either peripheral intravenous (IV) or central venous catheter. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed from inception through January 2014 for reports of adults who received vasopressor intravenously via peripheral IV or central venous catheter for a therapeutic purpose. We included primary studies or case reports of vasopressor administration that resulted in local tissue injury or extravasation of vasopressor solution. Eighty-five articles with 270 patients met all inclusion criteria. A total of 325 separate local tissue injury and extravasation events were identified, with 318 events resulting from peripheral vasopressor administration and 7 events resulting from central administration. There were 204 local tissue injury events from peripheral administration of vasopressors, with an average duration of infusion of 55.9 hours (±68.1), median time of 24 hours, and range of 0.08 to 528 hours. In most of these events (174/204, 85.3%), the infusion site was located distal to the antecubital or popliteal fossae. Published data on tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs are derived mainly from case reports. Further study is warranted to clarify the safety of vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study on tissue phantoms to understand the effect of injury and suturing on human skin mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Flynn, Zachary; Lackey, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries. In the literature, phenomenological two-dimensional computational skin models have been developed to study the mechanics of wound closure. Additionally, the effect of skin pre-stress (due to the natural tension of the skin) on wound closure mechanics has been studied. However, in most of these analyses, idealistic two-dimensional skin geometries, materials and loads have been assumed, which are far from reality, and would clearly generate inaccurate quantitative results. In this work, for the first time, a biofidelic human skin tissue phantom was developed using a two-part silicone material. A wound was created on the phantom material and sutures were placed to close the wound. Uniaxial mechanical tests were carried out on the phantom specimens to study the effect of varying wound size, quantity, suture and pre-stress on the mechanical behavior of human skin. Also, the average mechanical behavior of the human skin surrogate was characterized using hyperelastic material models, in the presence of a wound and sutures. To date, such a robust experimental study on the effect of injury and sutures on human skin mechanics has not been attempted. The results of this novel investigation will provide important guidelines for surgical planning and validation of results from computational models in the future.

  16. Analysis of the Arthroscopically Diagnosed Soft-Tissue Injuries Associated With the Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Katerina Kasapinova

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of the associated soft-tissue lesions in distal radius fractures is high. Ulnar styloid fracture was identified as risk factor for associated LT lesion, as well as combined lesion of both scapholunate and luntriquetral ligament.

  17. Ligamentous Injuries and the Risk of Associated Tissue Damage in Acute Ankle Sprains in Athletes: A Cross-sectional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Frank W; Jomaah, Nabil; Niu, Jingbo; Almusa, Emad; Roger, Bernard; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Geertsema, Celeste; Tol, Johannes L; Khan, Karim; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Ankle joint injuries are extremely common sports injuries, with the anterior talofibular ligament involved in the majority of ankle sprains. There have been only a few large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on associated structural injuries after ankle sprains. To describe the injury pattern in athletes who were referred to MRI for the assessment of an acute ankle sprain and to assess the risk of associated traumatic tissue damage including lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 261 ankle MRI scans of athletes with acute ankle sprains were evaluated for: lateral and syndesmotic ligament injury; concomitant injuries to the deltoid and spring ligaments and sinus tarsi; peroneal, flexor, and extensor retinacula and tendons; traumatic and nontraumatic osteochondral and osseous changes; and joint effusion. Patients were on average 22.5 years old, and the average time from injury to MRI was 5.7 days. Six exclusive injury patterns were defined based on lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. The risk for associated injuries was assessed by logistic regression using ankles with no or only low-grade lateral ligament injuries and no syndesmotic ligament damage as the reference. With regard to the injury pattern, there were 103 ankles (39.5%) with complete anterior talofibular ligament disruption and no syndesmotic injury, and 53 ankles (20.3%) had a syndesmotic injury with or without lateral ligament damage. Acute osteochondral lesions of the lateral talar dome were seen in 20 ankles (7.7%). The percentage of chronic lateral osteochondral lesions was 1.1%. The risk for talar bone contusions increased more than 3-fold for ankles with complete lateral ligament ruptures (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.43; 95% CI, 1.72-6.85) but not for ankles with syndesmotic involvement. The risk for associated deltoid ligament injuries increased for ankles with complete lateral ligament injuries (aOR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1

  18. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  19. Mobilization of Circulating Vascular Progenitors in Cancer Patients Receiving External Beam Radiation in Response to Tissue Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, David S.; Morgan, Scott C.; Birch, Paul E.; Yang, Lin; Halpenny, Michael J.; Gunanayagam, Angelo; Li Yuhua; Eapen, Libni

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial-like vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) are associated with the repair of ischemic tissue injury in several clinical settings. Because the endothelium is a principal target of radiation injury, VPCs may be important in limiting toxicity associated with radiotherapy (RT) in patients with cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 30 patients undergoing RT for skin cancer (n = 5), head-and-neck cancer (n = 15), and prostate cancer (n = 10) prospectively, representing a wide range of irradiated mucosal volumes. Vascular progenitor cell levels were enumerated from peripheral blood at baseline, midway through RT, at the end of treatment, and 4 weeks after radiation. Acute toxicity was graded at each time point by use of the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3.0. Results: Significant increases in the proportion of CD34 + /CD133 + VPCs were observed after completion of RT, from 0.012% at baseline to 0.048% (p = 0.029), and the increase in this subpopulation was most marked in patients with Grade 2 peak toxicity or greater after RT (p = 0.034). Similarly, CD34 + /vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive VPCs were increased after the completion of radiation therapy in comparison to baseline (from 0.014% to 0.027%, p = 0.043), and there was a trend toward greater mobilization in patients with more significant toxicity (p = 0.08). The mobilization of CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells did not increase after treatment (p = 0.58), and there was no relationship with toxicity. Conclusions: We suggest that VPCs may play an important role in reducing radiation-induced tissue damage. Interventions that increase baseline VPC levels or enhance their mobilization and recruitment in response to RT may prove useful in facilitating more rapid and complete tissue healing.

  20. New products tissue-engineering in the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, I. N.; Sergienko, V. I.; Kiselev, S. L.; Lagarkova, M. A.; Remigaylo, A. A.; Mihaylov, A. A.; Prokopenko, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In the treatment of patients with complicated spinal cord injury the Russian Health spends about one million rubles for each patient in the acute and the interim period after the injury. The number of complicated spinal cord injury is different in geographical areas Russian Federation from 30 to 50 people per 1 million that is affected by the year 5600. Applied to the present surgical and pharmacological techniques provide unsatisfactory results or minimally effective treatment. Transplantation of 100 thousand neuronal mouse predecessors (24 rats) or human neuronal predecessors (18 rats) in the anatomical gap rat spinal cord, followed by analysis of neurological deficit. The neuro-matrix implantation in the rat spinal cord containing 100 thousand neuronal precursors hESC, repeatable control neuro-matrix transplantation, non-cell mass, eliminating neurological deficit for 14 weeks after transplantation about 5-9 points on the scale of the BBB. The cultivation under conditions in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cells on collagen-chitosan matrix (hIPSC) showed that neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells grown on scaffolds as compact groups and has no neurites. Cells do not penetrate into the matrix during long-term cultivation and formed near the surface of the spherical structures resembling neurospheres. At least 90% of the cells were positive for the neuronal marker tubulin b3. Further studies should be performed to examine the compatibility of neuronal cultures and matrices.

  1. Protective effect of gel form of gastric gavage applicated aloe vera on ischemia reperfusion injury in renal and lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hasan; Yener, Ali Umit; Karaboga, Ihsan; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Dogu, Tugba; Altinisik, Hatice Betul; Altinisik, Ugur; Simsek, Tuncer

    2017-12-30

    The aloe vera plant has become increasingly popular in recent years. This study aimed to research the effect of aloe vera to prevent renal and lung tissue damage in an experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. The study included 21 male Wistar Albino rats, which were categorized into control group, n = 7 (no procedures), Sham group n = 7 (I/R); and aloe vera therapy group, n = 7 (aloe vera and I/R). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated from lung and kidney tissues for biochemical investigations. As histopathological, hematoxylin and eosin and anti-iNOS were also examined. In biochemical investigations, SOD, CAT, and GPx levels of the Sham group were found to be lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The aloe vera therapy group was not statistically different from control groups but significantly different compared with the Sham group. In the same way, the MDA levels of kidney and lung tissues were statistically significant in the aloe vera therapy group, compared to the Sham group. In the Sham group, the peribronchial and perialveolar edema were observed in lung parenchyma. Also, excess interstitial hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, and alveolar wall thickening were identified in ischemic groups. The histopathological changes were much lighter than in the aloe vera therapy group. In renal tissues, excess epithelial cell deterioration, tubular desqumination, and glomerular atrophy were observed in the Sham group. The histopathological changes were markedly reduced in the aloe vera therapy  group. In the kidney and lung tissue, the level of iNOS activity in the Sham group was significantly higher than in the control and aloe vera therapy group. This study indicated that aloe vera is protective against oxidative damage formed by I/R in distant organs like the lungs and kidneys.

  2. Aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor promotes urine prostasin through glomerular barrier injury and not tissue abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, B.; Schwarzensteiner, I.

    2015-01-01

    with placebo or the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone. Western immunoblotting of creatinine-normalized urine samples was performed from placebo and spironolactone treated patients with and without albuminuria. Tissue prostasin was measured in membranes from human nephrectomy recieving either ACE......-i/ANGII or no antihypertensive treatment prior to operation. Urine and tissue prostasin was measured in puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome rats. Results: Plasma prostasin concentration increased significantly with spironolactone but was not changed with placebo. Urine prostasin concentration was below detection limit....... Puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats was associated with significant increase in u-prostasin while kidney tissue prostasin protein abundance was not changed. Prostasin protein abundance was similar in membranes from human nephrectomy homogenate from patients treated preoperatively with ACE...

  3. A Review of the Literature Refuting the Concept of Minor Impact Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Centeno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minor impact soft tissue (MIST is an insurance industry concept that seeks to identify late whiplash as a psychosocial phenomenon. However, the medical literature in this area has not been systematically reviewed since the Quebec Task Force's review in 1995.

  4. A Standardized Rat Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury for the Development of Tissue Engineering Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    appropriate sample size and dura- tion required to adequately characterize a treatment. Further compounding the need for a standard preclinical VML...al. In vivo tissue engineer- ing of functional skeletal muscle by freshly isolated satellite cells embedded in a photopolymerizable hydrogel. FASEB J

  5. Improving Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Vascularized Composite Tissue Allotransplantation Via Histone Deacetylase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    animal colony maintenance, tissue fixation and staining – 1 month Scott Levin – consultative support and VCA surgical advisory capacity – 0 months Seth...paraffin embedded for histopathology. • Histopathology was scored in a blinded fashion on an accepted scale for amount of muscle necrosis2, 3

  6. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  7. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  8. Results of Posterior Dislocation of Elbow Associated with Bony and Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Bhavsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Elbow trauma is challenging to manage by virtue of its complex articular structure and capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous arrangements. We included 17 patients with elbow dislocation and associated injuries in this study. The study protocol included early elbow reduction and planned fixation of the medial or lateral condyle, coronoid and radial head. The sample was 73% male and 27% female with mean duration follow-up of 8 months, and mean age of 37 years. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 96 points at conclusion of follow-up, indicating an excellent result in 14 patients. Whenever the radial head was excised, we performed a strong transosseous ligamentous repair of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Fixation of the coronoid is essential for elbow stability. A small avulsed fragment can be fixed using an ACL jig. We found this technique very useful. Early planned intervention, stable fixation, and repair provide sufficient stability and enhance functional outcomes.

  9. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Michelle E.; Requena, Daniela F.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Casper, T. Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimen...

  10. Tissue kallikrein protects neurons from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell injury through Homer1b/c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingjing; Tang, Yuping; Zhou, Houguang; Liu, Ling; Dong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that human tissue kallikrein (TK) gene delivery protects against mouse cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) activation. We have also reported that exogenous TK administration can suppress glutamate- or acidosis-induced neurotoxicity through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. To further explore the neuroprotection mechanisms of TK, in the present study we performed immunoprecipitation analysis and identified a scaffolding protein Homer1b/c using MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TK reduces cell injury induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) through activating Homer1b/c. We found that TK increased the expression of Homer1b/c in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, TK facilitated the translocation of Homer1b/c to the plasma membrane under OGD/R condition by confocal microscope assays. We also observed that overexpression of Homer1b/c showed the neuroprotection against OGD/R-induced cell injury by enhancing cell survival, reducing LDH release, caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis. However, the knockdown of Homer1b/c by small interfering RNA showed the opposite effects, indicating that Homer1b/c had protective effects against OGD/R-induced neuronal injury. More interestingly, TK exerted its much more significantly neuroprotective effects after Homer1b/c overexpression, whereas it exerted its reduced effects after Homer1b/c knockdown. In addition, TK pretreatment increased the phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and Akt-GSK3β through Homer1b/c activation. The beneficial effects of Homer1b/c were abolished by the ERK1/2 or PI3K antagonist. Therefore, we propose novel signaling mechanisms involved in the anti-hypoxic function of TK through activation of Homer1b/c-ERK1/2 and Homer1b/c-PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  12. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kevin K C; Graham, Colin A; Lo, Ronson S L; Leung, Yuk Ki; Leung, Ling Yan; Man, S Y; Woo, W K; Cattermole, Giles N; Rainer, Timothy H

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED), often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control. To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs. Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis. There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days. There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658).

  13. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  14. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  15. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peng; Zhu Lielie; Zhang Jiasheng; Xie Songling; Pan Da; Wen Hao; Meng Weiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN) in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36),RSTN group (n=36) and sham operation group (n=6).Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat.At respectively 12 h,24 h,72 h,1 w,2 w,and 4 w after operation,venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled.We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles,western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value) was also conducted.The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed.Results:Compared with sham operation group,the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05),and reduced Q value (P<0.05) in traumatic group.Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001) in traumatic group.Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism.RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI.

  16. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth.

  17. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Toxic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koellensperger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the persisting lack of donor organs and the risks of allotransplantations, the possibility of liver regeneration with autologous stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC is an intriguing alternative. Using a model of a toxic liver damage in Sprague Dawley rats, generated by repetitive intraperitoneal application of retrorsine and allyl alcohol, the ability of human ADSC to support the restoration of liver function was investigated. A two-thirds hepatectomy was performed, and human ADSC were injected into one remaining liver lobe in group 1 (n = 20. Injection of cell culture medium performed in group 2 (n = 20 served as control. Cyclosporine was applied to achieve immunotolerance. Blood samples were drawn weekly after surgery to determine liver-correlated blood values. Six and twelve weeks after surgery, animals were sacrificed and histological sections were analyzed. ADSC significantly raised postoperative albumin (P < 0.017, total protein (P < 0.031, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.001, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.04 levels compared to injection of cell culture medium alone. Transplanted cells could be found up to twelve weeks after surgery in histological sections. This study points towards ADSC being a promising alternative to hepatocyte or liver organ transplantation in patients with severe liver failure.

  18. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  19. Effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell injury in patients with diabetes after PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Ren1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell damage in patients with diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Methods: 68 patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus who received PCI in our hospital between May 2011 and September 2015 were collected and then divided into observation group and control group (n=34 according to the single-blind randomized control method. Control group of patients received PCI alone, and the observation group of patients received nicorandil therapy after PCI. After treatment, real-time myocardial ultrasound contrast was used to evaluate the myocardial perfusion of two groups of patients; blood biochemical analyzer was used to detect the contents of peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes; the ELISA method was used to detect the contents of serum oxidative stress indicators; RIA method was used to detect the contents of serum apoptosis molecules. Results: After treatment, the myocardial tissue perfusion parameters plateau peak intensity (A, slope rate of curve (β and myocardial blood flow (A×β levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, troponin I (cTnI and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT contents of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vitamin E (VitE and vitamin C (VitC contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, soluble apoptosis-associated factor (sFas and soluble apoptosis-associated factor ligand (sFasL contents were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjuvant nicorandil therapy can improve the myocardial perfusion and reduce the myocardial cell injury in patients with coronary

  20. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  1. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    2007;25(1):97-98. [19] Stewart C. Blast Injuries. Colorado Springs: USAF Academy Hospital; 2006. 88 p. [20] Cernak I, Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J...Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J. Ultrastructural and Functional Characteristics of Blast Injury- Induced Neurotrauma. Journal of Trauma: Injury

  2. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongtao; Zheng, Maohua; Wang, Yanmin; Diao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Wanyong; Wei, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2) in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT) for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome.

  3. Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarberg, B H; Argoff, C E

    2010-10-01

    Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR(®) Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  5. Prognostic value of changes in brain tissue oxygen pressure before and after decompressive craniectomy following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubillo, Santiago T; Parrilla, Dácil M; Blanco, José; Morera, Jesús; Dominguez, Jaime; Belmonte, Felipe; López, Patricia; Molina, Ismael; Ruiz, Candelaria; Clemente, Francisco J; Godoy, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE In severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the effects of decompressive craniectomy (DC) on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO 2 ) and outcome are unclear. The authors aimed to investigate whether changes in PbtO 2 after DC could be used as an independent prognostic factor. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective, observational study at 2 university hospital ICUs. The study included 42 patients who were admitted with isolated moderate or severe TBI and underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbtO 2 monitoring before and after DC. The indication for DC was an ICP higher than 25 mm Hg refractory to first-tier medical treatment. Patients who underwent primary DC for mass lesion evacuation were excluded. However, patients were included who had undergone previous surgery as long as it was not a craniectomy. ICP/PbtO 2 monitoring probes were located in an apparently normal area of the most damaged hemisphere based on cranial CT scanning findings. PbtO 2 values were routinely recorded hourly before and after DC, but for comparisons the authors used the first PbtO 2 value on ICU admission and the number of hours with PbtO 2 areas under the curve for the mean PbtO 2 values at 12 and 24 hours after DC were 0.878 (95% CI 0.75-1, p areas of the most damaged hemisphere, have independent prognostic value for the 6-month outcome in TBI patients.

  6. Hippocampal Dysfunction Provoked by Mercury Chloride Exposure: Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative Stress, Tissue Injury and Nature of Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic metal, which can be found in its inorganic form in the environment. This form presents lower liposolubility and lower absorption in the body. In order to elucidate the possible toxicity of inorganic Hg in the hippocampus, we investigated the potential of low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2 to promote hippocampal dysfunction by employing a chronic exposure model. For this, 56 rats were exposed to HgCl2 (0.375 mg/kg/day via the oral route for 45 days. After the exposure period, the animals were submitted to the cognitive test of fear memory. The hippocampus was collected for the measurement of total Hg levels, analysis of oxidative stress, and evaluation of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and tissue injury. It was observed that chronic exposure to inorganic Hg promotes an increase in mercury levels in this region and damage to short- and long-term memory. Furthermore, we found that this exposure model provoked oxidative stress, which led to cytotoxicity and cell death by apoptosis, affecting astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampus. Our study demonstrated that inorganic Hg, even with its low liposolubility, is able to produce deleterious effects in the central nervous system, resulting in cognitive impairment and hippocampal damage when administered for a long time at low doses in rats.

  7. Inflammatory and apoptotic alterations in serum and injured tissue after experimental polytrauma in mice: distinct early response compared with single trauma or "double-hit" injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Hohmann, Christoph; Braumueller, Sonja; Denk, Stephanie; Klohs, Bettina; Stahel, Philip F; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Perl, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The exact alterations of the immune system after polytrauma leading to sepsis and multiple-organ failure are poorly understood. Thus, the early local and systemic inflammatory and apoptotic response was characterized in a new polytrauma model and compared with the alterations seen after single or combined injuries. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either blunt bilateral chest trauma (Tx), closed head injury, right femur fracture including contralateral soft tissue injury, or a combination of injuries (PTx). After 2 hours or 6 hours, animals were sacrificed, and the systemic as well as the local pulmonary immune response (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]/plasma cytokines, lung myeloperoxidase [MPO] activity, and alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction) were evaluated along with lung/brain apoptosis (lung caspase 3 Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN] Annexin V). Hemoglobin, PO2 saturation, and pH did not differ between the experimental groups. Local BAL cytokines/chemokines were significantly increased in almost all groups, which included Tx. There was no further enhancement of this local inflammatory response in the lungs in case of PTx. At 2 hours, all groups except sham and closed head injury alone revealed an increased activity of lung MPO. However, 6 hours after injury, lung MPO remained increased only in the PTx group. Increased BAL protein levels were found, reflecting enhanced lung leakage in all groups with Tx 6 hours after trauma. Only after PTx was neutrophil apoptosis significantly decreased, whereas lung caspase 3 and plasma interleukin 6/keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) were substantially increased. The combination of different injuries leads to an earlier systemic inflammatory response when compared with the single insults. Interestingly, only after PTx but not after single or double hits was lung apoptosis increased, and PMN apoptosis was decreased along with a prolonged presence of neutrophils in the

  8. The role of platelet factor 4 in local and remote tissue damage in a mouse model of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Lapchak

    Full Text Available The robust inflammatory response that occurs during ischemia reperfusion (IR injury recruits factors from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. However the contribution of platelets and their products such as Platelet Factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4, during the pathogenesis of IR injury has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that a deficiency in PF4 protects mice from local and remote tissue damage after 30 minutes of mesenteric ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion in PF4-/- mice compared to control B6 mice. This protection was independent from Ig or complement deposition in the tissues. However, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration were decreased in the lungs of PF4-/- mice compared with B6 control mice. Platelet-depleted B6 mice transfused with platelets from PF4-/- mice displayed reduced tissue damage compared with controls. In contrast, transfusion of B6 platelets into platelet depleted PF4-/- mice reconstituted damage in both intestine and lung tissues. We also show that PF4 may modulate the release of IgA. Interestingly, we show that PF4 expression on intestinal epithelial cells is increased after IR at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that may PF4 represent an important mediator of local and remote tissue damage.

  9. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K C Hung

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED, often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control.To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs.Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis.There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days.There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED.The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658.

  10. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX® on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®, was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL, ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX ® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC. At opposite toe off (OT and heel rise (HR, differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either UCX® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented

  11. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Ma Dongmei; Feng Jianzhong; Liu Jiangyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress tissue factor overexpression in rat balloon injury model with paclitaxel infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bean Park

    Full Text Available The role and underlying mechanisms of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ agonist, on myocardial infarction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of this PPAR-γ agonist on the expression of tissue factor (TF, a primary molecule for thrombosis, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. The PPAR-γ agonist inhibited TF expression in response to TNF-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocytic leukemia cell line, and human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. The overexpression of TF was mediated by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist. The effective MAPK differed depending on each cell type. Luciferase and ChIP assays showed that transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1, was a pivotal target of the PPAR-γ agonist to lower TF transcription. Intriguingly, two main drugs for drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel or rapamycin, significantly exaggerated thrombin-induced TF expression, which was also effectively blocked by the PPAR-γ agonist in all cell types. This PPAR-γ agonist did not impair TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI in three cell types. In rat balloon injury model (Sprague-Dawley rats, n = 10/group with continuous paclitaxel infusion, the PPAR-γ agonist attenuated TF expression by 70±5% (n = 4; P<0.0001 in injured vasculature. Taken together, rosiglitazone reduced TF expression in three critical cell types involved in vascular thrombus formation via MAPK and AP-1 inhibitions. Also, this PPAR-γ agonist reversed the paclitaxel-induced aggravation of TF expression, which suggests a possibility that the benefits might outweigh its risks in a group of patients with paclitaxel-eluting stent implanted.

  13. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, Jerry R.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature gymnast: spectrum of soft-tissue and osseous lesions in the hand and wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [Department of Radiology, Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Cardoso, Fabiano; Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    In the pediatric gymnast, stress-related physeal injuries have been well described with characteristic imaging findings. However, a spectrum of overuse injuries, some rarely reported in the literature, can be encountered in the gymnast's hand and wrist. To demonstrate the MR appearance of a spectrum of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature wrist and hand of pediatric gymnasts. A total of 125 MR exams of the hand and wrist in skeletally immature children were performed at our institution during a 2-year period. Clinical histories were reviewed for gymnastics participation. MR studies of that subpopulation were reviewed and abnormalities tabulated. Of the MR studies reviewed, ten gymnasts were identified, all girls age 12-16 years (mean age 14.2 years) who presented with wrist or hand pain. Three of these children had bilateral MR exams. Abnormalities included chronic physeal injuries in three children. Two girls exhibited focal lunate osteochondral defects. Triangular fibrocartilage tears were present in three girls, one of whom had a scapholunate ligament tear. Two girls manifested metacarpal head flattening and necrosis. A variety of soft-tissue and osseous lesions can be encountered in the skeletally immature gymnast. Familiarity with these stress-related injuries is important for accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Multifidus Muscle Changes After Back Injury Are Characterized by Structural Remodeling of Muscle, Adipose and Connective Tissue, but Not Muscle Atrophy: Molecular and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; James, Gregory; Blomster, Linda; Hall, Leanne; Schmid, Annina; Shu, Cindy; Little, Chris; Melrose, James

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal case-controlled animal study. To investigate putative cellular mechanisms to explain structural changes in muscle and adipose and connective tissues of the back muscles after intervertebral disc (IVD) injury. Structural back muscle changes are ubiquitous with back pain/injury and considered relevant for outcome, but their exact nature, time course, and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. We used an animal model that produces phenotypic back muscle changes after IVD injury to study these issues at the cellular/molecular level. Multifidus muscle was harvested from both sides of the spine at L1-L2 and L3-L4 IVDs in 27 castrated male sheep at 3 (n = 10) or 6 (n = 17) months after a surgical anterolateral IVD injury at both levels. Ten control sheep underwent no surgery (3 mo, n = 4; 6 mo, n = 6). Tissue was harvested at L4 for histological analysis of cross-sectional area of muscle and adipose and connective tissue (whole muscle), plus immunohistochemistry to identify proportion and cross-sectional area of individual muscle fiber types in the deepest fascicle. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measured gene expression of typical cytokines/signaling molecules at L2. Contrary to predictions, there was no multifidus muscle atrophy (whole muscle or individual fiber). There was increased adipose and connective tissue (fibrotic proliferation) cross-sectional area and slow-to-fast muscle fiber transition at 6 but not 3 months. Within the multifidus muscle, increases in the expression of several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) and molecules that signal trophic/atrophic processes for the 3 tissue types (e.g., growth factor pathway [IGF-1, PI3k, Akt1, mTOR], potent tissue modifiers [calcineurin, PCG-1α, and myostatin]) were present. This study provides cellular evidence that refutes the presence of multifidus muscle atrophy accompanying IVD degeneration at this intermediate time point. Instead, adipose/connective tissue increased in

  16. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... the foot Elevating the foot Keeping the foot dry and ... impairs blood flow, avoiding smoking and using nicotine products may ...

  17. Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-06-01

    The diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2007 for the treatment of soft tissue injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions, although it has been available for many years in >40 countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in relieving acute pain caused by soft tissue injuries. The MEDLINE, Derwent Drug File, BIOSIS, and EMBASE databases were searched for literature published between 1984 and October 30, 2009, in any language, using the terms diclofenac epolamine patch, diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine patch, and FLECTOR Patch. Clinical studies of the efficacy and/or tolerability of the DETP in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries or localized periarticular disorders were included. Efficacy studies that enrolled patients with other medical conditions were excluded, except for reports that focused on tolerability, which were included to supplement tolerability data. The bibliographies of included studies were reviewed manually for relevant articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the manufacturer was contacted for additional relevant postmarketing surveillance information and presentations from scientific meetings. The search identified 6 placebo-controlled clinical studies, 1 active-comparator-controlled clinical study, and 1 open-label comparator clinical study of the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in patients with soft tissue injuries. Three studies reported on tolerability. Primary analyses among the 8 studies reported DETP-associated reductions in spontaneous pain from baseline, assessed using a visual analog scale, ranging from 26% to 88% on day 7 and 56% to 61% on day 14. The use of the DETP was associated with significantly greater reductions in pain scores compared with a placebo patch (2 studies) on day 7 (88% vs 74%; P = 0.001) and day 14 (56.5% vs 46.8%; P = 0.001) and compared with

  18. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  19. Palifermin for the protection and regeneration of epithelial tissues following injury: new findings in basic research and pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Paul W; Mark Cross, Lawrence J; McAuley, Daniel F; Farrell, Catherine L

    2013-09-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a paracrine-acting epithelial mitogen produced by cells of mesenchymal origin, that plays an important role in protecting and repairing epithelial tissues. Pre-clinical data initially demonstrated that a recombinant truncated KGF (palifermin) could reduce gastrointestinal injury and mortality resulting from a variety of toxic exposures. Furthermore, the use of palifermin in patients with hematological malignancies reduced the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis experienced after intensive chemoradiotherapy. Based upon these findings, as well as the observation that KGF receptors are expressed in many, if not all, epithelial tissues, pre-clinical studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of palifermin in protecting different epithelial tissues from toxic injury in an attempt to model various clinical situations in which it might prove to be of benefit in limiting tissue damage. In this article, we review these studies to provide the pre-clinical background for clinical trials that are described in the accompanying article and the rationale for additional clinical applications of palifermin. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on NO and the expression of caspase-3 in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFon nitrogen monoxide(NOand expression of cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases-3(caspase-3in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury. METHODS: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, model group and PEDF group, with 20 rats in each group. Except the blank control group, the optic nerve crush injury rat models were established in the other groups, and left eyeballs were taken as samples. After successfully modeling, the model group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of balanced salt solution while PEDF group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of PEDF(0.2μg/μL. Two weeks later, the retinal tissues were collected, and changes of shape were observed under microscope after HE staining. The changes of NO level were measured by colorimetry assay, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 protein was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand Western-blot. RESULTS: HE staining showed that retinal tissues of the blank control group arranged neatly and clearly. Retinal ganglion cells(RGCsarranged in a monolayer, and cells were oval, uniform in size and distribution, the cell nuclei were clear, closely arranged, with clear boundaries. The retinal tissues of the model group were sparse in shape, RGCs showed vacuolar changes, the overall number of cells was reduced, and cell nuclei of residual RGCs showed pyknosis and uneven staining. RGCs in PEDF group were with slightly edema and arranged closely, and the degree of injury was significantly milder than that in the model group. Levels of Caspase-3 mRNA and protein and NO levels in the three groups showed the model group > PEDF group > blank control group(all P CONCLUSION: The application of PEDF can down regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and NO in rates with optic nerve injury and reduce RGCs injury.

  1. Ruscogenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice: involvement of tissue factor, inducible NO synthase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Chen, Ling; Gao, Mengyu; Jiang, Wenwen; Shao, Fangxian; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury is still a significant clinical problem with a high mortality rate and there are few effective therapies in clinic. Here, we studied the inhibitory effect of ruscogenin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic natural product, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice basing on our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of ruscogenin significantly decreased lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg 1 h prior to LPS challenge (30 mg/kg, intravenous injection). Histopathological changes such as pulmonary edema, coagulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also attenuated by ruscogenin. In addition, ruscogenin markedly decreased LPS-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitrate/nitrite content, and also downregulated expression of tissue factor (TF), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p-p65 (Ser 536) in the lung tissue at three doses. Furthermore, ruscogenin reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity and nitrate/nitrite content in LPS-induced ALI mice. These findings confirmed that ruscogenin significantly attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, indicating it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-Immunogenic Structurally and Biologically Intact Tissue Matrix Grafts for the Immediate Repair of Ballistic-Induced Vascular and Nerve Tissue Injury in Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachrach, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    .... This past year the source of he defects was determined to be the freeze-drying process. Ongoing efforts toward process optimization and design modifications that will provide undamaged tissue grafts are presented in this report...

  3. The role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with soft tissue injuries: experience from the second Israel-Lebanon war, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharony, Zach; Eldor, Liron; Klein, Yuval; Ramon, Yitzchak; Rissin, Yaron; Berger, Yosef; Lerner, Alexander; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    During the 2006 war between Israel and Lebanon, 282 Israeli soldiers were evacuated to Rambam Health Care Campus. Of these, 210 were admitted for observation or treatment, and 15 of these were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Thirty-five other soldiers, hospitalized in other departments, required the care of Plastic Surgeons, either for conservative or surgical treatment. The injury profile observed was consistent with data from previous low-intensity warfare, which demonstrated that over 80% of injuries were produced by fragmentation weapons, such as artillery, mortarshells, rockets, and missiles. It differs, however, from our experience in previous wars and our expectations regarding burn wounds, both in incidence and severity, which were significantly lower as compared with the past. This article presents our management of extensive soft tissue injuries, and details 3 representative cases. It highlights the role of the Plastic Surgeon as part of the whole treatment in this type of injury and helps to predict the needs of the medical system in preparation for the future.

  4. Inhibition of COX1/2 alters the host response and reduces ECM scaffold mediated constructive tissue remodeling in a rodent model of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth, Christopher L; Slivka, Peter F; Stewart, Scott A; Keane, Timothy J; Tay, Justin K; Londono, Ricardo; Goh, Qingnian; Pizza, Francis X; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been used as a biologic scaffold material to both reinforce the surgical repair of soft tissue and serve as an inductive template to promote a constructive tissue remodeling response. Success of such an approach is dependent on macrophage-mediated degradation and remodeling of the biologic scaffold. Macrophage phenotype during these processes is a predictive factor of the eventual remodeling outcome. ECM scaffolds have been shown to promote an anti-inflammatory or M2-like macrophage phenotype in vitro that includes secretion of downstream products of cycolooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX1/2). The present study investigated the effect of a common COX1/2 inhibitor (Aspirin) on macrophage phenotype and tissue remodeling in a rodent model of ECM scaffold treated skeletal muscle injury. Inhibition of COX1/2 reduced the constructive remodeling response by hindering myogenesis and collagen deposition in the defect area. The inhibited response was correlated with a reduction in M2-like macrophages in the defect area. The effects of Aspirin on macrophage phenotype were corroborated using an established in vitro macrophage model which showed a reduction in both ECM induced prostaglandin secretion and expression of a marker of M2-like macrophages (CD206). These results raise questions regarding the common peri-surgical administration of COX1/2 inhibitors when biologic scaffold materials are used to facilitate muscle repair/regeneration. COX1/2 inhibitors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are routinely administered post-surgically for analgesic purposes. While COX1/2 inhibitors are important in pain management, they have also been shown to delay or diminish the healing process, which calls to question their clinical use for treating musculotendinous injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of a common NSAID, Aspirin, on the constructive remodeling response mediated by an ECM scaffold (UBM) in a rat skeletal

  5. Effectiveness of rugby headgear in preventing soft tissue injuries to the head: a case-control and video cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Lyons, R A; Evans, R; Newcombe, R G; Nash, P; McCabe, M; Palmer, S R

    2004-04-01

    To determine if headgear use by rugby players was associated with a reduced risk of head or facial laceration, abrasion, or fracture. An emergency department based case-control study in South Wales, UK, with cases being rugby players treated for superficial head and facial injuries and controls being their matched opponents during the game. A review of videos of the 41 games in the 1999 Rugby World Cup was also carried out to compare with the case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to measure association between exposure (headgear wearing) and outcome (head and facial injuries). In the case-control study, 164 pairs were analysed, with headgear worn by 12.8% of cases and 21.3% of controls. Headgear use was associated with substantial but non-significant reductions in superficial head (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.19) and facial (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.46) injuries. The video study followed 547 players over 41 games, during which there were 47 bleeding injuries to the head. Headgear use significantly reduced the risk of bleeding head injury in forwards (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.99, p = 0.02), but not in backs. There was also a higher risk of facial injury among forwards, but this was not significant. The combined results suggest that headgear can prevent certain types of superficial head injuries in players at all levels of the game, but the evidence is strongest for superficial head injury in elite forwards. A randomised controlled trial would be the best way to study this further.

  6. Repair of full-thickness tendon injury using connective tissue progenitors efficiently derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Leshansky, Lucy; Zussman, Eyal; Burman, Michael; Srouji, Samer; Livne, Erella; Abramov, Natalie; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery.

  7. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  8. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    -rich plasma, in which the wide dynamic range of the native protein complement hinders classical proteomic investigations. We employed an ex vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using Langendorff buffer perfusion. Nonrecirculating perfusate was collected over a temporal profile...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified...... release using ex vivo buffer perfused tissue to limit the presence of obfuscating plasma proteins may identify candidates for further study in humans....

  9. Deep tissue injury in development of pressure ulcers: a decrease of inflammasome activation and changes in human skin morphology in response to aging and mechanical load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojadinovic

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms leading to pressure ulcer development are scarce in spite of high mortality of patients. Development of pressure ulcers that is initially observed as deep tissue injury is multifactorial. We postulate that biomechanical forces and inflammasome activation, together with ischemia and aging, may play a role in pressure ulcer development. To test this we used a newly-developed bio-mechanical model in which ischemic young and aged human skin was subjected to a constant physiological compressive stress (load of 300 kPa (determined by pressure plate analyses of a person in a reclining position for 0.5-4 hours. Collagen orientation was assessed using polarized light, whereas inflammasome proteins were quantified by immunoblotting. Loaded skin showed marked changes in morphology and NLRP3 inflammasome protein expression. Sub-epidermal separations and altered orientation of collagen fibers were observed in aged skin at earlier time points. Aged skin showed significant decreases in the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins. Loading did not alter NLRP3 inflammasome proteins expression in aged skin, whereas it significantly increased their levels in young skin. We conclude that aging contributes to rapid morphological changes and decrease in inflammasome proteins in response to tissue damage, suggesting that a decline in the innate inflammatory response in elderly skin could contribute to pressure ulcer pathogenesis. Observed morphological changes suggest that tissue damage upon loading may not be entirely preventable. Furthermore, newly developed model described here may be very useful in understanding the mechanisms of deep tissue injury that may lead towards development of pressure ulcers.

  10. Non-Immunogenic Structurally and Biologically Intact Tissue Matrix Grafts for the Immediate Repair of Ballistic-Induced Vascular and Nerve Tissue Injury in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    the absence of dilatation, aneurysm formation or neointimal hyperplasia . The 2003 report described the failure to provide appropriate carotid grafts...growth of fibrovascular tissue, sometimes accompanied by inflammatory cells and pigment-laden macrophages. Fragmentation of the umbilical vein...were also present within the device interstices. A fibrovascular stroma (all animals, mild to marked) was also noted within the lumen of the ePTFE

  11. Systematic Review on the Effects of Serious Games and Wearable Technology Used in Rehabilitation of Patients With Traumatic Bone and Soft Tissue Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Henriëtte A; Graafland, Maurits; Goslings, J Carel; Schijven, Marlies P

    2017-11-11

    To assess the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (ie, interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the "real world") currently used in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Current Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched without publication date restrictions for the terms wearable, serious game, videogame or mobile application, and rehabilitation, exercise therapy, and physiotherapy. The search yielded 2704 eligible articles, which were screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies comparing serious games to standard therapy were included. Methodology and results of the studies were critically appraised in conformity with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twelve articles were included, all of which tested "off-the-shelf" games. No studies on "wearable-controlled" games or games specifically developed for rehabilitation could be included. Medical conditions included postoperative rehabilitation and acute traumatic injuries. All studies were of low to moderate quality. Only 2 studies found beneficial effects of serious games compared to conventional therapy. One of 3 studies reporting pain scores found beneficial effects of serious games compared to physiotherapy. One of 5 trials reporting treatment adherence found a statistically significant advantage in the game group compared to conventional physiotherapy. Because of heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures, pooling of data was not possible. Serious games seem a safe alternative or addition to conventional physiotherapy after traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries. Future research should determine their validity and effectiveness in rehabilitation therapy, next to their cost-effectiveness and effect on treatment adherence. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  12. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  13. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  14. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  15. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  16. L-carnitine mitigates UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats through downregulation of oxidative stress, p38/c-Fos signaling, and the proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Samir A; Arab, Hany H; Omar, Hany A; Gad, Hesham S; Abd-Allah, Gamil M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Al Robaian, Majed M

    2018-04-01

    UVA comprises more than 90% of the solar UV radiation reaching the Earth. Artificial lightening lamps have also been reported to emit significant amounts of UVA. Exposure to UVA has been associated with dermatological disorders including skin cancer. At the molecular level, UVA damages different cellular biomolecules and triggers inflammatory responses. The current study was devoted to investigate the potential protective effect of L-carnitine against UVA-induced skin tissue injury using rats as a mammalian model. Rats were distributed into normal control group (NC), L-carnitine control group (LC), UVA-Exposed group (UVA), and UVA-Exposed and L-carnitine-treated group (UVA-LC). L-carnitine significantly attenuated UVA-induced elevation of the DNA damage markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as well as decreased DNA fragmentation and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, L-carnitine substantially reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) and protein oxidation marker (PCC) and significantly elevated the levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in the skin tissues. Interestingly, L-carnitine upregulated the level of the DNA repair protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Besides it mitigated the UVA-induced activation of the oxidative stress-sensitive signaling protein p38 and its downstream target c-Fos. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly downregulated the levels of the early response proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Collectively, our results highlight, for the first time, the potential attenuating effects of L-carnitine on UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats that is potentially mediated through suppression of UVA-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Zebrafish tissue injury causes upregulation of interleukin-1 and caspase-dependent amplification of the inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Ogryzko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1, the ‘gatekeeper’ of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 are tightly controlled, and dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates, in which a range and spectra of IL-1 secretion mechanisms have been described. We therefore investigated whether zebrafish embryos provide a suitable in vivo model for studying IL-1-mediated inflammation. Structurally, zebrafish IL-1β shares a β-sheet-rich trefoil structure with its human counterpart. Functionally, leukocyte expression of IL-1β was detectable only following injury, which activated leukocytes throughout zebrafish embryos. Migration of macrophages and neutrophils was attenuated by inhibitors of either caspase-1 or P2X7, which similarly inhibited the activation of NF-κB at the site of injury. Zebrafish offer a new and versatile model to study the IL-1β pathway in inflammatory disease and should offer unique insights into IL-1 biology in vivo.

  18. Zebrafish tissue injury causes upregulation of interleukin-1 and caspase-dependent amplification of the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogryzko, Nikolay V; Hoggett, Emily E; Solaymani-Kohal, Sara; Tazzyman, Simon; Chico, Timothy J A; Renshaw, Stephen A; Wilson, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1), the 'gatekeeper' of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 are tightly controlled, and dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates, in which a range and spectra of IL-1 secretion mechanisms have been described. We therefore investigated whether zebrafish embryos provide a suitable in vivo model for studying IL-1-mediated inflammation. Structurally, zebrafish IL-1β shares a β-sheet-rich trefoil structure with its human counterpart. Functionally, leukocyte expression of IL-1β was detectable only following injury, which activated leukocytes throughout zebrafish embryos. Migration of macrophages and neutrophils was attenuated by inhibitors of either caspase-1 or P2X7, which similarly inhibited the activation of NF-κB at the site of injury. Zebrafish offer a new and versatile model to study the IL-1β pathway in inflammatory disease and should offer unique insights into IL-1 biology in vivo.

  19. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP- guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg, and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU; demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  20. Baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  1. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  2. Histopathological and Follicular Atresia Assessment of Rat’s Ovarian Tissue Following Experimental Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Zarbakhsh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the important side effects in spinal cord injuries in both genders is sexual dysfunction. This study aimed at investigating histopathological changes of ovaries in the chronic phase after spinal cord injury. Methods Animals (adult female rats were divided to the following groups, Control (Co, Sham (Sh, and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI; each group contained 18 rats. The spinal cord of SCI animals was transected by the bilateral laminectomy method on level T9, while the rats of the sham group were incised in the same location without any spinal cord injury. Animals were sacrified at 7th, 14th and 21st day postsurgical intervention, then the body weight, and the weight and volume of ovaries were measured. The slices were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff methods. The histomorphometric changes of the diameter of the follicle and ovum, and the thickness of granulosa layer were measured in different kinds of follicles including, Unilaminar Primary Follicle (UPF, Multilaminar Primary Follicle (MPF, Secondary Follicle (SF, and Tertiary Follicle (TF. Results The results showed that the animal weights were decreased in three SCI groups (P = 0.018. In the SCI groups, the diameter of follicle and ovum and the thickness of granulosa layer were significantly decreased in different kinds of follicles (P = 0.012. Also the thickness of zona pellucida and theca interna were significantly decreased in UPF, SF, and TF in the SCI groups on 14th and 21st day (P = 0.024. The histopathologic examination revealed widespread ovarian follicle atresia in the SCI groups on the 14th and 21st day, including numerous cell debris and inflammatory cells in the antrum atretic follicles. The ovarian stroma showed edema, fibrosis, hypercellularity, and vasodilation in the SCI group, compared to the sham or control groups. Conclusions The histopathlogic data indicated that after spinal cord injury many histologic parameter changes occurred and

  3. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  4. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Lung Tissue in a Rat Acute Lung Injury Model: Identification of PRDX1 as a Promoter of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a high morbidity and mortality disease entity in critically ill patients, despite decades of numerous investigations into its pathogenesis. To obtain global protein expression changes in acute lung injury (ALI lung tissues, we employed a high-throughput proteomics method to identify key components which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we analyzed lung tissue proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced ALI rats and identified eighteen proteins whose expression levels changed more than twofold as compared to normal controls. In particular, we found that PRDX1 expression in culture medium was elevated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of PRDX1 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, whereas knockdown of PRDX1 led to downregulated expression of cytokines induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings provide a global alteration in the proteome of lung tissues in the ALI rat model and indicate that PRDX1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ARDS by promoting inflammation and represent a novel strategy for the development of new therapies against ALI.

  6. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  7. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  8. Efficacy and safety assessment of acute sports-related traumatic soft tissue injuries using a new ibuprofen medicated plaster: results from a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh; Giannetti, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a recently developed ibuprofen medicated plaster in the treatment of acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study (EudraCT Number: 2012-003257-2) patients (n = 132; ages 18 to 60 years) diagnosed with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion to the upper or lower limbs were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster (n = 64) or placebo plaster (n = 68). Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to 72 h (VAS 0-72 ). The ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with a reduction in pain on movement (POM) based on lower VAS AUC 0-72h (2399.4 mm*h) compared with placebo (4078.9 mm*h) (least squares mean difference: - 1679.5 mm*h; P ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with placebo at 12, 48, 24, and 120 h (P ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with greater reduction in tenderness/pain than placebo at each timepoint (P values ibuprofen plaster, and n = 6 [8.8%] for placebo). All drug-related AEs were administration site reactions and were mild in intensity. The results of this study indicate that ibuprofen medicated plaster results in rapid and clinically relevant reduction of pain in patients suffering from blunt musculoskeletal injuries or recurrent pain. The ibuprofen medicated plaster was well tolerated.

  9. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  10. [The role of disequilibrium of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and their tissue inhibitors in pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Zhu, Guang-fa; Liu, Shuang; Foda, Hussein D

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1/2) in pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperoxia. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hyperoxia for 24 hours group, hyperoxia for 48 hours group, and hyperoxia for 72 hours group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in hyperoxia groups were exposed to >98% oxygen in sealed cages, and the normal control group were placed outside of the cage to breathe room air. At the end of the exposure time the animals were euthanized, the right lung was removed and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was used to lavage the lung through the endotracheal catheter. The wet/dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content and the volume of pleural fluid were measured, the severity of lung injury was assessed; the expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 mRNA in lung tissue at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were assessed by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 protein in lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperoxia caused ALI as evidenced by the increase in lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF protein content and the volume of pleural fluid as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). RT-PCR study showed increased expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissues (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ELISA assay also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2/9 and an increase in TIMP-1 amount in BALF compared with their normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The ratios of both MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA and MMP-2 protein/TIMP-2 protein were all increased in hyperoxia groups as compared with their normal control group (all P<0.01). Hyperoxia causes ALI in mice, and disturbance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 balance plays an important role in the development of hyperoxia-induced ALI in mice.

  11. Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers Including Suspected Deep Tissue Injury in Nursing Home Facility Residents: Analysis of National Minimum Data Set 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyochol; Cowan, Linda; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra; Stechmiller, Joyce

    2016-04-01

    To provide information on risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home residents in the United States. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Examine the literature related to risk factors for the development of PrUs.2. Compare risk factors associated with the prevalence of PrUs and sDTI from the revised Minimum Data Set 3.0 2012 using a modified Defloor's conceptual model of PrUs as a theoretical framework. This study aims to characterize and compare risk factors associated with pressure ulcers (PrUs), including suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI), in nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Secondary analysis of the 2012 Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0). Medicare- or Medicaid-certified NHs in the United States. Nursing home residents (n = 2,936,146) 18 years or older with complete PrU data, who received comprehensive assessments from January to December 2012. Pressure ulcer by stage was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables (age, gender, race and ethnicity, body mass index, skin integrity, system failure, disease, infection, mobility, and cognition) from the MDS 3.0 were aligned with the 4 elements of Defloor's conceptual model: compressive forces, shearing forces, tissue tolerance for pressure, and tissue tolerance for oxygen. Of 2,936,146 NH residents who had complete data for PrU, 89.9% had no PrU; 8.4% had a Stage 2, 3, or 4 or unstagable PrU; and 1.7% had an sDTI. The MDS variables corresponding to the 4 elements of Defloor's model were significantly predictive of both PrU and sDTI. Black residents had the highest risk of any-stage PrU, and Hispanic residents had the highest risk of sDTI. Skin integrity, system failure, infection, and disease risk factors had larger effect sizes for sDTI than for other PrU stages

  12. Relative Tissue Factor Deficiency Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Coagulopathy but Does Not Protect against Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther K. Wolthuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventing tissue-factor-(TF- mediated systemic coagulopathy improves outcome in models of sepsis. Preventing TF-mediated pulmonary coagulopathy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. We investigated the effect of relative TF deficiency on pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation in a murine model of VILI. Heterozygous TF knockout (TF+/− mice and their wild-type (TF+/+ littermates were sedated (controls or sedated, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with either low or high tidal volumes for 5 hours. Mechanical ventilation resulted in pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation, with more injury after mechanical ventilation with higher tidal volumes. Compared with TF+/+ mice, TF+/− mice demonstrated significantly lower pulmonary thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in both ventilation groups. There were, however, no differences in lung wet-to-dry ratio, BALF total protein levels, neutrophil influx, and lung histopathology scores between TF+/− and TF+/+ mice. Notably, pulmonary levels of cytokines were significantly higher in TF+/− as compared to TF+/+ mice. Systemic levels of cytokines were not altered by the relative absence of TF. TF deficiency is associated with decreased pulmonary coagulation independent of the ventilation strategy. However, relative TF deficiency does not reduce VILI and actually results in higher pulmonary levels of inflammatory mediators.

  13. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J; Ruemmler, Robert; Russkamp, Norman F; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Standiford, Theodore J; Ward, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how complement activation promotes tissue injury and organ dysfunction during acute inflammation. Three models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by LPS, IgG immune complexes, or C5a were used in C57BL/6 mice, all models requiring availability of both C5a receptors (C5aR and C5L2) for full development of ALI. Ligation of C5aR and C5L2 with C5a triggered the appearance of histones (H3 and H4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). BALF from humans with ALI contained H4 histone. Histones were absent in control BALF from healthy volunteers. In mice with ALI, in vivo neutralization of H4 with IgG antibody reduced the intensity of ALI. Neutrophil depletion in mice with ALI markedly reduced H4 presence in BALF and was highly protective. The direct lung damaging effects of extracellular histones were demonstrated by airway administration of histones into mice and rats (Sprague-Dawley), which resulted in ALI that was C5a receptor-independent, and associated with intense inflammation, PMN accumulation, damage/destruction of alveolar epithelial cells, together with release into lung of cytokines/chemokines. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lung damage, edema and consolidation in histone-injured lungs. These studies confirm the destructive C5a-dependent effects in lung linked to appearance of extracellular histones.

  14. Knee joint kinematics and kinetics during the hop and cut after soft tissue artifact suppression: Time to reconsider ACL injury mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Kenneth B; Potvin, Brigitte M; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L

    2017-09-06

    The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools. Knee flexion angle-dependent kinematic constraints defined based on previous bone pin (BP) marker trajectories were then applied to the OpenSim model during IK and these constrained results were then processed with the standard inverse dynamics tool. Significant differences for all hip, knee, and ankle DoF were observed after STA suppression for both the jump lunge and side cut. Using clinically relevant effect size estimates, we conclude that STA contamination had led to misclassifications in hip transverse plane angles, knee frontal and transverse plane angles, medial/lateral and distractive/compressive knee translations, and knee frontal plane moments between the NoBP and the BP IK solutions. Our results have substantial clinical implications since past research has used joint kinematics and kinetics contaminated by STA to identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay.

  16. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  17. Tissue injury after lithium treatment in human and rat postnatal kidney involves glycogen synthase kinase 3β-positive epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    plasma lithium concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. Kidneys from lithium-treated rat pups exhibited dilated distal nephron segments with microcysts. Stereological analysis showed reduced cortex and outer medullary volumes. Lithium increased pGSK-3β and the proliferation marker PCNA protein abundances in cortex...... concentration capacity and diminished outer medullary volume. Histological sections of nephrectomy samples and a biopsy from 3 long-term lithium-treated patients showed multiple cortical microcysts that originated from normally appearing tubules. Microcysts were lined by a cuboidal PCNA-, GSK-3β- and pGSK-3β......It was hypothesized that lithium causes accelerated and permanent injury to the postnatally developing kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). GSK-3β immunoreactivity was associated with glomeruli, thick ascending limb...

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Giannetti, Bruno; Connolly, Mark P; Lewis, Fraser; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-01-01

    Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC 0-3d ). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC 0-3d ) and 0 to five days (AUC 0-5d ), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The ibuprofen plaster resulted in superior reduction in AUC 0-3d compared with placebo; the Least Squares (LS) mean difference was 662.82 mm*h in favour of the ibuprofen 200mg plaster (P = 0.0011). The greater improvement in VAS AUC of POM was also observed after 12 h, 24 h, and five days of therapy. Tenderness also significantly improved with the ibuprofen plaster compared with placebo; LS mean difference in algometry/tenderness AUC 0-3d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d and AUC 0-5d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d (P values ≤0.0004). At all study timepoints, a greater percentage of patients and investigators rated the effectiveness of the ibuprofen 200 mg plaster as good/excellent than the placebo plaster. Treatment-emergent adverse events for the ibuprofen plaster were few (≤1.5%) and were mild in severity. The results of this study indicate 200 mg plaster is effective and safe for the treatment of pain due to acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion in adults.

  19. Pretreatment with AQP4 and NKCC1 Inhibitors Concurrently Attenuated Spinal Cord Edema and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Wang, Xiji; Li, Wenhao; Chen, Jingyuan; Sun, Honghui

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Spinal cord edema plays critical roles in the pathological progression of SCI. This study aimed to delineate the roles of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na + -K + -Cl - cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in acute phase edema and tissue destruction after SCI and to explore whether inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 could improve SCI-induced spinal edema and damage. Rat SCI model was established by modified Allen's method. Spinal cord water content, cerebrospinal fluid lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, AQP4 and NKCC1 expression, and spinal cord pathology from 30 min to 7 days after SCI were monitored. Additionally, aforementioned parameters in rats treated with AQP4 and/or NKCC1 inhibitors were assessed 2 days after SCI. Spinal cord water content was significantly increased 1 h after SCI while AQP4 and NKCC1 expression and spinal fluid LDH activity elevated 6 h after SCI. Spinal cord edema and spinal cord destruction peaked around 24 h after SCI and maintained at high levels thereafter. Treating rats with AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 and NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide significantly reduced spinal cord edema, tissue destruction, and AQP4 and NKCC1 expression after SCI in an additive manner. These results demonstrated the benefits of simultaneously inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 after SCI.

  20. Development and characterization of a PHB-HV-based 3D scaffold for a tissue engineering and cell-therapy combinatorial approach for spinal cord injury regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Samy, Silvina; Silva, Nuno A; Correlo, Vitor M; Fraga, Joana S; Pinto, Luísa; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Almeida, Armando; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Sousa, Nuno; Salgado, António J; Reis, Rui L

    2013-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to devastating neurological deficits. Several tissue engineering (TE)-based approaches have been investigated for repairing this condition. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-HV) is found to be particularly attractive for TE applications due to its properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, thermoplasticity and piezoelectricity. Hence, this report addresses the development and characterization of PHB-HV-based 3D scaffolds, produced by freeze-drying, aimed to SCI treatment. The obtained scaffolds reveal an anisotropic morphology with a fully interconnected network of pores. In vitro studies demonstrate a lack of cytotoxic effect of PHB-HV scaffolds. Direct contact assays also reveal their ability to support the culture of CNS-derived cells and mesenchymal-like stem cells from different sources. Finally, histocompatibility studies show that PHB-HV scaffolds are well tolerated by the host tissue, and do not negatively impact the left hindlimb locomotor function recovery. Therefore results herein presented suggest that PHB-HV scaffolds may be suitable for SCI treatment. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  2. Modulation of differentiation and self-renewal of tissue specific stem cells for effective mitigation of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, Mayuri; Patwardhan, R.S.; Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Bhilwade, Hari N.; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine for the treatment of various human diseases is one of the active research areas. The aim of regenerative medicine is to restore normal tissue functions by replenishing injured tissues using either cell-based therapy or by inducing certain factors that can aid endogenous repair and regeneration. The approach for inducing endogenous repair and regeneration requires in vivo modulation of tissue-specific stem cells by therapeutic agents and enhance their abundance through activation, proliferation, differentiation, or reprogramming. Here we describe three different approaches to enhance the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo for mitigation of radiation induced toxicity. Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from Chinese and Indian medicinal plants like Scutellaria baicalensis and Terminalia ariuna enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through activation of Nrf-2 in the lineage negative cells. Another anti-oxidant, chlorophyllin derived from green plant pigment, chlorophyll also enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through modulation of cell cycle in cells of the bone marrow. Treatment of mice with Cobaltus chloride (CoCl_2), a well-known activator of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIP-1α), also led to increase in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Whereas chlorophyllin offered up to 100 % protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 8 Gy) induced mortality in mice, baicalein offered up to70%protection. Cobaltus chloride treatment offered 40% protection against 8 Gy of WBI. These studies indicate potential use of stem cell modulating agents as effective mitigators of radiation induced toxicity in vivo. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  4. MRI in diagnostic of soft tissue damages by fractures of lateral tibial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, D.; Proichev, V.; Popov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The knee is one of the most often injured joint. Fractures of tibial condyles are the most common articular damages. Koton and Berg call them „bumper“ fractures the tibia plateau is vulnerable to both high- and low-energy injury mechanisms due to its vulnerable position in the lower extremity. It must bear significant weight and sustain significant impact and deceleration forces with little skeletal constraint, and has scant surrounding soft tissue and a tethered medial and lateral integument. Furthermore, the tibial plateau has relatively forgiving ligamentous attachments that must allow for a large range of motion in a single plane. Not surprisingly, given the diversity of injury, management of these fractures has come to include a wide variety of treatment strategies. traditionally, ligament injury associated with plateau fractures has been diagnosed indirectly with stress radiographs and physical examination. With increasing use of more sensitive MRI and arthroscopy, associated ligament and meniscus injuries have been found in significant percentages of plateau fractures. these soft tissue injuries consist primarily of MCL lesions, meniscal injuries, and ACL disruptions. However, studies addressing associated soft tissue injuries all agree that neither the type of plateau fracture nor the presence or absence of ligament injury correlates with the incidence of meniscal tears

  5. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  6. Implication of endothelial to mesenchymal cell transition in the development of healthy digestive tissue injury following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is identified as a chronic side effect occurring after radiotherapy for pelvic tumors in 5 to 10 % of patients. This pathological healing process is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix synthesized by mesenchymal cells. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), is a processes during which endothelial cells express mesenchymal markers in response to stress. EndoMT is identified as a new source of mesenchymal cells taking part to fibrosis development in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. Then, this study focused on the potential participation of EndoMT in radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and tried to identify new therapeutics targets. Interestingly, our results showed for the first time EndoMT in rectal tissues from patients who developed radiation proctitis following radiotherapy. We used an in vivo approach to follow the mesenchymal cells having an endothelial origin in a mouse model expressing the GFP under the control of an endothelial promoter, Tie2 (Tie2-GFP). Thereby, our results confirmed the existence of radiation-induced EndoMT in our preclinical model of radiation proctitis. In vitro characterization showed that irradiation induced a modulation of the endothelial phenotype through a mesenchymal profile, a hallmark of EndoMT. This project also focused on a potential molecular actor, Hey2. In this context, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which Hey2 gene expression is repressed specifically in the endothelial compartment and observed a decrease in radiation-induced mucosal damages and EndoMT frequency. Consequently, inhibiting Hey2 expression could represent a new interesting therapeutic strategy. (author)

  7. [The effects of postconditioning with propofol on Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the lung tissue of rat with acute lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Fu; Tong, Xin; Luan, Ting; Zang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effect of postconditioning with propofol on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in the lung tissue in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control group, ALI group, and propofol postcondition group (each n=10). The model of ALI was reproduced by intravenous injection of LPS (8 mg/kg for 30 minutes) into the rats, equivalent normal saline was injected into the rats of control group. The rats were postconditioned with propofol injected intravenously by 20 mg/kg bolus dose and then continuously by 40 mg×kg(-1)×h(-1) with a constant speed for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 6 hours after drug injection. Lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung permeability index (LPI) was taken. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and TLR4 mRNA expression in lung tissue was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The lung W/D ratio, LPI, TLR4 mRNA and TNF-α in BALF were all increased in ALI group compared with control group [lung W/D ratio: 5.30±0.28 vs. 4.21±0.14, LPI (×10(-3)): 8.7±2.2 vs. 3.3±2.0, TLR4 mRNA: 2.451±0.028 vs. 0.998±0.021, TNF-α: 643.46±62.31 ng/L vs. 120.43±12.65 ng/L, all Pwaterfall-like inflammatory reaction.

  8. Neuroendocrine and Cardiac Metabolic Dysfunction and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Adipose Tissue and Pancreas following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E. Bigford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immunohistochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  9. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  10. Severe Hand Injuries Caused by a Mole Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Düzgün

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Injuries by mole guns differ from other firearm injuries primarily because they are close-range, low-energy injuries that are highly contaminated owing to contact with contaminated surfaces and the presence of numerous residual foreign bodies within the wound. The aim of this article is to share our surgical experience regarding the repair of severe hand injuries caused by mole guns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 11 patients with hand injuries. Data obtained about the patients, including age, gender, dominant or non-dominant hand, injuries to all vital structures, and reconstructive procedures were assessed, categorized, and recorded. Results: Ten patients had defects in one or several common digital branches of the median nerve in areas ranging from the distal part of the carpal tunnel to the distal palmar crease. All patients had flexor and extensor tendon injuries in all fingers except for the first finger. Reconstruction of soft tissue and skin defects was carried out with an interpolation flap planned from a random-based subpectoral- paraumbilical region in five patients, a SCIA-based groin flap in four patients, a reverse-radial forearm flap in one patient, and an adipofascial flap planned from the forearm in one patient. Conclusion: Mole gun injuries typically include all structures of the hand, and repair procedures involve every anatomic structure of the hand. An early and effective surgical operation followed by prolonged and effective physical therapy protocols is vital for regaining the full spectrum of hand functions.

  11. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  12. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    Full Text Available Subpopulations of somatosensory neurons are characterized by functional properties and expression of receptor proteins and surface markers. CGRP expression and IB4-binding are commonly used to define peptidergic and non-peptidergic subpopulations. TRPA1 is a polymodal, plasma membrane ion channel that contributes to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity during tissue injury, making it a key target for pain therapeutics. Some studies have shown that TRPA1 is predominantly expressed by peptidergic sensory neurons, but others indicate that TRPA1 is expressed extensively within non-peptidergic, IB4-binding neurons. We used FURA-2 calcium imaging to define the functional distribution of TRPA1 among peptidergic and non-peptidergic adult mouse (C57BL/6J DRG neurons. Approximately 80% of all small-diameter (<27 µm neurons from lumbar 1-6 DRGs that responded to TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 79% or cinnamaldehyde (84% were IB4-positive. Retrograde labeling via plantar hind paw injection of WGA-Alexafluor594 showed similarly that most (81% cutaneous neurons responding to TRPA1 agonists were IB4-positive. Additionally, we cultured DRG neurons from a novel CGRP-GFP mouse where GFP expression is driven by the CGRPα promoter, enabling identification of CGRP-expressing live neurons. Interestingly, 78% of TRPA1-responsive neurons were CGRP-negative. Co-labeling with IB4 revealed that the majority (66% of TRPA1 agonist responders were IB4-positive but CGRP-negative. Among TRPA1-null DRGs, few small neurons (2-4% responded to either TRPA1 agonist, indicating that both cinnamaldehyde and AITC specifically target TRPA1. Additionally, few large neurons (≥27 µm diameter responded to AITC (6% or cinnamaldehyde (4%, confirming that most large-diameter somata lack functional TRPA1. Comparison of mouse and rat DRGs showed that the majority of TRPA1-responsive neurons in both species were IB4-positive. Together, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 is

  13. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Subpopulations of somatosensory neurons are characterized by functional properties and expression of receptor proteins and surface markers. CGRP expression and IB4-binding are commonly used to define peptidergic and non-peptidergic subpopulations. TRPA1 is a polymodal, plasma membrane ion channel that contributes to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity during tissue injury, making it a key target for pain therapeutics. Some studies have shown that TRPA1 is predominantly expressed by peptidergic sensory neurons, but others indicate that TRPA1 is expressed extensively within non-peptidergic, IB4-binding neurons. We used FURA-2 calcium imaging to define the functional distribution of TRPA1 among peptidergic and non-peptidergic adult mouse (C57BL/6J) DRG neurons. Approximately 80% of all small-diameter (neurons from lumbar 1–6 DRGs that responded to TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 79%) or cinnamaldehyde (84%) were IB4-positive. Retrograde labeling via plantar hind paw injection of WGA-Alexafluor594 showed similarly that most (81%) cutaneous neurons responding to TRPA1 agonists were IB4-positive. Additionally, we cultured DRG neurons from a novel CGRP-GFP mouse where GFP expression is driven by the CGRPα promoter, enabling identification of CGRP-expressing live neurons. Interestingly, 78% of TRPA1-responsive neurons were CGRP-negative. Co-labeling with IB4 revealed that the majority (66%) of TRPA1 agonist responders were IB4-positive but CGRP-negative. Among TRPA1-null DRGs, few small neurons (2–4%) responded to either TRPA1 agonist, indicating that both cinnamaldehyde and AITC specifically target TRPA1. Additionally, few large neurons (≥27 µm diameter) responded to AITC (6%) or cinnamaldehyde (4%), confirming that most large-diameter somata lack functional TRPA1. Comparison of mouse and rat DRGs showed that the majority of TRPA1-responsive neurons in both species were IB4-positive. Together, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 is functionally expressed

  14. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  15. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  16. Preventive effects of indole-3-carbinol against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms: Role of gut-liver-adipose tissue axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngshim; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2018-05-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage. Daily treatment with I3C alleviated EtOH-induced liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, but not steatosis, by attenuating elevated oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, CYP2E1, NADPH-oxidase, and protein acetylation with maintenance of mitochondrial complex I, II, and III protein levels and activities. I3C also restored the hepatic antioxidant capacity by preventing EtOH-induced suppression of glutathione contents and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 activity. I3C preventive effects were also achieved by attenuating the increased levels of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines, including IL1β, and neutrophil infiltration. I3C also attenuated EtOH-induced gut leakiness with decreased serum endotoxin levels through preventing EtOH-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis of enterocytes, and alteration of tight junction protein claudin-1. Furthermore, I3C alleviated adipose tissue inflammation and decreased free fatty acid release. Collectively, I3C prevented EtOH-induced liver injury via attenuating the damaging effect of ethanol on the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis. Therefore, I3C may also have a high potential for translational research in treating or preventing other types of hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Medical Efforts and Injury Patterns of Military Hospital Patients Following the 2013 Lushan Earthquake in China: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005 was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1% were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4% and victims being struck by objects (33.8%; the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2% and surface area of the body (17.9%. Fracture (41.5% was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%, but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2% due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%, followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%.The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries.

  18. Medical Efforts and Injury Patterns of Military Hospital Patients Following the 2013 Lushan Earthquake in China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005) was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1%) were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4%) and victims being struck by objects (33.8%); the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2%) and surface area of the body (17.9%). Fracture (41.5%) was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%), but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2%) due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%).The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries.

  19. Monitoring of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbits by ultrasonic contrast and its relationship with expression of VEGF in renal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Peng

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits using the ultrasonic contrast technique and discuss the clinical value of ultrasonic contrast technique in the diagnosis of renal IRI by comparing the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of renal tissue. Twenty 3-month-old New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely Ctrl group, IRI-12 h, IRI-24 h and IRI-48 h groups. The two dimensional gray-scale ultrasonography was employed to determine and mark the position of rabbit kidney. Rabbits were given the intraperitoneal anesthesia with 20% urethane with the dosage of 5 mL/kg. The aseptic operation was performed after the local skin disinfection in the area of both kidneys. The right kidney of animals in the control group was excised without any treatment for the left kidney. After excising the right kidney of animals in groups of IRI-12 h, IRI-24 h and IRI-48 h, the aneurysm clip was used to clip the renal pedicle vessel of left kidney, in order to simulate the ischemia. Because of the tissue ischemia, it could be seen that the color of kidney was changed from bright red to dark red, which indicated the successful modeling of ischemia. The aneurysm clip was released after one hour of maintaining the ischemia. Then the kidney turned out to be bright red from dark red, which indicated that the reperfusion was completed. Taking this moment as the time of ischemia reperfusion, the wound was stitched up. A total of 12, 24 and 36 h after the operation, the two-dimensional and color Doppler flow imaging and ultrasonic contrast were employed for the examination. The dynamic changes of ultrasonic contrast were recorded. The quantitative analysis software (QontraXt) was adopted to analyze the time-intensity curve of echo at different positions of renal cortex. After the ultrasonic contrast testing, rabbits were put to death. The renal cortex tissue was isolated and the

  20. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  1. Injury induces in vivo expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor mRNAs in skin epithelial cells and PDGF mRNA in connective tissue fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniades, H.N.; Galanopoulos, T.; Neville-Golden, J.; Kiritsy, C.P.; Lynch, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates many of the processes important in tissue repair, including proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of extracellular matrices. In this study, the authors have demonstrated with in situ hydridization and immunocytochemistry the reversible expression of 3-sis/PDGF-2 and PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) b mRNAs and their respective protein products in epithelial cells and fibroblasts following cutaneous injury in pigs. Epithelial cells in control, unwounded skin did not express c-sis and PDGF-R mRNAs, and fibroblasts expressed only PDGF-R mRNA. The expression levels in the injured site were correlated with the stage of tissue repair, being highest during the initial stages of the repair process and declining at the time of complete re-epithelialization and tissue remodeling. These studies provide a mulecular basis for understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal tissue repair. They suggest the possibility that a defect in these mechanisms may be associated with defective wound healing. It is also conceivable that chronic injury may induce irreversible gene expression leading to pathologic, unregulated cell growth

  2. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  3. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of the association between ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM) gene polymorphisms and acute radiation injuries are often small in sample size, and the results are inconsistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a systematic review of published findings. Methods and Materials: Publications were identified by searching PubMed up to April 25, 2014. Primary meta-analysis was performed for all acute radiation injuries, and subgroup meta-analyses were based on clinical endpoint. The influence of sample size and radiation injury incidence on genetic effects was estimated in sensitivity analyses. Power calculations were also conducted. Results: The meta-analysis was conducted on the ATM polymorphism rs1801516, including 5 studies with 1588 participants. For all studies, the cut-off for differentiating cases from controls was grade 2 acute radiation injuries. The primary meta-analysis showed a significant association with overall acute radiation injuries (allelic model: odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.71). Subgroup analyses detected an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and a significant increase in urinary and lower gastrointestinal injuries and an increase in skin injury that was not statistically significant. There was no between-study heterogeneity in any meta-analyses. In the sensitivity analyses, small studies did not show larger effects than large studies. In addition, studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries showed larger effects than studies with low incidence. Power calculations revealed that the statistical power of the primary meta-analysis was borderline, whereas there was adequate power for the subgroup analysis of studies with high incidence of acute radiation injuries. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed a consistency of the results from the overall and subgroup analyses. We also showed that the genetic effect of the rs1801516 polymorphism on acute radiation injuries was

  4. The state of head injury biomechanics: past, present, and future part 2: physical experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Werner; Monson, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is the continuation of the article published in Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 29(5-6), 2001. That issue contained topics dealing with components and geometry of the human head, classification of head injuries, some early experimental studies, and tolerance considerations. It then dealt with head motion and load characterization, investigations during the period from 1939 to 1966, injury causation and early modeling efforts, the 1966 Head Injury Conference and its sequels, mechanical properties of solid tissues, fluid characterization, and early investigation of the mechanical properties of cranial materials. It continued with a description of the systematic investigations of solid cranial components and structural properties since 1966, fetal cranial properties, analytical head modeling, and numerical solutions of head injury. The paper concluded with experimental dynamic loading of human living and cadaver heads, dynamic loading of surrogate heads, and head injury mechanics. This portion of the paper describes physical head injury experimentation involving animals, primarily primates, human cadavers, volunteers, and inanimate physical models. In order to address the entire domain of head injury biomechanics in the two-part survey, it was intended that this information be supplemented by discussions of head injury tolerance and criteria, automotive and sports safety considerations, and the design of protective equipment, but Professor Goldsmith passed away before these sections could be completed. It is nevertheless anticipated that this attenuated installment will provide, in conjunction with the first part of the survey, a valuable resource for students and practitioners of head injury biomechanics.

  5. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  6. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  7. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...

  8. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  9. Peripheral nerve injury fails to induce growth of lesioned ascending dorsal column axons into spinal cord scar tissue expressing the axon repellent Semaphorin3A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Anderson, Patrick N; Verhaagen, J

    We have investigated the hypothesis that the chemorepellent Semaphorin3A may be involved in the failure of axonal regeneration after injury to the ascending dorsal columns of adult rats. Following transection of the thoracic dorsal columns, fibroblasts in the dorsolateral parts of the lesion site

  10. Evaluating the injury incidence from skate shoes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Erin; Shah, Binisa; Fales, Willliam

    2009-05-01

    increase in injuries to children and adolescents using skate shoes, which paralleled the products' sales increase. The types of injuries are primarily a wide range of non-life threatening bone and soft tissue injuries.

  11. Injury rates and profiles of elite competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, G; Fry, A C

    1999-07-01

    To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x(2) tests. The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities.

  12. Injuries in synchronized skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M

    2006-06-01

    those that go beyond the soft tissue and include head injuries and fractures. We feel that these more significant injuries MAY TO SOME EXTENT BE attributable to the increasing physical demands and technical difficulty required of the teams now participating in a more competitive environment over the last four years.

  13. Soft-tissue injuries from sports activities and traffic accidents--treatment with low-level laser therapy: a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study on 132 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Zlatko; Trobonjaca, Tatjana

    2000-06-01

    The aim of current multicenter clinical study was to assess the efficacy of low energy-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of soft tissue injuries compared to the placebo and classical phyiotherapeutic procedures. This clinical study was conducted in two centers located in Locarno, Switzerland and Opatija, Croatia. Two types of irradiation techniques were used: (1) direct, skin contact technique for treatment of trigger points where IR diode laser 830 nm continuous wave was applied; and (2) scanning technique for irradiation of larger surface area with use of Helium Neon laser 632.8 nm combined with IR diode laser 904 nm pulsed wave. Results were evaluated according to clinical parameters like: hematoma, swelling, heat, pan and loss of function. The findings were statistically analyzed via chi- square test. Results have demonstrated that the recovery process was accelerated in 85 percent of patients treated with LLLT compared to the control group of patients. The results and advantages obtained proved once again the efficacy of LLLT as a new and successful way to treat soft tissue injuries.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Tissue Swelling due to Injury and due to Exposure to Low Temperature and Massive Water and Electrolyte Loss in Diarrheal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    to dinosaurs , they immediately were faced with - the most fundamental question, "What is a living cell?" One may well say that k the degree of our...primarily a tiny * droplet of water containing proteins and K+ saltskept apart from the body of N 0similar aqueous solution of Na salts by a microscopic...experimental evidence, besides those already mentioned, included the successful demonstration that proteins with its polypeptLde iJl existing in an extended

  15. Caspase-1-Independent IL-1 Release Mediates Blister Formation in Autoantibody-Induced Tissue Injury through Modulation of Endothelial Adhesion Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghi, Hengameh; Lockmann, Anike; Hund, Anna-Carina; Samavedam, Unni K. S. R. L.; Pipi, Elena; Vafia, Katerina; Hauenschild, Eva; Kalies, Kathrin; Pas, Hendrikus; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Iwata, Hiroaki; Recke, Andreas; Schon, Michael P.; Zillikens, Detlef; Schmidt, Enno; Ludwig, Ralf J.

    2015-01-01

    Although reports documented aberrant cytokine expression in autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBDs), cytokine-targeting therapies have not been established in these disorders. We showed previously that IL-6 treatment protected against tissue destruction in experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

  16. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study......; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A total of 110 male athletes (mean age, 25.6 ± 4.7 years) with sports-related acute groin pain were prospectively included within 7 days of injury from August 2012 to April 2014. Standardized history taking, a clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and....../or ultrasound (US) were performed. RESULTS: The most frequent injury mechanism in soccer was kicking (40%), and change of direction was most frequent in other sports (31%). Clinically, adductor injuries accounted for 66% of all injuries and primarily involved the adductor longus on imaging (91% US, 93% MRI...

  17. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735

  18. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Tissue Injury via Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulated Protein/Gene 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have described therapeutic benefits in various disease models after administration of the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow or other tissues referred to as mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. They all showed that one of the important effects of MSCs is to act against excessive inflammatory responses and repair the damaged tissues. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs were initially interpreted by their migration, engraftment, and differentiation into target tissues. However, remarkable anatomical structural repairs and functional improvements were increasingly observed with a small number of or even no MSCs in the injured tissues. This suggests that most beneficial effects are largely due to paracrine secretions or cell-to-cell contacts that have multiple effects involving modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, the therapeutic benefits of MSCs are in part explained by the cells being activated by signals from injured tissues to express an anti-inflammatory protein, tumor-necrosis-factor-α-induced protein 6. This important mechanism of action has attracted increasing attention, and therefore we conducted this review to summarize the latest research.

  19. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  20. [Fall from height--surprising autopsy diagnosis in primarily unclear initial situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, Christian; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    External post-mortem examination and first police assessments are often not consistent with subsequent autopsy results. This is all the more surprising the more serious the injuries found at autopsy are. Such discrepancies result especially from an absence of gross external injuries, as demonstrated by four examples. A 42-year-old, externally uninjured male was found at night time in a helpless condition in the street and died in spite of resuscitation. Autopsy showed severe polytrauma with traumatic brain injury and lesions of the thoracic and abdominal organs. A jump from the third floor was identified as the cause. At dawn, a twenty-year-old male was found dead on the grounds of the adjacent house. Because of the blood-covered head the police assumed a traumatic head injury by strike impact. The external examination revealed only abrasions on the forehead and to a minor extent on the back. At autopsy a midfacial fracture, a trauma of the thorax and abdomen and fractures of the spine and pelvis were detected. Afterwards investigations showed that the man, intoxicated by alcohol, had fallen from the flat roof of a multistoried house. A 77-year-old man was found unconscious on his terrace at day time; a cerebral seizure was assumed. He was transferred to emergency care where he died. The corpse was externally inconspicuous. Autopsy revealed serious traumatic injuries of the brain, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, which could be explained by a fall from the balcony. A 47-year-old homeless person without any external injuries was found dead in a barn. An alcohol intoxication was assumed. At autopsy severe injuries of the brain and cervical spine were found which were the result of a fall from a height of 5 m. On the basis of an external post-mortem examination alone gross blunt force trauma cannot be reliably excluded.

  1. Adaptation of a MR imaging protocol into a real-time clinical biometric ultrasound protocol for persons with spinal cord injury at risk for deep tissue injury: A reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Jillian M; Moe, Andrew; Breidahl, William; Bader, Daniel L; Oomens, Cees W J; Lester, Leanne; O'Loughlin, Edmond; Santamaria, Nick; Stacey, Michael C

    2018-02-01

    High strain in soft tissues that overly bony prominences are considered a risk factor for pressure ulcers (PUs) following spinal cord impairment (SCI) and have been computed using Finite Element methods (FEM). The aim of this study was to translate a MRI protocol into ultrasound (US) and determine between-operator reliability of expert sonographers measuring diameter of the inferior curvature of the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the thickness of the overlying soft tissue layers on able-bodied (AB) and SCI using real-time ultrasound. Part 1: Fourteen AB participants with a mean age of 36.7 ± 12.09 years with 7 males and 7 females had their 3 soft tissue layers in loaded and unloaded sitting measured independently by 2 sonographers: tendon/muscle, skin/fat and total soft tissue and the diameter of the IT in its short and long axis. Part 2: Nineteen participants with SCI were screened, three were excluded due to abnormal skin signs, and eight participants (42%) were excluded for abnormal US signs with normal skin. Eight SCI participants with a mean age of 31.6 ± 13.6 years and all male with 4 paraplegics and 4 tetraplegics were measured by the same sonographers for skin, fat, tendon, muscle and total. Skin/fat and tendon/muscle were computed. AB between-operator reliability was good (ICC = 0.81-0.90) for 3 soft tissues layers in unloaded and loaded sitting and poor for both IT short and long axis (ICC = -0.028 and -0.01). SCI between-operator reliability was good in unloaded and loaded for total, muscle, fat, skin/fat, tendon/muscle (ICC = 0.75-0.97) and poor for tendon (ICC = 0.26 unloaded and ICC = -0.71 loaded) and skin (ICC = 0.37 unloaded and ICC = 0.10). A MRI protocol was successfully adapted for a reliable 3 soft tissue layer model and could be used in a 2-D FEM model designed to estimate soft tissue strain as a novel risk factor for the development of a PU. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review on the effect of serious games and wearable technology used in rehabilitation of patients with traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henriëtte A. W.; Graafland, Maurits; Goslings, J. Carel; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (i.e., interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the 'real world') currently applied in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue

  3. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  4. Regulated necrosis-related molecule mRNA expression in humans and mice and in murine acute tissue injury and systemic autoimmunity leading to progressive organ damage, and progressive fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Desai, Jyaysi; Marschner, Julian A; Weidenbusch, Marc; Lech, Maciej; Vielhauer, Volker; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R

    2016-12-01

    The species-specific, as well as organ-specific expression of regulated necrosis (RN)-related molecules, is not known. We determined the expression levels of tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), receptor activated protein kinase (RIPK)1, RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), CASP8, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (CIAP)1, CIAP2, glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), cyclophilin D (CYPD), CASP1, NLRP3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in human and mouse solid organs. We observed significant differences in expression of these molecules between human and mice. In addition, we characterized their expression profiles in acute as well as persistent tissue injury and chronic tissue remodelling using acute and chronic kidney injury models. We observed that the degree and pattern of induction of RN-related molecules were highly dependent on the trigger and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we studied their expression patterns in mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, which revealed that the expression of MLKL, GPX4 and PARP1 significantly increased in the spleen along disease progression and CASP1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and CYPD were higher at the earlier stages but were significantly decreased in the later stages. In contrast, in the kidney, the expression of genes involved in pyroptosis, e.g. NLRP3 and CASP1 were significantly increased and TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, CIAP1/2 and GPX4 were significantly decreased along the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression of RN-related molecules should be considered during designing experiments, interpreting the results as well as extrapolating the conclusions from one species or organ to another species or organ respectively. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Skateboarding injuries of today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. Objective—To describe the injury pattern of today. Methods—The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995–1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Results—Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7–47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Conclusions—Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders. Key Words: skateboard; injury; prevention PMID:11579065

  6. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and adenosine 2A receptor-mediated tissue protection: the role of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; Ye, Hong; Li, Li; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D

    2006-03-01

    A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R)-expressing bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to the renal protective effect of A(2A) agonists in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We performed IRI in mice lacking T and B cells to determine whether A(2A)R expressed in CD4+ cells mediate protection from IRI. Rag-1 knockout (KO) mice were protected in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice when subjected to IRI. ATL146e, a selective A(2A) agonist, did not confer additional protection. IFN-gamma is an important early signal in IRI and is thought to contribute to reperfusion injury. Because IFN-gamma is produced by kidney cells and T cells we performed IRI in BM chimeras in which the BM of WT mice was reconstituted with BM from IFN-gamma KO mice (IFN-gamma KO-->WT chimera). We observed marked reduction in IRI in comparison to WT-->WT chimeras providing additional indirect support for the role of T cells. To confirm the role of CD4+ A(2A)R in mediating protection from IRI, Rag-1 KO mice were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. The protection observed in Rag-1 KO mice was reversed in Rag-1 KO mice that were adoptively transferred WT CD4+ cells (WT CD4+-->Rag-1 KO) or A(2A) KO CD4+ cells (A(2A) KO CD4+-->Rag-1 KO). ATL146e reduced injury in WT CD4+-->Rag-1 KO mice but not in A(2A) KO CD4+-->Rag-1 KO mice. Rag-1 KO mice reconstituted with CD4+ cells derived from IFN-gamma KO mice (IFN-gamma CD4+-->Rag-1 KO) were protected from IRI; ATL146e conferred no additional protection. These studies demonstrate that CD4+ IFN-gamma contributes to IRI and that A(2A) agonists mediate protection from IRI through action on CD4+ cells.

  7. Influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on osteogenic tissue regeneration in a periodontal injury model: X-ray image alterations assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunji; Chai, Zhaowu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate, with micro-computed tomography, the influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on wound-healing in periodontal tissues. Periodontal disease with Class II furcation involvement was surgically produced at the bilateral mandibular premolars in 8 adult male beagle dogs. Twenty-four teeth were randomly assigned among 4 groups (G): G1, periodontal flap surgery; G2, periodontal flap surgery+low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS); G3, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) surgery; G4, GTR surgery plus LIPUS. The affected area in the experimental group was exposed to LIPUS. At 6 and 8weeks, the X-ray images of regenerated teeth were referred to micro-CT scanning for 3-D measurement. Bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), and number of trabeculae (Tb) in G2 and G4 were higher than in G1 and G3 (pperiodontal flap surgery group. LIPUS irradiation increased the number, volume, and area of new alveolar bone trabeculae. LIPUS has the potential to promote the repair of periodontal tissue, and may work effectively if combined with GTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tamoxifen and estradiol improved locomotor function and increased spared tissue in rats after spinal cord injury: their antioxidant effect and role of estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Laurivette; Colón, Jennifer M; Santiago, José M; Torrado, Aranza I; Meléndez, Margarita; Segarra, Annabell C; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F; Miranda, Jorge D

    2014-05-02

    17β-Estradiol is a multi-active steroid that imparts neuroprotection via diverse mechanisms of action. However, its role as a neuroprotective agent after spinal cord injury (SCI), or the involvement of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) in locomotor recovery, is still a subject of much debate. In this study, we evaluated the effects of estradiol and of Tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor mixed agonist/antagonist) on locomotor recovery following SCI. To control estradiol cyclical variability, ovariectomized female rats received empty or estradiol filled implants, prior to a moderate contusion to the spinal cord. Estradiol improved locomotor function at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post injury (DPI), when compared to control groups (measured with the BBB open field test). This effect was ER-α mediated, because functional recovery was blocked with an ER-α antagonist. We also observed that ER-α was up-regulated after SCI. Long-term treatment (28 DPI) with estradiol and Tamoxifen reduced the extent of the lesion cavity, an effect also mediated by ER-α. The antioxidant effects of estradiol were seen acutely at 2 DPI but not at 28 DPI, and this acute effect was not receptor mediated. Rats treated with Tamoxifen recovered some locomotor activity at 21 and 28 DPI, which could be related to the antioxidant protection seen at these time points. These results show that estradiol improves functional outcome, and these protective effects are mediated by the ER-α dependent and independent-mechanisms. Tamoxifen׳s effects during late stages of SCI support the use of this drug as a long-term alternative treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  10. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  11. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  12. High-dose mode of mortality in Tribolium: A model system for study of radiation injury and repair in non-proliferative tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chihing Christina.

    1989-01-01

    With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age

  13. PPAR-gamma activation is associated with reduced liver ischemia-reperfusion injury and altered tissue-resident macrophages polarization in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ivan; Farrokhi, Kaveh; Echeverri, Juan; Kaths, Johan Moritz; Kollmann, Dagmar; Hamar, Matyas; Urbanellis, Peter; Ganesh, Sujani; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Yip, Paul; Selzner, Markus; Selzner, Nazia

    2018-01-01

    PPAR-gamma (γ) is highly expressed in macrophages and its activation affects their polarization. The effect of PPAR-γ activation on Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has not yet been evaluated. We investigated the effect of PPAR-γ activation on KC-polarization and IRI. Seventy percent (70%) liver ischemia was induced for 60mins. PPAR-γ-agonist or vehicle was administrated before reperfusion. PPAR-γ-antagonist was used to block PPAR-γ activation. Liver injury, necrosis, and apoptosis were assessed post-reperfusion. Flow-cytometry determined KC-phenotypes (pro-inflammatory Nitric Oxide +, anti-inflammatory CD206+ and anti-inflammatory IL-10+). Liver injury assessed by serum AST was significantly decreased in PPAR-γ-agonist versus control group at all time points post reperfusion (1hr: 3092±105 vs 4469±551; p = 0.042; 6hr: 7041±1160 vs 12193±1143; p = 0.015; 12hr: 5746±328 vs 8608±1259; p = 0.049). Furthermore, liver apoptosis measured by TUNEL-staining was significantly reduced in PPAR-γ-agonist versus control group post reperfusion (1hr:2.46±0.49 vs 6.90±0.85%;p = 0.001; 6hr:26.40±2.93 vs 50.13±8.29%; p = 0.048). H&E staining demonstrated less necrosis in PPAR-γ-agonist versus control group (24hr:26.66±4.78 vs 45.62±4.57%; p = 0.032). The percentage of pro-inflammatory NO+ KCs was significantly lower at all post reperfusion time points in the PPAR-γ-agonist versus control group (1hr:28.49±4.99 vs 53.54±9.15%; p = 0.040; 6hr:5.51±0.54 vs 31.12±9.58%; p = 0.009; 24hr:4.15±1.50 vs 17.10±4.77%; p = 0.043). In contrast, percentage of anti-inflammatory CD206+ KCs was significantly higher in PPAR-γ-agonist versus control group prior to IRI (8.62±0.96 vs 4.88 ±0.50%; p = 0.04). Administration of PPAR-γ-antagonist reversed the beneficial effects on AST, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory NO+ KCs. PPAR-γ activation reduces IRI and decreases the pro-inflammatory NO+ Kupffer cells. PPAR-γ activation can become an

  14. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  15. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  16. Recovery by N-acetylcysteine from subchronic exposure to Imidacloprid-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis tissues injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Alya; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Lamine, Aicha Jrad; El Golli, Nargès; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazâa, Saloua; Lasram, Mohamed Montassar

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most important example of the neonicotinoid insecticides known to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in insects, and potentially in mammals. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has been shown to possess curative effects in experimental and clinical investigations. The present study was designed to evaluate the recovery effect of NAC against Imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic transmission alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of male rats following subchronic exposure. About 40 mg/kg of Imidacloprid was administered daily by intragastric intubation and 28 days later, the rats were sacrificed and HPA axis tissues were removed for different analyses. Imidacloprid increased adrenal relative weight and cholesterol level indicating an adaptive stage of the general alarm reaction to stress. Moreover, Imidacloprid caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, the antioxidants catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase showed various alterations following administration and significant depleted thiols content was only recorded in hypothalamic tissue. Furthermore, the hypothalamic and pituitary acetylcholinesterase activity and calcium level were significantly increased highlighting the alteration of cholinergic activity. The present findings revealed that HPA axis is a sensitive target to Imidacloprid (IMI). Interestingly, the use of NAC for only 7 days post-exposure to IMI showed a partial therapeutic effect against Imidacloprid toxicity.

  17. Evaluation of potential changes in liver and lung tissue of rats in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model (modified pringle maneuver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Henrique Freitas

    Full Text Available In surgical procedures involving the liver, such as transplantation, resection, and trauma, a temporary occlusion of hepatic vessels may be required. This study was designed to analyze the lesions promoted by ischemia and reperfusion injury of the hepatic pedicle, in the liver and lung, using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. In total, 39 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (C n = 3 and ischemia groups subjected to 10, 20, and 30 minutes of hepatic pedicle clamping (I10, n = 12; I20, n = 12; I30, n = 12. Each ischemia group was subdivided into four subgroups of reperfusion (R15, n = 3; R30, n = 3; R60, n = 3; R120, n = 3, after 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of reperfusion, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the liver parenchyma (P 0.05. In the lung parenchyma, a significant difference was observed (P 0.05 at different times of ischemia and reperfusion. In the pulmonary parenchyma, the immunoreactivity was not specific, and was not quantified. This study demonstrated that the longer the duration of ischemia and reperfusion, the greater are the morphological lesions found in the hepatic and pulmonary parenchyma.

  18. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  19. Facial transplantation for massive traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Daniel S; Chi, John J

    2013-10-01

    This article describes the challenges of facial reconstruction and the role of facial transplantation in certain facial defects and injuries. This information is of value to surgeons assessing facial injuries with massive soft tissue loss or injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Karate injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetaruk, M N; Violan, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J

    2000-05-01

    To identify risk factors for injury and to establish safety guidelines for children in Uechi-Ryu karate. A 1-year retrospective survey of injuries. A private karate school (Uechi-Ryu style) in Plymouth, MA. A total of 68 athletes (age 6-16 years; mean age 10 years) who participated in karate during the 1995-1996 season. None. The presence or absence of injury, with grading of injuries as major, moderate or minor. The types of injuries and body region involved were also analyzed. Twenty eight percent of athletes sustained at least one injury. All injuries were minor, with no time off from training required. The injuries consisted primarily of bruises (11 of 19). Other injuries included mild sprains or strains (5 of 19) and having their 'wind knocked out' (3 of 19). Most injuries were localized to the extremities. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for injury. Risk of injury increased with number of years of training (odds ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval 1.81-4.82; PKarate is a relatively safe sport for children and adolescents when properly taught. Risk of injury increases with experience; therefore, greater supervision is required of higher ranks. Injury increases with weekly training; however, 3 h a week or less appears to be associated with a low risk of significant injury in this age group.

  1. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  2. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-06-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.

  3. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  4. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  6. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body of a Vascular Plant Is Composed of Three Tissue Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structurally Stem, Leaf, and Root Differ Primarily...

  7. Car surfing: an underreported mechanism of serious injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, J D; Newsted, J; Drongowski, R A; Lelli, J L

    2001-01-01

    Car surfing, in which participants stand on top of a moving vehicle as though it were a surfboard, has been reported as a cause of traumatic injury in only 5 cases in the literature. Over the last 8 years, however, the authors have treated 26 children, primarily adolescents, for injuries resulting from car surfing. This report describes the injuries and outcomes of this potentially underreported mechanism of injury. Medical records of 26 patients treated for car surfing injuries between 1991 and 1999 were reviewed. Demographics, hospital course, and type and severity of injuries were analyzed. Eighteen boys (69%) and 8 girls (31%) with an average age of 15.7+/-3.4 years (range, 6 to 22) have presented with injuries related to car surfing. All patients had fallen from the hood, roof, or trunk of a moving motor vehicle, the majority falling from the hood (n = 13; 50%). Injury severity was evaluated using the Injury Severity Scores (ISS; 12.4+/-6.5), Revised Trauma Score (RTS; 7.5+/- 1.1) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS; 13.5+/-3.2). Injury severity was equivalent between boys and girls (P>.05). Central nervous system injuries predominated, with closed head injuries occurring in 22 (85%) and loss of consciousness in 10 (39%). Skull fractures occurred in 11 (42%) and intracranial bleeding in 9 (35%). Long-term cognitive rehabilitation was necessary in 22 (85%) patients. Three patients (12%) had spinal column fractures, with 2 (8%) suffering permanent paralysis. Two extremity (8%) and 3 (11.7%) pelvic fractures occurred. Most patients (73%) suffered significant skin and soft tissue injuries. Two patients (8%) presented with solid visceral injuries, and 1 child died. Car surfing is an extremely high-risk behavior in children and adolescents that leads to significant morbidity, long-term disability, and is potentially fatal. The incidence of car surfing may be greater than has been reported previously; therefore, prevention programs aimed at discouraging this high

  8. Guided genetic screen to identify genes essential in the regeneration of hair cells and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Huang, Sunny C; Pettie, Kade; Idol, Jennifer; Rissone, Alberto; Jimenez, Erin; Sinclair, Jason W; Slevin, Claire; Varshney, Gaurav K; Jones, MaryPat; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Huang, Haigen; Sood, Raman; Lin, Shuo; Burgess, Shawn M

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise for both degenerative diseases and traumatic tissue injury which represent significant challenges to the health care system. Hearing loss, which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, is caused primarily by a permanent loss of the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear known as hair cells. This failure to regenerate hair cells after loss is limited to mammals, while all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested were able to completely regenerate these mechanosensory receptors after injury. To understand the mechanism of hair cell regeneration and its association with regeneration of other tissues, we performed a guided mutagenesis screen using zebrafish lateral line hair cells as a screening platform to identify genes that are essential for hair cell regeneration, and further investigated how genes essential for hair cell regeneration were involved in the regeneration of other tissues. We created genetic mutations either by retroviral insertion or CRISPR/Cas9 approaches, and developed a high-throughput screening pipeline for analyzing hair cell development and regeneration. We screened 254 gene mutations and identified 7 genes specifically affecting hair cell regeneration. These hair cell regeneration genes fell into distinct and somewhat surprising functional categories. By examining the regeneration of caudal fin and liver, we found these hair cell regeneration genes often also affected other types of tissue regeneration. Therefore, our results demonstrate guided screening is an effective approach to discover regeneration candidates, and hair cell regeneration is associated with other tissue regeneration.

  9. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  10. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  11. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Badminton injuries in youth competitive players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S L; Mokhtar, A H; Mohamad Ali, M R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sports injury pattern and establish cost of injuries in relation to training of 58 competitive badminton players in a Malaysian National Sports School. This one-year prospective observational study recruited all the 13-16 year old students after obtaining informed consent from their appointed guardian. All participants were requested to report any injuries, which were pain or disabilities that occur within the study period (September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009) either during training or competition. Injured students were to seek treatment from the researcher(s) who made weekly visits and they were then followed up accordingly until they return to full training. Details and progress of the injuries were documented during each visit. Sixty-three injuries were recorded. Soft tissue sprains/strains were the commonest injury (64%). About one third of the injuries occurred in the lower limb especially the knees and was followed by back injuries; 38% of the injuries did not require training modification, half of these injuries resumed training within one week. Upon full training, half of them were still symptomatic. Injury risk was 57%; injury rate was 0.9 injuries/ player/1000 training hours. Badminton injuries mostly involved the lower limb and almost all overuse injuries occurred in the lower limb. However, badminton injuries as a whole were predominantly sprains and strains, and not overuse in nature as widely believed.

  13. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  14. miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas

    dysregulation of miR-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases.

  15. Copper, Zinc Superoxide Dismutase is Primarily a Cytosolic Protein in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, James D.; Oury, Tim; Rabouille, Catherine; Slot, Jan W.; Chang, Ling-Yi

    1992-11-01

    The intracellular localization of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) was evaluated by using EM immunocytochemistry and both isolated human cell lines and human tissues. Eight monoclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD and two polyclonal antibodies raised against either native or recombinant human Cu,Zn-SOD were used. Fixation with 2% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde was found necessary to preserve normal distribution of the protein. Monoclonal antibodies were less effective than polyclonal antibodies in recognizing the antigen after adequate fixation of tissue. Cu,Zn-SOD was found widely distributed in the cell cytosol and in the cell nucleus, consistent with it being a soluble cytosolic protein. Mitochondria and secretory compartments did not label for this protein. In human cells, peroxisomes showed a labeling density slightly less than that of cytoplasm.

  16. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  17. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  19. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  20. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  1. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  2. Rollerblading and skateboarding injuries in children in northeast England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I; Dorani, B J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the demographic profile and injury characteristics of children presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding associated injuries. This study also examines the circumstances leading to these injuries with a view to suggesting preventive measures. METHODS: A prospective study using a proforma to collect data from each child presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding related injuries. Injury details were obtained from clinical and radiological records. The injury severity score (ISS) was calculated for each child and statistical analysis was done using chi2. RESULTS: Eighty one children presented with rollerblading associated injuries accounting for 7% of childhood injuries seen during the eight month study period. The mean age was 10.3 years and sex distribution was equal. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 51% and fractures for 49% of the injuries. Wrist fractures alone accounted for 86% of all fractures seen. Seventy per cent of soft tissue injuries involved the upper limb. The overall mean ISS was 3.0 with a range from 1 to 9. Injury was attributed to fall secondary to loss of control or collision with an obstacle while rollerblading in the majority of children. Injury occurred while rollerblading in residential or public places in 99% of the children. In contrast skateboarding related injuries were much rarer and caused soft tissue injuries only. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a higher incidence of rollerblading injuries than previously suspected. Effective management strategies should include not only the treatment of these injuries but also attention to their causes and prevention. PMID:10505916

  3. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  4. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  5. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  6. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  7. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  8. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  9. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  10. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  11. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  12. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  13. Ligament Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Wasim Sardar

    2016-01-01

    Ligaments are commonly injured in the knee joint, and have a poor capacity for healing due to their relative avascularity. Ligament reconstruction is well established for injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, however the use of autografts and allografts for ligament reconstruction are associated with complications, and outcomes are variable. Ligament tissue engineering using stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds is a novel technique that has the potential to provide an unlim...

  14. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Localization of IAA transporting tissue by tissue printing and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee-Rye Cha; Evans, M.L.; Hangarter, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membranes provides a useful technique for visualizing anatomical details of tissue morphology of cut ends of stem segments. Basal ends of Coleus stem and corn coleoptile segments that were transporting 14 C-IAA were gently blotted onto DEAE-nitrocellulose for several minutes to allow 14 C-IAA to efflux from the tissue. Because of the anion exchange properties of DEAE-nitrocellulose the 14 C-IAA remains on the membrane at the point it leaves the transporting tissue. Autoradiography of the DEAE membrane allowed indirect visualization of the tissues preferentially involved in auxin transport. The authors observed that polar transport through the stem segments occurred primarily through or in association with vascular tissues. However, in Coleus stems, substantial amounts of the label appeared to move through the tissue by diffusion as well as by active transport

  16. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  17. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  18. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  19. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shao

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s. Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  20. Avoiding Complications in Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurup, A. Nicholas; Schmit, Grant D.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Atwell, Thomas D.; Schmitz, John J.; Weisbrod, Adam J.; Woodrum, David A.; Eiken, Patrick W.; Callstrom, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    As with percutaneous ablation of tumors in the liver, lungs, and kidneys, ablation of bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors carries risk, primarily from collateral damage to vital structures in proximity to the target tumor. Certain risks are of particular interest when ablating bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors, namely neural or skin injury, bowel injury, fracture, and gas embolism from damaged applicators. Ablation of large volume tumors also carries special risk. Many techniques may be employed by the interventional radiologist to minimize complications when treating tumors in the musculoskeletal system. These methods include those to depict, displace, or monitor critical structures. Thus, measures to provide thermoprotection may be active, such as careful ablation applicator placement and use of various displacement techniques, as well as passive, including employment of direct temperature, radiographic, or neurophysiologic monitoring techniques. Cementoplasty should be considered in certain skeletal locations at risk of fracture. Patients treated with large volume tumors should be monitored for renal dysfunction and properly hydrated. Finally, ablation applicators should be cautiously placed in the constrained environment of intact bone.

  1. Avoiding Complications in Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, A. Nicholas, E-mail: kurup.anil@mayo.edu; Schmit, Grant D., E-mail: schmit.grant@mayo.edu; Morris, Jonathan M., E-mail: morris.jonathan@mayo.edu; Atwell, Thomas D., E-mail: atwell.thomas@mayo.edu; Schmitz, John J., E-mail: schmitz.john@mayo.edu; Weisbrod, Adam J., E-mail: weisbrod.adam@mayo.edu; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu; Eiken, Patrick W., E-mail: eiken.patrick@mayo.edu; Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail: callstrom.matthew@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    As with percutaneous ablation of tumors in the liver, lungs, and kidneys, ablation of bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors carries risk, primarily from collateral damage to vital structures in proximity to the target tumor. Certain risks are of particular interest when ablating bone and non-visceral soft tissue tumors, namely neural or skin injury, bowel injury, fracture, and gas embolism from damaged applicators. Ablation of large volume tumors also carries special risk. Many techniques may be employed by the interventional radiologist to minimize complications when treating tumors in the musculoskeletal system. These methods include those to depict, displace, or monitor critical structures. Thus, measures to provide thermoprotection may be active, such as careful ablation applicator placement and use of various displacement techniques, as well as passive, including employment of direct temperature, radiographic, or neurophysiologic monitoring techniques. Cementoplasty should be considered in certain skeletal locations at risk of fracture. Patients treated with large volume tumors should be monitored for renal dysfunction and properly hydrated. Finally, ablation applicators should be cautiously placed in the constrained environment of intact bone.

  2. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P

    2015-02-01

    Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone

  3. Electroejaculation functions primarily by direct activation of pelvic musculature: Perspectives from a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M.R. Groh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ejaculatory dysfunction is a significant cause of infertility in men that have incurred spinal cord injury or iatrogenic lesions to the sympathetic nerves in the retroperitoneum. For such patients, electroejaculation – whereby a voltage is applied transrectally under general anesthesia – is a highly-effective procedure to obtain ejaculate. At present, however, there remains uncertainty as to the physiological mechanism by which electroejaculation prompts seminal emission in males with neurogenic anejaculation. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine, for the first time, whether electroejaculation functions by mimicking a neurophysiological response, or by directly activating local pelvic musculature. Using electroejaculation in a novel porcine model, we monitored the strength of contraction of the internal urethral sphincter (a smooth muscle involved in ejaculation before and after lesioning its sympathetic innervation with a combination of progressively-worsening surgical and pharmacological insults in three anesthetized boars (46.1 ± 7.4 kg. Importantly, prior to this investigation, we confirmed the comparative structural anatomy of the porcine model to humans through gross dissection and histological analysis of the infrarenal retroperitoneal sympathetic nerves and ganglia in 18 unembalmed boars. Prior to sacrifice, three of these boars underwent functional testing to confirm control of the internal urethral sphincter by the hypogastric nerves. Our results demonstrate that electroejaculation-induced contraction of the internal urethral sphincter was preserved following each progressive neural insult compared to the control state (p > 0.05. In contrast, these same insults resulted in paralysis/paresis of the internal urethral sphincter when its sympathetic innervation was directly stimulated with bipolar electrodes (p < 0.05. Taken together, our results provide the first empirical evidence to suggest that

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  6. A phase I study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of an antibody-based tissue factor antagonist in subjects with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue factor (TF-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS and thus represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. This study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ALT-836, an anti-TF antibody, in patients with ALI/ARDS. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial in adult patients who had suspected or proven infection, were receiving mechanical ventilation and had ALI/ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm. Eighteen patients (6 per cohort were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive ALT-836 or placebo, and were treated within 48 hours after meeting screening criteria. Cohorts of patients were administered a single intravenously dose of 0.06, 0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg ALT-836 or placebo. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory, coagulation and pulmonary function parameters. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a dose dependent exposure to ALT-836 across the infusion range of 0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg. No anti-ALT-836 antibody response was observed in the study population during the trial. No major bleeding episodes were reported in the ALT-836 treated patients. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, observed in both placebo and ALT-836 treated patients, and ALT-836 dose dependent, self-resolved hematuria, which suggested 0.08 mg/kg as an acceptable dose level of ALT-836 in this patient population. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that ALT-836 could be safely administered to patients with sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01438853

  7. Review of adult head injury admissions into the intensive care unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident. All the patients admitted to ICU had either moderate or severe head injury, with 73.7% having severe head injury. About 26.3% of the patients had associated cervical spine injuries and 50% had various musculoskeletal and soft tissue injuries. Cranial computed ...

  8. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  9. Complement and Immunoregulation in Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    in normal mice subjected to 15 (Fig. 2C) or 30 min of ischemia (Fig. 2E) or 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion (Fig. 2G ). Unlike...CVF-treated (Fig. 3G ) as opposed to grade 4 and 5 lesions in PBS-treated (Fig. 3H) mice. Interestingly however, the degree of lesions in animals...on epithelial cells. Because of its ability to mobilize neutrophils, IL-17A is important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and in chronic

  10. Long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, N; Longo, U G; Gougoulias, N; Loppini, M; Denaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Injuries can counter the beneficial effects of sports participation at a young age if a child or adolescent is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. This paper reviews current knowledge in the field of long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries to evaluate the evidence regarding children dropping out of sport due to injury, physeal injuries and growth disturbance, studies of injuries affecting the spine and knee of young and former athletes and surgical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in children. Studies of dropping out of sport due to injury are limited primarily to gymnasts and implicate such injuries as ACL rupture and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in the early retirement of young athletes. Although most physeal injuries resolve with treatment and rest, there is evidence of disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury. Radiological findings implicate the effects of intense physical loading and injury in the development of spinal pathology and back pain during the growth of youth athletes; however, long-term effects are unclear. Follow-up studies of young athletes and adults indicate a high risk of osteoarthritis after meniscus or ACL injury. Prospective cohort studies with a follow-up into adulthood are needed to clarify the long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries. Important to this research is meticulous documentation of injuries on injury report forms that include age-appropriate designations of the type of injury and accurate determination of exposure-based injury rates.

  11. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  12. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  13. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  14. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  15. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  16. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  17. Detection of prosecretory mitogen lacritin in nonprimate tears primarily as a C-terminal-like fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Diane E; Splan, Rebecca K; Green, Kari; Still, Katherine M; McKown, Robert L; Laurie, Gordon W

    2012-09-12

    Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein that promotes basal tear protein secretion in cultured rat lacrimal acinar cells and proliferation of subconfluent human corneal epithelial cells. When topically added to rabbit eyes, lacritin promotes basal tearing. Despite these activities on several species, lacritin's presence in nonprimate tears or other tissues has not been explored. Here we probed for lacritin in normal horse tears. Sequences were collected from the Ensembl genomic alignment of human LACRT gene with high-quality draft horse genome (EquCab2.0) and analyzed. Normal horse tears were collected and assayed by Western blotting, ELISA, and mass spectrometry. Newly generated rabbit antibodies, respectively, against N- and C-terminal regions of human lacritin were employed. Identity was 75% and 45%, respectively, at nucleotide and protein levels. Structural features were conserved, including a C-terminal amphipathic α-helix. Anti-C-terminal antibodies strongly detected a ∼13 kDa band in horse tears that was validated by mass spectrometry. In human tears, the same antibody detected uncleaved lacritin (∼24 kDa) strongly and C-terminal fragments of ∼13 and ∼11 kDa weakly. Anti-N-terminal antibodies were slightly reactive with a ∼24 kDa horse antigen and showed no reaction with the anti-C-terminal-reactive ∼13 kDa species. Similar respective levels of horse C-terminal versus N-terminal immunoreactivity were apparent by ELISA. Lacritin is present in horse tears, largely as a C-terminal fragment homologous to the mitogenic and bactericidal region in human lacritin, suggesting potential benefit in corneal wound repair.

  18. Pediatric trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurson, Conor; Browne, Katherine; Callender, Orla; O'Donnell, Turlough; O'Neill, Anthony; Moore, David P; Fogarty, Esmond E; Dowling, Francis E

    2007-01-01

    The recreational use of trampolines has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. There has been a striking increase in the number of children presenting to fracture clinics with injuries associated with trampoline use. This increase in trampoline injuries has been reported in North America, but there has been a paucity of research in this area in Europe. We prospectively recorded details of patients presenting to our institution, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (Dublin, Ireland), during the busy summer months of June, July, and August 2005. Details recorded included type and mechanism of injury, the mode of referral, treatment, inpatient days, outpatient visits, specific details relating to trampoline safety, and an analysis of the cost of medical care. There were 101 patients treated for trampoline-related injuries in 3 months from June to August 2005. This represented 1.5% of the total attendances to the emergency department. The average age was 8.5 years (range, 1.4-17.4 years). There were 55 fractures, 38 soft tissue injuries, 5 head injuries, and 5 neck injuries, with an average Pediatric Trauma Score of 11.4. Fifty seven percent (58/101) of patients were on the trampoline with at least 1 other person. Twenty patients (19.8%) were admitted to hospital requiring 71 inpatient days. Twelve patients were treated in theatre. There were 163 fracture clinic visits, 212 x-rays, and 2 magnetic resonance imaging scans. Trampolines are a high-risk activity with the potential for significant orthopaedic injury. In Ireland, we have recently seen a dramatic increase in pediatric trampoline-related injuries mirroring the trend in the United States during the last 10 to 15 years. We found that more than 1 individual on a trampoline is a major risk factor for injury, where the lightest person is 14 times more likely to be injured than the heavier. The lighter person also has a greater chance of being injured with smaller numbers on the trampoline. We reiterate

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic pancreatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Akihiko; Isayama, Kenji; Nakatani, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of traumatic pancreatic injury in the acute stage is difficult to establish blood tests and abdominal findings alone. Moreover, to determine treatment strategies, it is important not only that a pancreatic injury is diagnosed but also whether a pancreatic ductal injury can be found. At our center, to diagnose isolated pancreatic injuries, we actively perform endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in addition to abdominal CT at the time of admission. For cases with complications such as abdominal and other organ injuries, we perform a laparotomy to ascertain whether a pancreatic duct injury is present. In regard to treatment options, for grade III injuries to the pancreatic body and tail, we basically choose distal pancreatectomy, but we also consider the Bracy method depending on the case. As for grade III injuries to the pancreatic head, we primarily choose pancreaticoduodenectomy, but also apply drainage if the situation calls for it. However, pancreatic injuries are often complicated by injuries of other regions of the body. Thus, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic injury should be based on a comprehensive decision regarding early prioritization of treatment, taking hemodynamics into consideration after admission, and how to minimize complications such as anastomotic leak and pancreatic fistulas. (author)

  20. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  1. Utilization of laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry for burn depth assessment using a miniature swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Oliver; Held, Manuel; Schiefer, Jennifer; Werner, Ole; Medved, Fabian; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Jaminet, Patrick; Rothenberger, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of burn depth is primarily based on a visual assessment and can be dependent on the surgeons' experience. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of laser Doppler flowmeter combined with a tissue spectrophotometer to discriminate burn depth in a miniature swine burn model. Burn injuries of varying depth, including superficial-partial, deep-partial, and full thickness, were created in seven Göttingen minipigs using an aluminium bar (100 °C), which was applied to the abdominal skin for periods of 1, 3, 6, 12, 30, and 60 seconds with gravity alone. The depth of injury was evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin staining. All burns were assessed 3 hours after injury using a device that combines a laser light and a white light to determine blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative amount of hemoglobin. The blood flow (41 vs. 124 arbitrary units [AU]) and relative amount of hemoglobin (32 vs. 52 AU) were significantly lower in full thickness compared with superficial-partial thickness burns. However, no significant differences in hemoglobin oxygenation were observed between these depths of burns (61 vs. 60%). These results show the ability of laser Doppler flowmeter and tissue spectrophotometer in combination to discriminate between various depths of injury in the minipig model, suggesting that this device may offer a valuable tool for burn depth assessment influencing burn management. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  3. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  4. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  5. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  6. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  7. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  8. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  9. Radiation injuries of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galantseva, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The review is given of factors which cause the beginning of radiation injuries of oral cavity in oncologic patients following radiotherapy: dose rate absorbed with tumor and surrounding healthy tissues; irradiation procedures; size of irradiated volume. Pathogenesis and clinical picture are considered as well as prophylaxis and tactics of treatments of patients with radiation injuries of oral cavity

  10. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  11. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  12. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  13. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  14. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  16. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  17. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  18. Disrupted G1 to S phase clearance via cyclin signaling impairs liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported that a nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats because of irreversible acute liver injury owing to inhibited hepatic tissue repair, primarily due to blockage of G 0 to S phase progression of cell division cycle. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic (NDB) rats receiving 300 mg TA/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from liver injury and survival. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that impaired cyclin-regulated progression of G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle may explain inhibited liver tissue repair, hepatic failure, and death, contrasted with delayed liver tissue repair but survival observed in the DB rats receiving 300 in contrast to 30 mg TA/kg. In the TA-treated NDB rats sustained MAPKs and cyclin expression resulted in higher phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (pRb), explaining prompt tissue repair and survival. In contrast, DB rats receiving the same dose of TA (300 mg/kg) exhibited suppressed MAPKs and cyclin expression that led to inhibition of pRb, inhibited tissue repair, and death. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited delayed up regulation of MAPK signaling that delayed the expression of CD1 and pRb, explaining delayed stimulation of tissue repair observed in this group. In conclusion, the hepatotoxicant TA has a dose-dependent adverse effect on cyclin-regulated pRb signaling: the lower dose causes a recoverable delay, whereas the higher dose inhibits it with corresponding effect on the ultimate outcomes on hepatic tissue repair; this dose-dependent adverse effect is substantially shifted to the left of the dose response curve in diabetes

  19. Levetiracetam in spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, N B; Grydehøj, J; Bing, J

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was primarily to evaluate the efficacy of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) at- and below-level pain and secondarily to evaluate the effect on spasm severity. SETTING: Outpatients at two spinal cord units and a pain center...... severity following spinal cord injury....

  20. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  1. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  2. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  3. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  4. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  5. Antioxidant Approaches to Management of Ionizing Irradiation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Greenberger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1 radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2 normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3 prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response.

  6. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  7. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  8. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannus, P.; Paavola, M.; Paakkala, T.; Parkkari, J.; Jaervinen, T.; Jaervinen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.) [de

  9. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  10. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of location on outcome after penetrating colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Shahan, Charles P; Parks, Nancy A; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies examining suture line failure after penetrating colon injuries have focused on right- versus left-sided injuries. In our institution, operative decisions (resection plus anastomosis vs. diversion) are based on a defined management algorithm regardless of injury location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of injury location on outcomes after penetrating colon injuries. Consecutive patients with full thickness penetrating colon injuries for 13 years were stratified by age, injury location and mechanism, and severity of shock. According to the algorithm, patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Destructive wounds underwent resection plus anastomosis in the absence of comorbidities or large preoperative or intraoperative transfusion requirements (>6 U of packed red blood cells); otherwise, they were diverted. Injury location was defined as ascending, transverse, descending (including splenic flexure), and sigmoid. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine whether injury location was an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality. Four hundred sixty-nine patients were identified: 314 (67%) underwent primary repair and 155 (33%) underwent resection. Most injuries involved the transverse colon (39%), followed by the ascending colon (26%), the descending colon (21%), and the sigmoid colon (14%). Overall, there were 13 suture line failures (3%) and 72 abscesses (15%). Most suture line failures involved injuries to the descending colon (p = 0.06), whereas most abscesses followed injuries to the ascending colon (p = 0.37). Multivariable logistic regression failed to identify injury location as an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality after adjusting for 24-hour transfusions, base excess, shock index, injury mechanism, and operative management. Injury location did not affect morbidity or mortality after penetrating colon injuries. Nondestructive injuries should be primarily

  12. Penetrating missile-type head injury from a defective badminton racquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Dante; Murray, Elizabeth; Cimpello, Lynn Babcock; Conners, Gregory

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occurring during badminton are rarely serious and primarily involve the lower extremities. We report an instance wherein a patient suffered serious brain injury related to playing with a defective badminton racquet. The possibility of similar injuries following the separation of the racquet head and shaft from the handle needs to be disseminated.

  13. Lawn mower-related projectile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, William F; Yamout, Sani Z; Escobar, Mauricio A; Glick, Philip L

    2009-07-01

    Lawn mower injuries are a potentially devastating, yet preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The sequelae to these injuries can become even worse if the initial presentation goes unsuspected by medical staff, leading to a delay in treatment. The authors report the case of a lawn mower-related penetrating missile injury, where the extent of injury was not appreciated by the patient until signs and symptoms of a soft-tissue infection developed, prompting the patient to seek medical attention the next day.

  14. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  15. Firefighter injuries are not just a fireground problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, D M; Beach, T A C; Crosby, I; McGill, S M

    2015-01-01

    Linking firefighter injury reporting to general motion patterns may provide insight into potential injury mechanisms and the development of prevention strategies. To characterize the injuries sustained by members of a large Canadian metropolitan fire department over a 5-year span. Data were taken from injury reports filed by career firefighters between 2007 and 2011. Injuries were described by job duty, type, body part affected, and the general motion pattern employed at the time of injury (e.g. lifting). Of the 1311 injuries reported, 64% were categorized as sprains and strains (musculoskeletal disorders -MSDs), the most frequent of which affected the back (32%). Categorized by job duty, 65% of MSDs were sustained while working at the fire station or during physical training-related activities. Only 15% were attributed to fireground operations. Furthermore, the associated job duty could not differentiate the types of injuries sustained; back injuries occurred primarily while lifting, knee injuries while stepping, and shoulder injuries during pushing/pulling-related activities. Firefighter injuries are not just a fireground problem. Injury causation may be better understood by linking the injury location and type with motion patterns rather than job duties. This information could assist in developing general prevention strategies for the fire service.

  16. Holiday ornament-related injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimia, Amir; Lee, Lois; Shannon, Michael; Capraro, Andrew; Mays, Donald; Johnston, Patrick; Hummel, David; Shuman, Margot

    2009-12-01

    Holiday ornament injuries in children have not been well documented in the medical literature. Our aim was to investigate the patterns of injuries sustained from these ornaments as a first measure toward prevention. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department over a 13-year period ending in March 2008 for holiday ornament-related injuries. Cases were identified using a computer-assisted text query followed by a manual chart review. Data collected from each chart included the child's age, sex, injury characteristics, physical examination findings, radiographic imaging, interventions, and disposition. To analyze injury rates over the years, we used a multiplicative Poisson model allowing varying exposures. Over the study period, we identified 76 eligible patients. The median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1.17-3.3 years); 44.7% were female. Forty-three of the 76 cases (53.9%) involved ingestions: 35 were of holiday ornaments, and 8 were of light bulbs. All but one of these ornaments were made of glass. In 28%, there was an associated bleed either from the mouth or as a delayed gastrointestinal bleed. Other patients experienced lacerations (27.6%), eye injuries (5.1%), and minor electrocution injury (2.5%). Imaging was performed in 85%. A subspecialty consult was obtained in 23%, primarily addressing a foreign body ingestion or removal after skin exploration. The incidence rate has not changed over the years. Holiday ornament-related injuries primarily involve foreign body ingestions and glass-related injuries. Over half of the injuries involved small light bulbs and ornaments made of glass placed at the level a toddler can reach. Pediatricians are advised to discuss these points with families during holiday season.

  17. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  18. Musculoskeletal injuries among Malaysian badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, A H; George, J; Ramlan, A A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by Malaysian badminton players. This is a retrospective case notes review of all badminton players who attended the National Sports Institute (NSI) Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and were diagnosed with musculoskeletal injuries. In a two and a half year period, from January 2005 to June 2007, 469 musculoskeletal injuries were diagnosed among badminton players at the NSI Clinic. The mean age of the players who attended the clinic was 19.2 (range 13-52) years. Approximately 60 percent of the injuries occurred in players younger than 20 years of age. The majority of injuries (91.5 percent) were categorised as mild overuse injury and mostly involved the knee. The majority of the injuries sustained by badminton players in this study were due to overuse, primarily in the knee. The majority of the injuries were diagnosed in younger players and occurred during training/practice sessions. There was no difference in terms of incidence and types of injuries between the genders.

  19. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  20. The bone scan in traumatic and sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, P.

    1987-01-01

    There are several types of injuries which are not diagnosable by routine radiographic methods but can be detected easily by nuclear medicine techniques. This chapter describes four primary categories of injury where nuclear medicine techniques may be of use: stress fracture and periosteal injury; covert fractures; joint abnormalities and injuries to connective tissues, especially where they attach to bone; and acute skeletal muscle injury and rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important features of the use of nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of sports and traumatic injury is the ability, in most cases, to be able to differentiate among these various categories. Other uses of nuclear medicine techniques are discussed in this chapter

  1. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  3. Age peculiarities of postraumatic repair of open fractures in case of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantyr', V.I.; Korzh, A.A.; Frenkel', L.A.; Kazitskij, V.M.; Lan'ko, A.I.; Yakovenko, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of investigation of recovery in rabbit soft tissues (skin, muscle tissue) and in bones following bone fractures and whole-body X-irradiation are presented. Heavier damages developed in connective tissue in adolescent than in adult rabbits in conditions of combined radiation injuries. Normalization of connective tissue in skin and muscles was observed by 90 day in adolescent rabbits, where as connective tissue remained inferior in adult animals. Bone tissue recovery remained unfinished by 90 day in adolescent and adult rabbits in conditions of combined radiation injuries. The main reason for slowing-down of recovery of damaged tissues in case of open fracture is radiation injury in the irradiated organism

  4. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  5. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  7. Management of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Maria A.

    2003-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to ionizing radiation can be due to the detonation of a nuclear device in a military conflict, or it can occur following a large industrial accident (e.g. Chernobyl), or it can be the result of therapy (e.g. in a laboratory, in the case of cancer or other clinical situations). The severity of biological tissues damage depends on the energy deposited. The skin and subcutaneous tissue alone damaged may be related with an exposure to low energy radiation. In case of an exposure to high energy radiation the deeper structures will be involved. The treatment of the clinical situation after radiation requires special facilities (burn intensive care unit) and a massive support from a dedicated team. (author)

  8. The Effect Of Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure on Traumatic Brain Injury and Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Variable Aortic Control in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Control In A Porcine Model (Sus Scrofa) Of Polytrauma . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col Timothy Williams DEPARTMENT...Mandatory) The Effect of REBOA, Partial Aortic Occlusion and Aggressive Blood Transfusion on Traumatic Brain Injury in a Swine Polytrauma Model

  9. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs.

  10. [Algorithms for treatment of complex hand injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, T; Prommersberger, K-J

    2011-07-01

    The primary treatment strongly influences the course and prognosis of hand injuries. Complex injuries which compromise functional recovery are especially challenging. Despite an apparently unlimited number of injury patterns it is possible to develop strategies which facilitate a standardized approach to operative treatment. In this situation algorithms can be important guidelines for a rational approach. The following algorithms have been proven in the treatment of complex injuries of the hand by our own experience. They were modified according to the current literature and refer to prehospital care, emergency room management, basic strategy in general and reconstruction of bone and joints, vessels, nerves, tendons and soft tissue coverage in detail. Algorithms facilitate the treatment of severe hand injuries. Applying simple yes/no decisions complex injury patterns are split into distinct partial problems which can be managed step by step.

  11. Evaluation of an In Vitro of Human Immune Activation Induced by Freeze-Thaw Tissue Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, D

    2002-01-01

    In training and in combat, soldiers are under the constant threat of injury. Injury that results in tissue necrosis can activate the immune system and ultimately enhance disturbances in organ function...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  15. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  19. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  20. Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2012-01-01

    To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.

  1. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  2. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  3. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  4. Trampoline-related injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Williams, Kim; Ryan, Mary

    2006-09-01

    To quantify and describe trampoline-related injuries in children attending an urban pediatric emergency department. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients attending a children's emergency department with trampoline-related injuries over a 3-month period (May-July 2005). One hundred and sixty-eight children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the period reviewed. Sixty-three percent were girls. Their age ranged between 4 months and 16 years (mean, 10.4 years [SD, 3 years and 10 months]). Lower limb injuries (51%) were more common overall. The most common injuries were to the ankle (31%), followed by foot (9.2%), and neck (8.4%). Sprain or soft tissue injuries (68%) were the most common type of injury, followed by fracture (12.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was inversion of the ankle on a trampoline (18.4%). Trampoline-related injuries represented 2.5% of morbidity from accidental trauma in children presenting to emergency department in our study. The rate and severity of injury has become a significant public health concern. It appears that current preventative strategies are inadequate in making children's carers aware of the potential risks of trampoline use, particularly when used recreationally.

  5. Therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and a small molecular mimics of BDNF for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wurzelmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major health problem worldwide. Following primary mechanical insults, a cascade of secondary injuries often leads to further neural tissue loss. Thus far there is no cure to rescue the damaged neural tissue. Current therapeutic strategies primarily target the secondary injuries focusing on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has significant effect in both aspects, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently, the flavonoid 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, a small TrkB agonist that mimics BDNF function, has shown similar effects as BDNF in promoting neuronal survival and regeneration following TBI. Compared to BDNF, 7,8-DHF has a longer half-life and much smaller molecular size, capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, which makes it possible for non-invasive clinical application. In this review, we summarize functions of the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and studies examining the potential of BDNF and 7,8-DHF as a therapy for TBI.

  6. Therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a small molecular mimics of BDNF for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzelmann, Mary; Romeika, Jennifer; Sun, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. Following primary mechanical insults, a cascade of secondary injuries often leads to further neural tissue loss. Thus far there is no cure to rescue the damaged neural tissue. Current therapeutic strategies primarily target the secondary injuries focusing on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has significant effect in both aspects, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently, the flavonoid 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a small TrkB agonist that mimics BDNF function, has shown similar effects as BDNF in promoting neuronal survival and regeneration following TBI. Compared to BDNF, 7,8-DHF has a longer half-life and much smaller molecular size, capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, which makes it possible for non-invasive clinical application. In this review, we summarize functions of the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and studies examining the potential of BDNF and 7,8-DHF as a therapy for TBI.

  7. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brott, D.; Gould, S.; Jones, H.; Schofield, J.; Prior, H.; Valentin, J.P; Bjurstrom, S.; Kenne, K.; Schuppe-Koistinen, I.; Katein, A.; Foster-Brown, L.; Betton, G.; Richardson, R.; Evans, G.; Louden, C.

    2005-01-01

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  8. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nescolarde, L; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yanguas, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rodas, G

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  9. Priorities for injury prevention in women's Australian football: a compilation of national data from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09-13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09-2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004-2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted.

  10. Expression of modulators of extracellular matrix structure after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslauer, Carla M; Proffen, Benedikt L; Johnson, Victor M; Murray, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to heal after injury declines within the first 2 weeks after ACL rupture. To begin to explore the mechanism behind this finding, we quantified the expression of genes for collagen I and III, decorin, tenascin-C, and alpha smooth muscle actin, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13 gene expression within multiple tissues of the knee joint after ACL injury in a large animal model over a 2-week postinjury period. Gene expression of collagen I and III, decorin, and MMP-1 was highest in the synovium, whereas the highest MMP-13 gene expression levels were found in the ACL. The gene expression for collagen and decorin increased over the 2 weeks to levels approaching that in the ligament and synovium; however, no significant increase in either of the MMPs was found in the provisional scaffold. This suggests that although the ACL and synovium up-regulate both anabolic and catabolic factors, the provisional scaffold is primarily anabolic in function. The relative lack of provisional scaffold formation within the joint environment may thus be one of the key reasons for ACL degradation after injury. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  12. MR imaging of rectus femoris origin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Nelson, Erik; Torriani, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging findings of acute and chronic rectus femoris origin (RFO) injuries. A retrospective review of pelvic and hip MR imaging procedures was performed over a 4-year period for detection of cases with injuries to the RFO. Subjects were classified as having either acute or chronic symptoms. MR imaging studies, radiographs, CT scans, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis was directed to assess injuries affecting the direct and indirect heads of the RFO. Concurrent osseous, cartilaginous and musculotendinous injuries were tabulated. The incidence of RFO injuries on MR imaging was 0.5% (17/3160). With the exception of one case of anterior inferior iliac spine apophysis avulsion and partial tear of the direct head of RFO, all subjects had indirect head of RFO injuries (acute injury 8/9, chronic injury 8/8). Partial tear of the direct head of RFO was less frequently seen (acute injury 3/9, chronic injury 2/8). Partial tears of the conjoint tendon were least frequent (acute 1/9, chronic 2/8). No full-thickness tears of the RFO were noted. Associated labral tears were seen in only one case, with no other concomitant abnormality of the articular cartilage or surrounding soft tissues. All RFO injuries were treated non-operatively. Injuries of the RFO are uncommon on MR examinations of pelvis/hips and may occur in a sequence progressing from indirect head injury to involvement of direct head and conjoint tendon in more severe cases. (orig.)

  13. Next Generation Tissue Engineering of Orthopedic Soft Tissue-to-Bone Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys, Alexander J.; McCorry, Mary Clare; Rodeo, Scott; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue-to-bone interfaces are complex structures that consist of gradients of extracellular matrix materials, cell phenotypes, and biochemical signals. These interfaces, called entheses for ligaments, tendons, and the meniscus, are crucial to joint function, transferring mechanical loads and stabilizing orthopedic joints. When injuries occur to connected soft tissue, the enthesis must be re-established to restore function, but due to structural complexity, repair has proven challenging. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution for regenerating these tissues. This prospective review discusses methodologies for tissue engineering the enthesis, outlined in three key design inputs: materials processing methods, cellular contributions, and biochemical factors. PMID:29333332

  14. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  15. Lawn mower injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, B R; Bennett, C S

    1989-09-01

    Lawn mowers cause severe injuries, particularly to the lower limbs in children. The study of 52 inpatient cases treated over 12 years shows that ride-on lawn mowers cause the most severe trauma, resulting in longer hospitalization. These children more often require further admissions for reconstructive surgery including free tissue transfer. These accidents can be avoided if young children are prevented from playing near or using power lawn mowers.

  16. Cell membranes in radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cell membrane-related phenomena caused by low linear energy transfer radiation with doses lower than those producing cell killing are outlined. Micromorphological alterations as well as functional activities appearing with the receptors and in binding sites render it possible to reveal early and temporary changes. The cell injuries are suggested to transfer damaging conditions to surviving cells and to contribute to further development of non-stochastic effects in tissues

  17. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, C C; Fliedner, T M

    1971-04-01

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  18. Adjusting the Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydrogels Leads to Improved Stem Cell Survival and Tissue Ingrowth in Spinal Cord Injury Reconstruction: A Comparative Study of Four Methacrylate Hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Růžička, Jiří; Kapcalová, Miroslava; Turnovcová, Karolína; Krumbholcová, Eva; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Cihlář, J.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 20 (2013), s. 2794-2805 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/11/P633; GA ČR GAP108/10/1560 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 521712 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : spinal cord injury * hydrogel * mesenchymal stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  19. Surgical versus conservative treatment for acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Handoll, H. H. G.; de Bie, R.; Rowe, B. H.; Struijs, P. A. A.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inversion injuries, primarily sprains, of the ankle are one of the most commonly treated injuries. The three main treatment modalities for acute lateral ankle ligament injuries are immobilisation with plaster cast or splint, 'functional treatment' comprising early mobilisation and the

  20. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

  1. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo

    1995-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  2. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  3. Blast injury face: An exemplified review of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Parmod; Shenoy, Yogesh Ramdas; Verma, Anoop K.; Borole, Ateesh Jayram; Prasad, Veerendra

    2013-01-01

    Facial injuries are extremely common due to increased incidence of vehicular and industrial trauma and warfare injuries. But isolated injury to the face due to low voltage cells exploding is rare. In blast injury, the force can cause massive soft tissue injury, along with injury to facial fractures and damage to adnexa. Facial injury is not life threatening unless associated with other injuries of the skull and airway. The major risks to airway in facial trauma are due to anatomic alteration of patient's airway through bony and soft tissue disruption and increased chances of aspiration. The past several decades have seen a rapid growth in the range of procedures available for reconstructive purposes. However, the essential preliminary management is a must and needs to be structured. The patient, a 10-year-old boy, was joining three pencil batteries in series and twisting the wire with his teeth when one battery exploded causing severe injuries to midface and mandibular region. After stabilization, the patient was taken up for surgery. A cap splint with zygomatic suspension was done for the maxilla, and wiring of residual mandibular segments with lining and skin cover provided by a deltopectoral flap was done. Reconstructive surgeries for reconstruction of the upper lip and maintenance of oral continence were planned for the future. The present case stresses the importance of educating the masses about unsafe handling of low voltage devices, management of airway, massive soft tissue injury, along with facial fractures and damage to adnexa. PMID:24163550

  4. Radiation injury to the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.; Sneline, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to describe to the radiation biologist, radiation oncologist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, medical oncologist, and neuro-oncologist, the current state of knowledge about the tolerance of the nervous system to various kinds of radiation, the mechanisms of radiation injury, and how nervous system tolerance and injury are related to the more general problem of radiation damage to normal tissue of all types. The information collected here should stimulate interest in and facilitate the growing research effort into radiation injury to the nervous system

  5. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  6. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  8. Revised National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Injury Staging System: Revised Pressure Injury Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsberg, Laura E; Black, Joyce M; Goldberg, Margaret; McNichol, Laurie; Moore, Lynn; Sieggreen, Mary

    Our understanding of pressure injury etiology and development has grown in recent years through research, clinical expertise, and global interdisciplinary expert collaboration. Therefore, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) has revised the definition and stages of pressure injury. The revision was undertaken to incorporate the current understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, as well as to clarify the anatomical features present or absent in each stage of injury. An NPUAP-appointed Task Force reviewed the literature and created drafts of definitions, which were then reviewed by stakeholders and the public, including clinicians, educators, and researchers around the world. Using a consensus-building methodology, these revised definitions were the focus of a multidisciplinary consensus conference held in April 2016. As a result of stakeholder and public input, along with the consensus conference, important changes were made and incorporated into the new staging definitions. The revised staging system uses the term injury instead of ulcer and denotes stages using Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals. The revised definition of a pressure injury now describes the injuries as usually occurring over a bony prominence or under a medical or other device. The revised definition of a Stage 2 pressure injury seeks to clarify the difference between moisture-associated skin damage and injury caused by pressure and/or shear. The term suspected has been removed from the Deep Tissue Pressure Injury diagnostic label. Each definition now describes the extent of tissue loss present and the anatomical features that may or may not be present in the stage of injury. These important revisions reflect the methodical and collaborative approach used to examine the available evidence and incorporate current interdisciplinary clinical expertise into better defining the important phenomenon of pressure injury etiology and development.

  9. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  10. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  11. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  12. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  13. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  14. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  15. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  16. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  17. Tissue Engineering Strategies in Ligament Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yilgor, Caglar; Yilgor Huri, Pinar; Huri, Gazi

    2011-01-01

    Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to other bones and their injuries are frequently encountered in the clinic. The current clinical approaches in ligament repair and regeneration are limited to autografts, as the gold standard, and allografts. Both of these techniques have their own drawbacks that limit the success in clinical setting; therefore, new strategies are being developed in order to be able to solve the current problems of ligament grafting. Tissue eng...

  18. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue eng...

  19. Management of lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, J; Zamboni, W A; Zook, E G

    1993-09-01

    Seventy consecutive patients treated for lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle were reviewed to determine optimal treatment, functional results, and complications. Injuries were classified into 1 or more functional-anatomical zones (I, digits; II, dorsum; III, plantar nonweight-bearing surface; IV, heel; and V, ankle) for a total of 96 injuries. Thirty-one patients were available for follow-up. Mean age was 36.7 years and 84% were males. Most injuries (67%) involved patients > 16 years old using a push mower; however, 18% involved children Lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle can be closed primarily after adequate irrigation and debridement without compromise of infection rate or function. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. One-sixth of these injuries involve children < 5 years of age and can be prevented.

  20. Principles of Tissue Engineering for Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M.; Weele, van der Cor

    2014-01-01

    The technology required for tissue-engineering food is the same as for medical applications, and in fact is derived from it. There are major differences in the implementation of those technologies, primarily related to the enormous scale required for food production and the different economical

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  5. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  7. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  10. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  13. A rat model of concurrent combined injuries (polytrauma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akscyn, Robert M; Franklin, J Lee; Gavrikova, Tatyana A; Schwacha, Martin G; Messina, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    Polytrauma, a combination of injuries to more than one body part or organ system, is common in modern warfare and in automobile and industrial accidents. The combination of injuries can include burn injury, fracture, hemorrhage, trauma to the extremities, and trauma to specific organ systems. To investigate the effects of combined injuries, we have developed a new and highly reproducible model of polytrauma. This model combines burn injury with soft tissue and gastrointestinal (GI) tract trauma. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a 15-20% total body surface area scald burn, or a single puncture of the cecum with a G30 needle, or the combination of both injuries (polytrauma). Unlike many ‘double hit’ models, the injuries in our model were performed simultaneously. We asked whether multiple minor injuries, when combined, would result in a distinct phenotype, different from single minor injuries or a more severe single injury. There were differences between the single injuries and polytrauma in the maintenance of blood glucose, body temperature, body weight, hepatic mRNA and circulating levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and hepatic ER-stress. It has been suggested that models utilizing combinatorial injuries may be needed to more accurately model the human condition. We believe our model is ideal for studying the complex sequelae of polytrauma, which differs from single injuries. Insights gained from this model may suggest better treatment options to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26884923

  14. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  15. A Study of Acute and Chronic Tissue Changes in Surgical and Traumatically-Induced Experimental Models of Knee Joint Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Pauly, Hannah M.; Button, Keith D.; Fajardo, Ryan S.; DeCamp, Charles E.; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. Methods A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography (mCT) was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post-injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal transection (mACLT). Results All ACLF animals experienced ACL rupture, and 13 also experienced acute meniscal damage. All ACLF and mACLT animals showed meniscal and articular cartilage damages at dissection. Meniscal damage was documented as early as 4 weeks and worsened in 87% of the ACLF animals and 71% of the mACLT animals. Acute cartilage damage also developed further and increased in occurrence with time in both models. A progressive decrease in bone quantity and quality was documented in both models. The MRI data closely aligned with dissection notes suggesting this clinical tool may be a non-invasive method for documenting joint damage in lapine models of knee joint trauma. Conclusions The study investigates the acute to chronic progression of meniscal and cartilage damage at various time points, and chronic changes to the underlying bone in two models of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), and highlights the dependency of the model on the location, type, and progression of damage over time. PMID:27756698

  16. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  17. Evaluation of a 15-year experience with splenic injuries in a state trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbrecht, Brian G; Zenati, Mazen S; Ochoa, Juan B; Puyana, Juan C; Alarcon, Louis H; Peitzman, Andrew B

    2007-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has evolved with a greater emphasis on nonoperative management. Although several institutions have demonstrated that nonoperative management of splenic injuries can be performed with an increasing degree of success, the impact of this treatment shift on outcome for all patients with splenic injuries remains unknown. We hypothesized that outcomes for patients with splenic injuries have improved as the paradigm for splenic injury treatment has shifted. Consecutive patients from 1987 to 2001 with splenic injuries who were entered into a state trauma registry were reviewed. Demographic variables, injury characteristics, and outcome data were collected. The number of patients who were diagnosed with splenic injuries increased from 1987 through 2001, despite a stable number of institutions submitting data to the registry. The number of minor injuries and severe splenic injuries remained stable, and the number of moderately severe injuries significantly increased over time. Overall mortality rate improved but primarily reflected the decreased mortality rates of moderately severe injuries; the mortality rate for severe splenic injuries was unchanged. Trauma centers are seeing increasing numbers of splenic injuries that are less severe in magnitude, although the number of the most severe splenic injuries is stable. The increased proportion of patients with less severe splenic injuries who are being admitted to trauma centers is a significant factor in the increased use and success rate of nonoperative management.

  18. Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnoses of the different types of hard and soft tissue injuries were done by ... a result of wounding or external violence. ... traffic accident (RTA), falls, assaults, sports, domestic and ..... With regard to gender, male to female ratio distribution.

  19. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  20. Trampoline-related injuries to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A; Shields, B J

    1998-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological features of trampoline-related injuries among children treated in an urban pediatric emergency department. A descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients. The emergency department of a large, urban, academic children's hospital. Children treated for trampoline-related injuries from May 1, 1995, through April 30, 1997. Two hundred fourteen children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the study period, representing, on average, 1 child treated approximately every 3 days. Children ranged in age from 1 to 16 years (mean [SD], 9.4 [3.6] years). The area of the body most commonly injured was a lower extremity (36.0%), followed by an upper extremity (31.8%), the head (14.5%), the trunk (9.8%), and the neck (7.9%). The most common type of injury was a soft tissue injury (51.9%), followed by fracture (34.6%) and laceration (11.7%). Several patterns of trampoline-related injury were identified. Extremity fractures were more common in the upper extremities (P=.006; relative risk [RR]=1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.31); however, soft tissue injuries were more common in the lower extremities (P=.006; RR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38). Lacerations were associated with injury to the head region (Ptrampoline was located in the backyard in 96% (119/124) of cases. Adult supervision was present at the time of injury for 55.6% (65/117) of children, including 73.3% (22/30) of children younger than 6 years. Parents reported that they had been aware of the potential dangers of trampolines before the injury event (73% [81/111]), that their child had previously attempted a flip on a trampoline (56.9% [66/116]), that this was not the child's first injury on a trampoline (10% [12/120]), and that their child continued to use a trampoline after the current injury event (54.8% [63/115]). Trampoline-related injuries to children treated in the emergency department are almost exclusively associated with the use of backyard trampolines